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A structure is only as strong as its

weakest link.

CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Bolts Welds Connecting Plates


Connecting Angles

CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

1.

On the Basis of Connecting Medium



Riveted Connections Bolted Connections


Welded Connections

Bolted-Welded Connections Pinned Connections


CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

2.

According to the type of internal forces the connections are expected to transmit
Shear (semi rigid, simple) connections
Moment (rigid) connections

CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

3.

According to the type of structural Elements that made up the connections

Single plate angle Connections


Double web angle connections Top and seated angle connections

Seated beam connections


CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

4.

According to the type of members joining


Beam to beam connections Column to column connections (column


splices)

Beam to Column Connections Column Base Plate Connections


CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Riveted Connections

Used for very long time. Made up of:


Round Ductile steel bar called shank. A head at one end

Design - very similar to bearing type of

bolted connection.
CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

The installation of the rivet requires:


Heating of the rivet
Inserting it to an oversize hole

- pressure to the head.


Squeezing the plain

end by Pneumatic driver - Round head.


On Cooling Reduces in

LengthClamping Force.
CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Rivets are no longer used due to:


Intro of high strength bolts Pre-Heating of rivets prior to driving.
Labor Costs High Level of Noise Replacing of poorly installed rivets.
CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Fastened Together primarily by Bolts.


Bolts may be loaded in:
Tension Shear Both Tension & Shear

Threads of bolts:
Excluded
Included
CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

While under action of Shear forces, threads of bolts may be:


Excluded Increased

strength
Included - Relatively

Decreased stregth.
CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Two types of bolts are used in bolted connection:


Bearing type bolts
High strength friction grip bolts (HSFG) The most common type is bearing bolts in

clearance holes, often referred to as Black Bolts.

CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Black Bolts
Ordinary, unfinished, rough,

or common bolts.
Least Expensive Primarily - Light structures under static load such

as small trusses, purlins etc


CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Turned Bolts
Similar to unfinished bolts. Shanks - Hexagonal Rods

Primarily - Light structures under static load such as

small trusses, purlins etc


Expensive Limited use Structures with no Slippage

Connections
CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Ribbed Bolts
Round head similar to Rivets. Raised ribs parallel to the shank.
Actual Diameter - slightly Larger than the hole

Tightly fit into the hole.


Popular Economical in Material & Installation
CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Bolts used in Slip Critical Connections


High Strength Friction Grip (HSFG) bolts Pretensioned contact pressure between the

surfaces. Friction between plates Prevents relative slip Higher Shear Resistance. External Force increases than friction between plates Slip Occurs reserve strength due to bolt.

CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Advantages
Bolting operation is Silent. Cold Process - No Risk of fire
Quicker process than riveting Less Man power needed.

CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Disadvantages
When Subjected to vibratory loads loosened

reduction of strength
Thread area at root is less less strength Unfinished bolts lesser strength less diameter.

CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Most important feature - Quality of the weld Types of Welds are:


Groove ( More reliable than others) Fillet (Mostly used, Weaker than groove and others) Plug (expensive poor transmission of tensile forces) Slot (expensive - poor transmission of tensile forces)

Plug and Slot welds stitch different parts of members together.

CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Type of Joints
Butt Lap
Corner Tee

Typical Welded Corner Joint


CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Positions of the welds:


Horizontal Vertical
Overhead Flat

Welding Notations were developed by American Welding Society (AWS). Requires Highly Skilled Labors
CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Advantages
Economical Cost of materials and labors. Efficiency is 100% as compared to rivets (75-90%) Fabrication of Complex Structures Easy like

Circular Steel pipes.


Provides Rigid Joints Modern Practice is of Rigid

Joints.
CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Disadvantages
No provision for expansion or contraction

greater chances of cracking.


Uneven heating and cooling member may

distort may result in additional stresses.


Inspection is difficult and more costlier than rivets

CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Most connections are Shop Welded and Field Bolted types.

More Cost Effective


Better Strength &

Welded Bolted

Ductility characteristics Fully welded.


End Plate Connection
CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Purpose - used to connect the members which are required to rotate relative to each other. Pins are cylindrical in shape, made of structural carbon steel, forged and machined to accurate dimensions
CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Two Types of Pinned Connections


Allows the connecting members - turn through large

angles, such as in machine parts, crane booms etc.


Allows rotation through

small angles, primarily due

to elastic deformation of the members.


CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Advantages
Easy Analysis Moment is Zero at pin. Free to rotate to allow for elastic deformations.
Allow for Thermal Contraction and Expansion Secondary Stresses Eliminated to some extent.

CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Disadvantages
Lacks rigidity - noisy joints. E,g bridge under

heavy traffic. (so used for very large spans)


Cannot resist longitudinal tension produces

friction that prevents free turning of pins.

CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Allows the beam end to rotate without a significant restraint.


Transfers shear out of beam

Most Common Types:


Double clip Shear End Plate The Tee
Shear Connection
CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Part of the connection remains stiff in shear - little restraint to motion perpendicular to its plane.

Double Clip (Double Angle Shear Connection)

End Plate Shear Connection

Fin Plate Connection


CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Designed to resist both Moment and Shear. Often referred - rigid or fully restrained connections - provide full continuity between the connected members - designed to carry the full factored moments. Principal Reason - buildings has to resist the effect of lateral forces such as wind and earthquake.
CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Uses
Between main beams and columns, creating a

rigid frame.
Principally to resist lateral loads, however, vertical

gravity load - negative bending moments at the ends of the beams.

CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Bolted splice Moment Connection

Field Bolted Moment Connection


CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Extended End Plate Moment Connection

Eaves Haunch Moment Connection


CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Two Step Process


A plate is welded to secondary section (beam) An Angle is welded to Primary Section (column or

Beam)

OR single shear plate welded to secondary


beam and bolted to Primary beam or column.
CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

The angle or plate will be bolted or welded after erection of the beam.

Skew Plate Connection

Single Angle Connection


CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Two angles welded or shop bolted to the web of a secondary beam.

After erection the angles are bolted or site


welded to the primary member (beam or

column).

CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Double Angle Bolted Connection

Double Angle Weld Bolted Connection


CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Generally used in case of moment connections.

Two angles are provided at top and bottom of


the beam to resist moment.

Generally used for lesser moments where heavy loads are not acting
CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Top and Seated Angle Connection


CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Generally used in case of shear connections. A seating angle - at bottom of secondary beam - shop welded to the primary member.

Seating angle resists vertical shear coming

from the beam.

CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Seated beam connection


CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Connects beam to beam. Two Types


Primary Beam to Secondary Beam Connection

and
Beam Splice.

CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Beam to Beam Connection

Beam Splice
CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Connects column to column. Column splice comes under this category.


Used to connect column sections of different

sizes.

Splices - designed for both moment and shearunless intended to utilize the splices as internal
hinges.
CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Column to Column Connection

Welded Column Splice


CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Connects Beam to column. Very Common


A wide range of different types are used
Fin Plates
End Plates Web or Flange Cleats Hunched Connections
CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Beams are normally attached using two or more bolts through the web.

End plate connections


a single plate welded to the end of the beams Bolted to the column flange or web - two or more

bolts pair.
CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Fin plate connections


Single Plate welded to the Column. Beams are normally attached using two or more

bolts through the web.

CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Beam to column connections


CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Steel plates placed at the bottom of Columns. Function - to transmit column loads to the concrete pedestal.

The design of a column base plate:


determining the size of the plate. determining the thickness of the plate
CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

A layer of grout should be placed between the base plate and its support for the purpose of leveling. Anchor bolts should be provided to stabilize the column during erection or to prevent uplift.

CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Column-Base Plate Connections (Also a Moment-connection)

CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

Usually cost of fabrication and erection constitute as high as 50% of the total cost of steel structures, per tones of material used

CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES

CONNECTIONS IN STEEL STRUCTURES