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Indian Auto Industry Facts Second Largest two wheeler manufacturer in the world Largest tractor and three

wheeler manufacturers in the world Fourth largest Commercial vehicle market in the world Eleventh largest passenger car market in the world Growth Potential Can become Worlds third largest automobile market in 2030. By 2016, Automotive sector can DOUBLE its percentage contribution to GDP from current levels of 5% (US$50 billion) to 10% ($180 billion). Trends Growth of exports of 32.8 % FY 2008-09. Output of commercial vehicles has grown 2.8 times compared to the 2.2 times increase in passenger cars For every passenger car turned out, there are almost 7 two-wheelers produced

3. The Growth Journey Pre 1983 1983-1993 1993-2007 Era of globalisation and evolution of India as a global manufacturing hub Closed market Growth of market limited by supply Outdated models Players Hindustan Motors Premier Telco Ashok Leyland Mahindra & Mahindra Japanisation - GOI- Suzuki joint venture to form Maruti Udyog Joint ventures with companies in commercial vehicles and components Players Maruti Udyog Hindustan Motors Premier Telco Ashok Leyland Mahindra & Mahindra Delicensing of sector in 1993 Global major OEMs start assembly in India (Toyota, GM, Ford, Honda, Hyundai) Imports allowed from April 2001; alignment of duty on components and parts to ASEAN levels Implementation of VAT

4. Automotive Companies in India Major Multi-national companies Major Indian Companies 5. Booming Indian Economy 6. Key Growth Drivers 7. Auto Industry Numbers Overall Market Over all Production increased from 10.85 million vehicles in 2007-08 to 11.17 million vehicles in 2008-09 Passenger vehicles increased marginally from 1.77 million to 1.83 million Two-wheelers increased from 8.02 million to 8.41 million Domestic Market Vehicles sold including PV,CV 2W and 3W in 2008-09 was 9.72 million as compared to 9.65 million in 2007-08. Exports Sales increased from 1.23mn units in 2007-08 to 1.53 million units in 2008-09 As per the Automotive Mission Plan (AMP) 2006-2016 total turnover of the automotive industry in India would be in the order of US$ 122 billion-159 billion in 2016

8. Category wise numbers Two Wheeler Passenger Vehicles Commercial Vehicles Three Wheeler Dominated by Motorcycles 80% , Scooters 14% Mopeds 6% Domestic - 7.25mn units . Hero Honda 42% & Bajaj 27% share CAGR 9.5% Exports 819000 units (07-08) . Bajaj Auto 59% TVS 17% share CAGR 41% Dominated by Cars 78% , MUV/SUV 22% Domestic 1.5mn units Maruti46% Tata-15% Hyundai 14% CAGR -14.8% Exports - 217000 units (07-08) Maruti 66% Hyundai 24% CAGR 26% Dominated by M&HCV Goods 48% Passenger 38% , Rest by LCV -14% Domestic 487 thousand units , Tata-62% Ashok Leyland -15% CAGR- 22% Exports 59 thousand units, Tata 67% Ashok Leyland 12% CAGR -30.6% Dominated by Passenger Carriers with 64% share , Goods Carrier -36% Domestic 365 thousand units , Bajaj -42% Piaggio-41% CAGR- 10.5% Export 141 thousand units , Bajaj -97% CAGR -44.5%

9. The Indian Auto Components Market Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) Replacement Parts Production and Distribution : e.g. Air filters, oil filers and replacement lights Rubber Fabrication : tyres, hoses, belts etc. Estimated component market size is US$ 6.7 bn The exports of auto components industry has grown at a rate of nearly 30 per cent CAGR over the last four years.

10. Second Hand Automobile Market Used car market demand : 1.4 million cars annually Market Structure : Organized : 10% Unorganized : 90% Vendor Based 30% Direct Dealings 70% Certified used car dealers in India are Maruti TrueValue, Honda Auto Terrace, Ford Assured, Toyota U Trust, Hyundai Advantage, Mahindra and Mahindras First Choice, General Motors Chevrolet-OK Unorganized market lacks services like -warranties, OEM equipments, insurance and taxes Second hand market expected to grow at 12-15 per cent in the next five years to touch a robust 2.5 million units and a turnover of Rs 50 thousand crore Estimations are that 50 percent of the used cars sales will be brought under organized car market by 2013

11. Political - Legal Factors Boosted Economic Growth 1 year 6% cut in CENVAT, abolition of surcharge on income tax. Abolition of FBT, Reduction of excise duty on big cars. Encourage Urban Fleet Modernization 1-5 Years - Providing Special Auto-component Parks (SAP) and Special Economic Zones (SEZ) as in IT . Negative list of items and rules of origin in FTAs / RTAs. (ASEAN Free Trade Agreement) - SIAM recommended the government on extending excise and sales tax benefits to customers who opt for scrappage of their old vehicles 5-10 Years Effective Implementation and Uniform enforcement of GST Maintain a three tier tariff structure for raw materials, intermediate goods, finished goods. Revamp WTO compatible export promotional

schemes like DEPB, EOU and EPCG schemes AMP Plan 2006-16 set by govt Stunted Economic Growth 1 year Differential excise duty for small and big cars. Customs duty for imported cars including hybrid cars. Excise duty cut only for petrol driven trucks 1-5 Years Existing Complex labor laws( 45 Central acts and 16 associated rules) Not implementing country wide VAT Ambiguous policy in land acquisition for green field projects . 5-10 Years Poor execution of Infrastructure investments. (Construction of Highways of 16km per day against the target of 32 km per day) Absence of National Auto fuel Policy (NAFP)

12. Economic Factors 1 year 1-5 year 5-10 years Increased access to credit and lower interest loans Investment in Infrastructure spending can boost the commercial vehicles segment. Growing working population (441 million people in 2015/16) Upward migration of household income levels (600 million people have annual income of more than $10,200) Middle class expanding by 30 - 40 million every year Can propel growth

13. Economic Factors 1 year 1-5 year 5-10 years Impact of delayed monsoon (85% of normal, subsequent impact on paddy cultivation) on rural demand. Non-availability of Key raw material (like Steel) at cheap price. Possible increase of interest rates (by 2-2.5% BPLR) because of planned government borrowing . Non- availability of supplier base with demanded capability (Quality and Quantity). Poor execution of Infrastructure investments. (Construction of Highways of 16km per day against the target of 32 km per day) Increase in crude oil price($ 35/barrel to $ 70/ barrel in 14 months). Can Stunt Growth

14. Social Factors Rapid Urbanization of semi urban regions Rising aspirational levels. Improvement in living standards of middle class Increased spending on Fashion & lifestyle comforts. Seeking Value for money- consumer behavior Increasing customer emphasis on aesthetics and comfort. A perfect marriage of rise in disposable income and demographic dividend (From US$ 556 per annum US$ 1150 by 2015)

15. Technological Factors 16. India as a Testing Hub : NATRIP 17. India : A Developing Hub for Compact Cars Maruti Suzuki : New car plant to make 250,000 cars per annum (total 800,000 cars/annum) 10 new Component JVs to support new Diesel Engine Plant. Hyundai : Already a big player in the small car segment Increase capacity to

600,000 cars per annum over next 1 year. Nissan : Micra, UK India Four more models in India, involving a total investment of over Rs 2,000 crore. Ford : Plans to unveil its small car with 1.2 ltr engine by 2010 Honda : Investing US $ 250 million in a new plant in Rajasthan with capacity of 60,000 car per year (First car to roll out in 2009). Tata Motors : Tata Nano became a big success gaining worldwide popularity with Tata planning to increase capacity Toyota : Toyota Kirloskar motors planning to launch its own small car in India by 2011 General Motors : New Capacity to manufacture small cars at its Talegaon, Maharashtra plant with 80% local inputs. Brought in Spark small car in 2007 Nissan-Renault : 50:50 JV, to make 400,000 cars a year with an investment of over US $ 1 billion. Coming up with the $2500 car to compete with Tata Nano in 2011 VW : Investing 400 million euro in a new plant in Pune. Operations are to start in second half of 2009. Compact cars account for 70% of the total car market. Compact car sales increasing at about 20% each year Excise duty on small cars slashed from 24% to 12% in last three years

18. Break through future trends India will be a Automotive hub, led by small cars and auto component domains Export of automotive components to ASEAN,BRIC,EU and USA for OEMs as well as Aftermarket Booming Automobiles (Particularly cars) second sales and remodeling Increased deployment of IT-enabled Automobile support systems like GPS,ABS,ASR and Safety systems . Quality Certification (Deming, Six Sigma,TQM,TS16949) amongst suppliers have attained critical mass and the entire market will follow to get quality certifications. Will be a hub for optimal cost, high quality vehicular testing and terrain data acquisition services Alternate fuel (Bio fuel, electricity) and environment friendly green engines (Bharat emission norms)

19. References www.acmainfo.com www.wikipedia.org www.siamindia.com www.ibef.org Ernst & Young Auto Track www.economywatch.com www.business-standard.com The Economic Times Hindu Business Line www.automobileindia.com automobiles.mapsofindia.com


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Chennai is home to around 35-40% of India's total automobile industry and for this reason it is known as the Detroit of Asia. It is on the way to becoming the world's largest Auto hub by 2016 with a capacity of over 3 million cars annually.

Mahindra Scorpio, one of India's best selling indigenously developed SUV.

Indian-assembled Audi A4 at Audi India Production Facility, Aurangabad

The Tata Nano - the cheapest car made in India The automotive industry in India is one of the larger markets in the world and had previously been one of the fastest growing globally, but is now seeing flat or negative growth rates.[1] India's passenger car and commercial vehicle manufacturing industry is the sixth largest in the world, with an annual production of more than 3.9 million units in 2011.[2] According to recent reports, India overtook Brazil and became the sixth largest passenger vehicle producer in the world (beating such old and new auto makers as Belgium, United Kingdom, Italy, Canada, Mexico, Russia, Spain, France, Brazil), grew 16 to 18 per cent to sell around three million units in the course of 2011-12.[3] In 2009, India emerged as Asia's fourth largest exporter of passenger cars, behind Japan, South Korea, and Thailand.[4] In 2010, India beat Thailand to become Asia's third largest exporter of passenger cars.

As of 2010, India is home to 40 million passenger vehicles. More than 3.7 million automotive vehicles were produced in India in 2010 (an increase of 33.9%), making the country the second (after China) fastest growing automobile market in the world in that year.[5][6] According to the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers, annual vehicle sales are projected to increase to 4 million by 2015, no longer 5 million as previously projected.[1] The majority of India's car manufacturing industry is based around three clusters in the south, west and north. The southern cluster consisting of Chennai is the biggest with 35% of the revenue share. The western hub near Mumbai and Pune contributes to 33% of the market and the northern cluster around the National Capital Region contributes 32%.[7] Chennai, with the India operations of Ford, Hyundai, Renault, Mitsubishi, Nissan, BMW, Hindustan Motors, Daimler, Caparo, and PSA Peugeot Citron is about to begin their operations by 2014. Chennai accounts for 60% of the country's automotive exports.[8] Gurgaon and Manesar in Haryana form the northern cluster where the country's largest car manufacturer, Maruti Suzuki, is based.[9] The Chakan corridor near Pune, Maharashtra is the western cluster with companies like General Motors, Volkswagen, Skoda, Mahindra and Mahindra, Tata Motors, Mercedes Benz, Land Rover, Jaguar Cars, Fiat and Force Motors[10][11] having assembly plants in the area. Nashik has a major base of Mahindra & Mahindra with a UV assembly unit and an Engine assembly unit. Aurangabad with Audi, Skoda and Volkswagen also forms part of the western cluster. Another emerging cluster is in the state of Gujarat with manufacturing facility of General Motors in Halol and further planned for Tata Nano at their plant in Sanand. Ford, Maruti Suzuki and Peugeot-Citroen plants are also set to come up in Gujarat.[12] Kolkata with Hindustan Motors, Noida with Honda and Bangalore with Toyota are some of the other automotive manufacturing regions around the country.[13][14][15] Contents [hide]

1 History 2 Emission norms 3 Manufacturing facilities


3.1 Gujarat

o o o o o o o o o o

3.2 Haryana 3.3 Himachal Pradesh 3.4 Jharkhand 3.5 Karnataka 3.6 Madhya Pradesh 3.7 Maharashtra 3.8 Punjab 3.9 Rajasthan 3.10 Tamil Nadu 3.11 Uttar Pradesh

4 Exports

4.1 Top 20 export destinations in 2007-2008 and growth from previous year

5 Passenger vehicles in India

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5.1 Indian automotive companies 5.2 Foreign automotive companies in India

5.2.1 Vehicles manufactured or assembled in India 5.2.2 Vehicles brought into India as CBUs

6 Commercial vehicle manufacturers in India

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6.1 Indian brands 6.2 Joint Venture (JV) Brands 6.3 Foreign brands

7 Electric car manufacturers in India 8 Electric vehicle and Hybrid vehicle (xEV) industry 9 Gallery of automobile plants in India 10 See also 11 Further reading 12 Footnotes 13 External links

[edit] History The first car ran on India's roads in 1897. Until the 1930s, cars were imported directly, but in very small numbers. An embryonic automotive industry emerged in India in the 1940s. Mahindra & Mahindra was established by two brothers as a trading company in 1945, and began assembly of Jeep CJ-3A utility vehicles. Following the independence, in 1947, the Government of India and the private sector launched efforts to create an automotive component manufacturing industry to supply to the automobile industry. However, the growth was relatively slow in the 1950s and 1960s due to nationalisation and the license raj which hampered the Indian private sector. Total restrictions for import of vehicles was set and after 1970 the automotive industry started to grow, but the growth was mainly driven by tractors, commercial vehicles and scooters. Cars were still a major luxury. Eventually multinational automakers, such as, though not limited to, Suzuki and Toyota of Japan and Hyundai of South Korea, were allowed to invest in the Indian market ultimately leading to the establishment of an automotive industry in India. A number of foreign firms also initiated joint ventures with Indian companies. [edit] Emission norms See also: Bharat Stage emission standards In tune with international standards to reduce vehicular pollution, the central government unveiled the standards titled 'India 2000' in 2000 with later upgraded guidelines as 'Bharat Stage'. These standards are quite similar to the more stringent European standards and have been traditionally implemented in

a phased manner, with the latest upgrade getting implemented in 13 cities and later, in the rest of the nation. Delhi(NCR), Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur, Lucknow, Solapur, and Agra are the 13 cities where Bharat Stage IV has been imposed while the rest of the nation is still under Bharat Stage III. [edit] Manufacturing facilities [edit] Gujarat Passenger Vehicles

General Motors India Private Limited


Chevrolet Sales India Private Limited Halol[16]

Tata Motors Sanand[17]

Commercial Vehicles

Asia Motor Works AMW Bhuj[18]

[edit] Haryana Two wheelers

Hero MotoCorp Dharuhera, Gurgaon[19] India Yamaha Motor Faridabad[20] Honda Manesar[21] Suzuki Gurgaon[22]

Passenger Vehicles

Maruti Suzuki Gurgaon, Manesar[23]

[edit] Himachal Pradesh Two wheelers

TVS Motors Nalagarh[24]

Passenger Vehicles

International Cars & Motors Limited Amb[25]

Commercial Vehicles

TAFE Tractors Parwanoo[26]

[edit] Jharkhand Commercial Vehicles

Tata Motors Jamshedpur[17]

[edit] Karnataka Two wheelers

TVS Motor Mysore[24]

Passenger Vehicles

Mahindra REVA Electric Vehicles Bangalore[27] Toyota Kirloskar Motor Private Limited Bidadi[28]

Commercial Vehicles

Scania Commercial Vehicles India Private Limited Bangalore[29] TAFE Tractors Doddaballapur[26] Tata Motors Dharwad[17] Volvo Buses India Private Limited Hoskote[30]

[edit] Madhya Pradesh Two wheelers

Mahindra & Mahindra Pithampur[31]

Commercial Vehicles

Eicher Motors Pithampur[32] Hindustan Motors Pithampur[33] Force Motors Private Limited Pithampur[34] TAFE Tractors Mandideep[26]

[edit] Maharashtra Two wheelers

Bajaj Auto Waluj Aurangabad, Chakan[35] KTM Sportmotorcycles Chakan[36] Vespa Scooters Baramati Pune[37] Kinetic Engineering Ahmednagar, Pune[38]

Passenger Vehicles

Mahindra & Mahindra Automotive Division Chakan[39][40] Ssangyong Motor Company Chakan[41] Tata Motors Limited
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Tata Motors Pimpri Chinchwad[42] Jaguar Cars and Land Rover Pune[43]

Mercedes-Benz Passenger Cars Chakan[44] Fiat Automobiles Ranjangaon Pune[45] Volkswagen Group Sales India Private Limited
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Volkswagen Chakan[46] Audi AG Aurangabad[47] koda Auto Aurangabad[48]

Chinkara Motors Karlekhind Alibag[49] Premier Automobiles Limited Pimpri Chinchwad[50]

Commercial Vehicles

Ashok Leyland Bhandara[51] Bajaj Auto Waluj Aurangabad[35] Force Motors Pune[52] Mahindra Navistar Chakan[53] MAN Trucks India Akurdi Pune[54] Mercedes-Benz Buses India Chakan[55] Piaggio Vehicles Baramati Pune[56] Premier Automobiles Limited Pimpri Chinchwad[50]

[edit] Punjab Commercial Vehicles

SML Isuzu Limited Nawanshahar[57]

[edit] Rajasthan Passenger Vehicles

Honda Siel Cars India Tapukara[58]

Commercial Vehicles

Ashok Leyland Alwar[51] TAFE Tractors Alwar[26]

[edit] Tamil Nadu Two wheelers

TVS Motor Hosur[24] Royal Enfield Chennai[59]

Passenger Vehicles

BMW India Chennai[60][61][62] Ford India Private Limited Maraimalai Nagar[63] Hyundai Motor India Limited Sriperumbudur[64] Mitsubishi Tiruvallur[33] Renault Nissan Automotive India Private Limited
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Nissan Motor India Private Limited Oragadam[65] Renault India Private Limited Oragadam[66]

Commercial Vehicles

Ashok Leyland Ennore, Hosur[51] BharatBenz Oragadam[67] Kamaz Vectra Motors Hosur[68] TAFE Tractors Chennai[26] TVS Motors Hosur[24]

[edit] Uttar Pradesh Commercial Vehicles

Ashok Leyland Pantnagar Tata Motors Lucknow

Two Wheeleers

India Yamaha Motor Greater Noida[69]

Passenger Vehicles

Honda Siel Cars India Greater Noida[70]

[edit] Exports

Mahindra Scorpio Jeep in service with the Italy's CNSAS. India's automobile exports have grown consistently and reached $4.5 billion in 2009, with United Kingdom being India's largest export market followed by Italy, Germany, Netherlands and South Africa.[71] India's automobile exports are expected to cross $12 billion by 2014.[72] According to New York Times, India's strong engineering base and expertise in the manufacturing of lowcost, fuel-efficient cars has resulted in the expansion of manufacturing facilities of several automobile companies like Hyundai, Nissan, Toyota, Volkswagen and Maruti Suzuki.[73] In 2008, South Korean multinational Hyundai Motors alone exported 240,000 cars made in India. Nissan Motors plans to export 250,000 vehicles manufactured in its India plant by 2011.[74] Similarly, US automobile company, General Motors announced its plans to export about 50,000 cars manufactured in India by 2011.[75] In September 2009, Ford Motors announced its plans to set up a plant in India with an annual capacity of 250,000 cars for US$500 million. The cars will be manufactured both for the Indian market and for export.[76] The company said that the plant was a part of its plan to make India the hub for its global production business.[77] Fiat Motors also announced that it would source more than US$1 billion worth auto components from India.[78]

A Tata Safari on display in Poznan, Poland. In July 2010, The Economic Times reported that PSA Peugeot Citron was planning to re-enter the Indian market and open a production plant in Andhra Pradesh with an annual capacity of 100,000 vehicles, investing EUR 700M in the operation.[79] PSA's intention to utilise this production facility for export purposes however remains unclear as of December 2010. In 2009 India (0.23m) surpassed China (0.16m) as Asia's fourth largest exporter of cars after Japan (1.77m), Korea (1.12m) and Thailand (0.26m) by allowing foreign carmakers 100% ownership of factories in India, which China does not allow.[4]

The Maruti Ertiga, a model exported by Maruti Suzuki India. In recent years, India has emerged as a leading center for the manufacture of small cars. Hyundai, the biggest exporter from the country, now ships more than 250,000 cars annually from India. Apart from Maruti Exports' shipments to Suzuki's other markets, Maruti Suzuki also manufactures small cars for Nissan, which sells them in Europe. Nissan will also export small cars from its new Indian assembly line. Tata Motors exports its passenger vehicles to Asian and African markets, and is in preparation to launch electric vehicles in Europe in 2010. The firm is also planning to launch an electric version of its low-cost

car the Tata Nano in Europe and in the U.S. Mahindra & Mahindra is preparing to introduce its pickup trucks and small SUV models in the U.S. market. Bajaj Auto is designing a low-cost car for Renault Nissan Automotive India, which will market the product worldwide. Renault Nissan may also join domestic commercial vehicle manufacturer Ashok Leyland in another small car project.[80] While the possibilities are impressive, there are challenges that could thwart future growth of the Indian automobile industry. Since the demand for automobiles in recent years is directly linked to overall economic expansion and rising personal incomes, industry growth will slow if the economy weakens.[80] [edit] Top 20 export destinations in 2007-2008 and growth from previous year 2007-2008 Millions) States of (in USD 2008-2009 Millions) (in USD Percentage Growth

Rank Country

United America Italy Sri Lanka




2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

332.35 249.14 224.93 165.57 164.44 147.34 137.26 134.43 133.52 118.88

359.68 216.11 188.57 246.32 192.74 265.63 164.86 143.54 409.63 120.71

8.22 -13.26 -15.79 48.77 17.21 80.28 20.11 5.99 206.8 1.54

South Africa United Kingdom United Arab Emirates Algeria Bangladesh Egypt Germany Colombia

Rank Country

2007-2008 Millions) 111.33 93.80 83.53 81.01 76.77 66.01 65.75 65.19 59.91


USD 2008-2009 Millions) 98.13 94.10 73.82 56.96 134.21 148.74 127.63 163.66 38.30


USD Percentage Growth -11.86 0.32 -11.63 -29.69 74.83 125.03 94.1 151.05 -36.07

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Nepal Mexico Turkey Spain France Nigeria Greece Netherland Ghana

[edit] Passenger vehicles in India This list is of cars that are officially available and serviced in India. While other cars can be imported to the country at a steep 105%[81] import duty, car-makers such as Alfa Romeo,[82] McLaren,[83] Pagani, Cadillac,[84] Chrysler,[85] SSC,[86] Zenvo,[87] SEAT,[88] Smart,[89] Daihatsu,[90] Lexus,[91] Infiniti,[92] Acura,[93] Saab,[94] Spyker,[95] Lotus,[96] Ariel,[97] Caterham,[98] Peugeot-Citron,[99] Mazda,[100] Jeep,[101] SsangYong,[102] Kia,[103] GAZ[104] and Proton[105] are in varying stages of official introduction to the Indian automobile market. [edit] Indian automotive companies

Maruti Suzuki is the largest Indian passenger vehicle manufacturer in the local market [106]

Maruti Swift in India. Maruti Suzuki is 54.2% owned by the Japanese Suzuki Motor Corporation

Chinkara Motors:[107] Beachster, Hammer, Roadster 1.8S, Rockster, Jeepster, Sailster Force Motors: One Hindustan Motors:[108] Ambassador ICML:[109] Rhino Rx Mahindra:[110] Major, Bolero, Scorpio, Thar, Xylo, Verito, Genio, XUV500, Quanto. Premier Automobiles Limited:[111] Sigma, RiO San Motors:[112] Storm Maruti Suzuki (subsidiary of Japanese auto maker Suzuki)[113][114] 800, Alto, Alto800, WagonR, Estilo, A-star, Ritz, Swift, Swift DZire, SX4, Omni, Eeco, Gypsy, Ertiga

Tata Motors:[115] Nano, Indica, Vista, Indigo, Manza, Indigo CS, Sumo, Grande, Venture, Safari, Xenon, Aria

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Fiat India (Joint venture of Fiat and Tata Motors):[116] Grande Punto, Linea.

Jaguar Land Rover (subsidiary of Tata Motors)[117] Land Rover Freelander 2

[edit] Foreign automotive companies in India [edit] Vehicles manufactured or assembled in India

Manufactured only in Chennai, India, the i10 is one of Hyundai's best selling globally exported cars.

BMW India:[118] 3 Series, 5 Series, 7 Series X1, X3. Ford India:[119] Figo, Fiesta Classic, Fiesta, Endeavour. General Motors India[120] Chevrolet:[121] Spark, Beat, Aveo U-VA, Aveo, Optra, Cruze, Tavera. Honda Cars India Limited:[122] Brio, Jazz, City, Civic, Accord. Hyundai Motor India:[123] Eon, Santro, i10, i20, Accent, Verna, Sonata. Mercedes-Benz India:[124] B-Class, C-Class, E-Class, M-Class, S-Class. Mitsubishi[125] (in collaboration with Hindustan Motors):[126] Lancer, Lancer Cedia, Pajero. Nissan Motor India:[127] Micra, Sunny, Evalia. Renault India:[128][129][130] Pulse, Duster, Scala, Fluence, Koleos. Toyota Kirloskar:[131] Etios Liva, Etios, Corolla Altis, Innova, Fortuner, Camry. Volkswagen Group Sales India:

Audi India: A4, A6, Q3, Q5

koda Auto India:[132][133] Fabia, Skoda Rapid[disambiguation needed], Laura, Superb.

Volkswagen India:[134][135] Polo, Vento, Jetta, Passat

Opel was present in India until 2006. As of 2011, Opel only provides spare parts and vehicle servicing to existing Opel vehicle owners.

[edit] Vehicles brought into India as CBUs

Suzuki Kizashi. Kizashis are sold by Maruti in the Indian market

Aston Martin:[136] Vantage, Vanquish, Rapide, Virage, DB9, DBS, One-77. Audi:[137] A7, A8, S4, S6, S8, Q7, TT, RS5, R8. Bentley:[138][139] Arnage, Azure, Brooklands, Continental GT, Continental Flying Spur, Mulsanne. BMW:[140] 5 Series GT, 6 Series, 7 Series, X5, X6, X6 M, M3, M5, M6 and Z4. Bugatti:[141][142] Veyron. Chevrolet: Captiva. Ferrari:[143][144] California, 458 Italia, 599 GTB Fiorano, FF. Fiat:[116] 500, Bravo. General Motors:[120] Hummer H2, Hummer H3. Gumpert:[145] Apollo. Honda:[146][147] Civic Hybrid, CR-V.

Hyundai:[123] Santa Fe. Jaguar:[148] XF, XJ, XK. Koenigsegg:[149][150] CCX, CCXR, Agera. Lamborghini:[151] Gallardo, Aventador. Land Rover:[152] Discovery 4, Range Rover Evoque, Range Rover Sport, Range Rover. Maserati:[153] Quattroporte, GranTurismo, GranCabrio. Mercedes-Benz:[154] CL-Class, GL-Class, R-Class, CLS-Class, SL-Class, SLK-Class, Viano, G-Class, SLS. MINI:[155] Cooper, Cooper S, Convertible, Countryman. Mitsubishi: Montero, Outlander, Evo X. Nissan:[156] Teana, X-Trail, 370Z, GT-R. Porsche:[157][158] 997, Boxster, Panamera, Cayman, Cayenne, Carrera GT. Rolls Royce:[159] Ghost, Phantom, Phantom Coup, Phantom Drophead Coup. koda:[132] Yeti. Suzuki (sold through Maruti Suzuki): Grand Vitara, Kizashi. Toyota:[131] Prius, Land Cruiser, Land Cruiser Prado. Volkswagen:[160] Beetle, Tiguan, Touareg, Phaeton. Volvo:[161] S60, S80, XC60, XC90.

[edit] Commercial vehicle manufacturers in India [edit] Indian brands

AMW[162] Eicher Motors[163] Force[164]

Hindustan Motors[165] Mahindra & Mahindra Premier[111] Tata Motors[166]

[edit] Joint Venture (JV) Brands

Ashok Leyland[167] - originally a JV between Ashok Motors (owned by the Hinduja Group) and Leyland Motors, now joint ventures between Ashok Leyland and Nissan Motors (Japan) for LCV's; and John Deere (USA) for construction equipment.[168]

KaMAZ Vectra[169] - A JV between Russia's KaMAZ and the Vectra Group Mahindra Navistar[170] - a 51:49 JV between Mahindra Group and Navistar International MAN Force - A JV between Force Motors and MAN AG (Germany) Swaraj Mazda[171] - originally a JV between Punjab Tractors and Mazda, now 53.5% owned by Sumitomo Group

VE Commercial Vehicles Limited[172] - VE Commercial Vehicles limited - A JV between Volvo Groups & Eicher Motors Limited.

[edit] Foreign brands

BharatBenz(Affiliated with Daimler AG's Fuso[disambiguation needed] and Mercedes-Benz brands)[173] Caterpillar Inc.[174] DAF[175] Hino[176] Isuzu[177] Iveco[178] MAN[179]

Mercedes-Benz[180] - manufactures luxury coaches in India. Piaggio[181] Rosenbauer[182] Scania[183] Tatra[184] Volvo[185]

[edit] Electric car manufacturers in India

Ajanta Group[186] Hero Electric[187] Mahindra[188] REVA Tara International[189] Tata[190]

[edit] Electric vehicle and Hybrid vehicle (xEV) industry During April 2012 Indian Government has planned to unveil the roadmap for the development of the domestic electric and hybrid vehicles (xEV) in the country.[191] A discussion between the various stakeholders including Government, industry and the academia is expected to take place during 2324 February.[191] The final contours of the policy will be formed after this set of discussions. Ministries such as Petroleum, Finance, Road Transport and Power are involved in developing a broad framework for the sector. Along with these ministries big auto industry names such as Mr Anand Mahindra (Vice Chairman and Managing Director, Mahindra & Mahindra) and Mr Vikram Kirloskar (Vice-Chairman, Toyota Kirloskar) are also involved in this task.[191] Government has also proposed to set up a Rs 740 crore R&D fund for the sector in the 12th five year plan during 2012-17.[191] The idea is to reduce the high cost of key imported components such as the battery and electric motor and develop such capabilities locally. [edit] Gallery of automobile plants in India

Audi India Production Facility in Aurangabad, Maharashtra

BMW India plant in Chennai, Tamil Nadu

FIAT India plant in Pune, Maharashtra

Ford India plant in Chennai, Tamil Nadu

General Motors India plant in Halol, Gujarat

Honda SIEL plant in Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh

Hyundai India plant in Chennai, Tamil Nadu

Jaguar LandRover India plant in Pune, Maharashtra

Maruthi Suzuki plant in Gurgaon, Haryana

Mercedes Benz India plant in Pune, Maharashtra

Joint venture of Renault-Nissan plant in Chennai, Tamil Nadu

SKODA India plant in Aurangabad, Maharashtra

TATA Motors plant in Pune, Maharashtra

Toyota Kirloskar plant in Bangalore, Karnataka

Volkswagen India plant in Aurangabad, Maharashtra [edit] See also

Automobile industry List of countries by motor vehicle production List of countries by vehicles per capita Lists of automobiles List of cars List of Asian cars List of automobile manufacturers of China List of Japanese cars Future car technologies List of truck manufacturers List of motorcycle manufacturers (Category)

List of scooters - List of scooter manufacturers

[edit] Further reading 1. Kamala, T.N. & Doreswamy, A.G. (2007). Strategies for Enhancing Competitiveness of Indian Auto Component Industries. Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode. 2. Tiku, Pran (2008). Six Sizzling Markets: How to Profit from Investing in Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Korea, and Mexico. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-17888-1. 3. Gupta, Sadanand (2012). "Automobile Industry in India: A Cluster Approach", Publisher - Ruby Press & Co., ISBN 978 -81-922182-6-7. http://rubypressco.com [edit] Footnotes 1. ^ a b http://www.cnbc.com/id/100294010 2. ^ http://oica.net/wp-content/uploads/all-vehicles-2010-provisional.pdf 3. ^ bsmotoring.com (15 April 2011). "Passenger vehicle sales grow 29% in 2010-11, set to overtake Brazil". Bsmotoring.com. http://bsmotoring.com/news/passenger-vehiclesales-grow-29-in-2010-11-set-to-overtake-brazil/3418/1. Retrieved 27 August 2012. 4. ^
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2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Submitted to the Association of American Airport Executives (AAAE) for the U.S. Trade Development Agency (USTDA) INDIAS AVIATION INDUSTRY: AN OVERVIEW Prepared by The MITRE Corporation/CAASD

Authors: Dr. Satish C. Mohleji Cheryl R. Andrews Mimi Dobbs Bob Humbertson December 7, 2009 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) -iEXECUTIVE SUMMARY The civil aviation sector in India had been growing at a dramatic rate into 2008; however the global economic recession in 2009 negatively affected this growth. During fiscal year 2005-06 (April 1, 2005 to March 31, 2006), the sector experienced a 22 percent increase in domestic air travel. International air travel grew 15 percent, while air cargo grew at an annual rate of 20 percent. During fiscal year 2006-07, total passenger traffic grew 27.2 percent, while cargo traffic grew 11.2 percent. This year total aircraft movements increased 27.5 percent. However, in fiscal year 2008-09, the global economic slump and higher fuel prices adversely impacted growth, resulting in a 5 percent decline in domestic passenger traffic. Domestic air cargo continued to grow at 14.5 percent.

With the economy now stabilizing, domestic air traffic is projected by various sector experts and observers to grow by up to 180 million passengers and international traffic is expected to increase by 50 million passengers by 2020. International traffic is expected to grow at an average annual rate of 8 percent by 2013 and by 7 percent from 2014 to 2023. Domestic traffic will experience a slower growth rate of 3.4 percent annually until 2013 and increase to an average rate of 8 percent until 2023. International passenger growth will average 10 percent until 2013 and 9 percent until 2023. Annual growth in domestic and international cargo operations is estimated to increase by 4.5 percent and 12 percent annually until 2013.1 In the last few years, the sector experienced tremendous growth for a number of new air carriers providing domestic services. Starting from a relatively small base, the civil aviation sector in India faces the prospect of significant expansion as the overall economy recovers and India retains the second-highest growth rate worldwide. Some 639 new commercial jet aircraft were ordered by November 2008 and the number of General Aviation (GA) aircraft is projected to grow to 1,000 by 2020. Much of this significant growth has been made possible by a combination of favorable policies and timely initiatives that liberated much of the sector from the earlier highly regulated regime. These include: An Open-Sky policy adopted in April 1990. The policy allowed air taxi operators to operate flights from any airport and decide their own flight schedules, cargo, and passenger fares. Repeal of the Air Corporation Act effective from March 1, 1994 that led to: Removal of monopoly of air corporations on scheduled services,

Ability of private airlines to operate scheduled services, 1 Latest ANS Development in India, P. Seth, 4th CANSO Asia Pacific ANSP Conference, Singapore, 26-28 April 2009. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - ii Conversion of Indian Airlines and Air India (national flag carriers) to limited companies, and Increased scope for private participation in the national carriers. AAI was set up on April 1, 1995 by merging the International Airport Authority of India and the National Airport Authority of India. AAI was designated to handle all civil air traffic infrastructure matters. In August 1996, the Government of India (GOI) allowed the private sector to set up air cargo complexes in a bid to ensure smooth movement of export cargo. Furthermore, domestic and foreign investors, including non-resident Indians (NRIs), were invited to participate in the development of infrastructure support at select airports. Cochin International Airport, the first private airport, began operations in June 1999. The United Progressive Alliance (UPA), which assumed political leadership of the Union Ministry on May 22, 2004, renewed its commitment to continue liberalization in the sector.

The Honorable Minister Praful Patel assumed leadership of MOCA and was re-elected in 2009. The U.S. and India Aviation Cooperation Program (ACP) was established in 2007 as a Public Private Partnership (PPP) between the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the U.S. Trade and Development Agency (USTDA), U.S. companies, and the Government of India. Establishment of 103 bilateral air service agreements as of 2009. Final agreements and the transfer of Mumbai and Delhi Airports under PPP took place in May 2006. The first phase of modernization at Delhi Airport started in January 2007 and is expected to be completed by March 2010. The modernization work at Mumbai Airport started in January 2007 and is expected to be finished this year. Modernization of Kolkata and Chennai Airports started in 2008 and will be completed by either 2010 or 2011. The Greenfield International Airports at Bangalore and Hyderabad started commercial operations in 2008. The AAI commissioned stateofthe-art CNS and ATM systems at these airports. The GOI formed the Maharashtra Airport Development Company (MADC) for development of the Multi-Modal International Cargo Hub and Airport of Nagpur (MIHAN) at a cost of about $90 million. Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul (MRO) opportunities exist for servicing 1,000 commercial aircraft and 500 GA aircraft. AAI is planning to invest about $1.2 billion to modernize 35 non-metro airports. The development of 24 of these airports will be undertaken with private sector participation. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA

December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - iii AAI has been granted Mini-Ratna status under Category-I (CAT I). Mini-Ratna status will enable AAI to make investments in projects up to $107.5 million (Rs 500 Crore) and provide greater decision making autonomy to its management.2 The Airport Economic Regulatory Authority (AERA) Bill was passed by the Indian Parliament to ensure that Indias aviation infrastructure meets cost, efficiency, and service targets by making policies consistent with the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) standards. The GOI merged Air India and the Indian Airlines to form the National Aviation Company of India Limited (NACIL), which consolidated international and domestic flight operations. Based on the strategic and guiding principles of the ICAO ATM vision of global harmonization, India developed a Future Indian Air Navigation System (FIANS) Master Plan for seamless airspace operations. Clearly, these are interesting times for identifying investment opportunities for those who follow civil aviation sectors around the world. External commercial borrowing to finance aviation infrastructure development increased from $145 million in fiscal year 2005-06 to $4.74 billion in fiscal year 2007-08, but decreased due to the economic downturn during fiscal year 2008-09 to $1.91 billion. However, the direct investment potential of the sector is about $9 billion, not including spill-over benefits and positive externalities. In order to facilitate overall economic

growth, these investments will have to take place in a short period of time. For a country that is in the middle of a transition process involving sector and institutional reforms, materialization of new opportunities may take time. While some investments and business opportunities may be closer to fruition, many others depend on the speed at which new reforms are implemented, economic growth is sustained, and bureaucratic procedures are relaxed. The first section of this report provides a broad overview of the economy and the civil aviation sector. The second section documents investment and business opportunities, in different phases from conceptualization to maturation, for possible involvement by U.S. firms. 2 Mini Ratna is a status granted by the Department of Public Enterprises (DPE) to Indian public sector undertakings in view of consistent performance records, annual investment figures, and profitability. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Section 1. Country Overview: India ............................................................................................1 Section 2. Sector Overview: Civil Aviation ................................................................................6 Section 3. Sector Overview: Institutional Arrangements .......................................................12 Section 3A. Ministry of Civil Aviation and Airports Authority of India ........................................12 1. Joint GOI/Private Partnership for Airport Development...............................................15

Section 3B. Directorate General of Civil Aviation......................................................................17 1. The Organizational Framework ....................................................................................17 2. The Regulatory Framework..........................................................................................17 Section 4. Sector Opportunities................................................................................................21 Section 4A. Airports: Selected Opportunities............................................................................22 1. Opportunity for Airport Modernization and Expansion..................................................22 (a) Delhi and Mumbai Airport Modernization and Expansion.....................................22 (b) Modernization of Airports at Chennai and Kolkata ...............................................25 (c) Modernization Programs at 35 Non-Metro Airports ..............................................27 (d) Multi-modal International Cargo Hub and Airport at Nagpur (MIHAN) .................28 (e) Completion of Greenfield Airports at Bangalore and Hyderabad .........................29 2. Procurement of Materials for Airside and Landside Modernization..............................30 Section 4B. Air Transportation Management: Selected Opportunities......................................32 1. Opportunities for CNS/ATM Modernization ..................................................................32 (a) Future Indian Air Navigation System (FIANS) Master Plan..................................32 (b) Current Airspace and Operations .........................................................................32 (c) CNS/ATM Master Plan Update.............................................................................34 (d) CNS Upgrades .....................................................................................................35 (e) GAGAN Certification and Implementation ............................................................35 (f) ATM Enhancements ..............................................................................................37 2. Weather System Enhancements..................................................................................37 3. Opportunities for Commercial Aircraft MRO.................................................................38

4. Opportunities for Training.............................................................................................39 Some Useful References ............................................................................................................41 U.S. Government Resources......................................................................................................43 Key Point of Contacts .................................................................................................................44 Appendix: Airports in India and Institutional Arrangements ..................................................48 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) -vTABLE OF FIGURES Figure 1. Offshore BPO Market: Total and India ............................................................................2 Figure 2. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Stocks Inward .............................................................2 Figure 3. India: Share of Top Investing Countries' FDI Inflows (Aug. 1991 to Sept. 2005) ............3 Figure 4. Aircraft Movements in India.............................................................................................6 Figure 5. Traffic Network in India ...................................................................................................8 Figure 6. International Tourism: In and Out of India.......................................................................9 Figure 7. Orders of New Aircraft by Specific Airlines (2009) ........................................................11 Figure 8. Organizational Structure of the Ministry of Civil Aviation ..............................................13 Figure 9. Corporate Functioning of AAI........................................................................................14 Figure 10. Organizational Structure of the DGCA........................................................................17

Figure 11. Consortium of Partners ...............................................................................................22 Figure 12. Vertical Segmentation of Typical Airspace: An Example ............................................33 Figure 13. GAGAN Network in India ............................................................................................37 Figure 14. Airline Order Book in India (End of 2006) ...................................................................38 TABLE OF TABLES Table 1. Planned Investments in Indian Aviation Infrastructure ...................................................10 Table 2. Financial Profile of AAI ...................................................................................................15 Table 3. Non-Metro Airport Development.....................................................................................27 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - vi CONVERSION TABLE US $ 1 = Rupees 46.5 (Average rate November 2009) 1 Crore = 10 million 1 Lakh = 100,000 All monetary references in US Dollars ($) LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS A-SMGCS Advanced-Surface Movement Guidance and Control System AAAE American Association of Airport Executives

AAI Airport Authority of India ACC Area Control Centers ACP Aviation Cooperation Program ACSA Airports Company of South Africa ADS-B Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast ADS-C Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Contract AERA Airport Economic Regulatory Authority AFTM Air Traffic Flow Management AFTN Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunication Network AMSS Aeronautical Mobile Support System ANS Air Navigation Service ANSP Air Navigation Service Providers APD Airport Planning Directorate ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations ATC Air Traffic Control ATF Aviation Turbine Fuel ATM Air Traffic Management ATR Avions De Transport regional ATS Air Traffic Services BCAS Bureau of Civil Aviation Security BIAL Bangalore International Airport Limited BOO Build-Own-Operate

BOOT Build-Own-Operate-Transfer BOT Build-Own-Transfer BPO Business Process Outsourcing CAASD Center for Advanced Aviation System Development CAGR Cumulative Annual Growth Rate 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - vii CANSO Civil Air Navigation Services Organization CAR Civil Aviation Requirements CAT Category CFR Code of Federal Regulations CIAL Cochin International Airport Limited CNS Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance CPDLC Controller Pilot Data Link Communications DGCA Directorate General of Civil Aviation DGPS Differential Global Positioning System DIAL Delhi International Airport Limited DME Distance Measuring Equipment

DOC Department of Commerce DPE Department of Public Enterprises DPR Detailed Project Report DVOR Doppler Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range EMARSH Europe Middle-East, Asia Route Structure of Himalayas FAA Federal Aviation Administration FANS Future Air Navigation System FAR Federal Aviation Rules FBO Fixed Base Operator FDI Foreign Direct Investment FDPS Flight Data Processing System FIANS Future Indian Air Navigation System FIR Flight Information Region FOP Final Operational Phase GA General Aviation GAGAN GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation GDP Gross Domestic Product GE General Electric GEO Geostationary earth Orbiting GOI Government of India GOK Government of Karnataka GPS Global Positioning System

HIAL Hyderabad International Airport Limited IAAMS Integrated Automatic Aviation Meteorological Systems IATA International Air Transport Association ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - viii ILS Instrument Landing System IMD Indian Meteorological Department INRSS Indian Navigation Regional Satellite System ISO International Organization for Standardization ISRO Indian Space Research Organization IT Information Technology ITes Information Technology-enabled Services JVC Joint Venture Companies LCCs Low-Cost Carriers MADC Maharashtra Airport Development Company MET Meteorological MIAL Mumbai International Airport Limited

MIHAN Multi-modal International Cargo Hub and Airport of Nagpur MOCA Ministry of Civil Aviation MRO Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul MSSR Monopulse Secondary Surveillance Radars NACIL National Aviation Company of India Limited NDB Non-Directional Beacon NH8 National Highway No. 8 NRI Non-resident Indians O&M Operations and Maintenance OAG Official Airline Guide ONGC Oil and Natural Gas Commission PPP Public Private Partnership PSR Primary Surveillance Radar PSU Public Service Unit R-FDPS FDPS with Radar RCAG Radio Controlled Augmentation RJ Regional Jets RNAV Area Navigation RNP RVSM Required Navigation Performance Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum

SAARC South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation SBAS Satellite Based Augmentation System SESAR Single European Sky ATM Research SID Standard Instrument Departure SITA Societe Internationale de Telecommunication Aeronautiques 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - ix SOW Scope of Work STAR Standard Terminal Arrival route TA Technical Assistance TAR Terminal Area Radars TDS Technology Demonstration System TDWR Terminal Doppler Weather Radar U.N. United Nations U.S. United States UPA United Progressive Alliance US $ US Dollars ($) USTDA United States Trade and Development Agency

VHF Very High Frequency VOR Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) -1SECTION 1. COUNTRY OVERVIEW: INDIA India is the worlds second most populous country with more than 1.1 billion people, encompassing a rich diversity of cultures, regions, and languages. India has experienced tremendous economic and social development in recent years. Since its independence in 1947 from the United Kingdom, India has reached several key milestones [World Bank (2009)]:3 Maintained electoral democracy. Reduced absolute poverty by more than half. Improved literacy and health conditions. Developed into one of the worlds fastest growing economies with an average growth rate of about 9 percent from 2003 to 2007, and is expected to grow at an average rate of 8.5 percent from 2009 to 2011. Emerged as a global player in information technology, business process outsourcing (BPO), telecommunications, and pharmaceuticals. Ranked as the worlds fourth largest economy in terms of purchasing power parity.

Although India is one-third the size of the United States and almost four times larger in terms of population, India has a relatively small economy (approximately 7 percent of the U.S. nominal Gross Domestic Product [GDP]). However, as the country integrates with the global economy, which is happening at a faster pace since the economic liberalization of 1991, a greater opportunity exists for the outside world to collaborate, cooperate, enhance trade, and increase production of goods and services with India. Indias development embodies contradictions, and the path to economic growth is rarely linear as evidenced by sector inequality and the overall pace of reforms. However, what has been accomplished in the service sector can be used as an example of what India can deliver in a short time. Using the countrys available human resources, a supportive policy environment, and the opportunities that a global marketplace offers, India has nurtured, led, and is now at the forefront of a knowledge-based economy that promises to play a key role in shaping the future of the global economy. 3 See India: Country in Brief at www.worldbank.org . 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) -2Starting from less than $1 billion per year, Indias BPO

and Information Technologyenabled Services (ITes) sector has become a $14 billion industry, which represents over a 14-fold increase in just six years, as shown in Figure 1. With a cumulative annual growth rate (CAGR) of almost 70 percent, Gartner Research4 estimates that India now holds approximately 60 percent of the total offshore BPO and ITes market share. Total BPO and ITes markets are estimated to be somewhere between $173 and $200 billion in fiscal year 2006-07. As shown in Figure 2, the sector continued growth from year 2000 to 2005. Based on Foreign Direct Investment, it is likely that the sector growth will continue as the economy recovers because of Indias unique market position. Despite this success, uneven economic growth has spurred rising inter-state disparities. For example, while larger and relatively

economically advanced states have reduced poverty by successfully attracting private investment, relatively poorer statesAssam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradeshare lagging behind. Private investments have been a major vehicle fueling Indias economic growth. As India opened its economy during the last 15 years, foreign investments slowly began to trickle into the country. The World Investment Report (2006) by the United Nations (U.N.) Conference on Trade and Development5 indicates that FDI in 4 See http://www.gartner.com/research/ for more details. 5 See http://www.unctad.org/Templates/Page.asp?intItemID=1465 for more details. Figure 1. Offshore BPO Market: Total and India Figure 2. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Stocks Inward 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009

Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) -3India lags far behind that of China. In recent years, however, India has been more successful in attracting FDI. A.T. Kearney6 reports that Chinas FDI flows in 2008 were larger ($108.3 billion/year) and primarily capital-intensive, while FDI flows into India are comparatively smaller ($41.5 billion/year), but also skill-intensive and concentrated primarily in ITes. While total FDI inflows into India remain relatively lower than China, the U.S. has been at the forefront of investment in India. The Government of India (GOI) reports that from 1991 to 2005, the U.S. invested almost $5 billion in India and remains Indias second largest investment partner based on FDI inflows. Figure 3 shows that Japan, the Netherlands, the United

Kingdom, Germany, Singapore, France, South Korea, and Switzerland are some of the other major foreign investors in India. While the majority of U.S. FDI has focused on service provisions targeted for U.S. domestic markets, U.S. exports to India are primarily of goods and services where it has global comparative advantages. These exports include educational services, computers and peripherals, telecom equipment, pollution control equipment, and equipment for mining, medical, and construction. Expenditures in the economy are also accelerating. Greater use of financial tools (e.g., credit cards, automatic teller machines, and cell phone-linked money transfers) will enhance consumption expenditure. Transition from cash to credit will likely boost the overall consumption and induce even more FDI flows into the country. Indias infrastructure needs a major overhaul. The World Bank conservatively estimates that India needs to invest, on average, an additional three to four percent on planned infrastructure improvements to sustain benefits of growth across the transportation sector. Given the present GDP, this amount would represent an annual investment of around $24-$30 billion. 6 See http://www.atkearney.com/main for more details. Figure 3. India: Share of Top Investing Countries' FDI Inflows (Aug. 1991 to Sept. 2005) Source: Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation: http://mospi.nic.in/

2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) -4Indian airport infrastructure investment was $5 billion in 2008 and is expected to reach $9 billion by 2013. Indias aviation sector offers investment opportunities of $200 to $300 billion by 2020. India is confident of overcoming temporary economic hurdles in order to continue civil aviation growth. The current fleet replacement offers an investment opportunity of $80 billion, while $30 billion will be required for airport infrastructure development by 2020. Many of these investments will be made possible through Public Service Unit (PSU) reforms. Systematic reforms in healthcare, education, power, mining, water supply, and transportation will likely induce private investments at a rapid rate, thus closing the gap between demand from an expanding economy and supply through available infrastructure. The GOI has guided many of these investments carefully, particularly in civil aviation. Although full private participation, including foreign equity, is allowed and encouraged at greenfield airports, the GOI limits private equity (both domestic and foreign) in PSUs. Thus, PPPs have become a common vehicle for building and delivering public services, particularly in the transportation sector. In reforming the PSUs that were former monopolies, the GOI has taken a minority role and allowed private involvementseither foreign or Indian private or joint venturesto use three much tested models (build-own-transfer [BOT], build-own-operate [BOO], or build-own-operatetransfer

[BOOT]) for service deliveries. While the needs remain great, the sudden surge in transportation investments, particularly post-2000, demonstrates that the GOIs policy may be bearing fruit. Indias recent economic growth has been impressive compared to the countrys development record in the decades following independence in 1947. With growth, the economy has become flexible, people-driven, and more responsive to institutions. Nevertheless, numerous challenges remain.7 Rigid elements that once characterized the economy are still visible in certain areas including [Khandelwal (2006)]:8 High intermediation costs in economic and business transactions, Low productivity in many sectors of the economy, Lack of infrastructure, Lack of transparent corporate governance, Need for improvement in productivity and efficiency in line with advanced markets, safety, and environmental procedures and standards, and Lack of trained human resources in advancing sectors of the economy. Empirical evidence indicates that these factors are inversely related to the pace of economic growth and development. While the regional unevenness and inequality in sectors (rural vs. 7 For an excellent presentation of these issues in contemporary India, see the recently released In Spite of the Gods: The Strange Rise of Modern India, by Edward Luce, Doubleday, 2007. 8 Doing Business in India. The Big Picture: A Bankers Perspective by A. K. Khandelwal at the U.S.-India Business Summit, November 29, 2006.

2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) -5urban) and across classes (skilled vs. non-skilled) is skewed and both are areas for improvement, the pace of economic reforms will likely continue in the country. In a marked departure from earlier policies, 1990 economic reforms that have been accelerated in recent years have started to produce results. If the GOI continues to be fiscally responsible by managing the budget deficit, carefully monitoring the large trade deficit, and continuing the pace of overall economic liberalization, India will continue to improve its economic performance before the end of this decade. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) -6SECTION 2. SECTOR OVERVIEW: CIVIL AVIATION Aviation growth in India has been tremendous in recent years. Aircraft movements, consisting of one aircraft arrival or one departure, have grown 50 percent in the last three years. Starting from

a total of less than 838,000 movements per year in fiscal year 2005-06, total aircraft movements in India are estimated at 1.24 million in 2008-2009. Approximately 400 commercial aircraft operated those scheduled movements. Figure 4 shows the expected future growth of aircraft movements in India until 2017. Figure 4. Aircraft Movements in India Source: Airports Authority of India (AAI) As the economy has grown at an extraordinary rate (about 9 percent in the past few years, and forecasted to have an average 8.5 percent growth until 2011) and in addition to the liberalization of the aviation sector, both domestic and international aircraft movements have experienced significant growth. As a result of the open skies policy that India adopted, India now has bilateral Air Services Agreements with 103 countries. These air service agreements are subject to several directives: a designation clause allowing multiple destinations between countries; code share arrangements allowing airlines from both countries to enter into code share arrangements; and a tariff clause allowing free fare setting by airlines. Airlines are also no longer required to submit fare schedules to AAI. Aviation safety and security clauses guarantee Indias compliance with the 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) -7ICAO standards.9 Within these broad guidelines, the bilateral agreements ensure different levels

of access. For example, the agreement with the U.S. (signed in April 2005) allows the designated airlines of one country to operate unlimited air service to and through any point in the territories of the other country via any intermediate points and without any restriction on the aircraft type, except cabotage.10 Under the agreements with the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC),11 designated countries are allowed to fly up to seven times per week to Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, and Kolkata, in addition to eighteen specific tourist points within the country. Following these agreements, growth of international traffic skyrocketed in India. At the opening ceremony of the Aero India conference12, the Honorable Mr. Praful Patel, Minister of Civil Aviation, said, Not long ago we were spectators to the world of aviation. Today, the clock has turned full circle and the whole world wants to know what's happening in IndiaI wouldn't be surprised if that number increases to 100 million [number of domestic passengers] in a few years. International traffic is expected to grow at an average rate of 8 percent up to 2013 and at 7 percent from 2014 to 2023. Domestic traffic will have a slower growth rate of 3.4 percent until 2013 and will increase to an average rate of 8 percent until 2023. International passenger growth is expected to be 10 percent until 2013 and 9 percent from 2014 to 2023. Corresponding domestic passenger growth is expected to be very low until 2013, but will pick up from 2014 to 2023 at a rate of 8 to 10 percent annually. Annual growth in domestic and international cargo operations also is estimated to increase by 4.5 percent and 12 percent annually until year 2013. For a country of more than one billion people with a sizeable middle class (200-250 million) that can afford air travel, the size of the aviation sector is relatively small. While the U.S. has, on average, 50,000 commercial scheduled aircraft movements per day, India has a little over 2,200

each day. Furthermore, much of the traffic flow is located in the five major cities of the country: Mumbai in the West; Delhi in the North; Bangalore and Chennai (Madras) in the South; and Kolkata (Calcutta) in the East, as shown in Figure 5. 9 See Indias Internal and External Policies and Challenges, by R. K. Singh, Joint Secretary, MOCA at the EU-India Aviation Summit, November 22-24, 2006; Retrieved from http://www.euindiaaviationsummit.com/ on March 6, 2007. 10 Cabotage means transporting domestic passengers within a country for commercial purpose. 11 Association of South East Asian Nations and South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation. ASEAN was formed on August 8, 1967 and presently consists of the following member countries: Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. SAARC was established on December 8, 1985 and composed of the following member countries: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Maldives, and Bhutan. 12 This conference was organized by MOCA, the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce, and Industry (FICCI), and Farnborough International Limited and took place in Bangalore during February 711, 2007; See http://aeroindia.gov.in/ for more details. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) -8-

Figure 5. Traffic Network in India Source: Official Airline Guide (OAG): August 1-7, 2005; from Williams (2006) These five major cities make up almost 70 percent of the traffic, with Bangalore (recently renamed Bengaluru) and Hyderabad emerging as new traffic destinations. In the past, India had few international tourists. However, liberal bilateral aviation pacts with other countries have started to impact tourism, as shown in Figure 6. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) -9Figure 6. International Tourism: In and Out of India Trends in International Tourism: Projections for India Source: Market Indicators and Forecasts, India May 2009, Copyright 2009 Economist Intelligence Unit Given this sizable growth and the state of aviation infrastructure, MOCA faces numerous challenges. The most critical among these is the countrys need to improve infrastructural bottlenecks. The Committee on Infrastructure, headed by the Prime Minister and other experts from both inside and outside the federal United Progressive Alliance (UPA) cabinet, has taken up the urgent task of improving the countrys infrastructure. According to the GOI/MOCAs estimate, the aviation sector alone will need over $9 billion in investment by 2013. This figure represents a significant boost over prior investments, and will test the absorption capability of the sector and

the country as a whole. It is likely that most of these investments will come from private sources, as opposed to direct government subsidies or public funds. A breakdown of these investments is given in Table 1. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 10 Table 1. Planned Investments in Indian Aviation Infrastructure Particulars Airport Indicative Cost US $Million Restructuring/Modernization for world class airports Delhi & Mumbai Chennai & Kolkata 3,488.37 1,162.79 Greenfield Airports Bangalore, Hyderabad, Pakyong, Sikkim, Cheithu-Nagaland, Itanagar, Goa, Pune, Nagpur (Hub), Navi

Mumbai, Halwara-Punjab 2,325.58 Upgradation 35 selected airports 1,627.91 Modernization/Improvement Other than above airports 697.67 Total investment by 2013 9,302.33 Source: Committee on Infrastructure as reported by MOCA, GOI, October 2006. http://www.infrastructure.gov.in/airports.htm Traffic growth and the GOIs decision to accelerate aviation infrastructure developmentprior to the Commonwealth Games to be held in Delhi in 2010have accelerated the reform process. Currently, a foreign airline is not permitted to invest in Indian scheduled passenger airlines, nonscheduled airlines, and chartered airlines. Equity ownership is likely to be further relaxed to facilitate new investments in the sector. Limited equity share ownership of FDIs may be relaxed from its present 49 percent cap to 74 percent for airline-airport investments under the pending aviation reform bill. Similarly, there is a possibility of cargo being placed under 100 percent foreign ownership. Finally, foreign equity of 100 percent is already allowed in Greenfield airports investment. The GOIs decision to liberalize the aviation market for private airlines, slowly in the beginning and then rapidly over the last five years in particular, has brought tremendous interest from both low-cost carriers (LCCs) and full-service carriers.13 This interest is reflected in the airlines order book, which shows that the Indian fleet will double in size (from 287 to 745) over the next five to seven years.14 The projections indicate that the Indian aviation sector will require about 1,000

aircraft by 2020. Figure 7 highlights current orders of new aircraft by specific airlines. 13 This liberalization is far from complete. Numerous regulatory hurdles still exist today. In the past, the GOI maintained the monopoly rights of Indian Airlines and Air India over the Middle Eastern and Gulf markets. However, with the incorporation of NACIL, the Competition Commission may rule in favor of allowing private carriers to fly into these markets as well. 14 Over the next two decades, Boeing forecasts that India will need 856 extra aircraft worth a total of US $72 billon. Airbus, on the other hand, forecasts that the country will need 1,100 aircraft worth US $105 billion over the same period. In their respective forecasts [see www.boeing.com; and www.airbus.com for market forecasts], both companies note that improvements in the aviation infrastructure would tend to even faster growth. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 11 Figure 7. Orders of New Aircraft by Specific Airlines (2009) Indias largest airline company is actually a combination of two state-owned carriers, plus subsidiaries. The GOI formed the National Aviation Company of India Limited (NACIL) to merge

Air India and Indian Airlines, consolidating international and domestic flight operations. The NACIL inherited flights from Mumbai and 12 other cities as well as flights to 28 international destinations from Air India. In addition, the NACIL inherited domestic operations from 58 airports in India and 18 international destinations from Indian airlines. The NACIL also code-shares flights with other operators to Europe, North America, Asia Pacific, and the Middle East. The NACIL inherited 115 aircraft from the two airlines and has 68 new aircraft on order to be delivered by 2012. The NACIL also recently launched a low-fare airline with 21 B-737-800 aircraft fleet operating from 16 Indian cities to 14 international destinations, mostly in the Middle East. India has large GA operators as well. For example, Pawan Hans Helicopters Limited is a GOI helicopter operator established in 1985. It has a fleet of 36 helicopters servicing Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC), Hydroelectric Power Corporation Limited, ministry of home affairs, the state governments, the North Eastern States, as well as other remote inaccessible areas. Expanding aircraft fleets over a very short period time has put operational and safety agencies under tremendous strain. Broadly speaking, MOCA has two autonomous agencies described in Section 3 that are entrusted with the countrys air traffic operational and safety needs: the Airport Authority of India and the Directorate General of Civil Aviation. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 12 -

SECTION 3. SECTOR OVERVIEW: INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS The civil aviation sector in India is under the union (or federal) jurisdiction of MOCA [see http://civilaviation.nic.in/] and headed by the Honorable Minister Praful Patel. At present, the federal government is led by the UPA. AAI was formed on April 1, 1995 by an act of the Indian Parliament and was assigned the following responsibilities: Design, construction, and maintenance of aerodrome infrastructure. Commercial utilization of this infrastructure. Management of Indian air space. Provision of route navigation facilities to aircraft flying in Indian air space. AAI is responsible for airport operations and management, except for the two metro airports in New Delhi and Mumbai and two Greenfield airports in Bangalore, Hyderabad. Additionally, AAI meets air traffic service needs by providing the CNS services. The DGCA is primarily responsible for overseeing the airworthiness certification, licensing, and operations safety, and ensuring proper standards and procedures. Recently, the Ministry of Civil Aviation also established an Airport Economic Regulatory Authority (AERA) as an independent regulator to facilitate the development of airports. The AERA will also approve tariff structure and user fees, as well as monitor quality, continuity, and reliability of service provided by the airports under their purview with an annual passenger throughput exceeding 1.5 million. Section 3A. Ministry of Civil Aviation and Airports Authority of India The minister is an elected official and a member of the federal cabinet. The organizational

structure of the ministry is given in Figure 8. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 13 Figure 8. Organizational Structure of the Ministry of Civil Aviation A senior civil service official, called the Secretary, serves as the functional head of the Ministry. Depending on the structure and workload, the Secretary is assisted by additional and joint secretaries. In addition, MOCA now has one additional secretary and a financial adviser, three joint secretaries, several directors, and deputy secretaries. At present, ministry functions are distributed over 16 sections and an administrative wing that oversees pay and accounting [see http://www. Civilaviation.nic.in/ for more detail]. In addition to framing policies, MOCA provides policy guidelines, monitors and evaluates performance, and facilitates interactions with the federal elected body (called Parliament) and the organizations listed above. Furthermore, MOCA supervises implementation of special programs (e.g., minority reservations). Under the ministry, three organizations have direct influence over the daily functioning of civil aviation in the country. In addition to NACIL, AAI, DGCA, and BCAS are three of the most important organizations in the civil aviation system. AAI is directly responsible for safe and efficient functioning of both airports and air navigation service provisions at the airport terminals

and en route, BCS is responsible for security, and the DGCA is the regulatory authority over civil aviation in the country. Figure 9 shows the broad organizational structure of AAI. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 14 Figure 9. Corporate Functioning of AAI Source: http://www.aai.aero/about_us/aai_organisationalstructure.jsp In addition, there are parallel agencies that oversee different aspects of AAI in particular and civil aviation in general. For example, the Finance Controller and the Joint Secretary of MOCA oversee the financial and operational functioning of AAI while representing the sector in the parliamentary and union ministry discussions and decisions. The DGCA, on the other hand, has the regulatory authority over the civil aviation while the Bureau of Civil Aviation Security is responsible for civil aviation safety and security [see http://www.moca.gov.in/ for more details]. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 15 -

The financial profile of AAI is fairly robust (see Table 2 below). At present, there are 11 international airports (excluding Delhi and Mumbai and three civil enclaves), seven custom airports where aircraft can land and take-off to and from international destinations, 26 civil enclaves (Goa, Srinagar, and Bangalore are declared international airports), 89 domestic airports, and two joint venture airports (Delhi and Mumbai). Altogether, there are 86 operational and 41 non-operational airports under the direct jurisdiction of AAI (See Appendix for an overview of the locations and airport infrastructure in India). AAI provides CNS/ATM services to all civil airports, air navigation services, and the entire civil airspace in India. Table 2. Financial Profile of AAI Particulars 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Revenue US $Million 482.77 512.79 565.72 644.60 750.63 801.34 922.41 836.75 869.90 Expenditure US $Million 380.18 405.90 448.74 497.33 490.72 472.45 548.36 603.75 679.88 Profit Before Tax US $Million 102.49 106.89 116.98 147.27 259.91 328.89 374.05 233.00 190.03 Profit After Tax US $Million 57.42 60.65 67.24 69.97 154.33 184.71 232.66 139.80 114.02 Source: MOCA http://civilaviation.nic.in/reports/Annual%20Report%2009%20English.pdf 1. Joint GOI/Private Partnership for Airport Development

Ownership of the Mumbai and Delhi airports was transferred to Mumbai International Airport Limited (MIAL) and Delhi International Airport Limited (DIAL) in May 2006. However, management of these two airports was not transferred until September 2006. Both groups are now held by a PPP model that is the primary instrument for reforming not only these two extremely important Indian airports but also the entire airports sector. Instead of completely privatizing airports, the GOI has decided to form joint venture partnerships in the form of PPPs. While most of the project risks are shouldered by the private owners, the public/government sector shares the rewards. Thus, the public sector would typically share in additional revenues or profits if the PPP achieves greater results than expected in the plan. This anticipated result is common in PPP agreements.15 15 The present arrangement appears to be no deterrence to further private sector involvement judging from the recent developments in the sector. For example, Delhis DFS Construction Limited has formed a partnership consortium with Austrias Vienna International Airport; Tata Group has formed a partnership consortium with Singapores Changi International Airport in early 2007. Similar partnerships are expected in the future as MOCA and AAI firm up the liberalization process even more. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD)

- 16 DIAL is led by the GMR Group16 consortium, while MIAL is led by the GVK group consortium17. The ownership composition of the Bangalore International Airport Limited (BIAL) is given as an example. The Government of Karnataka (GOK) [http://www.karnataka.com/watch/blr-airport], and AAI together hold 26 percent ownership, representing public or government interests, while the private entities hold the rest: Larsen & Toubro, India with 17%; Germanys Siemens AG with 40%; and Unique Zurich International Airport with 17%. A similar structure of equity ownership exists for the other three airports that are under PPP. 16 GMR Group of India is a private business group focused on developing infrastructure in India. 17 The GVK-SA Consortium consists of Airports Company South Africa (ACSA), Bidvest Group Limited India and GVK Industries of India. The Consortium was awarded a contract in 2006 valued at US$1.5 billion to modernize Mumbai airport. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 17 Section 3B. Directorate General of Civil Aviation The DGCA is the regulatory authority of Indian civil aviation. It ensures the safety of operations by issuing appropriate certifications and licenses designed to guarantee air worthiness of aircraft

within the Indian airspace and also by providing inspections to flight operations. In addition, the DGCA issues civil aviation requirements and conducts other procedures. 1. The Organizational Framework The organizational structure of the DGCA is presented in Figure 11. [See http://dgca.gov.in/] Figure 10. Organizational Structure of the DGCA 2. The Regulatory Framework The guiding regulatory framework for civil aviation is referred to as Civil Aviation Requirements (CAR). The CAR is defined in Section 3, Air Transport, Series C, Part II, issued in 1994. It stipulates the minimum requirements for granting permission to operate and maintain scheduled passenger air transport services in the country [see Gohain (2006)18 and http://dgca.gov.in/operator/sch-ind.htm for more detailed discussions on requirements]. A scheduled operator's permit can be granted to: A citizen of India. 18 Airline Operations Regulatory Issues in India, K. Gohain; DGCA, internal document, 2005. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 18 A company or a corporation provided that: o It is registered and has its principal place of business within India.

o Its chairman and at least two-thirds of its directors are citizens of India, and o Its substantial ownership and effective control is vested in Indian nationals. Furthermore, an airline wishing to operate international air services (under the existing numerous bi-lateral agreements) must receive permission from both MOCA and the aeronautical authorities of the destination country. In order to receive a permit for scheduled operation, an applicant is required to show the following: A subscribed equity capital of $2.3 to $7 million, depending upon the types and weights of aircraft. A fleet of five or more aircraft either directly owned or leased with maximum certified take-off weight of 5,700 kilograms (kg) and other category of aircraft carrying passengers acceptable to DGCA. However, to facilitate initiation of operations, scheduled operators are allowed to operate with three aircraft and given one year to expand the fleet size to five. The aircraft should be registered in India with a current certificate of airworthiness in the normal passenger category. The existing Aircraft Rules (#60 of 1937) require that all registered aircraft be in possession of a Certificate of Airworthiness. Therefore, it is mandatory to have approved maintenance schedules. Maintenance and repair can be accomplished by reputable organizations, but operators are encouraged to establish their own facilities within the country. A sufficient number of flights and cabin crews are required, depending upon the size of the aircraft. The flight crew must possess current licenses issued by DGCA.

For meeting operations and maintenance requirements, the operators are required to prepare the following manuals [see http://dgca.gov.in/operator/gm-aero.htm for detailed directives]: Operations manual in accordance with CAR Section 2, Series O, Part X. The manual should contain the operations procedures and policies to be adopted during operations. Maintenance Control (Quality Control) manual in accordance with CAR Section 2, Series E, part I. This manual will describe the operators quality control and maintenance policies. Training manual for flight crew and cabin crew. There are numerous other requirements that an operator must follow. Among them: Fares charged by the airlines have to be submitted at least 90 days before the proposed implementation date. However, this can be shortened by the DGCA. The airlines are also required to submit their proposed flight schedules (i.e., types of services, frequency, 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 19 types of aircraft, and flight itineraries) with the DGCA for approval at least 30 days prior to the planned commencement of services. Operators are required to pay aeronautical charges and non-aeronautical charges. Aeronautical charges include landing and parking charges and route navigation

facilitation charges. Non-aeronautical charges include fees to be paid by the airlines toward security requirements and facilities leased in the terminal building and operational areas. The operator is required to submit information relating to operational, engineering, and commercial and financial performance to the DGCA. The operator is required to submit statistical data on operations (i.e., capacity, passengers carried, number of aircraft flown, cargo carried) to the DGCA before the 10th day of every month. The scheduled operators shall issue passenger tickets in accordance with the provisions of the Carriage by Air Act, 1972. The tickets shall stipulate the conditions of carriage, including the liability of the operator. The operator is required to maintain current insurance for an amount adequate to cover its liability towards passengers and their baggage, as well as crew, cargo, hull loss, and third party risks in compliance with the requirements of the Carriage by Air Act, 1972, or any other applicable law. Indias regulatory environment *see http://dgca.gov.in/ for more details+ is fairly similar to that of other countries.19 However, two regulatory requirements unique to India are worth mentioning: social routing and aviation turbine fuel (ATF) tax. The route dispersion guidelines are guided by the Route Dispersal Guidelines of March 1, 1994, issued by the DGCA. In accordance with these guidelines, all routes are divided into Categories (CAT) I, II, IIA, and III. CAT I routes link the most profitable 12 trunk routes that link the major metropolitan cities directly. These include: MumbaiBangalore, Mumbai-Chennai, Mumbai-Delhi, Mumbai-Hyderabad, Mumbai-Kolkata, Mumbai-

Trivandrum, Delhi-Bangalore, Delhi-Chennai, Delhi-Hyderabad, Kolkata-Bangalore, KolkataChennai, and Kolkata-Delhi. CAT II routes consist of stations in Jammu and Kashmir, north-east region, Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands. CAT IIA involves routes that are exclusively within destinations in Jammu and Kashmir, the northeast region, Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep islands. Finally, CAT III consists of routes other than those included in CAT I and II. Under the present route guidelines, scheduled carriers are required to deploy a specified percentage of capacity deployed (i.e., social routing) in CAT I routes in CAT II, IIA, and III routes as per the following specifications: CAT II will have at least 10 percent of capacity deployed on routes in CAT I; CAT IIA will have at least 10 percent of capacity deployed on routes in CAT II; 19 These are laid out in Federal Aviation Rules (FAR) 49 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for the U.S. carriers. See www.usdot.gov for more details. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 20 and CAT III will have at least 50 percent of capacity deployed on routes in CAT I. Clearly, these social route allocations are restrictive and may obstruct carriers natural development of networks based on economic forces and operational considerations (e.g., maintenance and crew, overnight positioning).

Airlines are required to pay passenger-related charges on the airside (i.e., aeronautical fees) and ATF tax. These fuel taxes are charged on all turboprop and turbofan aircraft operated by scheduled air carriers. The present tax regime does not provide any incentive for air carriers to operate smaller aircraft to secondary or smaller airports (i.e., Tier II and III airports). If some tax incentives for smaller aircraft with less than 100 seats were introduced,20 for example, regional jets (RJs) may be induced to fly to smaller cities. These incentives may induce RJ expansion in India by encouraging a point-to-point network. The load of congestion on major metro airports may also lessen once the secondary cities develop air traffic. A number of concessions to the small aircraft operations, such as the waiver of aeronautical charges, are already in place. Regulatory reform in civil aviation is relatively new in India. The past decade has seen significant development in the aviation sector, a part of which is clearly driven by sustained overall economic growth. Factors such as enhanced competition, increased efficiency, and growing access to markets in such a short period of time are facilitated by gradual liberalization of the sector, which is expected to continue with the budget for the next fiscal year and with the pending aviation bill. 20 Smaller aircraft have been given ATF tax benefit in the latest budget that was submitted on February 28. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 21 -

SECTION 4. SECTOR OPPORTUNITIES India is in the middle of a transition in its civil aviation sector. A large part of how the sector will develop and its success depends on how quickly the infrastructure bottlenecks are removed to accommodate the growing demand. This process took a concrete step forward with MOCA/AAIs decision to put two Greenfield airports at Bangalore and Hyderabad under PPP. The first private airport was Cochin International Airport Limited (CIAL), which began operations in June 1999. The liberalization process continued with the decision to put the two most important operational airports, Mumbai and Delhi, under PPP in May 2006. Similar plans are in the early stages of development for other airports. With these developments, however, comes the need for associated improvements in overall ATM. Although AAI has already undertaken some improvements, private stakeholders may also be involved in the decision process. However, numerous new opportunities will only become visible as the sector grows and the needs of different stakeholders are met. U.S.-India Aviation Cooperation Program The U.S.-India Aviation Cooperation Program was established in 2007 as a PPP between the U.S. FAA, USTDA, U.S. aviation sector companies, and the GOI. The ACP supports the growth of Indian civil aerospace sectors and joint development projects with collaborative cooperation among U.S. and Indian stakeholders. ACP objectives include: Advance cooperation and activities among U.S. Government Agencies and industry. Enhance awareness in India to facilitate access to U.S. aviation expertise, technologies, and best practices. Promote cooperation between U.S. and India for aviation safety airport/airspace security,

regulatory oversight, and ATM. Provide training and technical guidance for performance based operations. ACP focus areas include: ATM modernization. Airport/airspace capacity analysis, planning, and development. Aviation human resource development. Aviation support industry development. Aviation safety, efficiency, and security enhancements. The panorama of the infrastructural opportunities ranges from advanced projects, such as Kulkada, Chennai, and 35 non-metro airports, to those that are now being expanded, such as Mumbai and Delhi. Due to the nature of the partnerships at Mumbai and Delhi, these projects may provide open competitive business opportunities to U.S. firms. These and many other projects will continue to be detailed and developed in the coming years. Accordingly, it is imperative that companies seeking involvement in the growing Indian market engage at the earliest possible stage with a keen understanding of the need of the stakeholdersowner2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 22 operators at the airports, AAI, and othersthus yielding fruitful commercial positioning in the

years to come. Section 4A. Airports: Selected Opportunities This section provides a broad overview of airports, locations, trends, the challenges faced, and the types of business opportunities offered. Some opportunities are already well defined and in progress, while others continue to be developed. 1. Opportunity for Airport Modernization and Expansion (a) Delhi and Mumbai Airport Modernization and Expansion Two of the first four airports that transformed through a PPP are the DIAL and MIAL. On May 3, 2006, the airports at Delhi and Mumbai were handed over to PPP joint venture groups. The other two airports that are under PPPs are BIAL and Hyderabad International Airport Limited (HIAL). Figure 12 shows the DIAL, a consortium of partners. Figure 11. Consortium of Partners The private consortium (GMR, Fraport, ERAMAN, and IDFC)21 holds 74 percent of equity, while the public/AAI holds the remaining 26 percent [see www.gmrgroup.co.in for more details]. MIAL is a consortium led by the GVK group with Airports Company of South Africa (ACSA) and Bidvest holding 74 percent equity while AAI holds the remaining 26 percent [see www.gvk.com for more details]. Delhi and Mumbai are the two major gateway airports in the country. Together, they still account for over 50 percent of total passenger traffic. Under the arrangement of the PPP, both airports submitted their master plans in December 2006 to AAI for review and acceptance. DIALs master plan foresees the construction of a new integrated passenger terminal (No. 3) that will serve both domestic and international traffic. Terminal 3, according to the master plan, will be ready before

the Commonwealth Games in Delhi in 2010. In the first phase, the airport will be able to handle 34 million passengers a year [http://www.newdelhiairport.in/new-terminal-building.asp]. Ultimately, the master plan envisages a capacity of 100 million passengers per year. Figure 13 highlights a percentage share of passenger traffic at six major airports. 21 GMR Group of India is a private business group focused on developing infrastructure in India; Fraport is the owner-operator of the Frankfort International Airport; Eraman is a wholly-owned retail subsidiary of the Malaysia Airport Holding. Infrastructure Development Finance Corporation is a private equity firm set up following the GOI Infrastructure panels recommendation. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 23 Figure 11. Share of Passenger Traffic at Indias Top Six Airports22 Source: http://www.centreforaviation.com/ The Mumbai airport modernization and expansion program is ongoing with an estimated cost of $1.96 billion. The airport enhancements include construction of a new integrated Terminal 2 at Sahar for 24-hour domestic and international operations, a new parallel taxiway with a new Air Traffic Control (ATC) tower, construction of a modern cargo complex, and construction of

Terminal 1C. When the airport modernization and expansion is complete, the airport will be able to handle 40 million passengers and one million tons of cargo per year. There will be 66 passenger boarding bridges and 106 aircraft parking spaces. Under the PPP arrangement, Delhi airport as a whole, and Terminal 3 in particular, will deliver world-class services. For example, Terminal 3 would have 55 contact stands (i.e., aerobridges) and 30 remote parking bays for passenger embarkation and disembarkation. It is projected that over 90 percent of the passenger traffic at Terminal 3 would be handled by aerobridges by 2010. Furthermore, six of these 55 aerobridges will be Airbus A38023 compatible. Under the proposed Master Plan, runways would be made A380 compatible as well. In preparation for the A380, a new runway Code F measuring 4,439 meters is now operational. The proposed runway will require that two instrument landing systems (ILS) (one CAT IIIB and the other CAT I) and one Doppler Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (DVOR/DME) are equipped. A new domestic terminal with annual capacity of 10 million passengers would also be operational before the Commonwealth Games of 2010. The existing international terminal (Terminal 2) is also modernized and upgraded. Finally, cargo 22 Indian Sub-Continent Airports Capital Investment Programmes, Brooks Market Intelligence report, Mack Brooks Exhibition Limited, 2009. 23 Airbus A380 will be the largest wide-body aircraft in history. With seating capacity ranging between 550 and 800, the A380 as of October 2007 is now in service. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit

Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 24 operations would remain in its present location until further expansion requires that they move to a new location [See http://www.gmrgroup.co.in/airports_news_item_DIAL_PR_6Dec06.html for more details]. While the Delhi airport has considerable advantage of future expansion (with almost 4,500 acres) and scope for redesigning, Mumbai airport is severely land-constrained with a total of 930 acres. Additionally, nearby residential neighbors severely encroach upon many areas. Clearly, this makes Mumbais expansion very difficult, calling for innovative ATM solutions for both runways and airspaces. Given this constraint, MOCA/AAI has recently decided to undertake construction of a new Greenfield airport outside the city. In addition to these difficulties, another concern facing Indian airports (Delhi in particular) is the lack of visibility during the winter months. On average, Delhi has 32-35 days of dense fog that severely delay air traffic movements. Due to Delhis connections to international and domestic destinations, these delays can affect the entire country. In order to mitigate this persistent problem, Delhis ILS serving runway 28 has been upgraded to CAT IIIB. To facilitate the runway movements, Advanced-Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (A-SMGCS) Level 2 has been procured from the Sensis Corporation and implemented at Delhi. Similarly, ILS at Kolkata has been upgraded to CAT II level. ILSs at other major airports in the northern region,

including Lucknow and Jaipur, have been proposed for upgrade to CAT II as well. In order to fully utilize the benefit of ILS runway equipment, particularly in CAT IIIB, pilots are required to be trained in avionics-compatible aircraft. While many new aircraft are appropriately equipped, many of the present air carriers have not trained their non-Indian pilots on CAT IIIB equipment due to cost restrictions.24 In the mid- to long-term, AAI would like to implement Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS) at the stations where ILS is either not convenient or not feasible. Air ground digital communication will be implemented when technology matures. Surveillance coverage will be enhanced over the northeastern part of the country, one of the priority areas for AAI. As the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technology becomes mature in the country, it will help provide backup en route surveillance aid. Finally, AAI plans to integrate air traffic services (ATS) and meteorological (MET) information for smooth and efficient ATM operations. With gradual implementation of master plan activities, many of these difficulties, particularly those related to the infrastructure of Delhi airport, may slowly be resolved. The construction of new terminals, a new runway, and reconfiguration of the existing taxiways (e.g., rapid exit taxiways) will likely remove many of the operational difficulties faced by the airport terminal, ATC, and the airlines. 24 At the end of 2006, ILS-compliance training cost was estimated to be, on average, US $4,600 for each pilot. For many Indian air carriers that are running substantial operational losses, this is an expensive undertaking. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit

Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 25 Salient features of Delhi Airports Master Plan include: State-of-the-art integrated terminal to be ready in 2010, New domestic terminal, Third runway, among the longest in Asia, will be capable of handling A380 sized aircraft, Airport to have an ultimate design capacity of 100 million passengers per annum, and High-speed metro connectivity with city-center, six-lane access road to airport from National Highway No. 8 (NH8). The entire modernization in Phases I and II is estimated to cost around $3.6 billion. Numerous business opportunities, including terminal services (i.e., site preparation, passenger terminal, airside and landside works, and boundary wall) will likely open up in the near future.25 Additionally, the following items are likely to be procured at the Delhi airport: Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system, Lighting system, Building automation, Hydro services, Elevators and escalators, Water treatment plant, and

Baggage handling. (b) Modernization of Airports at Chennai and Kolkata After completing PPP arrangements at four metro airports (including Delhi, Mumbai and two greenfield airports at Bangalore and Hyderabad), AAI plans to undertake similar reforms at Chennai (formerly Madras) and Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) airports. The Chennai Airport has been experiencing mostly steady growth over the last nine years. The airport director expressed confidence that double-digit growth in domestic air transportation is likely to continue for international passengers at an average growth rate of 8 to 9 percent per annum over the next five years. With Lufthansa operating a direct service from Frankfurt, the airport should be poised to attain significant growth. In addition to Chennais role as a base for automobile manufacturing and accessories, it has been receiving spillover Information Technology (IT) investments from Bangalore. Chennai sits at a triangle between Bangalore and Hyderabad and holds huge promise in terms of traffic development. The corridor between Chennai and Madurai is also developing as the new hub for IT activities, giving Chennai a unique advantage. 25 The GMR consortium signed on L&T, India, in February, 2007 to undertake these construction activities. It is important to note here that L&T is a key private sector partner in BIAL as well. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by:

The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 26 Planning for new airport and/or reforms and modernization at Chennai has already begun. The Government of India approved a plan for modernization and expansion in August 2008. The modernization efforts include construction of the Domestic Terminal, extension of the existing Anna International Terminal, extension of a secondary runway across Adyar River by 830 meters, construction of parallel taxi tracks, and ten parking bays. The construction is expected to be completed by 2010. After completion of the work, Chennai airport will be able to handle 24 million passengers annually. The modernization and reform programs at the Chennai airport can be summarized as follows: Work is in progress for: Construction of 10 parking bays, Expansion of international terminal and construction of a domestic terminal, Construction of warehouse, Tenders issued for building integrated cargo complex Phase-II with an estimated cost of about $26 million, and Extension of secondary runway by 830 meters. Construction is planned for: Domestic terminal Phase-II; Competition finalizing international architectural design consultant has been recently completed, Construction of a parallel runway, and Next-level development of the integrated cargo complex: Phase-III and IV costing

$139.5 million. Policy discussion involving land acquisition (10 km away from the old airport) at Sriperumbudur and limited processing has begun with the goal of establishing a new airport. The budget for the new Chennai airport is $430 million. The Government of India approved construction of an Integrated Passenger Terminal Building at Kolkata Airport to handle 20 million passengers annually. The contract for construction was awarded in October 2008 and the building construction will take about 30 months. In addition, the Kolkata airport will have an extension of its secondary runway by 400 meters and construction of associated taxi tracks, apron, parking bays, and two rapid exit taxiways. This work is in progress and expected to be completed by 2010. Work is in progress for: Construction of 21 additional bays, and Extension of domestic security-hold area with three aerobridges costing $23.3 million. Construction is planned for: Development of a modern integrated cargo complex with state-of-the-art technology, An international terminal with aprons for 10 aircraft, A third runway, and 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD)

- 27 A new maintenance hangar. An International architectural design competition was held for international departure building, and terminal design has been selected. The tentative cost of Phase-I is $52.3 million. An international architectural design competition for domestic terminal building is also planned; the short-listing of consultants for this purpose has been completed. The sponsors for the modernization of Chennai and Kolkata airports are AAI and the state governments of Tamil Nadu (for Chennai) and West Bengal (for Kolkata). Source: India Ministry of Civil Aviation Annual Report 2008 2009 http://civilaviation.nic.in/reports/Annual%20Report%2009%20English.pdf (c) Modernization Programs at 35 Non-Metro Airports Under the directives from MOCA, AAI plans to modernize and develop 35 second-tier, non-metro airports. A list of these airports is given in Table 3. Table 3. Non-Metro Airport Development Selected 10 Non-Metro Airports 25 Non-Metro Airports Ahmedabad Amritsar Guwahati Jaipur Udaipur Thiruvananthapuram Lucknow

Goa Madurai Mangalore Agati; Aurangabad; Khajuraho; Rajkot; Vadodara; Bhopal; Indore; Nagpur; Vishakapattanam; Tiruchi; Bhubaneswar; Coimbatore; Patna; Port Blair; Varanasi; Agartala; Dehradun; Imphal; Ranchi; Raipur; Agra; Chandigarh; Dimapur; Jammu; Pune. Source: AAI Out of these top 35 airports, 10 have been selected to focus on first, with the remaining 25 chosen in five packages of five airports for modernization and perhaps reforms, possibly through PPP.26 Procedures for developing the airport projects usually involve preparing justification and feasibility reports. AAI was supposed to select a global technical assistance (TA) consultant to undertake the technical feasibility of development of the top 10 non-metro airports. The outcome of the TA-prepared feasibility analysis will prepare the Scope of Work (SOW) documents, which 26 AAI has developed a strategy to attract private investment for non-metro airport modernization program. MOCA has indicated that it may offer PPP instrument in packages of 5 non-metro airports rather than allowing PPP in individual non-metro airports. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA

December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 28 will include the technical requirements (i.e., engineering, IT, system integration).27 Companies who are interested in participating in these projects are encouraged to receive a copy of the feasibility analysis. In addition, new terminal building construction is in progress or planned at the following airports: Agatti, Ahmedabad, Aurangabad, Jaipur, Mangalore, Raipur, Trivandrum, Udaipur, and Visakhapatnam. Expansion of terminal buildings is under way at Amritsar and Nagpur. Parking stands and taxiways are being constructed at Agartala, Bhubaneswar, Coimbatore, Guwahati, Jaipur, Khajuraho, Madurai, Mangalore, Trichy, Udaipur, and Visakhapatnam. Finally, expansion of apron and runways has been undertaken at Bhubaneswar, Dehradun, Madurai, Raipur, Trichy, and Visakhapatnam. The development of these airports will cost US$1.6 billion. The AAI will sponsor development with participation from the respective state Governments where the airports are located as well as the PPP. (d) Multi-modal International Cargo Hub and Airport at Nagpur (MIHAN) The Indian government has formed a Maharashtra Airport Development Company (MADC) for the development of MIHAN at a cost of about $90 million. The airport master plan includes: Extending runway by 400 meters, Provision for an additional runway of 4,000x60 meters,

Airport terminal building, 50 aircraft parking spaces, Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul (MRO) provision and Exclusive cargo complex. These airport upgrades will be able to support 14 million passengers and 0.87 million tons of cargo annually. 27 AAI has opted for putting most of these works under global tender. These and numerous other procurements are done routinely through the global tendering; information is available at the www.aai.aero. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 29 (e) Completion of Greenfield Airports at Bangalore and Hyderabad Under the PPP arrangement, the completion and operation of Greenfield airports at Hyderabad (located at Shamsabad) and Bangalore (located at Devanhalli) is most notable. For both BIAL and HIAL: Joint Venture Companies (JVCs) have been set up with an equity distribution of 74 percent with private partners and 26 percent with AAI and state governments (Karnataka for BIAL and Andhra Pradesh for HIAL).

JVCs are responsible for overall development and management of airport infrastructure at these airports, and ATS will be provided by AAI. These airports are already in operation. In addition to these two relatively large projects, three more Greenfield airports are being planned in the northeast region of the country: Pakyong Airport Gangtok, Sikkim (to accommodate Avions de Transport Regional (ATR)72 Aircraft): A detailed project report (DPR) has been prepared and forwarded to the Planning Commission for further deliberations. Estimated cost is Rs. 340 Crores (US $79.07 million including land cost). The work for Pakyoung Airport has been awarded.28 Cheithu Airport Kohima, Nagaland (to accommodate ATR 72 aircraft): A consultant has been appointed for a techno-economic feasibility study. Survey is in progress. Itanagar Airport Meghalaya (to accommodate ATR 72 aircraft): The Banderdeva site appears to be technically feasible. At present, consultants are being appointed for a techno-economic feasibility study. The development of these three airports from the Northeast region is at an early stage. Therefore, procurement opportunities at different stages should be available to U.S. businesses. Proposals for development of some Greenfield airports have been received from state governments and are at various stages of examination: Mopa Goa

Navi Mumbai State of Maharashtra Chakan/Rajguru Nagar, Pune State of Maharashtra 28 http://civilaviation.nic.in/reports/Annual%20Report%2009%20English.pdf. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 30 Kannur State of Kerala Hassan and Gulbarga State of Karnataka Halwara State of Punjab According to federal policy, state governments are the primary promoters of the greenfield airports. In order to promote such developments, they may consider joint ventures with private investors through the existing PPP vehicle using transparent tender and a competitive bidding process. FDI is permitted at 100 percent under the automatic route for Greenfield projects consideration.

2. Procurement of Materials for Airside and Landside Modernization AAI is required to procure equipment and systems to facilitate airside and landside modernization at different airports at a cost of US$0.7 billion. Some of these include: Procurement of landing lighting systems at all airports and visual docking guidance systems. Procurement and installation of conveyor belts for smooth cargo handling at all major airports. Procurement of technical services ensuring integrated Flight Data Processing System (FDPS). FDPS has been developed internally by Electronics Corporation of India Limited with the sponsorship of AAI. The essential architecture of FDPS consists of: Links of time server via a Global Positioning System (GPS). Societe Internationale de Telecommunication Aeronautiques (SITA) modem; Aeronautical Mobile Support System (AMSS). Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunication Network (AFTN). Position stations. A monitoring system. At present, FDPS is operational at Chennai and works in a modular format in which data is fed through AFTN and radar. AAI would like to integrate FDPS with radar (R-FDPS) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Contract (ADS-C)29 data. 29 Ground- to- air communication is performed via CPDLC with SITA providing FANS-compatibility. Although there appears to be a great deal of enthusiasm among AAI professionals regarding ADS-C, and overall ADS-B implementation (through FAAs sharing trial data), India faces the same challenge as in the

U.S. and Europe: namely too few aircraft (around 20 percent) presently are equipped with ADS-B. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 31 Developing Standard Instrument Departures/Standard Terminal Arrival R Routes (SID/STAR), Required Navigation Performance/Required Area Navigation (RNP/RNAV) procedures to increase efficiencies at terminals. The airport and other ground support equipment segment offered market opportunities worth $359 million in 2008 and are expected to exceed $400 million in 2009. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 32 Section 4B. Air Transportation Management: Selected Opportunities Indias complex airspace provides considerable challenges. Accommodating growing traffic demand requires efficient airspace usage. Efficient allocation of resources, including airspace, requires better planning and management. These may provide opportunities for U.S. firms

specializing in these services. Given the priorities of AAI and its favorable fiscal condition, many of these opportunitiesgiven their capacity-enhancing impact, especially on airspaces closer to terminalsare expected to be undertaken soon 1. Opportunities for CNS/ATM Modernization (a) Future Indian Air Navigation System (FIANS) Master Plan Based on the forecasted growth in traffic, India has developed an ATM master plan (FIANS) to meet future aviation industry demand consistent with the ICAO Global harmonization approach, guiding principles, and strategic vision. In order to achieve seamless use of airspace for worldwide operations, the Plan supports meeting the interoperability requirements and standards, as well as performance based operations. The CNS/ATM enhancements include: Communication: Satellite-based digital communication transitioning from voice data with voice as back up. Navigation: Satellite-based navigation supplemented by GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN). Surveillance: Secondary surveillance radars (SSR) in high density airspace and terminal areas, and ADS-B as well as wide area multilateration elsewhere. ATM Automation: Networking of radars and consolidation of 11 Area Control Centers (ACCs) into four Centers initially and two Centers in the long term. Meteorological Facilities: New integrated weather information system for current and forecasted weather data, real time satellite weather picture and turbulence warnings. (b) Current Airspace and Operations The Indian airspace consists of almost three million square meters, of which one-third is over land

and the rest is over oceanic control.30 Currently, the entire continental airspace is covered fairly well under radar at higher airspaces. Some 14 monopulse secondary surveillance radars (MSSRs) (10 MSSR co-located with Primary Surveillance Radars [PSRs]) provide en route coverage at Delhi (2), Mumbai (2), Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Trivandrum, Mangalore, Varanasi, Nagpur, Guwahati, and Berhampur airports. There are eight Terminal Area Radars (TARs), which are located at Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, Guwahati, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, and Trivandrum airports for approach control service. There are 11 ACCs, which are 30 Source: CNS/ATM-Current Status and Future Plans, Presentation by Mr. Srikrishan, Executive Director, ATM, at the Aerodrome India Conference, New Delhi, December 2006. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 33 established to service airports at Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Nagpur, Mangalore, Thiruvananthapuram, Guwahati, and Varanasi. These are equipped with en route radar for provision of area control services. There have been discussions regarding consolidation of these 11 centers into two by splitting the countrys ACCs into Northwest and Southwest centers. The entire airspace is divided into five flight information regions (FIRs): Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi,

Chennai, and Guwahati (a sub-FIR). There are 12 neighboring FIRs that share common Indian FIRs: Pakistan, Oman, Yemen, Mogadishu, Seychelles, Mauritius, Male, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Myanmar, Bangladesh, and Nepal. There are 79 international and 99 domestic ATS routes in and out of the country. Most of the international routes are aligned in East-West direction. At present, vertical separation of the airspace (common in other parts of the world) does not exist in India. Terminal, approach control, and en route airspaces can be segmented into lower, middle, upper, and super-high sectors in the airspace for efficient management and safe operations that are practiced in the U.S. and Europe [see Figure 14 for an example]. These segmentations do not currently exist in India. Figure 12. Vertical Segmentation of Typical Airspace: An Example In terms of airspace infrastructure, AAI has implemented the Europe, Middle-East, Asia Route Structure of Himalayas (EMARSH), which was commissioned on November 12, 2002, together with twelve Bay of Bengal routes. Reduced vertical separation minimum (RVSM)which increased airspace capacity by reducing vertical separation between aircraft to 1,000 feet from 2,000 feet above certain altitudeswas introduced on November 27, 2003. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 34 -

AAI was able to relieve delays at major airports by implementing RNP/RNAV at busy airports, particularly in Mumbai, Delhi, Ahmabadad, and Chennai. Further refinement of airspace management would prepare India for the necessary handling capacity. Given that almost 35 percent of the total Indian airspace is classified as reserved for military activities, civil-military airspace coordination and operations (i.e., flexible use of airspace) is also critical for growing civil flight operations. Airspace redesigning and sectorization will be undertaken as part of the Master Plan. (c) CNS/ATM Master Plan Update Currently, the CNS infrastructure can be described as such [Srikrishan (2006)]: Very High Frequency (VHF) at all the airports. Radio Controlled Augmentation (RCAG) stations at seven places. High frequency at Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, and Chennai airports. ILS at 38 airports. VHF Omnidirectional Range (VOR)/DME at 78 stations and Non-directional Beacon (NDB) at 82 places. ADS-C/Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) compatible with the ICAO Future Air Navigation System (FANS available at Delhi airport for surveillance in the mountainous terrain in North India and at Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai airports for surveillance over the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. Radar coverage (around 80 percent of the country is covered): MSSR 14 PSR S Band 8

PSR L Band 2 An Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System has been installed at Indira Gandhi International Airport in Delhi, supplied by Sensis Corporation of the U.S. This system provides support for CAT IIIB ILS operations. A comprehensive master plan, integrating aviation infrastructure modernization with operations benefits, is essential. Without such a plan, CNS infrastructure improvement might not produce the optimum operational benefits that India needs. India faces challenges due to its immediate traffic growth projection and its immediate infrastructure needs. World aviation is experiencing a technology revolution led by the U.S. NextGen programs and Europes Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) programs. These NextGen and SESAR programs will significantly change aviation operations and infrastructure requirements. During the fall of 2008, a U.S. company, ISI, was awarded a USTDA contract to update the earlier version of the CNS/ATM master plan, which also was developed by ISI before Indias significant traffic growth. In early 2008, the Indian Government developed the FIANS Master Plan under the leadership of the Ajay Prasad Committee. This master plan provided recommendations to the Minister of Civil Aviation in the 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 35 areas of Airport Infrastructure, ICAO Global Plan Initiatives in CNS/ATM, and Global

Harmonization. (d) CNS Upgrades On the CNS side, AAI plans to extend VHF coverage over the entire Indian landmass with twelve additional RCAG stations. AAI also plans to replace NDBs with six additional DVOR/four Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range (VOR). The six additional DMEs will be collocated with DVORs. There are 43 ILS already installed at 37 airports, out of which Delhi has CAT IIIB. Kolkata as well as Lucknow have CAT II ILS. AAI plans to install seven CAT I ILS, three CAT II ILS, and two CAT III ILS at Amritsar, Jaipur, Jammu airports, and at the new runway in Delhi. An enhancement of surveillance coverage is planned, including nine MSSRs for complete radar coverage over terrestrial airspace and two PSR-S bands for coverage over the terminal areas. In addition, there is a plan for three new primary and seven secondary surveillance radars. In summary, the following is a list of planned procurement in near term: Nine additional MSSR Radars and two PSR-S Band Radars. Twelve additional RCAG (communications systems). Ten additional DVOR/VOR systems. Six additional DME systems. Four additional ILS systems. Replace NDBs (Currently AAI has 82 NDBs). DGPS landing system. India has conducted ADS-B trials. However, since only 10 percent of aircraft that use Indias airspace are equipped with ADS-B transponders, wide-ranging benefits from an ADS-B deployment will not be realized until the aircraft equipage rate increases.

Initially, ADS-B and wide area multilateration systems will augment radars for surveillance in low density airspace, but they will be extended into all airspace as the ADS-B equipage grows. AAI is reviewing various business models of ADS-B implementation. ADS-B augmented by multilateration would provide a solid infrastructure for Indian airspace management to handle growing traffic. (e) GAGAN Certification and Implementation India is developing a GAGAN system [see Figure 15 for a broad overview], which is a Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS). AAI developed this technology together with the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and Raytheon Corporation. GAGANs mission control center and ground uplink station will be located in Bangalore. The current INRES centers are in Delhi, Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Thiruvananthapuram, Kolkata, Guwahati, Port Blair, and Jammu. The future INRES centers will be in Indore, Bhuj, Amritsar, Chennai, Nagpur, and Lucknow. GAGAN is in a trial phase now, and AAI is in the process of 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 36 establishing TA with the FAA for its validation, verification, and eventual certification. In November 2006 during the visit of Ms. Marion Blakey (the FAA Administrator at that time), the Administrator and the Indian Minister of Civil Aviation agreed to pursue the option of technical

assistance in this field. Implementation of GAGAN is planned in two phases: For the first phase, GAGAN Technology Demonstration System (TDS) has successfully demonstrated the proof of concept of SBAS and is completed. GAGAN Final Operational Phase (FOP) has the following implementation schedule: GAGAN ground segment installation and integration August 2010 GAGAN System Integration with both Geostationary Earth Orbiting Satellite Systems GEOs January 2012 GAGAN navigation performance demonstration June 2012 GAGAN system certification July 2013 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 37 Figure 13. GAGAN Network in India Source: AAI Beyond GAGAN, the ISRO is implementing an Indian Navigation Regional Satellite System (INRSS), an independent, seven satellite constellation built and operated by India. These satellite systems will maintain interoperability between other regional augmentations to GPS for global navigation. (f) ATM Enhancements

AAI will need to develop functional capabilities for ATS in order to provide conflict prediction, detection, and resolution. AAI has started to develop Air Traffic Flow Management (AFTM) functionality with support from the FAA. 2. Weather System Enhancements The Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), under the Ministry of Earth Sciences, is modernizing aviation meteorological services at airports. Integrated Automatic Aviation Meteorological Systems (IAAMS), for automatic acquisition, processing, dissemination, and display of meteorological information in real time. The IAAMS have been installed at Delhi, Mumbai and Hyderabad airports. These systems are also being installed at 20 non-metro airports. The IMD plans to provide IAAMS at all 50 airports where the ILS have been planned by AAI. The IMD also plans to install Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR), wind profilers, and anemometer arrays for wind shear detection and alerting at a few selected airports. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 38 3. Opportunities for Commercial Aircraft MRO As noted earlier, Indian civil aviation will almost triple in fleet size over the next five to seven years. The commercial aircraft base for scheduled operations now stands at 287. Over the next five to seven years, this will increase by 458 new aircraft (i.e., a 2.6 fold increase), a breakdown

of which is given in Figure 16. Figure 14. Airline Order Book in India (End of 2006) A majority of these orders are generated by LCCs. If one accounts for only the full-service airlines (i.e., NACIL and Jet Airways), orders stand to increase around 26 percent (or 121) of the order book. With Kingfisher Airlines added to that group (increasingly, the operational model of Kingfisher is closer to that of a full service operator), the order book stands to increase to 153, or 33 percent. Much of the development is indeed generated by the LCCs in India. The MRO opportunities primarily lie in the purchase arrangements of the flag carriers with Boeing and Airbus. Air India entered into the purchase agreement for 68 aircraft with Boeing (with a loan guarantee from the U.S. Export-Import Bank), while Indian Airlines signed with Airbus for its order of 43 aircraft. Under these agreements, Airbus and Boeing are expected to invest approximately 30 percent of the sales revenue (i.e., termed as Offset Arrangement) in India.31 Thus, Boeing will 31 After acquiring aircraft orders that are worth around US $20 billion from India, Boeing announced on February 7 (during the Aero India conference) that it would invest almost US $185 million to develop aviation related projects and facilities. Indicating that Boeing was committed to invest a total of US $1.7 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 39 invest around $2 billion under this offset arrangement. The aircraft engines will come from

General Electric (GE). Under the respective offset arrangement, GE is also required to invest a certain percentage of sales proceeds in India. The Indian MRO market is growing at a rate of about 15 percent annually as airlines develop their own MRO facilities. The Asia-Pacific aircraft and engine MRO market is expected to reach about $23 billion by 2011. India has the potential to become a major MRO hub in the Asia-Pacific region. Similar arrangements are expected from military purchases by the Indian defense sector. This may lead to additional MRO facilities, most likely in the Special Economic Zone near Bangalore. GE is also considering investment (estimated to be $330 million) in engine manufacturing and/or an MRO facility (with GOI as a partner closer to Delhi). Recently, Raytheon Aircraft Company, an aircraft manufacturer based in the U.S., announced that it is considering a strategic partnership to set up a fixed base operator (FBO) unit in India. The process has already begun, and Raytheon is identifying possible partners. The FBO unit will be a standalone mini-terminal that sells aircraft fuel, in addition to providing a catering facility. It will also have an aircraft sales and charter department. Raytheon will set up the facility either at an existing airport or at a Greenfield airport in India. There are also discussions regarding investment potential from European Aeronautic Defense and Space Company (parent company of Airbus), Delta Airlines, and other U.S. firms. 4. Opportunities for Training Indian civil aviation training facilities consist of four institutes and colleges: (a) Civil Aviation Training College in Allahabad; (b) National Institute for Aviation Management and Research; (c) Fire Services Training College at Kolkata and Chennai; and (d) Flight Training School. As a joint venture partnership of AAI with CAE Canada, the Government has established the National Flying Training Pvt. Ltd. and the National Institute of Aviation Technology and Management at

Gondia, Maharashtra for basic courses in aircraft maintenance, flight dispatches, and operations/maintenance of ground equipment. AAI set up a state-of-the-art facility primarily for training controllers in Allahabad at a cost of $69.7 million (Rs. 300 Crores). ATC training appears to be another bottleneck that the sector may face in the near future. Although AAI has almost 22,000 professionals,32 technicians, safety inspectors, and engineers, there are only several hundred ATC controllers. The Delhi tower, the secondbusiest in the nation, has only 200 full time controllers. Over two-thirds of the controllers (135) are close to retirement age (58 years). At present, ATC controllers complete one year of training at billion under the offset arrangement, Senior Vice President of Sales Dinesh Keskar said at the Conference that the firm would invest up to US $100 million for an MRO facility in Nagpur, and up to US $75 million for a flight crew training center and U.S. $10 million for initial pilot training. Mr. Keskar also noted that there was a tremendous opportunity for Boeing and Indian companies to work together on a multitude of projects and business initiatives and issues, especially the shortage of pilots, airport capacity management, and creation of a large skilled maintenance workforce and MRO facilities. 32 With the PPP of Mumbai and Delhi, almost 5,000 of AAI staff have been transferred under the contract terms. After three years, they will have the option of staying with these airports under their direct payroll or moving over to AAI. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009

Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 40 AAIs training college in Allahabad and, depending on the demand, spend six months doing onthejob training. AAI proposes to recruit 100 controllers a year for the next three years, followed by a requirements review. In addition to increasing both the number of controllers in training and the total training hours, the Civil Aviation Training College may use a modern and internationally acclaimed curriculum, faculty, and hands-on technical training (e.g., using simulators in realistic settings) targeted to improve the training of its controllers. The college also trains CNS maintenance engineers. At the National Institute for Aviation Management and Research, AAI trains all of its managers and supervisors. Other training courses are offered as well, including airport design, Safety Management System training, and contract management, which are very similar (other than contract management) to courses offered by the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE). This may be a good place for AAAE, or similar firms, to promote training and to collaborate. Indira Gandhi Udan Academi is a new facility that was launched to train Indian pilots. Another training academy will be opening soon in Gondia, located in the central part of the country. Since the training facilities do not yet meet the standards of the international facilities, AAI would like to upgrade (i.e., curriculum improvement, faculty exchange, formal course offerings, and modernization) all of its training colleges. The ultimate goal for the agency is to upgrade its

human resources with state-of-the-art knowledge and training to make it comparable and competitive with the Singapore Academy, the predominant training facility in Asia. Improvement goals include: Market courses to foreign airports, Sponsor international conferences to share Indian experience, Establish International Air Transport Association (IATA)-approved cargo courses (and run mandatory programs, Undertake performance benchmarking (i.e., post training evaluation of trainees), Conduct more national conferences on national aviation issues, Create alliances with reputable universities (Concordia University of Canada has a pending proposal), Acquire International Organization for Standardization (ISO) certificate for the Institute, and Transform the National Institute for Aviation Management and Research into a full-scale aviation university, 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 41 BACKGROUND

This aviation sector report was developed by updating an earlier report developed in 2007. The earlier report was developed by collecting information from different sources, including news reports and secondary information from meetings and interviews with a wide variety of public and private sector entities, including: Ministry of Civil Aviation (MOCA) Airport Authority of India (AAI) Chairmans Office Member (Operations) of the Board Air Traffic Management (ATM) Office Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) (Planning) Office Airport Development Cell National Institute of Aviation Management & Research Indira Gandhi International Airport Tower Chennai Airport and Air Traffic Control (ATC) Tower Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) Bureau of Civil Aviation Security (BCAS) Delhi International Airport Limited (DIAL) Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) South Asia Regional Office at the United States (U.S.) Embassy in New Delhi Commercial Counselor, American Embassy in New Delhi This report has been updated based on publicly available information from websites and with secondary information collected from conference presentations and desk research. Validation of

both the original report and the updated information was outside the scope of the work. Nonetheless, MITRE/CAASD remains solely responsible for any and all remaining errors. 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 42 ADDITIONAL REFERENCES Government of India and Other Useful Information: Ministry of Civil Aviation, Government of India: http://civilaviation.nic.in/ Airport Authority of India: http://www.AAI.Aero Indian bilateral aviation treaties: Indian Federal Ministries and Departments: http://ibef.org/artdisplay.aspx?art_id=1217&cat_id=101 Indian Embassy in the U.S.: www.indianembassy.org/ Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry: http://www.ficci.com/ Investment Commission of India: http://www.investmentcommission.in/civil_aviation_&_airports.htm Some other useful websites: http://www.indiainbusiness.nic.in/ http://www.india.gov.in

http://www.indiaimage.nic.in http://www.ibef.org http://dipp.gov.in http://finmin.nic.in Indian Sub-Continent Airports 2009: http://www.brooksreports.com/reports.php?ID=10 GVK Group (MIAL): http://www.gvk.com/about-gvk.html GMR Group (DIAL): http://www.gmrgroup.com Maharashtra Airport Development Company (MADC): http://www.madcindia.org/ World Banks (2007) India at a Glance Development Indicators: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INDIAEXTN/Resources/cas-report/annexa1.pdf Williams, Ashley (2006). Assessing the Competitive Environment of the Air Navigation Service Provider Industry, MP 06W060189, The MITRE Corporation, September, 2006 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 43 U.S. GOVERNMENT RESOURCES U.S. Embassy in India: http://newdelhi.usembassy.gov/ U.S. Commercial Services: Buy USA.Gov: http://www.buyusa.gov/home/ Library of Congress Country Studies: India. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/intoc.html

U.S. Trade and Development Agency: Middle East, North Africa, South and Southeast Asia Regional Program. http://www.ustda.gov The Federal Aviation Administration: http://www.faa.gov/ Aviation Cooperation Program (ACP): http://www.acp-india.com/ The Export-Import Bank of the United States: http://www.exim.gov/ 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 44 KEY POINTS OF CONTACTS Organization Name Title Organization Address Country Phone Fax Mobile Email Website U.S. Trade and Development Agency (TDA) Bala Kalyanaraman Country Representative U.S. Trade and Development Agency 10021, India

New Delhi - 1 India (91)11-2419-8854 (91)11-2419-0017 bkalyanaraman@ustda.gov www.ustda.gov Jacob Flewelling Country Manager South Asia U.S. Trade and Development Agency 1000 Wilson Blvd. Suite 1600 Arlington, VA 22209-3901 U.S. (703) 875-4357 (703) 875-4009 jflewellingustda.gov Jason Nagy Country Manager U.S. Trade and Development Agency 1000 Wilson Blvd. Suite 1600 Arlington, VA 22209-3901 U.S. (703) 875-4357 (703) 875-4009 jnagy@ustda.gov Henry Steingass Regional Director for South and Southeast

Asia U.S. Trade and Development Agency 1000 Wilson Blvd. Suite 1600 Arlington, VA 22209-3901 U.S. (703) 875-4357 (703) 875-4009 hsteingass@ustda.gov Aviation Cooperation Program (ACP) Arjun Singh Program Director Aviation Cooperation Program Inter-Agency Air Cartographic Committee (IACC) Phd House, 4th Floor 4/2, Siri Institutional Area New Delhi 110016 India (91)11-2660-2302 (D),

26518201 26531874 (91)9810789132 arjunacp08@gmail.com; www.acp-india.com Larry Coughlin Co-Chair, Boeing Managing Director, Commercial Airplanes Boeing New Delhi India (91)11- 4656-6077 (91)98 7337 2000 larry.coughlin@boeing.com Aaron E. Wilkins Co-Chair ACP, Senior Representative South Asia, Attach Federal Aviation New Delhi 110021 India (91)11-2419-8403 (91)11-2419-0019 (91) 99-1140-1666 aaron.wilkins@faa.gov Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Aaron E. Wilkins Senior Representative South Asia, Attach Federal Aviation New Delhi 110021 India (91)11-2419-8403 (91)11-2419-0019 (91) 99-1140-1666 aaron.wilkins@faa.gov Ajay Kumar Civil Aviation Specialist South Asia American Embassy

Shantipath, Chanakyapuri New Delhi 110021 India (91)11-2419-8299 (91)11-2419-0019 (91) 98180-95425

ajaykumar28@hotmail.com Ajay.kumar@faa.gov 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 45 Organization Name Title Organization Address Country Phone Fax Mobile Email Website Dan Hanlon South Asia Representative FAA U.S. Embassy 27 Napier Road Singapore 258508 Singapore (65)6543-1952 (65)6542-1466 dan.hanlon@faa.gov Thomas Naskoviak India Desk Officer FAA FAA HQ 800 Independence Ave. Washington, DC

U.S. (202) 385-8895 thomas.naskoviak@faa.gov Mary Walsh Director for Asia Pacific FAA U.S. Embassy 27 Napier Road Singapore 258508 Singapore (65)6543-1952 (65)6542-1466 Mary.walsh@faa.gov Dorothy Reimold Assistant Administrator, International Aviation (Acting) FAA FAA HQ 800 Independence Ave. Washington, DC U.S. (202) 385-8900 (202) 267-7298 Di.Reimold@faa.gov Department of Commerce (DOC) Carmine D'Aloisio Minister Counselor for Commercial Affairs DOC The American Center

24 Kasturba Gandhi Marg New Delhi 110001 India (91)11-2347-2000 (91)11-2331-5172 carmine.daloisio@mail.doc.g ov Yash Kansal DOC The American Center 24, Kasturba Gandhi Marg New Delhi 110001 India (91)11-2347-2000 (91)11-2331-5172 yash.kansal@mail.doc.gov www.buyusa.gov/India Lola Gulomova Commercial Officer DOC The American Center 24 Kasturba Gandhi Marg New Delhi 110001 India (91)11-2347-2274 (91)11-2331-5172 lola.gulomoua@mail.doc.gov www.buyusa.gou/India Airport Authority of India (AAI) V.P. Agrawal Chairman AAI Corporate HQ Rajiv Gandhi Bhawan Safdarjung Airport New Delhi 110003 India (91)11-2463-2930 (91)11-2464-1088 P. Seth Member Operations AAI Corporate HQ Rajiv Gandhi Bhawan Safdarjung Airport

New Delhi 110003 India (91)11-2463-1969 (91)11-2462-9567 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 46 Organization Name Title Organization Address Country Phone Fax Mobile Email Website Satish Chhatwal Member Finance AAI Corporate HQ Rajiv Gandhi Bhawan Safdarjung Airport New Delhi 110003 India (91)11-2461-0845 (91)11-2461-0841 V.K. Yadava Executive Director, ATM AAI Corporate HQ Rajiv Gandhi Bhawan Safdarjung Airport New Delhi 110003 India (91)11-2463-1684 (91)11-2461-1078 V. Somasundaram Executive Director, ATM AAI Corporate HQ

Rajiv Gandhi Bhawan Safdarjung Airport New Delhi 110003 India (91)11-2465-2648 (91)11-2461-1078 S.K. Kakar Executive Director, CNS Planning AAI Corporate HQ Rajiv Gandhi Bhawan Safdarjung Airport New Delhi 110003 India (91)11-2461-8279 (91)11-2461-1134 V.K. Chaudhary Executive Director, CNS Operations and Maintenance (O&M) AAI Corporate HQ Rajiv Gandhi Bhawan Safdarjung Airport New Delhi 110003 India (91)11-2465-2075 (91)11-2465-4142 U.N. Singh Executive Director, Integrated Planning AAI Corporate HQ

Rajiv Gandhi Bhawan Safdarjung Airport New Delhi 110003 India (91)11-2462-2810 (91)11-2465-1400 R.C. Chitkara Executive Director, Aerodrome Planning AAI Corporate HQ Rajiv Gandhi Bhawan Safdarjung Airport New Delhi 110003 India (91)11-2465-4084 (91)11-2465-2079 B. Singh Executive Director, Aviation Safety AAI Corporate HQ Rajiv Gandhi Bhawan Safdarjung Airport New Delhi 110003 India (91)11-2465-3016 (91)11-2462-1504 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by:

The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 47 Organization Name Title Organization Address Country Phone Fax Mobile Email Website DGCA Dr. S.N.A. Zaidi Director General DGCA Corporate HQ Rajiv Gandhi Bhawan Safdarjung Airport New Delhi 110003 India (91)11-2462-0784 (91)11-2465-2760 2nd U.S.-India Aviation Partnership Summit Washington, D.C., USA December 7 - 11, 2009 Prepared by: The MITRE Corporations Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE/CAASD) - 48 APPENDIX: AIRPORTS IN INDIA AND INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS http://events.aaae.org/sites/091001/assets/files/MITRE-INDIA-FINAL-ALL.pdf Overview of Indian Aviation Industry Article by Ankita Agarwal on September 1, 2012 Discuss now (0) Go to comments Aviation industry is one among the most important industries of any country because of its economic and social viability. The aviation industry not only contributes to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the country and improves employment statistics, but also aids in domestic and international trade, and facilitates many other businesses. Socially the industry connects people to people leading to cultural exchange and enhancement. Indian aviation industry has completed a century of its existence and these

100 years have witnessed severe highs and lows. On the one hand, there has been rise in the number of companies competing in the industry along with a simultaneous growth in the number of airline passengers; on the other hand the industry players are still struggling against poor infrastructure and high operating costs. The Evolution and Contribution of Indian Aviation Industry The Indian civil aviation industry came into existence way back in 1912. Tata were the pioneer with the introduction of first Indian airline Tata Airline in the year 1932. Since beginning, the industry has witnessed ups and downs but in spite of that the Indian aviation industry is one of the worlds fastest growing aviation industries. With only 9 airline carriers at the time of independence, the industry now has numerous private operators which also include low-cost carriers making air travel possible for the so-called common man. The Governments efforts towards liberalization of the industry along with the change in demographics of the country have supported a lot to this growth in the industry. Today, the industry contributes around 0.5% to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and employs some 1.7 million people. Other than this direct contribution to the economy, the aviation industry also contributes by facilitating domestic and international tourism thereby improving the performance and contribution of tourism industry. However the air travels penetration is very low in India and there is lot of potential underlying the industry. The emergence of wide middle class with rising disposable incomes has paved the way for industry players marking a more promising future. One of the unique features of the Indian psychology where air travel is not just a means of reaching to the destination but is rather a means to portray economic superiority among peers can be interpreted as a positive sign by the operators. There is a glamour attached to air travel in addition to the benefits of saving the travel time. The labor is cheap and is available in abundance in the country. The only thing needed is training and polishing the human resource to match to the industrys eligibility criteria. The Challenges Underlying Indian Aviation Industry The Indian mindset supports the industry growth but at the same time the Indian consumers are highly sensitive to price when it comes to air travel. There is low brand loyalty and the consumers easily switch over to the one offering maximum discounts. This has given birth to cut-throat competition among carriers fighting to offer the most lucrative scheme to consumers. Moreover, there is high instability in air passenger traffic in India making it difficult to balance the demand-supply continuum. Another major

challenge relates to the high operating costs. The cost of fuel for Indian carriers comprises around 45% of the total costs which stands at some 34% for most countries in the world. There are high taxes on Aviation Turbine Fuel (ATF) and poor infrastructure which add to the running costs making it difficult to compete globally. The investment hurdles further complicate the situation restricting the growth potential of the industry. The opportunities are immense in the sector and what is needs is to work out on the weaknesses. References

Arora, N., Bishnoi, K. & Atray, S. (n.d.). Indian Aviation Industry: Issues and Challenges. Retrieved from: http://www.indianmba.com/Faculty_Column/FC1149/fc1149.html

Kumar, B. (2011). Mergers and Acquisitions: Text and Cases. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education Private Limited.

Ray, S., Dewan, S. & Shah, S. (March 2012). Indian Aviation Industry: Through Turbulent Times, FDI Relaxation Alone Not A Game Changer. Retrieved from:


Tyler, T. (May 31, 2012). Aviation Crisis: Common Vision to Help Fix Problems like High Taxes, Investment Curbs. The Economic Times.

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