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I,BJ>J n, 0-31 (p'''''!'''')
151\)<" m (P'I",b"k)
ISB)<" 1J 9-S1_M.--!",,_. (doLb.)
ISBN III (do'h)
33 Tcrm,,,,,l ,hc"uc
Cbrk, NL-W 07066-1321
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I'd"", lion. IBRI_197,.
[R,;" Rh"J,h", E'pahl
Pu" 'h<oty of I,,,, II>y H." 1("1,,,. ; 'r,n,1>,'" fmm "" ",,'Ond
[n",',..1 ,...J 'nl"g<J1 r..'n"" lo..,n"y I<:nW'"
p,bli.h<d, II"k.l<y , Un; ..,,", of G1l<>,n;' Pm. 1%7.
In<lud<. ,&"'"'"
ISBN 1_l8477_106-9 ...._f,"" p'p")
I I. T"k
l<:.ll9 .1<:.413
rr.o<W.... " .... 11.. _d
(R..u.<I oM "'''''''J<'ll en- /Iiti.. &,.
The preomt work i. a of the OO>ld German edi.ion
of Ham Keben'. Rei.., Reelt41.It,., publi>htd in '960, a com
pl ly revi>td v....ion of lh. Ii... tdi'ion. pubUohtd in '9H. In
the firn edition K.lIen conlintd him"'lf I" formula.e Ihe ch"ac
tui"k resulu r>f hi. Pur<: "f Law, 1n the I<!C<lnd tdition
hc au.mpu to oolve the fundamen",l probl.m, of a g<-ner.tl
lheory of law """rding to th. principlco of mc:'ho<k>logical
purity of juri'prlldcn<ial <'OgIlilion and '" IUI..",ine to a grater
at.." than bdor<:.1M: petli.ion of the ociencc of law in thc
of the ";mcca.
It Randa to r<:U>Il that a lheor.,. w....... lint draf..... con",incd
in Rd.... Hallp'I"'Dblnlit; ur StMUredtbklm<, publiahtd ill
'9". doa tIOl ,..,.,."i" en<irdy unchanged dunlll ouch a 1""'8
time. Scm. <hallie> wac i_poIated earlin--in K...... en.-
c-ral T"-ry 0/ U. SUI. M...... '9U) and in
the rrmch tnmlalion of W fin< tdiliDn by Prof....... Henn
T!>eYCPal, Thhwic PIl 4.. Droil (Pari&, '031- In the pnom.
wort. the moot importanl dwtll'" arc pointed oo.tt in thc foot
noo:........ally changes pcnaining to a ......... ripow apooitia:>
of pnncipJ_to the mult. of a den-lopmmt originating from
Imd..,dco that ar<: imlmn....t ill a th""'1' which, in ;txll, hao
wnaincd 'ially unthanp, polemical footn", ... /law.
..'cr, omintd in Inn,la,inn,)
With ,h. divcnity r>f thc cemcnlO of pooitive legal ord.... in
creasing, a general ,heory 01 law i, in dangtf of mi..ing 10m.
Icpl phenomena among I" fundamental leg.1 concCfl'1: tom. of
.h"",, concepu may ,urn Out \.0 be too narrow. othcn '00 wide.
K.IKn U much aW1l.r<: of thi, dangtt and has ,tr"*led that h. wd
ccm<s comtrua;v. cri.icillll. He rcgam ....., tho: p<etCllt edition

nOl a, the final woro but'" an ent..p,i.., that would wne/i' by
CQutinued additi""'_ "'linemenu. Ot improvement. in ~ e n L
Thi' tnn,lation, camully checked by the amhor, "'present,
cOJtlpromi'" bo,tween a content,-wn.ciou. auth", and a furm-wn-
JCious transl.t"". Kel'en', irom""'" ."pe,ienc. with mi,intttpre.
tation' of hi' worb as a mmlt of "elegant" tl"anslations had to be
the deciding faetol" when .."",ingly repetitiou. "" G..manic_
"""nding passage,. e"punged from"" pbr.ued. in an e..litt dult
of the t'an,lation .. too literally milT01"lng the ""iginal, w..e ..-
.un-ed. In view of the de..iled Contents po.ge an ind.,. was
di,pen.!ed with.
A pe",onal note moy bo, pennitt.d. It w.. my good fonune to
Oludy under Profe"'" Kelsen lJoth a, the UOlve",ity 01 Vienna
and at the Un;"e",ity of California. My admint'on r", the JCQpe,
integrity, and con,'oteney of hi' the"'Y hoo Wen mateh.d only
by my '''peet for bi. humanity and mod..ty, and my aHrctinn
for the man him.elf. The long work.ing association with him pr0-
vided me with my most """'an/ing intellectual experience.
I would like to expre.. my appcinion to hofessor Albert
Ehm;weig of the Uni,..,i,y 01 Califomia L.a.w School in Betk..
ley wh_ initiative made thi. work. possible, and whose good
ollie'" srcu<rd the ,pon..,nhip 01 the Imtitute of Social Scienc,,"
and of the L.a.,.. Schoo!", Committee f"" In'e-.nation.l UgaJ
M"" Knigh,

j_ Ib, SOC,,[ Oiikt
o Sod,] OrdCTI pr<><rih, $OO<l'ono
re ere ,
nnKtn to" .n
'f Til< 1.>"" ,\.n 0 o .....n t "tot
1EIF-e;:;g;;;,woruer. Upl C\>unooni"
'I Ygal l'lP""'" ",}'Mo,
'. r<_
'- Th< "Pure"
I. The Ac, .nd ]" !.<g.l
s. Th< Subj<o;tiv< ,od ObE''''' of \h< Act; It. !kll-
i. "Th< Norm
o Th, 1>""", A> , re,.,_
ottn ,
e ".,.
,,"< ,n .uv< 0
"mg. """'" ,or;
ej Nonn ,nd 1I,IUi"
,. Mono.! 1>0,,", A. Soci,I No"'"
S_ Monl. A> 1l<r:1"oon 01 '",.....llli'hi"."
.. Mot>I 0 Pooi,.., !<OTK<><JC'>< Oid"
IQ I,,, A. 0 P.... 01 MOl1!li
1I. lltlotivity of Mor>1 VIllU<
n. Sepon,;"n 01 Leg'] .nd MOl1!! OtdCTI
's. IUI.-Guo" <>t Lilt ,hTOiijib Moral>
' . !.<gol So,,", A. the Obr' 01 ,ho Sci<"", 011.>",


,6. Log.1 1'0'01111 and Rule 01 1..0.. 7'
'7 Ca_1 S<'kno< and Notm SdtlI<i 75
,So !;i_It,y .nd IJii tat;",,: 1..0.. of 1'0'""", and 1 t.o..
'2 "nap mpu""'>n ,n ,n >ng i,l.., M'n 8
'" Th< 01 tM Principl< 01 c._li'y;n tbo PrI"';pl< of
II. C._I ana No.....ti.. Social Sci,,...
... Dill.",,,,,,, 1><,..= lll< Prin<.Lp!.. Of CO_li'l .nd Imp",.,I"n 8g
.,. 1h, Pi'Obliiii iii 'Jl< Fi'ftdDm'" W,I) 9'
. h<to o,ki 11I.n lI
n IkhaYiOi AI Co.,"n, 01 Wi,!
No,... 11'1
'1. c.'<gortCI1 So",," ''"'
.G. TIl< D<nml 01 Ollb'i ,II< 1..>.... Itl<ology '0'
'1- The S'ndK>n
'I Tho s..,>ronn ol N.tion.1 .nd Im""";"",,l 1..0"
b Th< 0<11<:, ('ho Wrontl io No, />loP'>:>n bu, Condi,io" 01

.8. Lq;,j Obllg"ion (D",y) aoo illblll'J
'I Log.1 Oblip'ion and s.."",lon
b Lq.1 Obllll',ion .nd ''(Iugll'"
<) Liab.ill'y
d) I"OJ,Wo.1 and COUtiV< Li.oblll'J

Liob.ill'J llJoed on F.ult 'nd AbooI"l< Li.blll'J

1'h< ul Il<l'"""ion
GnU",,;., Li.bili'J .... A_ul< Liabl]iry
'9- .. in SUbjoni.. 5<no<; Rlgh, and Ao,bo:i..tion
a) IUfh' aud
bj Jw od ..", .nd Jw in 1><"""""'
<l Th< "R13h'" Lenlly P",,,<t<d In'......
d) Th. "lUib'" l4:a1 Po_
Til< "Rlgh'" AI l'oo.i,i,. P,rnlJ"iou
Th. Poli,lcal Righ"
,u. to Ac<; Comp<"""'; <I" Gnn",p' of
a) Capaci'y to Au (H.ndlt<nt"iihi,k<ilj
b) Gnmp<l<no<
<) Th. Gn,op' 01 "(lopn"
". L<:f;.1 Capaci'y (llu/u'li/UtUil); R'p1U<"..tion
, . Tho !.<pI R<l.Ition
55. Th< L<pI Sl.lbj<c!; the PaooD
aj Th. Lq;.l Subi'
h) Th' Pbltical P""""
, Th, jUm'l< P"""n (Corpo"""")
d) Th' u,ioti, P"""" A,.n Acting Subjot'
.) The "ri"ie P.""" a Sl.lbj< 01 Oblip,lonl .nd R13h"
l} Til< ",;,t", p.,...,., n Au.ili.ry eo.;",p, 01 L<pI
tl The Abolition of '''' Du.I)... ol RJgh' .0<1 Obliption



a The Mnn;
>to<' ,
Th. R...,n for <he

n PubUc and Pri.... La.. . ~
Yl. The ldoolop<>l Ch.I.,ctu of tb< 0...11"" OJ Publk .nd I'ri.."
Law .B,
Silo The Trodlio...] Du.li... of S..., and La.. . ~
to. The Jdoolof;ial FlInCl;". of th. Dn,li"" of SuI< .<>d Law .8B
i', The l d ' n ~ ' ! of S"It ond Law .!lS
Th, St", ., I Onl<, tl!&
at< ........"
.., , "on
w ,,1,It.. 5"
.rol'" n,n
,,,on 0 < W ... .."
LAW 310
t,. Tboe a<n of lnt<'tn....nal L.aw
.j Th, Lerl N.,nl'< of Inl<tfU,.,..l La..
b) Ime",.tioll.l! Law ... him;,i.., L<g>l On!
oj ,, U>Piil'" "'WHn lntetll."on.l .nd , ~ " ..,..I l::>. "0
'I IlL. MUll", ",,"llIMi,p ..'W""" I"", Norm 'ro,tri'ii 511
d) A Mon,,'k Co"""''';nn J! 1....."b1. '"
..' , lkOl, 01 La_ .nd II.. o[ ,.. Wotlo ,it
<) The Hkmehyor rn,,,,n,,;on>l 1.>... ,.,
oj ,"M'" OOlill""l Inn Adl""ft"l13 by In'.......''''...' l::>. "4
.,. Intetu.,,,,,,.1 1..> nd Notlon.1 I..>w \
j The !In',, or 1 n".".,1 and "'.,io...l 1.>... ,.3
lS Th. N.m", of [n'''p ''on
'j Rob,;,. [nde.ni or ,he L.....ppl,;ng A<'
bj Intention.1 'ode.n'ten"" of the 1.>"'PP'l'ng ,I.e<
ej !In;n,,nd<xl lOO<bn;,,,",,,,.1 the l.>>M.pply'o& A<'
dj n.. I..>w '0 /Ie Appll"" 1J F"'me
e) The Sn<>ll<d Meth.,,, nf 10'<TJ,'''''''ion
~ 6 . Inte',,",'''''''' .....n ,I.e< of Gogn''''" 0' WlII
01. I"terp",.. ,lon bj' th, S<ience of La.
t. TH THlI:*Y
he Pure Throryot Law il a thwryof pos;';'-c law. It;, a theory
of positive law in gcnent not of a .pccifie legal order. ]t i
g.""ulll>oo.y of law. nOI an in'eTp.....'ion of .ped/ic nuion.1 or
i",emational '"pI norm.; bu' it offen a thtory of in'ttp,e,.liOll.
As a ,htol)', i .. ex.;ltuive ""'IX"" i. '0 and to dncribc ill
obift'.. T"" til"".,. an....pts to anI...". ,Itt question "'N' and how
<he law is, not how it <><>gIn to be. h i ..:Knu 01 law (juri>-
pnodellU). no< poIitia.
It is <I1ltd:o. thmry 0( I.w_ bcauoe;\ only detocribf:t; u..,
law and aU<:mplS 10 elimina,e &om u.. objea 0( thi. deleipt;""
l'\""'J1lU1l( tha. is nol IUictl, law: h. aim is to frtt tbl' ociMtt of
bw froca ali,.., demen... This ;. 1M IDftho<IoIogica basis oi the
Such an approocb _. matter of counr. Yet.. s1.nu upon
1M tradition.ll ocien oi law "" i. drYdoptd duti... oM nme-
'ttllth and ("""riel dnrlr shows how fu Trmovcd it is
from the postula,e of puri.y: uncritically the 01 law h..os
bcal miud with .Jnntnu of p-ycho!ogy. aodol<>gy, and po.
lilial Thi. odultcn.ion is undcnunda.bk b:au...... !:l,.
t.... diociplin.. deal whh .ubj......un'S that an <I.....ly connected
with law. Theory of uw undertow to cog.
nition of law ag.inn these dillCiplin... nOt it ignot.. or
cOIlntttion, but ooause it wi.h.. to avoi,l uncritie<tl
mixture of di.dpHnei
which oblcun. the e.. of the "ienee 01' law and
oblit..... tcs the limi .. impoocd upon i\ by ""tUn ol it> wbjttt

. Til. Acr ....... ITlI "lEAS'S"

If we dilI "'ia'e b<:,ween wllunli and JOCial aeJ(nc..-,;ond rhere-
by betw mlUrc and .ode'y at two diuin'l obj('C.. of ocicnlif..::
JgIlitloo tht' quntiOJ1 an- ",h<1htt .he ..irncc of 1.>.. ;. ""unl
or alOtiaJ lCknce: wh<oth.... law is. natun] or a..aaJ phCDOCD<1'lOll.
SOl' 1Mdan drlu..iPOioo becwfm ",,,"'....... -'ny is DOl euy.
b:a_ ooxirtr. undeuu>od as ""..... li,-"" "'I"1hcr 0( human
bei........., be rhou&f!. aI as pan 01 life in JrDftal aad i>nIa: of
.....urt- JInMin, Ia........,.. wbat is ,""'.'niEr 10 calle<l--alU at
lcau panly to be fOOCed in ... and to ""v M .... ""ill
ma.'0'1" If }"" 1NIl"" any body of fa<u intttp"'ltd as Ml<pl" or
IOOIchow ,ied up with law, .uch U puliam'Rllry d""i.ion, an
.d",illu'r.>,i,'c act, a judgment, a contract, or a crime. two cle-
men.. arc diwlI&uishablc: one, a.. act or ..".iet of
ing oa..rring at. entain lime and in. en...in p1. pn-cci\'Cd by
OUT _, an of hUJDUI oonduct; twO, .,..
kpI aw,oing of this:llO, ,hat is, IIw: mani.. C1DOIInnd upon""
act by <he b . r aamplc: People lIMmIbk in " b:rJle -.
....b 'f'""":Ix ni.. tbrir handI. othcn do l>Ol-tlis is the
aumal "'ppmi,.. I .. mnni"l il <hat. """ule i. being paMtd.
tho, llw <.TOOted. We"", faced hoeu wi.h tht di.,inni"" (famil-
iar '1> juri.u) belW.... !.he procesJ <>f legiolalioo and iu pTfXlu<;l,
lbe Ilalltle. To gi.'e I>ther illullnl;on" A m.n in a robe and
!r<>m a dail uyo rome wDTdJ '0 a m>.n ....nding before
him; lflally !.his UtenW hoppm;ng meanl: a judicial dccWon
was ""wd A men:hant writn a I 01. a COIlttnt to .n-
moerchant. ..1>0, in lUm i!.h ltt,tr; thi> ....,....
m.-, hoyt rnDdudotd a lqall,. biDdiQ,g 0DCIuxt. .sc-.bod, CU.lfO
tht d...th nll<Gltbod,. doe; Iflall,.. th.U -.nomutdtr.
,. ""I>
M....."'NCS OJ' AcT;
Th. ltpl meaning ot an act, at'n u,...-nal foct. is not immtdi_
...1,. prrttptibl.. by W wn.... .w;/t as, for ;o ne. 1M color.
""nl-. ><right. or otbe< pbpic:al properties of nbjoa con be
.....w ..,.11 ....T1JU
pnulvcd. To """, tbe man Kling ratiDoully. (Ul.nt(u hi. act
wilh a dC'6ni... mDIlina tlw ap<UOel i_If in _ way and is
IUldo:ntood by 0Ibrn. This ..,bjoni"" roeaning may. but need .....
lltCNa.ily. coincid.. wilh itt objecti"" meaJI.inc, thai it. the 1I>C'aIl'
q the :oct haucwniina; to 1M I;Iw. F<Jl" a;lJ:Ilplt, _bl .....los
_ dispooiliom, ....ti... in writi"ll wh.>. is to h.>pptn t(l Ioi< tor.
lortcinfs wbtn ht dits. Tht ..,bjoniv........ni"ll of lhil KI is a
t_....L Objecti"""" how....... it is DOt, Iota..... _ lqpl
formaIiti... wft.. 00l obltrvtd. Supp<>lt a otCttt organiat;"" In.
t ding to rid lh.. 1Iaiion of ...bYtni,.., tl.........ts, condtm... to
d th a man IlMIught 10 be a traitor. and has a nwmhtr tlttCU...
what " wbjtl""ly he'li..... to be and all, ". d..ath ptnally"; oJo.
jtc.iv..ly and legally. how.."... not a dealh ptnalty but' ftmt
murd... wo, "arrinl out, alillough th...x,....n.1 ... of a
F.mt murder at<! no difFt'tnt f.om th.. cxecOltion 01 a ltg.l de.,h
A wri....n 0' 'J'Ol..n lICI can .......n say oom..thinll abonl its own
ltgal meaning. T.......in Ii.... a J>"CUlio.ri<) of , .... obju of 1<'8"1
cosni,ion. A plant i. unable 10 , ..n lht daaif)'ing bouniot any.
'hing about i_If. 11 ....k... no a"trIlpt to aplain iU.lf ocitntifi-
ull,. But an :oct of hullWl tondU<1 an indftd "'lTJ a ItpI otlf
interp<tUtion: i. an indlld.. a ............... indio.inlJ iu 1qal
mtani... ThC' m.... _b1td in parlw......t an ....."'....y ckdan
that they a..,..-ainIJ _ .....u...; a mao malinI: a dispGi,ioa abou,
his ",optl,! marall i, "Ia" will and tDUmttl.,"; t_mm can de-
d_IT thai thty art making _ (On'ncL ThC' tdnuill in......lgoti"ll
tM law......... ilDC'l indo a lepl ...If.inttrpr.....ioa which ant;";'
pa... h.. oom Inltrpt'ftllinn.
4. TII1' N..-M
.) TIr.. NOTm I'll $(Ir...... 01 /nlnpd_/i,,"
Th.. cxltmal fact objtive m..aning i. a ltg.al or iI1tg:o.l act
it .l....).. an ",...nt that can be' ptrc..hed by th (beau... i,
occun iu ,imt and .paCt) and th"Teferr.. a na", l ph..nomtnon
d.ttrmined by cau..lI,y. How..v. this ",...'" as .uc:hn el.
m....t of n.lu..... ;, no< an object of l<:g.al rognition. Whll< tum. Ihi,
....mt inlo a legal or illegal xt i. not its pbyoical "",iIlC'llCe. d..",..
mined by th.. Ia,.. of couIIlilr pr....ailing in noWIT. bu. the obja:.
......w "NO N"TUU
,i"e meaning ,..,.uhing lro", i.. imerpr.""ion. Thpecifically
l.gal m.aning of this act i. derived hom a "norm"' wh""" comem
rd." \0 th. a", this norm conf... legal meaning '0 'he ac', so ,ha'
it may be in,erpre,ed according '0 this norm. Th. norm lunc,iom
;u sch.me "f interprela'i"". To pm i, differently, The judgment
tlla, 'n ac, of human behavior. perf"rmed in ,ime and .pace, i.
"legal" (or 'illegal"') i. th. ,esuh of. 'f>'ific, namely norm.,i'e.
in'<rprela'ion. And even the , ' i ~ 'M' thi, act hal 'he charac,er of
a na'ural pllenoo"non i. only a .pecific im..p""'ation. dif!erem
from tllc nocm.,h'e, namely a causal interpre'a,ion, The norm
which conlen upon an act ,lle m..ning of legality or illegality i.
i,self c,e.,ed by an ac" which, in ,urn r"".i.'", its legal ch....c..'
from }et another norm. Th. qualification of a cer... in act ,h.
e".cution of the death penal,y ... ,her ,h.n a. a muroer----<t qualifi.
",,,ion ,ha' ..nnot be perceived by the senseo--re.ul .. lrom a
,hinking proce..' from ,he confron...,ion of ,h" act with 'he
eriminal code and the code of criminal procedure. Th., the men_
tioned eJ:MnS' of l.tt... I><.ween merchan" con"itu'''' legally a
comrac'. ,e.ul .. exdUJi.'ely from ,he lact ,ha, .""h an exchange
conlorm. wi,h condition. defined in ,he civil code. That a docu_
men, i. ohjectively <U well oJ .ul>jec,iv.ly a ".lid ''''''men, result,
from ,he fac' ,hat i, conforn" to condition, .tipulated by this w.k.
Tha, an a...",bly of people i." parHamem. and ,hat ,he meaning
of ,heir act u a .<ta'u'e, re.ul" from ,he conformity of .n these
fac" wi,h the norm' laid down in ,he con"itmion. That me.m,
,ha, ,he conten" of actu.l happenings agree ",i,h a norm accep,ed
;u valid.
b) Nonn and NOT'" en'''!;on
Those norm;. ,hen, which have ,he charac,er of legal norm. and
which nlak. ",,"ain ac" legal or illegal are ,he object. 01 tlle .d
en.., of la"', The legal oroer which i. ,he ohject of this e<>gttition i.
"no,mati,-. oro..- of human I><havior-a 'l'ote", of norm. regul .._
ing human behavior, By 'norm' we mean ,ha, ",me,hing oughl
'0 be or oughl to hap!""" e'f>'ially th,t a human being ought '0
I><have in a .pecilic way_ Th" i. ,h. meaning of <en.in human
act> dir.eted ,owaro the I>chavior of mhe". Th.y arc 50 dirc<;tod,
if ,hey. accoroins '0 ,h.ir con,,,,,,, command .uch behavior, bu,
LAW Al<D J<"T1lJ,Z; S
alto if thq pnmj' [I" and-ponicubrly-if thq authoritt i\. MAu
thoJinoM moeam lO conler .. poa 10m...... dlt a uruln power.
Jfl"<"iIiaU, lb< puwtt lOmxt norms hirnoclt I" <hi> tenIt ,IK at"
..hooc _ina i> a IMWDI an acts <If .ill. If an individual bJ hi>
acu ""prn>n a ..m .. a unain brh......... <If anolher. thaI
is lO uy. if IK QOOIm ...u, perlIlil.. or au"-,,,," ouch btha;yior_
,tim the ......"inll: <If hi, acu cannot br dcocribtd bJ 'IK $UlI:menl
tha, ..... other indiyidual ..ill (fu, ..te ""'''') behaY" in lha, way.
b.. , OIIly that II<: ",,&It,lO btha;." in that way. Ttw! individual ..ho
commands. pnmlu, or au'hor"", ..nib; "'" man to ..hom "'"
comm.nd, """"l!.!ion.. or ."lhoriu';on i. directed Oll&1tf '0. Th"
..'ord "ough." i, ust:d h",,, in a broad" th.o.n .h" ..oual "'nit. Ac
cording '0 Cll"omary "ought"' correspond, only to a com
mand. whil" "may" corrr.pond, ... a ""rmluionnd "can" '0 an
.u.horiu'ion. Bu. in ,h" lIT""'''' work .h. word "ougl,." is ust:d '0
.xpr." ",,, nor'....'iy. m"a"ing of an act direc,,,d .ow.rd ,h" 1><.
hayior 0( <>then: ,hi.......gh... includes "may" and "can". If. mall
..-110 i1 commandffl. ""nnilled. or .",hoti:d to brhay. ;n a c"""
uiI, way oW for 'M rcuon of 1uch """,mand. perm; or
aut.I>Dri-D'...... bran OII1y do 00 bJ uying: Why"ough'" I brh "
;'1 this ....y? Or. in CUltOP\ll'1' "'"fl'" Why ...., I or wh, can I be-
loa,,,,, in 'his ....,?
""'orm..' is tbt meaning <If aD IICt bJ which a aruln bthaYior i>
pnmi.. or authorized "1M 1OQnD.... ,he fp:ci6c
""",oin3 <If an .... dirttted toward tbt bdu.vior <If _""" d..,. is
to be arduJly di.c-rnttia.ed f...... tlK aa ol ..ilI ......." _ing
the norm is: !he IMWDI is an o..,ltl, bu. lb< an 01 ..ill .. an u.
H...." the si.ua...... c"""'i....td by ouch an act mwe be deacribed
by lit" OUternent: Th" on" individual ..-ill1. tha, lit" Other individ-
ual ough' '0 btha.,,, in a cau;n way. TM 6 PO" of ,hi. "",.
..ne" .rien toan ;', ,"'" ""i>l;''3 ("", of 'M Ii indiyidual', "'" 01
.'oIitlon: .h" oewnd pu0 an o..,ht, '0 a TI(lnn.1$ doe of
that ac'. i. is incorrect to ....n_. i. of,... done-tha
' ... "An individual ough," n',,"" .h ano.h"r
illdlyidu.l will, oom",bing: ,h., ,h" QUll'h, can be '0 an
dillerroa be,w""n iJ and OU&hl cannot be uplailled fur
ther. W. ore ...a..., o( 'M "'obody ean
that ",,, ,"re"",n!: i,H-----<hal i ",,, 1U'nnm' by
...hic:.b an locI it dttcribed-io fuodammlalll dif....mt
m.a .... oatemml: "ODI1>fthing ougb. 10 ..hieh it l.hoi'
lDm. by ..Itio::h a tI<JnIl it Nobody an .-en IN. f.....
....trm=t WI -.ethill( is, foIloon a IUlnDCD. d"" -
,hina: ought '0 bot .,.. ..u \'ft1;l.
This dualism of is aDd ought don DOC _, !ha. <hon
i. IlO rdatioomip between is and ....,/11. DDt ..ys: an iI conform<
'0 an ougb.. which -..nf lIla. oomething is ". it oup. 10 bot; and
one up' an ""pt is MdirWd" n1 ..... it-in otha worth:
IOlDcthiRg ought 10 be. 11>e cxp ,on: "an it oonfomu 10 an
ough," i, no< conK" bauoe it is Dot the it that coafonns
'0 the BUgbt, but Ihe "IOmC1hing' 'hal one tilDe ;1 and Ihe other
time ought '0 ""-it i. ,he "_thing" ",hich figuutivtly cao be
dnignotod as .he can'en, of ,he is (>I" "" the colllent of the nughL
I'u. in dillerelll woro., one ca" .1", ...y: a ecruin IOmc'hing_
lpi6c.Uy certain b<hariQr-a.n ha,'" 'he quality of i. or of
ought. For cumplc: In the two lta,,,menu, "'he door it being
c1ottd" and "the door ought to bt c1<1Otd," ,h. dOling of 'he door
in the fonn<'T .Ulrmml is pronOlln<n1.u _thins IlIat i.. in II><
lalln ... .......,u,ing lhal ""'ih. 1O!>t. The klu....". t1u, it and Lhe
.Iu. ough. '0 a.e no< identical, bu. thcydilfn onlJ"
br u 'M one it and othtT ough' It and ought are .....
diWcrcn' InOdi. One and <he bdu.'rior ""'J prnm.rd in
the ...... or <he other 01 .he 'WO InOdi. "I1<crdorc it .. ncuosary to
dill'rrmtiue <be brba..ior .ipul>ted bJ a ntInZl U a brhayior that
ough. to from the act..al bdu.rior tIu. cornopoods to iL We
.....y compo", the brb>.,ior ";pubted .,.,. !he not"Dl (n con..... 01
<he not"Dl) with <be llCtoW bdu.YK>r; and ..., can, <bCt't'fo...,. judge
.,h htT the ........1brhayitlt" conforms to <he norm, 'ha' u.. to <he
con, , of the nom<.
The .. i.x,..ally ...k", place may tit" ""'y not be equal
to .he it ough' Bm equali.,. i. noc identity. The
th.. i. the (Omen' of 'he nonn ('ha' is, the behayior thal
ought ,n and the actual (th.. i. the bchayior thal
i.) are not identical, though the nne may be rqlUll tn 'he other.
Therdo..." the u.ual way to dncribc .hr relation between an
actual and a nOrm to whkh the (""'",pond"
,h. xt""l u tb. brlLJ.Ylor '0 'he norm-
LAW ANt> N A T < t ~ ~
ough, to k. i. not con",,'. The Ixhavior ,hat i. canno, k ,he be-
havior ,hat ough' '0 be. They differ wi,h ""p' '0 ,he modus
which;' in one casc ,he ii, in the other ,hc ough,.
ACIO whOM: me.ning i. a notm can be porfOTmro in va,iow
"ayo. For example. by genu"'" The ,ra/lic policeman, by a mo-
,ion of hi. anIli. orden ,he pcd..trian to ",op Or '0 con,inue; or by
a .ymool: a red ligh' constitutes a command fot ,he driver to h.lt,
a grUIl ligh', to proceed; ot by .po"'n or wri"",, worth. ei,her in
,he imporative fonn_be quiotl--<>t' in ,he fOTm of an indieo,ive
IlUtemem_1 orderl"U '0 be silent. 1n ,hi< way also po"ni ..io'.. or
authori ..,i""s may be fonnulated. They .rc "atemenlS .bou, the
aC' wh_ mc.ning i. a command. a permi..ion. an .n,hOTi.."tion.
Bm ,heir meaning is not ,h.t something is, but ,hot "'mc,hing
ough, '0 lJc. They arc nO'-<I. ,h.y linguistically ..em to be-
,tatemen!> abou, a fac'. but a norm. th.t is to "'y. a command. a
penni";on, an authotization.
A criminal code migh, comain ,he "''''ence; Th.it i. punished
by imprisonment. The meaning of ,hi. ""'ence i, no', OS ,he
wording ..em.'o indicate....atement .!:>nut an ",,'ual even'; in
"cad, the meaning i. a nonn, i. i. a command ot.n .mhorr..,ion.
'0 punioh ,hef, by impri",nmem. The iegi!lalive p'''''''''' comi,,,
of a octi.. of act. which. in ,heir 'otality. h.ve ,he m<'3ning of a
norm. To oay ,hat acts. espially legi,I.,i"e 'C". "cre.te" or
"posi,,, a nonn, i. merely a figutc of .peech lor oal'ing tha' 'he
meaning Or ,he .ignificance of ,he act ot acl5 ,ha, con"im,. 'he
legiolativ. pr<>cno. i. a norm. It io. however. nrcr...ry to distin-
guish ,he .ubj"",;'e and ,he obj"".;ve meaning 01 the ac,.
"Ough'" i< the 'ubjec,ive meaning of every ac, of wili directed "
,he beh.vior of ano,her. But no, every .uch act h... aho objectively
,hi. meaning; and oniy if ,h. act of >l'iH has also ,he objec,ive
meaning of an 'ough'." is ,his "onght" called. "norm." 11 the
"ought" is also ,he objec,ive me.ning of the .ct. ,he behavior at
which ,he ac, i, directed is regarded as something ,ha, ought to be
nO, only from th. point of vi.w of 'he individual who has po'.
formed the .ct. bu' also from 'he point 01 vi.w of ,he individual a,
whose behavior ,he act i. directed. and of a ,hird indi,'idual not
invoived in tb. ,.,.Ia,ion bctw..... ,he 'wo. That the "augh," i1 ,he
objec,ive meaning of ,he 3ct m'nif.... l,seif in ,he foct that i, i.

...ppootd to ais< (<ba. m.. is if lhc: will.ea>eI

lO u.isI oubjcctin mnning i. io----H we UIWlX that an ladi-
"id..... ought > b......... in TUn. "'....,. nn:I if to. dots not boo.
ollhc: let ..-llooot mcanin& is <.bat be ought 10 bd\a..., in lbi. way_
Th.nI the> Moupt, tlx objoaive mnnin&" 01 an act. iJ olid
...... binding upoe lhc: addraKC. lba the incI''''''.... It whom
i. is dilftltd. Tbt ousb' which is bjtin II>aDi.ni ot an an
of will ;,; aloo <he objta".., mean,..of this act. if <hi, act baI; be>
invest'" with th.. meonilllo if ;t hu beftI by. norm.
which lhttrk..-e hu the chat'ICtC't 01. "higherw norm.
The command of I pnpter 10 tum o'".r to him I rUin
amoun, 01 m.,,,,"I' h;u ,he ...me wbjtt.i".. mnning "' .he com-
mInd of an income..... oIIiel.I, namdy ,h.. ,h. individual It
"'hom ,h. command i. diroculd ought to p"y """,..,hillg. Hut only
,h. ",>mmlnd of Ihe ..fl\c,.I, nOt ,b.! of the gang>'cr, hal ,h. meln-
ing of. valid non'll, binding Up"" the add.aocd indiyiduaL Only
1M om oldc., nO( the olher. is nOTl'll'p""i,ing aco. lhe
oII">cioJ', ""t iulhoriztd by ...... law. "'ben:u Lbe pupler'. act is
not baKd on such an luthor;.unl nonn. TIu: lo:giolati,'c OCI, which
lUbjlinly Iw the ot ....'ltl. aloo I\.u 1M objtcliW'
mcaning----thal is. of a mid nonn---b<IuK the mn-
sUIUI"" hal OODftrmi thit _inti up"" !he IqilJatiW'
act. TM art ",hoM -inc io !he coruti<ution hao not only the
but aloo lhe objecti"", _inti of that it to
lay. cbano<..... of a bindi.. no<m. if-in """" it it the hiltan.
ully "-a>nKiIUlion-wc prcsuPf'lle in .... juriJUc tltinki"lilta'
..., """,,I to _the constiluti"" p<a<ribeo.
If a a:wt in .-.:I .u another ....... loo- bdp, tM ...
mo:aning of tltil it t1u1 oth,.,. ought 10 help bi",. Bul in
an objeaiW' sntSt I>t ought 10 Mlp (tha, it to laY. "" it morally
oblip to ""Ip) only if a gatenl """" eSlObli.Md, for ilUt20ntt.
by the of. uliSioo-b valid that CQffiIJlJlnW. you.
And this lauu nonn iI t>bjttt.ivdr ...lid only if it i.
ptt$uppoKd thai one oughl to beh...e a. religious found., has
eomm.nd.,d. Such a p't$uppt><i!ion, establi.hing the objeclive
validity or the nomu uf. moral or I'lal otd...., will be called
/J4Jie no"" (Grundno","),' Therefore, the obj,;vc nUdity of
lAW "''0 ~ ' ' ' T U U
a nOl'IIl which i. the .ubiceti_e meaning of an act of ",iIlth.t m....
ought 00 bthave in a certain way. d<>a not loll",,' from the factual
act, that i. to ....y, from an iJ, but .gain from a nonn .uthOTi,ing
thi.""t, that i, 00 say, from an ought.
NcmtU "ceOTding to which m.... ought to btha_e in " c......io
way can abo bt created by cu.OOm, If m.... who JOCially live to-
ge,her bth.ve lot Klme time and undet the ..me circumst.oce" in
the ..nle way, then" tendency_th.. i. psychologically. a will_
come. into an exi.tencc within the men to bth,ve a' the membt...
of thc group habitually do. At fi ...t the .uhjcetive meaning of the
acll ,hat constitute ,he CUStOm i. not an oughl. But lattl', wh....
thel<: at.. have e"uted for some time, the idea arises in the individ
ual membtr th.. he ought to bthave in the manner in which the
othor membtrs customarily behave. ,nd at the same time the will
ar;oes that the othet member. ought to behave in that ",me way. 11
OIle mttnbtr of the group dOt> not bth.ve in the mannet in which
the other membt", n",omarily bth.v., th.... hi. bthaviOT will bt
di....pprm'ed by the othen," COntrory to their will. In this way the
cu"om htcome. the exptesoion 01 a collcetive will "hOOt .ubice.
th'e meaning i. an oughl. However, ,he .ubicetive meaning 01 the
acU that constitute the cullom am lit intctprtted .. an objec,ively
nlid oOtm only il the custom h.. betn in"ituted by a higher
nolm .. a nOtm<Teating f.ct. Since c"'OOm i. comtituted by hu_
man acts, ",'tit nOTro> created hy custom are created by acU of
human bthavior. and are thttefort-lile the nOl'IIl' which are the
.ubjecti.. meaning of legi.la';,', acu--"pooited" or "poohive"
norms. C""om may "eale moral or l'galoorms. Legal norm. a",
c",.ted by cu.tom, if the cot",itution of the social group ins'i'ut..
Cu.tom_ .pecially delined CUstom-a> norrn<",ating fact.
Finally it is to bt noted tha,. norm need no< bt only the mean
ing 01 a ",al act of will; it can abo bt the content of an act of
,hinking. Thi. i> the cue if the norm i> only p""upposed in our
thinking, jU5l'" ",e can imagine things which do not I<ally eei"
but "exi,t" only in our thinking. we can imagine. norm which is
oot ,he meaning of a ",al act of will but ",hich exists only in OUt
thinhng. Then, it is not a pooith'e norm. But .ince there i. a
cOT",Ia,ion between the ought 01 a nonn and a will whOOt mean-
ing it i., there must bt in our thinking a1Jo ott imaginary will
...11_ meaning io ,he norm which;" only presupposed in ouc
thinling--.>.'l iJ <he ba.k norm of a po<itin ["PI order.'
cJ and Sphere 01 Validity of the Norm
By the word "vaHdily" we d..ign... the 'p""ific ni,<cncc of a
norm. Whe" we d...,ril>< the meaning or :<.ignir.c...nc" of a nmm
e",.'ing act, we say: By thi, act ""me human behavior is OroCT"",
comm....dcd, pn,.cribm, forbidden, Of permitted, allowed. au_
thori",d. If we u,,", ,he woTtl ought <0 comp';,,, all th...., meanings.
.. h sugg..,ed, we can d<$Crib<: the validity of norm by
"ying: Something ought to. or ought not 10. be done. If we d.
Jerib< the .p.,<ili, exi,tence of. norm as "validity," we Upt_try
this .he .pecial manner in which the norm-in rontradi"in"ion 10
natutal be._i. exi""",. The """i'lI"''''''' of a positive norm_
th i. to "y. it> v:o.1idity"-i. not the lame a, the ""i""",e of th.
a<;, of will, whoac norm i!. A nonO C1n be
valid, ev'll if the act of will wh"", ",caning norm i., no longer
. Ind=!, norm doe< not valid 1ct of w;1I
wh".., norm iJ l,a, been aaomplimro and hence h..
c.....,.'1 to The individual who ""' legal nOnn by an
act at behavior of nero not '0 win
thi. oonllun in order .hot nonn be valid. men who
act .. have passed a .lalute rrguloting certain affain
and pUt thilatute into "force" .. in'o validily). they
'urn ;n d""i>ion. to ,he regulation 01 oth.. affain: and
"aml<s pUt into validity may be valid long dt... th... men have
diro and are to will anything. It i, inco.......,t,
to eharacteri... nOTm' in gcrJcml, and legal norm. in
panicular, a. Ihe "will" or "command" of the legi.lator or
.tal<, if by "will" or "command'" a acl of will i.
mc,nl. The norm i. thc meaning of an aci of wi\!. nOl the ,""I 01
Since Ihe validity of 1 norm ,. an ougM lI11d nOl:ttl ii, it i. ncceo-
..ry to di",ingui.h thc vaH,t!ty of a norm lront it> cff""tivene,",
EffccI;"co"" i. an "iJ-fact"_thc 1,",,1 tho, Ihe norm i. ,""Iually ap-
plied 1nd obc)'ro. the fan .hat poople ,"",,,ally beh1vc according.o
lhe norm. To ..y .ha, a norm i. "v1lid:' however, mean. SOm.,.
ct, p,.
.... w ANI> NATlIU
thing Ihan Ihal h il actually applltd and obtytd; i. that
it "YEAI to and appliw, although il il orue tllal there
.....y connK.ion br.wn ""lidi.y and ...ao. "-
general norm il U only if ,!w: huIlWl be-
hnlor that il .quLo,W by i. ac.ually conlonnl wich iI, at least to
A norm chao il not "bo'yfd by anybc>dy in
ochn ..onIs & norm tha. it no< ac ... to degJO:<:. it
not .cprdwasa oalid ltpl....."q. A minimum of dfcc.ivmtsl it a
cooditioa 01 Y:llio;li.y. ''Validi''''' 01 a ltpl norm f'TnupP""'", b!>w
........ tha' i. it in a r.ly CDIllnlTf to it: a nona
that w... proaibr ''''''1 lOClICIh'ng ough. to done 01 which
t.-l tIw i.e cctllSl bappen ..........ruy ac
carding to lhoe laWl 01 nat",.., alwa)" and would all
... a AOrlIl which _ to preKribe tha' lOnlfthing ""gbt
10 be<io:lM 01 which u- before'band tha' i' it ac-
cordina; to doc laWl 01 .....u,..,.
N.... do Yalidi'T and elfun'ttelf co<ncio:Le in u...... A kpI oorm
becom<s nJid btl..... it .. that it, it it ap-
pIitd and a law court tha. applin a imlDCdialdy
allCt" btl..... lhoe Iota.utt bad a cbancc to
htJc ; _pp1iel a oalid Itp.l norm. Bu. a Itp.l DOrm is
no Ion coouidtNd 10 be .'l1id, if it .-aim pnmat>ttly in
...ro E.Itiftt>ft& it a -.di.ioo 01 validi.y in eM lmSt Wt
ckcti>'mnl Iw ... joia lhoe pooitina: 01 a Itp.l nottlI if <he nonn it
D(lI to 10K iu r.tlicUty.
By 01 a ltpl norm. whid! a.tadla a aanctian to a
anain bth.J.vi.... and Ibus qualiia Ihe lima....... coodi.tionin! the
aanctian u iIl<pl, that it, all M lWO bcu ""'y he tce>dtt.
acood: (,) thai chiloorm by lhoe ltpl Otpnl (pan.....
brly Ihe la.. coum). which mcam, that chc IInclioa in a coacrete
GIlt it O<dered and tuCliteel; and (I) that this DOnD it by
<he individuall IUbjocctd to lhoe Itp.l order. which mnm, thai
thty in I way ..hid! aYOitlllhoe SlnCtioa.. l tht Mipulation
01 aanaiont inltBdo to prcwtnt the comm'-io<t 01 dtlicu, 1<t ue
!acW wich cht ida! calot 01 <he validhy 01& Itp.l DOnD if thisnonn
is On"... applied. beet .... the a.... InICII ........, thooo IUbjtctw to
1M ltpl on:itr of cht aanctian to he nUttd ill <tit of "'" com
million 01 & delict bat bomt the motive '0 .tfraill front com
milling.he III Ibis .i.ua,inn, ..ati,,,,,.. 01 <he lcgal
....w AND NATUU.
norm " to ubedicnce to it. But obedience to the lrgal
norm can be induced by other molive", If. for inotalKC, the lego!
delict i. at the ..me lime a religious delict, obedience <0 the bw
may be cau-lCd no, by ,he wish to avoid ,he legal """"ion, bm to
avoid the rdigiolU ."nClion. 1n this taS<' ,he law i. ellect;"., that i..
ac'U.1l1y obeyed, I>ecaU5e ..ligioo is <freeti"... The relatioll be-
tween validity and effectiven... will be diocul4ed b'....
Let UI take the ,Utem"''' ''The Dorm refe" ,,, a certain human
behavior." 11 by thil behavior we mean th. behavior that cOlUt;
to",," the (OJ,ton, of the nonn. then ,h. nonn Call aloo rde, to
oilier f;u;u than human behavior-how..,.." ooly '0 ,h. exten, that
th= are Mndi"onJ or (if ni"cn' in rulity) .gew of huma"
behavior. For .><amp!", A lrgal norm can prc",ribt that in the
evem of a lIatun] catalltrophe ,lime not immediately aff"",ed are
obliged 10 render aid t<. the vi<tim.... mud> a' If a Itgal
nonn penal,y for the delict a.
wen the ..nction do not only ,on.i" in a certain human
behavior-dirccted to.....ard the tkath of another human being
_bu' abo in a .pecific df"", of .uch behavior. namely death 01
a human being. which ;. a phpjological not a human be-
havior. Sin"" human behavior. a. wen ... ilS conditions and .li""...
occur in 'pac. and tim. ,h. legal norm mmt rei.. '0 'pace and
The validity of norm. regulating human behavior in gen
eral. and the validi,y of norms in panicular, tberelof<', mu"
be defined in te=. of .pace and time. ,i""e ,he.. norntJ rcler to
.patial and evenU in content. That a norm is
"valid" mean. always tha, it i. valid for .pecified 'pace ond
time: it meam lha, it relates '0 a behavior that can take plac. only
and sometime (although it may perhaps no, ac,ually
rak. pia",,).
The of the norm to.pace and time is .patial and
temporal .phere oj validity 01 the norm, Thil 'ph..e of validity <;.1.n
be limit"'" or nnlimiled. The norm C2ll be valid either for a defi
ni'e.pact' and time (that ii, determined by norm itself or by a
norm): it t"egUlateo, then, only those evenu thai occur
within a ceruin 'pace and during a '<ruin time; or the n<>no can
ct. I To >O>d""" ,_Ill< fu< 'N' """" " .."d ",,'y II " " dl<ul..
to ......, n ,la, "ti Id ...Ud"y ' ,. "",,101 b< .. 10'_
.. """"udl"I f..- ,b um,""", ""', "plomu..- on1, "p''''"''" 1. "p><!;
,.., "p><!- md pl<uu"' 1bl.
be valid e,'erywhe", and always, Wt i., i, can refer to evem. no
malter and when they occltr. Thi. !aller alternati,'e would
be the meaning of a nonn which doe. n"" "omain any .patial or
temporal Hmi<a,ion. Such a norm i. nOl valid beyond .pace and
,ime; ,he .phere of i.. ",Iidity in ,hat ca."" does not lack .pace and
lime; it merely i> nOllimi,ed '0 a .pedfic 'pace or a
ill .patial and temporal .phere of "alidity;, unlimited. The .phere
of validity of a norm i. an element of its eontent; and ,hi. content.
a. "'...hall _, can to ",me ex,ent bl' prede,ermined by .n""her,
higher norm.'
A. for the ,emporal .phere of validity of pmi,i"e nonn, it i.
nec....ry 10 diS\inguWt betWUn ,he ,ime belore and aher ,he en
,,,,olent of ,he norm. fn genenl, nom.. rder only to future be
It.1vior, but ,hey may abo refer '0 the p.st. For example. a legal
norm which .ttach.. a ",nc,ion to a certain behavior may 1"""
lCribe tlt.1t an individual ought to be puni.hed e,'en for bclt.1vior
,ha, had occurred before the legal nonn was enac,ed whe",by ,he
behavior i. qualified as a delict.' In this """" we "'y Ih>! ,he norm
i. ret"""'tive. Bu'. legal norm may rder to the past no' only with
=peet '0 the d.lic, bUI abo wi,h re.peet to tf><, ,""clion. A legal
norm may .tipulate not only tlt.1, under cerlain CQndi,ion" ful
filled bcforce ill enactment, a coercive act a. a ..ne,ion ought 1<> be
exocuted in the fu,ure, but al", ,hat under ,h.,. condition. a
coercive ac, that ac,ually has been performed in the p,lIt without
being prc><ribcd by norm then ",lid, ought to hav'e bun per.
formed; .., th'l the ,,It.1racter of a ",net ion i. conferred upon ,hi.
coercive act with "t....."'iv. force. For example: In Nationaliot
Socialist Gennany c.rtain cuer,,;v'e ac" which at the time of their
performance wore legally munier, were .uhsequenl1y retroacth'ely
lcgitimi>.cd as "..nc,iolll"; and the behavior of the victim which
elicited the munler wu ,uboequently qualified as a "delict:'
A legal nonn can retroactively annul the v.. lidity of an eorUer
norm in ,uch a way that the cocrcive ""IS carried OU' .. ",nction.
under the earlier norm are dive.,ed of their character a. punioh
men" or civil execution.; and that ,he human behavior that "la,
the condition 01 ,he unction i. div'coted of iu charac""" a deliCt.
For e""mple: A go,'emmen, ,hat It:u COm. '0 power by revolution
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.....w ANI> NATOU
alway> human b<havior--<IIIly il co.n bt T<gn]atro by nonDO. Fact>
than human b<havior can b< made Ihe content of nOftm
only in (onnection with human conducl--<IIIly ... a coudition or a.
the elfecl of it. The concept of a m>l""ial 'ph""e of validity is ap-
p1iro. for ""ample. when a totalll order-.uch a. that of a fed
eral .late comprUing >cynal member .1.1..o-inkulated into
.e....<n.t partial legal order., whooe .ph".. of validity are delimited
with ....pect to the objects to b< by th= partial orden:
For example, if the legal order. of the .laleS 're Wm
p"te", to tegttlale only thooe objeclll whkh aTe .peclfically enu
merated by the ,""itution; if_in o,her words-the regulating of
thoe object> fall. within the competence of lhe .late.,
whereas ,he regula,ion of all olheT objec.. is r...rvro for the leg.I
order of the federa,ion. whkh, in itself ibo a pani.l legal ordtt.
The rna"rial .phere of validity of a lotal ll ordn is alway> un
llmiled, in lhe .e"se lhat .uch an order, by i.. naturo. call
regula.. the behavior of the individuals .ubjectro to it in all direc
d) Po,ili"" dnd Negative Regula/;on"
Commdnding, Aut/ior;zing. Perm;lIing
The b<havior regulated by a nonnatiye order i. a der.nite
""tion or the omi...ion (nonpttformance) of such an action.
Human b<havior, then, i. eitber positively or nti,ely regulaled
by a normati'e order. when a defutite action of a defi.
nile individual or when lhe omi..ion of ,uch an action i, com
rnandro. ('.Vhen lhe omi..ion of an action i. commanded, the
aclion i. forbidden.) To say that the b<havior of an individual i.
commanded by.n objectively valid norm amOUn" to the SaIIle as
..ying the indi,idual is obliged to b<have in this way. 11 the indio
yidual bthav.. a' the mmn command. he fullill. hi. obligalion-he
obey> lhe norm; il he b<h.ves in lhe opposite w'y, he ..viol.t..
the norm_he viol.tes hi.> obligation. H"man b<havior i.
regulated aho, when an individual i, authorized by lhe normative
order to bring about, by a certain acl. certain cortse<]nrnc..
mined by the ord.... PartIcularly an individual Can be authorized
(if the order regulat.. its own creation) to create lion", or 10 par.
tkip"e in 'hat creation; or when. in ca.. of , legal order provid-
ing for wcfCive acts .. saneliom. an individual i uthoti,t<! to
perform 'hese un unMe .he oondi,ion, Itipulated by the legal
or<kT; or when a Ilorm permits an individual to ptTfonn an ""t,
othttwi.., forbidden....... llorru which limits 'he .pha. of "",lidilY of
a general norm th.t forbido the act. An example for 'he I...
mentioned aherna'ive i....If-dof.nse, ahhongh a general norm
foTbid, the "'" of force of one individual again" anothn-, a special
norm p<>nni" ouch no< of fo",. in ...If-defense. When an individual
acto a, he i. authorizM by 'he norm or beh,,.. a. he i. permiued
by Ilorm, he "applies" ,he nOrm. The judge, amhoriHd by
lUtute (lha, is gt'fIeral norm) ". d<ecid. ConCro" "'...,. appl'..
'he .... 'ute to a coneret<: case by a which con,,"u'.. an in
dividual norm. Again, authorized by. judicial deci>iOll to execute
a certain punishment, 'he enforcement offi<:er "'ppli.." the indio
.idual norm of the judicial deci.ion. In ."erei,ing ..,If-defense,
one appli'" the nonn that pennits the use of force. Fnrther, a
norm i. aloo "applied" in rendering a judgment rhar an individual
doe>, or doe. not, behave .. he i. commanded, authorized, or per.
mitted by a nOrtO.
In the broadest ..,0.." any human behavinr de"'nnined by a
n"'mative order a. conditinn nr consequeoce, <;an be ron'idered a,
being authori..:d by thi' order and in thi. "'nse a, being p"'i,ivdy
regulated. Human behavi"" i. regulated nos.,i'ely by" nonnative
order if thi' behavior i' n", fnrLidden Ly the ordtt witMut being
p"'i'ively pumiued by a norm that Hmi" the 'phe... nf validity nf
a forbiddiog nonn, and therefore i' permilled only in a negative
len..,. Thi' merdy negative funuion nf permitting loa' to be dis-
tingui,hr<l from the I""'itive funoion of
becau.., it i. the function of a f'O'itive norm, the meaning nf an "I
of will. The positi"e cha""'ttt of a penni"inn hrwme. particu
larly apparent when the limitatinn nf the .phere of validity nf a
nonn that f",bid. a c.,,-tain conduct i' brought about by a n""m
that permit. the othetwi.., forbidden cnnduct under the condi'inu
that the penni..ion loa' tn be given by an 0'1l"n of ,100 community
au,hnrized. theretn. The negative a. wen a. !>",itive funetinn of
pennit1ing i' theref"'e fuudamentally connected wi'b ,he fune.
tinn of commanding A definite human behavior can be per-
milled nnly within a nonnat;"e nrder that rommand.t dilierem
kiuds of behavinr.
.....w ANO NAnJU .,
"To permit" i. also u"'" in the oeme of "to emi,le (b""h!ig.").
II If i. command<d to tnduro that B beh.'e. in a cOT....in way, it i
..id that B i. pennitted (that i. entid<d) '0 behave in thi. way.
And il If i.< command.d to ronder a cOT.... in oervk. to B, it i...id
that B i. pet"min<d (that i., emid<d) '0 r"'eive the oervke of A.
In the Ii"t e..ampl., then, the ..ntenee "/l i. permilled '0 behave
in a cottain way" oay' the .\ame .. the ..nt.nee: "If i. command<d
to enduro that B behaves in a cOT.... in way." And in th.lIOTId e..
ample, the oenttnee: "B i. pet"miued to ""cei,. a cottain ,",...ice
(rom A" oays the ..m. A. the ICIltencc: "A i. command<d to ,..,ndcr
a oe",k. to B." The quality of In behavior "to be permitted"' "
n'OT.ly the reAex of the quality of A'. behavior "to be com
manded."' Thi, kind of "'pcrmitting'" i. not a function of the nor
mative order diff...nt lrom its function of "commanding.""
e) Norm lind VIIlue
If a norm "ipulat.. that a c.min b<h.vior "ought"' to take pl"e.
in the "",," of "commanding" the behavior, the actual behavior
mayor m.y not conform to the norm. The b<havior conform.
to thc norm. if it i. ,uch a, it ought to be according to an obj"",
tively valid norm; it does not cunfom,. if it i, uot.uch., it ought
to be according to an objectiv.ly "lid norm btcau.. it i, the oppo-
.i.. of the behavior that <onfonm to the nonn. The judgmtnt thot
an actual b<haviot iuch a. it ought to b< accotding to an objec.
t;vely,..lid norm i, a value judgment-a positive ,'alue judgmem.
It me.n, that the actual behavior i. "good."' Th. judgment that an
actual b<ha,ior i. the opposite of tho behavior that conform> to the
nonn, i. a negative ,alue judgment. It mcan, that the >ctu.l con
duct" "had" or "evil." An objrctively ,'alid norm aceotding to
which a cOTtain behavior "ough' to be,"' c""stitute positive or
negative value. Th. behavior that ron(orm. to the norm hal a
positive value, the behavior that does not conform a ncgati,e
....lu. Th. norm that i. regarded a. objrcti'ely valid, functiono a'
a , ....ndard of valu. appli<d to aClual b.ha,iot. Value jndgments
affirming that an >c'''''] behavior conform> to 'n obj"'ti"ely
.Coftt<mlnt: ,hi< "p<-ro>''''.... (;. u.. I<no< 01 ""'U";.(1 t fo:m<d, "';mod
,II< dW;",,"'" b<,_ 'mporaU,.." aod "J'<""loU.... bw, nil <lUll""...... how_
,va. bo. ,. b< ma;nlaID<d w;th >np<rt In n.< ",II m.an;np 01 <b< _ - ......
..;",,,,," ..".<I,lIy whel> .po,.,,,".... _ ...u"""'....... C/, lGa,
valid norm and is, in 'his ",nl<', "good:' ",. dotJ not confonn and
i.. in ,hi, .e".., "bad:' must be diOlingui.hed from judgment!
about realily thaI affirm-without ",fcre".e '0 a nonn ,..,guded ..
valid. "hidl mearu, in ,h. la<t anol)'.,,, without refeT_
on.e to a pre>uppooed bui. norm-lhal something i. and how it
The "".nal "'havlo. to which the value judgment "f...-th.
behavior thot conn;,u'" the objt of 'he valuation and that hu.
pool'i..., OT "<gatlv. valuc-i. a fact ""'''ing in time and .pace, a
parI of 'eality. Only such a fac' can, whw compared with a norm,
be judged to be good or bad. Only .uch a (ac, can La,'. a pool,iv. (>1
".-gat;v. value. II i. reality tha, i. being valued. In:wn''''h a, tbe
Dunno that are the .,.,i, of ,he value judgments are enacted by
human, not superhuman, will. the valu.. con>ti,u,ed by tn"", ate
arbitrary. Otb..... huma" 'en of will can cr.'ll. other nonn. 0PP""
site to the former one.; and the'" other nonno, 'lien, ron"i,u,e
valne. that are opposite to th"'" rom'itutod by 'he onn... Tha'
whkh i. "good" according to the one norm may be "bad" accord
ing to an",he'. Th..eore 'he norm enacted by men and not by
divine authority, can only con"i,ute relative valu... Thi. means:
The validity of a nonn according '0 which a certain behavioY
ought to be,:U well:u the value cornlituted by tlli' norm. does uot
exdude 'he p<>!lIibiH,y 01 the validi'y of a norm according to
which the opposite beh..ior ough' to be ronOli,uting an opposi'e
value. For exampl., a norm could be valid forbidding 10 commit
.uicide or '0 lie under all circum'ta"".., and an",her norm could
be valid permitting or commanding 'uicide Or lie. under cer
lain circum'tanc.., yet it would be impcwible to prove ra,ionally
,Ita, only one <>1 ,h... 'wo nOrm" but nol the Olber, i. the lruly
valid one.
II howev.., 'he nonn preocribing a <;ortain behavior and thu'
con.timting a certain value i. suppo:sed to mlanate Iron' a ouper.
human authorily-fr<>m God or from a nature created by GOO-
thm ,hi. nonn claim. ,h.t the l'O'"ibility of a norm preocribing
'he opposite behavior is exduded. Tb. value COnSlitUtcd by .uch a
norm i' d....-ibcd "aboolute," in conlra,t to the value conn;
'uted hy a nonn .nacted hy buman wHl. The object 01 a "'iemilie
theory of v.lue can only be norm' macted by human will .n<!
valu.. constituted hy ,he.. nontlS.
LAW ... NO N"'ruU
i( ili. value i, con"i,u,cd by an objec'i"ely valid norm, ili.n the
judgment that ",,,,ething r.al. an actual human behaviOI. i,
"good" or "b>.d." expreaoes the idea ,ha, ,hi, behavior conform,
with an objec,h'ely valid norm: that the behavior oUgh' to be the
way it i,; or ,hat it doe, no, conform wi,h the objectively valid
oorm: that the behavior oUgh' not '0 be ,h. way it i" Th.n ,h.
,'alue u an "ought" i, placed in jux,aposi,ion to ,ht ttali,y as the
"i,"-,'alue and reali,y belonging to 'wo differtn, .phe,,,,, j"" a,
,h. "ough'" and the "k"
If the sta'.ment tha, a behavior- conform1 or doe, not conform
with an objectiv.l)' valid nonn i< de,ignOled as ....Iu. judgmtm,"
then thi, valu. judgmUlt mu" be di"ingui,hed lrom ,h. norm
tha, com,i,u,e, ,h. valu., Th. , ..Iue judgment can be ,rue or un
,rue. becauoe i. refe... '0 a norm of a valid orde., For example. the
judgment ,hat .ccording '0 Chr;"ian mo",lity it i, "good" to lov.
on.', friend, and to hale one', enemi.. ;. umru' benu.. a norm
of the valid Cnri"ian mo...lily command, to lovt not onJ)' one',
friends but also one', enemi.., The judgment ,ha, it is logal '0 in.
flic. upon a thitl the 01 death i, unITu. if 'he valid law in
qu..tion comm.nd. '0 puni,h a thief by deprivation of l=dam
hu< no, by depriva,ion of life, A nonn, how.ver, cannot be eith.r
<ru. or un,rue, bu< only valid or no, valid,
The judgm.nt..-......lled-pronounced by a judge. i, no mOre
a judgm.nt in the logical oen.. of the wor<!, ,h.n lh. norm ,hat he
applie., That "judgmem";', in"e.d, a ""rm-an individ=J norm,
limi,ed in i" validi,)' to a concre,e ca.:. as di<,ingui>hed from a
gentral uonn, called a "law,"
The value comti,u,ed by an objec'i.ely .alid norm mu" be dis-
,ingui,hed (rom ,h. value tha, con,i,.. (nOl in ,ht rtlation '0
norm. bu<) in ,he relation of an object '0 the wi,h or will of an
indi.idual directed a, thi, objto. If ,h. object i, in accordance or
nOl in accordanc. with the wi,h or will. it ha, a pooitiv. or n.ga-
.iv. value: i, i, "good" or "b>.d," H ,ht judgmtm d<'1Crihing ,he
relation of an object to ,he wi.h or will of an indi.idual, i, d.,ig_
nated a, a value judgment and ,h. objec' which i, in accordance
wi,h ,he wi,h or will a, "good:' lht object which i, not In accord.
ance wilh ,Itt wi,h or will a, "bad," ,hen ,hiJ judgmtnt i,
not difJ...", from a judgm.nt abou' reality, Fo.- i, d.soibe, only
tht rel ..ion belWten two fKu, not the r.lation be,.,'.en a fac, and
aO LAw ANu NA-ruU
an ,- 'j,ivdy valid notm; i, i, only a .pial judgment about uaol_
If somebody "'l" that IOmething i. good or bad, but if ,hi, " ..e-
ment is m..ely ,he imm<:di..e up,,,,,ion of hi. emotional attitude
toward a certain objl, if it ex",<:ss<:I that be wi.h"lOmethiog or
<10<:. nol wiob it but it. contrary, then .h
.tatement i. nO value
"judgment,"' bau'" it i. not a function of 'ognition, but a lunc-
tion 01 the emotional component of consciou.n...; and if this emo-
tio","l reaction refe,.. to the beha,'ior ofanoth.. individual, then it
i. the up,,,,,ion of an emotional appr""al or disapproval, akin to
the exclamation "bravol'" or "phooeyl"'
The value tMt comi", in the rda.ion of an objcct_patticubrly
of behavior_to the wi,h or will of an individual can be dcsignat<:d
a. Juhjec/iw ,.. Iue, in con.ttadi"inctiOll to Ihe val"" that con.ist>
in th. rela.ion of a behavior to an obj<:cti".ly valid norm that ,an
be designated .. obj<:rliu. valu. 1 the judgment ,h.t a behavior i.
good me,..,ly "'eam th.t it i. wime<! by another individual. and if
the judgment that a behaviur i. bad me""ly mean. that the oppo-
.ite behavior i. wi.hed by an individual, th.n the values "good"
and "'had" ui" only for 'he indi,'idual who wi,hes tbe bellavior.
but not for tb. individual wh= beh.vior i. wished. If a judgment
lhal a behavior;' '"good"' mea", thaI the behavior conform. with
an objlively valid norm (and if the judgment that a behavior i.
"'bad"' mcan. thaI i, docs not confonn with an objtively valid
nonn), then the ",loes "'good" and '"bad'" e"i" 101" ,he individual.
who"" behavior i. being judged, that i., lor an individual. wh<l$<:
behavior i. rcgutat<:d by Ih
objectively nlid O<lnn ,egardl"" 01
wheth.. th... individual. Ihcm..\ves wish this behavior or not.
Their behavior, th.n, h.. a positi." or n,galiv, ,..10', no' bccalU<:
it is wished or not wished. bill bccau"" it ronforms. or docs not
'onlorm. with a n01"m, Th, act of will. whose objective mcaning
the nOrm is, docs not com, into colUid.....tion .. far .. the ",Iue
judgment i, concern<:d.
Value in the .ubj<ctivc sen... lhat is. the value tba. con.i", in
the ""Iation of an objcet to tl><: wi.h 01" will 01 an individual i. dis-
.inguiilicd [rom value in tb, obj<c.ive ...... (tha. i., ,be ",Iu.
thaI coMi", in the ""lation of a behavior 10 an objectively valid
norm) allO by the bet Ihat th, .ubjtlv, value can ba,', varion<
LAW ">10 >I"TUn
<kgrtt:s. For ,be wUh or will of an individual i. ""pable 01 '!I,fIer
em degr<:.. of in,emily. But a graduation of an objective volue i,
not p<:>Mible beeau.. a bebavior aln only <:<Inform or nOt conform
with an objectively valid notm, but cannOC do '" more or I....'
Value judgm.nt< ,ha, "ate an objroive value arc designated as
oLjttti..-volu. judgmen,,; th""" that "ate a lubjecti .. ".lu ..,
lubjttti,'e."lue judgment<. If thus d.fined, the adjec';""' "objtt_
live" and '",ubjective"' ,-dn- to thtated valu"" not '0 ,h. judg.
""n' function a. a lunction of cognition. AI a lunctWn 01
cognition any judgment h.. to be objective, that ii, it must be pc"
lormed without regard to the wi.h.. of the judging individual.
Th;' i. """ibl. lt II """ihle to determine the telotionlhip of a
specific hum.n behavior to a normative order_namely whether
the behavior doc. or docs not conform 10 the order_wi,hout tak
ing an emotional "",ilion, either approving or disapproving,
towanl thlo order_ Take for example, the qu."ion whether accord
ing to ehri..;"" morality, it i. good '0 love one', enemi... The
atuwn- to this qu..tion, and ,he,..,lore the value judgment that
goes wi,h it. can and mu" be given wi,hout regard to whether the
one who h.. to gil', the answer approv,," or disapptov.. loving the
enemy. Or another example: The amw.. '0 the question whether
according to a valid law the d.ath penalty ought to be imposed
upon a murderer and consequently wnether-legally-the dea,h
penal,y in case of mutder i. valuable. can ond must be given with
out regard to whether the one who h.. to give the an,wer approve<
or dioapptmcs 01 ,he death penalty. Only ,hen I, the v.lue judg.
"'en, objective_
To sum up: If ,he judgment pronounce, the re1a,ionlhip of an
obj"", (..pecially of human beha"ior) '0 the wi.h or will 01 an
'1/ norm p...."l............\0< ..hkh I. pooo;bl< !D dll<ri", ~ I, look>
so If .... nocm mold b< ob<y<d ;ft dikri"l _ ,hot 10. mot< .. 1<00. Tb;, ;,
1>1l><,. h.......... If. "" =mpk. norm JW""rl"'" tha, m..."'" _, ,. b<
1"'"1""" by '''''''1 l"'n 1ft priooa. ODd If. tkn, _ .,.", f'lI" ...... ",u",," by
l;lt-""" Imp""",....t oM ._",.n f'lI";"'" "'.""" by "" Ttl'" ;m".......
m<nC it " "'" 'n>< that .... Judlt"""" io ....00--.. 'ft ""''''''''''T with the
no.m , ppllo<! ..1 tho ""''''' ......" bu' no"b ;, in """....'1 If
..... p...rn"" .,.,iT "", mu",," ""lih' tQ b< p"ftlobed by prl""" wli t ""-
...... '"1.. ,It< l<r1Ith 01 I.,p,'-""'. ,,,,",, l.""""t l",pooI"lI lil.,.""" "......
;, .....__" '" ooolQnnl'T with th< """" tQ b< .pp]lo<! ' , . < d ~ ....., Impooi"ll
,_.ft'l"" "",..n ftO, - " bu,.11 ,hr J""_t< """y;ft <000"""'''1
w , , ~ the ........ Tb< " "I<a- do .... rn.-. '" II>< _fono.l"I ho, '" ,lI<
lAW ANI> ""Til""
individual (that i., a value). then 'hi' vallie judgment
i...obj<eti....," if th. judging individual p,onounc.. it without re-
pro of "'M,hor h. him..U appro'-.. or di..pprov.. of ,h. be.
havior, bUt .imply .""rta;ns th. r..Ct tltat one individual or many
individuah wi,h 01 will an nh]"", (or i" oppooite), particularly
'ha' they 'ppTOVC or di..pprove a .pecifie l>ehavior.
W. ue making a di.uru:'ion, 'hen, 1><lw" value judgment.
<hat ....1. an obj"'i",, value describing. ,el.,i"..,hip betw" a
b<havior and a norm a. objectively valid, and an' ,h".
fo.e fundamentally diff.r",,, from a judgment aOOm .Iily; and
value judgme"u that su,.. a subject;ve value by d.""ribing a rela-
tiomhip ""twn an objtt. {.pc<;i/iaUy a behavior} and the fact
that an individual or many individual. wi,h ,hi, obj"", or it>
op",,";,e (."""iocally approve or disapprove 0 delini'e khavior)
-,h..e b1tct .....Iue judgment> ,h..ero" king me'ely ,?"cilic
judgmenu about rroli,y. Again" ,hi. di",nct;on i' i. objected 'hat
the ronner value judgmon" Or< al.., judgment> a!>ou, .eali,y.
bc<:auoe---J<> it il said-the nonn 'hat i. 'he ba.<iJ of 'he value judg-
mem i. crea,ed hy a human comm.nd ",. by cuuom, therelo,.., hy
fac" of =piri<;.ol r.,..lity. It i. further argued ,h., 'he ,..,Ia,io" 01 a
fac' (.pedfically of actual khavior) '0. norm i. the,..,f",.e me,..,l)
the relation ktween fact> of empirical ,..,ali'Y. Thi. objeCtion /ails
to diuinglt'sh between 'he fac' of the .ct of command or the 'ct>
coTUti,uting 'he custom .nd the norm that i' crea,ed by 'h..e .ct>,
'he lormer iJ. fact, 'he IaueT' me.ning. Th..efore 'he reladon
ktween an actu.l khavio' and. norm; .nd 'he .el.,ioo k ....eon
this khavi",. to 'he fac' wh<e mean,ng 'he nOrm i,. are two
differen' "Iatiom. It u on,i,ely posJible to delCIik the ,..,I.,ion
k,ween 0 khavior .nd the norm "'pul.ting 'hat ,hi. khavior
ought '0 k. without taking into coosid""'ion the ac' of command
or custom by which 'he nonn was created. Thi. i. .. for e"
ample. when We of norm. 'hat w= c:st3bJi.h
d a long time
ago; 01 nonn' created by ,he ac" of men long dead or fo.-gott",,; or
or norm. e.peda]]y, created by the custom of earlier gene..ti""
so that the men wh"'" conduct iJ regulated by th..e norm. are
.wale of them only meaning>. When a .pttific conduct i. judged
to k motally good or bad (because conform,ng or nOt confonning
to. moral norm regatdcd as v.lid). one i. u.u.lIy not aware of the
cnstom cha, created 'he moral norm on which the judgment i.
baed. Alxn"e all. '-ever, the _ br which legal n""",, are ere-
IUd...."., into oomidera.;,;.. ... 01>;.0. ofl<pl Jgnil;';" ...Iy ...
br they are detmnirood by Iqal DOmIS; aDd tht: buic t>Oml, tht:
u1tUmle fur tht: n1idhy of thcoe nonDt," DOt anted br a
rc:;tI .,ilI at all, bu... p'.....pptIItfd i.. legal thinl<ina;.
By "nh",N we aIoo _ tht: rdation of........min&- op<d5colIy
h"man beh:tTi.,.., as :0 IOteUtI to :0 cerulrt mel .,.. purpooe. Suitable-
1M*, tho. it, to be ..,table for a a ......' .. purpooe... the p:lOitiye
Y;llue; ...btn>.... the nepLi"" n1ut. Tho! purpooe may be
obp"" Itt ItIbjeain. An objt.ive pulJl'05" i' OM tho. ow,hl to
be .nlued, thot m....n.. a purpooc thot hal been Illpulaled by ..
nonn regarded ... objecliyely n1id-a purpooe. in oc.her words.
pl"QCribt:d for nature in genenl Itt for .....n ;n particular by
,upern.tu...l or .upnhu.....n .uthority. A JUbiecliw purpooe ..
One eo",!:>li.h"" by ",an hi",..II... putpo!<' that he ... i$h(l 10
uhieye. Tbe nlue. III"dore, that consisll in the eonformity ... ith
a purpooe. ;. Identkal either willi the Y;tlue that <:on1;'11 In con
fonnity with. uonn Or with the nlue tN. conJoo in ronf...."'lty
with a wi$h.
If _ disregard that a realiud purpooc .. ootrtahi", tha .......
fomu to a ............. to a w4h, tbm the rdation bnWl"l fOQ and
mel maoifests itidf .. a rela.ion bean a.use and dect. Sotne-
til,,,, ....itable for a P'''POW if it is Ii. to rnlize the pU'f'll: to
hoi.. about, as "'...... the d"ect thol oonst.ituta lhe pu1"f'O'l"- "",
judplet>t <b>.. oomnhi,. ill p."po"tful om be a ..bjeoive .". objec-
Live n.1.... judgment. dtpmtIiat ... tht: IUbjeoive or objt.ive char
KU1 of <be purpooe. ButltlCh a n1... judgmen... ....ly ...
he baPo of ... insigbt ,nto 1M causa1 rdationlh,p bnWtttl the
facts <b>.. are ro:pn:lalu ma and 11oooo:: reg;;ord"lI_ end. If it ..
l'U<l8"ized tha. a rela'ion of 0 and dfect noo bnWtttl" and
b (Iba. " iJ the "'..... and b the ell:.). 'hm. and ...ly 'hen.
Oln we arriYe at the (SUbj:liye or objtiye) Yalue judgment; U
b i. wislted as .. purpooe or "ought to beN aoctmling '0 norm.
'hen" iJ purposeful. that it, .ui"'ble for the pUtpolC. The judg
nll:1\' .onceming the rel..tion between .. and b i. a--<ubJcctl,e or
obJcctiye---value judgmen, only 10 <he extent Lltat b i.
a. a 'ubjec,i,e or objective ""tpo!<'.

S. TK. SocLu. o.x..

.) SiC Or4cJ I'rucribi"f SaIoctiMu
beh.>.ri<:r of an iudMdu.al c:u> be-bu.1 need not be-in reb-
lion 10 O<htt a man CUI bdIa.... in" ,""",,,in ><lOy lOW1nI
atIOtber man. but r.. an do 00 ,,100 tawnd "njmalo plan... aM it>-
ani.... obja:tJ. "1M relation of or>e ind'wid..w to othu ind;rid...
ab can M dit-tn or indi,fU. M'urdn is bddovior of. llIurdnn
tOWU'd the mun;k,cd , di,ca relation betWffD """ individu.al
and anothtt. He "00dcHfOJ'f " valuable objtcC xli dim:tly in ,..,-
La,;oo 10" thing, bUI indirtaly in relation to m.., who arc inleT-
nlM in ,he "bjocc, particularly i" own.,.., A norlI\llti", oroeT ,ho,
.'Sul.,.. human behavior in Its dirt,,,, or indi."", r.l"tionJ '0 oth.r
human beings, is " 0.,0;;.1 ortle. Moral, and law are loch lIOCial
0" ,h. other hand. JOllie hal as ,ts bjtel n"U", normative
oro.... that don not ha""" _ill] chano FOT act.! of hunun
.hought. which at<: .cgul,"cd by 1M OOOUllof this Older. do J10I
rdn toothn human btingt; ...... not think HIOWUd" a.....htt
...... in the w:a, 1":11 on<! _ tow:Ird ano<h<:r man.
n.. behavior of ..... individual toward 0lhnI1IUJ be ...mol 0<
dnrimmr..! for theIn. From " point of
....... the function of ......,. oocial ardtt is '" btitla about " unain
bcha....... 0( c.M indiridual'JUbjecc 10 thisoodn-; 10 mocinu tMm
10 rcfr.Iin from unain XU dumed "_ally," .hat is,
10 Othn iDdirid""ll; and 10 perlonn a:naiD _ dftmcd lOCially
uodul. ThiI DlOIivuiOS function ;. n:ndo:n:d b,. Ille idea m.... have
of nornlI, whidl """""'nd or forbid a:nain hullWlllCll.
I>q>n>dinl!" OIl the IlWIner in wh;d\ hUlD2>l :octI"'re con""...ndcd
or forbidden. diff...... ' tyl"'" nuy be Ire ideol
lypeI. "'" Ivtngc lypeI. The lIOCi.o.l order nuy comnund I ttrt.\;"
humIn behavior withOut It ....chinl!" Iny CO<l""'lumce to the 0!Je'y.
inll' or dilObcying of the commlnd. Or the IOd.l order nuy com
mInd I de6nite hunun bcl....v;or and It ,he ..me time (Ol'''tXt wi,h
,hat ""hovior ,he gUnling of ,n Idvantage,'" re......rd: Or with the
oppooi ""hovior , dil.l.dvontagc. puni"'mcnt ;n the broad..t
..me of II>c WOTd. TI>c princ:;ple. to react upon ... e......in hum,n
behavior with or puni"""..", ;.. Ill. principle of I.,ribu
lioD. a.......-d and pwtil.hmn>t .....y be cUled .,anctions," b...
....wI, only pm,"'_ ;. '"alkd..
fI...J.IJ.aoocialordoor to'm'nda
anaia bdlm... by j_altaehiDc a to the oppooIlC
behayior.!oI" c:umpl... dqlri.,.t.ion of be>lt.h, heedom, ""-'<.
..wuw thai. it, br punbhooeol in tbc _ of tbc
word. Therefore, <lOX mar ...y d:J,;ot a urtain bo:ba.ior is Rcom-
....ndc:d. by a tocial ordtt I.Dd-i.D. aoe of a lcpI onkr_is 1q;lIly
nwmanMd, only imobr ... the (OI\tnl'J bdlavior is a QOndition of
a W>Ction (in the narrowtT of the wonI). If a _ial onl....-
lik Lbt Iqpl a bch,;ov;or by p'lS(fibi"l a sanc-
lion in <alot of <be oppooile "'''''''Y;OI, !hi>..,t of drcunulancQ CW
be dexribcd by a xnlCMc lIating that ill the ."ene 0( a certain
behavior ,"<...-...in ..nCl;ono.. be cxecuu:<!. By this il implied
th.. dl< Ixh"Yiot condi,iooiog ,he ...ncti"" i. ('Tohibitl, the 0PP<>-
,ite bellaviorcommanded: The bchaviorwhich is "commanded" ;.
not the behavior which "ough,".o be attuted. That a bcl..vior is
".OflumUlde<!" mum ,ha, the IflltuT behavior i. <.he a>ndition
of a unctiou which "ought" lO be uocuttd. The nccu.ion of the
..nction is (i.e...1 is the waten' of a ltpl obliaa
tioa), if tbc is the conditioa of a oanction. If Ihit ..
not the caot, tht sannioo is only ,"..thorned. DOt commanded.
SiI'lCC tIlii rqrcaion 001>0< SO on ioddiDi.dy. "'" a- anctiocl iD
thilcbaiD emcaly bl' autbooUcd. nOll oommo.nded.
It folI-. that withiD ouch a IloOl'1Do.ti.-., ordtt "'" """".......
may be-iD thil...... :om:n'oded and focbiddoero a. the _
aDd tIw this oi"...tion .....y IN: d<a<ribed without Iop:;al con-
tndiai<llL Thil .. "'" cue if a anain condua is "'" condition 01 a
lllllC'ioD and at the ....... ti_ the omiMion 01 this conduc, is also
,he conditiOD 01 a 1lDl;t>oa. Th( tWO nonns: ough' to booN and
".....ght nOll to IN:" aduck nell och.... insofar .. ClID"'" M
obc:ym or applied by ,h( lllm( at ,h( lllm( ,im(; only
onc can M valid. BUI ,hc ''''0 nOTmo: "Il. is, x (lUght.o Ix"
"If non-<l is," ollgh, '0 M" u( l\Ol mutually nclUli,(. tWO
norm. can be valid .. thc lOme ,ime. Under a lcpl ordcr a .illla
lion may ""i" in which a c.......ln hum.n khavior and a, ,he ilaJJte
time ,he oppooitc Mh.-ior is the condi,iOll 01 a sanction which
Otlgh' to M nocUled. Th( tWO nornu can k valid .id( by >ide.
Tbqr can be deocribed wi<l>Oollogical co,:undic.ion, bu, they ex

pr_ two con8icW1s poli.ial lDW!encin a l.elcological ((IIl.8ia..

li.uati<>n is poooibJ... b\lt p:.IiLi<:U.ly ...,...jJ><"l<lrf. Thnd.....
kpI Okn uou:all, CO<Iaoifl nal... I<r<lniiJIc <0 which OM 01 Ilor
two DOmIS is inVlllid or IILI, innlidal:od.
lMol:or ... U>e m WI f\lllClK>no as a ..ncr_ Ilor pullilhmm.
in 1M wi&>< ...., I ha$ 10 Ix inAicud apilUl Ihl: will cI w
dtcd iudiridllal; and iNobr _, iu hai
10 Ix infIio:torl by tortt.1lor eanctioo. """ the duo_..... of a ronriw
act. A ..........uw onln, which prn<ribn conri.... ICII a. unctions
(that is, II t<:actions ..im< a cnu.in human bollaviCll"). is
conei.... ordn. But cotrei.... Iof;,. an be arc ...
llCribed in a legal order. u we oluoll oce-nOl only as Ul"lClioo., l>u.
II reac,iorn .gainst oocially und..luble leu that do nO. ""v.. <Il..
choracttt of human behavior and arc ,herclorc DOl to be .tg:Irdro
u probibiWI.
}'rom a .odologicalplychologic.>1 point 01 vicw, reward or pUll.
ishment arc onlcred III make the d..iu ror reward and th. fur 01
punWuncnl the moti_ for a _wly d"';roblc behavior. But
actually thil bo:h.aviOT may be b,"",,&h. about by 0<11... moc;vCl.
According 10 ilS "'II......... moning. .he order may ..."".
lion> .',hou. '<gud 10 !he _i_ tint xtually. in _It. sinp,
ax. b......gb. about l.Iu= bth,,,ior conditioning 1M ",noions.
lD02fiiog of the O<'dtr .. ap<ftSl:d in <he ....lI:IMI>l lila. in l.Iu=
cue of a oem... bdl:lvior_b<oughl about by _i.-eo--
Y""m[m u.. be...", ........ 01 u.. wOl'd, tha, ... """"m"" pw>-
ishmulI) cugb. 10 be cucutal 1Ddet:d. an onkr _y auxh a
u-ward 10 a bduovi".. only if i. had 001 bttn DlOlino:od by 1M
dfaift f".....-..anI. F.,. a moral 0Idn may honOf only u..
om who d.... good dHds for wir -.. san, noIlor hQnor'IJlk.e.
Sina in d>t I<ftgoins pIlgtl ,Ite liditr of a 1OCi.1 ord.... has
bem diltinguishcd from iu dI'.iva> i. mould be noot<\.ha. a
klCial onl.... prdCribing rewom.".. i. ellli.'e in 1he
li'enlleme of ,Ite wort inlOU. only .. the beh.vior condi,ioning
,h. reward il cnued by ,he desire lor ,he """'Td, .nd the behavior
avoiding punWunen, b hy ,he fr'T of punl.lhmrn,.
How......... " i. ulu.1 to <prat of .n elftivr order al", if the be-
havior of !hi: individuob IUbj'rd to onler by .nd I.'it' cnm:.
spondo to ,he order, tha, i. to Hy, if ,he individu.b by and l.rge
by ,heir behavior fulfill .hr condi.iono of .... , .....n!nd ..oid
., :... n'''''
"p;lAO.I<1<l"'!P AlI....olU Jl"''',,!q "OW
pu. "\I....DWlU! <:>"oq>q "''1' '.lOl"",,>q :lll.oddo ''fl .,.'lO.ldd
.lO 101"4"'1 p"pU.WlllO:> ''1' "Ao,dd..!p ,(po<pm", Jl 'p"AO,dd"'fP
.lO!u'l><l ,,[,oodo ''I' "-"'1'0> ''1',('1 p:I.>OJdd. "'I <" '!l:J>!qn. ,uo
''l'lo .IO!A"'lXJ. ""PUIUIlOO:> ''1' "l(l AjOo:>UO'ljOW" 'pUClUUlOJ 1]
"O!A0'l><J "!'tl. p".mWOJ JJp10 \ ....OlU. JI :'"'1' Im0ll >q "nm
If "'pro I""om "'jUOjPu,,", J<' A'fll'l!"'od ''1' 01 J.:Ipm "I
."'ll''' .0018
"H" ,n",. 1"'11 '" pUt "OO!""'rl \-.nu'p"',,""l!.l' '1'1'" "IUo uo
lnq 'ouop"",," Inolll!" J.:Ip.lO [UOlU. >OIl f! 11 'PI'''"'' "!'l' II! 1I1,m
"l{S!und!OJ .p!Ao,d IOU Pop 'Pi'!'" JOp'" l""'w '1'1' ul p>pnpU!'1
ppo.. J.:I'I'O:l'" "! 'lQ<D'l'lUnd ""IV "poo.\l 'Il]M poo.\l >tIl "tOO 'OU
pUt '1'1'" 11"" :>11,,1, lOU =pO<j..._ppo.... '!'11 U! IIollnqlJ101
JO 'Idpu!,d ''Il jO UOl'''''!1dd. "1' ..,.mo"'" 0'1'" .1l0 ''1' 01
UIOJd '1 PJ\!1>1.>J (J"ltl.J'>O ,ou qS""",[") AjU'''''''H '!"'pop"" AI....!'
.u;> '00 '! jO ,[dpopd ,,,, P'q>U"" ,.,,,8!,, JO "p'o
[UOW "'" O! u;>A> ""oJ""'''' po. 'p'L"'" .1[0,.\0'" ,,,, 01 "",,, u'J
",J ,,,,,,,r ""m.. ,,,, 01' "., ,,,, 0>," 'OU O{l
,n"" '''0,/ P'''''''' '0,/'" 'noA '''OJ 0,/'" "",/1 '''01 n"" JI .>0.'1
"Im.o> ,no, ,MI, no" 0, A'" 1 '''II :Aw,u, ,no....." 1'''. "'"
,,,S!'U ,noA II"'" no}., '1'1'" '" '! ,.", 1".'" "." no}. .
1!.....! 0,/"'00 "I''''' 10" oa no" 0' ..'" 1 ,ng :,,'00' ,oJ "'001
.1'''. , .., U. 'OJ'l.> uY. '1'1"' ...'" 'I ,.", '''"1/ no.\" :poooS
JoJ poooS '11"'.>Oj !1,;>-,u;>m.,"'.L 1'10 ''/' JO 'Idp"!m ",,!In,!!,',",
'lJ1 11[" "1P"p!p ,,, "'''oq ',uoIP"'" "'I'" JOp.lO luom "
,[ood 01 ''''''<IS lug ,. ru". lOU 0>0Jl ,,,, Uo uow.l>S 'I" U[
'."ur 'JOp.lO [olbl ''Il wo;q P"ll'lnSU!"!p "'I""'''' '! puo '...,p.lO lOP
..,.," 'PO"'1 0' P"""P!OUO"I "plO l1Uow'lJ1 Allon.o 'p"!lddo 'OU
'! uo[,n'l!'''' JO 'ldpUIJd "'I' 'P!"'" "! "plO u" 't[
111 'OJ ,u,m'l'!und '0 'I '01 p'L"'" .lIU!'!,.,," InO"'!'" :IO!'mj
"><] U!"u>:> pUOtuIllOO '"lJ1 'Uo '! (pro." "'l' jO >1["" "1'1" 'lJ1
U!) '00"""'" SUIQ!J:>t>,d JO!,-,o I"!""" " lllO.Ij '''''".!lIP "IPUp'la
1'''''!l'u"S /no"m "'P'D IOPOS 'U'I.L ',V ('I
'SU!""",U 'I",n., " IOu
"'" ""O>'!l"JP JO ,d"uo, ''I' ...." '!'1' U! p:ooO 'JO".,,>q Jl'''' JO
"!IOW 'II' 01 p.l.lb, ,nolJ11'" 'tlu,wqt!und "'l' 10 tOO!'!I''''''''Il
"I<V MY1

LAW ... '<0 NAT1JU.

"" die <II. the _unity an: JmKd as motam and
putJi>hmen. rnd .....,. thndon: be inlerpTeted as o;lIlCIi_ Somt-
li"".,..My:oK mote JanCtionJ than Olho:r f_0#. Tt;1O'ini
UId puniohmmt, "'i<fy 0.- hllrl man'. <ksi", for
n:p<1ta.ioa,. ...hid> .. OM olihe _ irapanan. componmu of ,he
inuiDn 100- " iloo be noud <luI the , .... monl
ntw= the one command"" a o:rooin bchariur and 1M(lilt I"""
tcribinll dioopprunol for the opptasitc bchariur_" -...iall,
conna:ltd, and Ionn a uni,y. " is ,hnriort doubtful wllKhcr a
di$linctioo between iOWol Olden with and wilhout NJICtiom iI
paulb!. The only "'I nt dilf....ence ""... social orden il not
,II>' """" prncribe OCt"'" and the hen do noc. bu. that they
prescribe dilf""mllypn of ..ntl;ons.
c) T"m,unlfcnlal and $od.Uy ImmGnent Sa..elio'"
The unctions p,ncribo:d b, a oocial ord a.., citl>er ,nnocelllkn
...1 or socially immanent. Tn.nl(cndcn l ..nCli..,," arc ,,,- ,hal
xmrding to the fai'" of .he individuals '0 .he ordtt
orillinau from supnhu....n aull,onty. SI><:h wth is.
clnnmt 01 a primi,;vc mtnwi.,. Early l>Iart IU.lUnl
C",...u that alfcct hi. ialmmialC in_acmrdiDg to <he principle
of tftributioo: f.nonbk "en.... ,..,...,.,u for the ob... ':ona. un
.. as for diJ<epnl. of the ""itlins oocw
ooda"... Originally i. w probably lho opirilS 0( the dtad which,
ocmrdin, to the rei....... idao of earl, ....n. 1'n':IIrd JCIcialIJ I""'d
bd>a,ior with .....,.. in the hWl" a ri<:h h1n..... ricIOC'J ill ba..
hnJth. Intili...,. and long and which. puniob bad bd>aYi<w
with and death. Nat"". llOciJ.ll, interpretedppean ""
oocial ordc.-oonnf:C\i ... a h,,=n behavior with
anc.ion.. This order has a rdigioul chataet.... Bu, even
within of the hlghal ...",bnh, .uch "' J"""'"
Chrilolian. ,he nonnative of na'ure phyla part that
Is not to l>< und...n.im..ed. [.'m mod"", man. hi, by mio-
fortune. will ohm instinctively uk: Whl, hIve I done to deserve
such puni>hmentl will be i!>Clined to Int...pret hit good
fortune ao I'Cward for conscientiouo obocrv;otM:C of Cod'o com
mlt>dJ.. In thi; n:tptet hip... religionl arc diJtinguiihcd
-(I. ,.
LAW ""0 ""T<IU
from the primitive 00'" only"" far a. th.y add to th...nction. to
be executed in thi. w()Tld tho:oe that are impo:oed in th. other
world-by God nther than by the .pirits of the de"". Those ..nc
,ion. are tt01tt.\ttnd.ntal not only in 1M ..noe that th.yoriginal<
from a .uperhuman and th.,-"fore .uper.odal authority, but that
they are executed ou"id. society and even ouuide thi> world
within a transcend.ntal .phere.
Diff...", from the tran.\Cendental ",nction. ate ,h"", that not
only take place in ,hi. world and within society. but are e ~ " " u t e d
by ,h. members of the IOdety and may therefore be de>cribed as
"socially immanem" sanetion.. Those may con.i" mer.ly in ,he
approval or di",pprovaJ expre...,) by the f.lIow members or in
.pecific actJ dirrcted against othen, that i., in act. to be perfonned
by CCItain individuals de.ignated by the lOCial order in a pro-
erdu.. regulated by this order. Th.n one can .peak of socially
organized ..nction.. The old"'t ..""tion of thi< kind i. blood
rrvenge as praCtic.d in primiti," society. Thi. i. a ..nction by
which the primi,iv. social order react. against th. fact 'hot a
mrmber of a gr<lUp con"ituted by blood ..lati<ln>hip (the nar
rower or wider family) kill> ,he member of another group of this
kind in a natural way or by m.gic. 1t i. to be ex,,",uted by the
member1 of ,he laner again.t the member1 of ,h. former group.
Murd.r wi,bin a group originally Wi< probably ..nctioned only by
th. r.v.nge taken by thpirit of the murd.red on the murderer.
But inJOlar a. the .piri, of the d.ad has power only within hi. o"'n
gr<>Up, a murder committed by a m.mber of anmher group can be
re....na:.d only by acts of the victim', relati,. Only ,be nonfulfill
m.nt of the obligation for revenge i. ,ubject to the transcendental
..nction of r"".nge from the lOul of ,he murdered. It .hould be
noted that blood rev.nge, this old.., socially organized ..nelion,
originally work.d only in the rel.,ion between group. It d...'el
oped to a "lUerion fonctioning within one and the .. m. group
only when the social cQlflmuoity cornpril<'d. 'Veral groups con"i
,u,.d by blood ..latioo.hip and hence wos larger than a mete
Sociologically, the ,..,1Igi<>U. dev.lopment was characteri,ed by
centralization of ,huperhuman authority, in...... of it< powet,
and in.....e of the di nc. be'ween the autbori,y and man. Th.
many .piri.. of the d d ",e,.., teduced to a f.w god. and finally '0
so l,AW 4tm NATUU:
one a11-powerluJ. Cod tnnSfo:rred Ul aoothtt world. How lIluch tIu:
IDcial MIca of .etribution doalilWftl this developlllent "-' tIu:
fact Wt wllm ""'" in his faith in .:oddition Ul this world
UI<It.b!T world. thm this otiIeT world. in with tbr prin-
ciple ol .ewm and pu.ttisltmml" lpIit inUl a bclym fO< the pId
and a bdIl<Jt the nil
It i mw-bhle tIw of the two AlK'lions nwvd and ptUlioh
tDml" the Iat= pl.I,. a much ItMIn: illlpot'Wlt role in mal n:ali.y
than the f"",,". This is shown ..... only by the fact that """ ......
important social ordtt. the ItpJ ordtt, essmt.ial.ly "",Us UK ani,
ol punishmenl" but "'fially dearly uoda" a ..,ial de.. which
..iU hu a purely .ellgioll. characteT. Wt i ..,ial order gua....n
teed only by tnnSCenderllal suw:tiom. The morally or Itpl1y cor
rc<:t behavior of primitive men. espe<:ia.lly in the observance of the
numer(lU' pmhibitionl-,he oo<alltd t>.bul-i. de.ermlntd pri.
marily by .he fear of milfar.unet imposed by a ouperhumllt au
tllorit}'---dte 'piriu of the dead_a rt3<:tion againn the viol..i""
of the t....ditional order. The hop<' ofrcwud. if compared with the
fear that domina..,. 1M lile of the primitiv.... pial" only. tubordin.
ate role. II. the religious belieb of civiJiICd mm. too. attordinr'o
which dioine .e'"bution is IlOI (or not onI,) impooal in thi<
world hut in the world boeyoad, fear of punisJtmenl after death
IUa ...... pb. Tbt i.a:lI&e of hell '" the place of punisltmmt is
lIlucb ID(Ir'C >i'rid th.s.a the uaually ......, idea of a lile in hea'"m
which is the TeW3T'd for piet,. Evn wbct> no limiu are imf"*d 011
1IWl', wisb-ful6lli"l phulwy. it p'oouca. a cwder
which is ..... fund ....... wly dikrm. &om that of the _piria1
6. Ttli Uc.u. o....a
.) Tite lAw: A.. Ordtr of Hu.......
A theory 01. la.. mu.. btgin by deSning iu object ....tter. To
arrive at a definition of Ia... it i. convenient .o.....rt from the Ugge
of language. that i '0 determine 'he meaning of the ..ord "law"
.. equivalem '0 ,he Gennan word F..nch d,oil, Italian
dir;/IO. Our ta>lr. will bt to examine whether the oocia1l'hC11Oll1ena
f...u&, .., N... I................. "' .... e..- ...,".. , die -"'"0(
""'-11<0. elk <100 W...._ 10 .. __St><>Ik -.I _ Aoot"'-
.. __ ....- (_. _,. _,. -",,-.- -n. _"1oW- ..
___........ _ .... __.... Ia.. "' ...,-.
by word, ba"e common char.u;<eri>tiOi by wbich
tbey may be distingui,hed from 'imilar phenomena. and wb"h""
th..., characteristic> arc ,igni6GU\t enough to aerve a, for
a concept of ooci.l...,ien,ilic cognition. The roul, of 'w:h an in
v..tiga.,ion could conceivably be 'hat the word "law" and its
equivalmts in oth"" language> d..ignat.. "" nuny different objcet1l
tha, ,hey canno' be comprehended in one concep'. Howev"". this
i' no< 10. Becau..,. whm we compare 'he objects 'ba' have been
d..ignated by 'be word "law" by different peopl .. a' dilf""mt
'imo, we see 'ha' all ,he.. objec.. ,urn out <0 be onl..,., 01 hum40
b'havioT. An "ord.,... i. a 'y""'" of nor"", whose unity i. comti
tUted by the fact tMt they an has'e 'he ..me re:uon lor ,heir nlid
ity: and the rea",n for the validity of a normative order i' a basic
norm-a< we 'hall oee-from whicb ,he validi,y of aU norm. of 'he
ord"" aTO derived. A .ingle nOTm i. a valid legal norm. il it cor......
pond. to the concept of "law" and i' part of a Irg.1 OTder: and it is
patt of a legal if its validity i' ba>ed on tbe b..ic norm of
that orMr.
The nor"", of a legal order regula.. human behavior. At lint
,ight it ,..,m, at if this ..ntentt applied only to the toeial orden of
civili>.o<l peoplo, in primi,i"e toeieti.. the behavior of
animal planta, and inanimate objects is .bo regulated by a
legal OTd... For we read in tbe Bible that an ox 'hat hat
kllled a man ought to be a' a punilhment. In an
cient Athen. th.... wa. a ,pecial COUT<. in wbicb a ""ne or 'pear or
any nth.. object coold be tried by whicb a man_pr..umably inad
v.....en'ly-had been killed. In the Middle AS" it w"'l"""lble to
sue an animal. for example a bun 'hat had cau,"", the death of a
man or gra..boppen tba' had de"royed a harvot. Tbe accu,"",
animal wa, oondemoed and executed in fonnal logal procedure,
exactly like a human criminal. If tbe ..""tlon" provided by the
legal order. are dirted nnt only .ga.in" men but .bo again"
.nimal,. rhi, mean< that nor only human behavior. but .1", tbe
behavior of .nim.b i' legally commanded. Thi, mean, further: if
,hat wbicb i. legally commanded i. to be regarded., tbe content
of a legal duty." not only men. but abo animal. arc re-
garded., being obliged '0 behave in a certain way. Thi,. in OUT
modem point 01 view. absurd legal conte", i' ,he roult of .uim;;'
tic id..... according to which not only men. but al"" animal Ind
inanimate obju have a u>O\1l" and are 'herefore basically not
different from human !>olnv- CononJuemly ",o<1ion., and ,heTe-
fo,"" nann, 'hat ..."bli,h legal dutie. are applicable to men .. ",,<:II
as anim.l. and things. Although modern legal orders regulat. only
,h. behavior of men, nol of an;mal.. plant., and things, " uno,
acJuded that th..., "roB> p",Kribe the behavior 01 man toward
animals. plan..., and thing>. For cumpl., the killing of urtaln
animalo <in gene",1 OT at .pttific tim",). 'he .tunaging of rare
plant' or hi'tori<ally valuable building> may be prollibited. But
the.. legal Donn, do not r<'gUlar" 'he ""havior of ,h. protec'..!
animal., plam., and thing:!, but of the men against whom the
tht.., of puol.hmem i, di'e<ted.
Thi, behavior may"" a po.itil'. action or nomctioo-o. lack of
:u;ti<>n. an omi,ion,' forbtarance, a refrainment from action. Th.
legal order, as " social order, 'he b"havior
of indivldualo only", far a. it dir""t1y or indir""tly. to
individual.. Th. object of tegulation by a I.gal u th. be.
haviOl" of on. individual in ""Ia'ion ro ""', ....l, or all oth...
mutual b"havior of individual . Th. rda'ion of
th. b"havior of on. man to nth.... may b. an individual <lno: lot
,h. norm th" <lMigeo """'1' man t<l ""I....;n from killing
<>thot men; <It the nmm that obUg th. d.bwr '0 pay the c""d
itor; <It ,h. nOTm that <lblill"" ""l";body '0 to.poet the prol"'rty <If
"'h..... But rhe tolarion may al'" h.v. a colle<;,i.,... chanct.r. For
the b"havloT preocril>ctl by the norm <lbliging a man ro
do mmlary ..rvice, i' no' rhe b"havior <IF an individual v.rsus an-
",h.,. indIvidual. but v.rsus th. entire soc'al communlty-v.nus
all individual. oubje<;' ro the legal <>rdot, The .am. i. tnt. whot
attempt is Aud in the "'me way ,h. mentioned
norm, pro'<'<:ling animal., and inanima'" obj .... may b"
.. social norm. The legal authotity command. a c...
tain hum.n b"havior, !>cou.. authority, rightly or wrongly,
n'g:Irduch b"ha";or a. n..""",ry lor the human legal commu
nity. In ,h. la" an.lysi., ir is ,hi. tola'ion to the l.gal communi,y
which i' d..i,iv. for the legal '<gulari"" nf ,h. b"havi.". of "".
individual '0 anoth.T. FOT the 1"R"1 norm oblig.. the not
only and, perh.p'. not '" much in otd.,. '0 pro,<'C1 tb. creditor.
but in <>rde' '0 maintain a cottain economic .ptem.
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'u'pJO ", Aoql 10ql '! poo".. V '101'"'1
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""1''''03 Y ''''''7 (q
7lIlt.LVN <INV "'....
.....1 tor interpttttd ....... ac.ioa of tbr .-.muni,y coruti...ud by
tho: Iqpl ordc'r and npociaIly,.. a reaction 01 the lqal comm""itr
apinsI a tocialIy dnrim(ntal !au. Tha. """"'" lh.a. th<: >ttri
XI ....' bo: IIllril,,"e4 '" lItio oommu";ty; whi<.b is:o. n"
prnoion 01 m. ......tal opttotion by which we rdn 1M conciY.
XI p'acribal by thr Ic:pI order '" tbillcpl order. !.he \Ill;'" 01
..hid> _.....-ify ...... IlUing mLi". lithe -wly dnrimmtal
faa api......hid! th<: (OOl1lDIIUi'J mea with :0. loCI is a
definite humm behavior. m., T'CXl1on is as a 1Ia"Ction.
Tho. the low is a com:i ordn mnm W. the lop! nornu ptt-
Kribe cottci"" acu whidl """ be .uributtd '0 the lopl commu
nily. This don 1>0. metn thaI ,he nttu,ion of tbr ..nc.io<u each
time rfljuir...he applio;alion of pl>l'sia.l OK<; ,hi, is n:.....,.,.
0'111 if execution mo.U ...istanec, which ordinarily dlle' no. hap-
Modem legal orders oomc.imc. contain nonns that provide /0'
reward>, luch u ,itl.. or donlliollJ, for c.........in ",eri,oriou.:ocu.
Bm ."""",ds arc 1101 an dement common to.lI socilIJ ClOrtkrs d..ig.
""'ed ao law: thty '"no noc an function of chot ordnt.
Within these conri.... ordn:s <hey pLay:o. wbanlin.;ote role. Besides.
t"- l>I)rIm authoriling cl!1Uin organs '" cool.... ,itl.. or decr:n.
tions on indiridwoa ..boo tuvt: distinguisbftl tMmotlv,," in .......
_, or iUIOthtt han a a.Jncction wi'" dw annion.
prncrib;ng D<lnD'l: Far I"'" ... or a lilk ar or a <:\teo.
....tion iI ridln lqalIyllOl prohibited, that is" ""Ptinly pmDiltal.;
or-tId !.hil iI US<lal .I....tion-it iI paoitinly permitted,
wltidl..-no il is lotbiddm, unkss lellpr",",y prnailtm lopl
oiluation, then. aD. ...Iy bo dacribod lU a nD.T1D.-.tipuLa.td rncric.
lion or 1M nlidity 01 a """"; in <>tMT worda. by
fnTing 10 a norm.
AI a conrive otda. law it du.inguilh<d from ochcT IOcial
orden. criluion is 1M do:mem 01 f=-hat mean.
thu ,lte acl prtseribed by Ihe order :as a <:<>nocquenu of ooc"lly
delrimental !<leu OIlght to be cxeculed even againlt will of the
individual and, if he ....im. by phy.ic.ol force.
Tht eOn'dw octs prescribed by lhe legal ort/n,a, sonellOIlJ
1noobr u r.hc CO<1'Ciw ace p.......ibed by lhe lopl oed"" Iw lhe
funcllon 0( a ",acliOD "",iM< a bll.lI>an behavior by
lAW ""0 " ..-ruu
the ltpl ord..... then this coerci,'e act has the char.u;ttr DE a lanc
,i"". The human behavior against which the coercive act i. di
rted is to be coJUid<!rMa. prohibited. illegal_a delie<. It i. ,he
DppOiIi'e of lhal behavior ,hat i. regarded a. commanded or legal,
namely ,lte behavior tlt.t .void. the applicalion of lite ",,,,,,ion.
That the law i. chacact....ized a. a "coercive order" doe. not ",elln
_ i. >onteti", .. a....rted-that it "enfor="' the legal, tlto, is, the
'ommanded. behavior. This behavior i. not enforced by the coer-
cive act, beeauoe the coercive ac, is to be executed prioely when
an individual beh.vel in the prohibited. noC the commanded.
manner. It i. exactly lor thi, caoe that the coercive act as a ..nclion
i, prescribed, Perhapl, how""..., the men,ioned ....... tion .hould
be talen to mean that the law, by prescribing .. nctiow, triel to
induce men ro behave in ,onformi,y with ito command. in th.t 'he
wiob to avoid tlte lane,iono becom.. the moti'-e tlt.t bringo about
thi, behavior. 1I0wever. the motivation in qU<:$tion i. only 'l'O"i-
ble. not a nec....ry, function 01 the low; ,be legal-that i., the
commllnded-behavior may be brought .bout by oth... modv..
also, especially by re!igioo. and mOIal ""es. And this happens Ire_
quently enough. The coercion that i, implied in ,he motiYOtion is
p'ychic coercion. which i l'O"ible effec' 01 ,he ide. an individ_
n.l h.. oE ,he l,w, .nd which tak.. place wi,hin tlti, individual.
And thi. psychic coercion muR not be: confnsed wi,h ,he prn<rip-
lion of the coercive aCI. which tal.. place within the legal OTd.....
Ev....y effective social OTder ex" >DIlle lind of plf<'hic coercion.
and some orders-.uch a. ,he religiou, OTder-in much higher de-
gr' than the legal order. Thi. plf<'hic coercion, then, i, not.
charac,.riltic th>! dhtingui,h.. ,he law f'om oth.... social orders,
The l.w i. no, a coc,d"e order in the .en", th.t i, .x....... plychic
coercion; but in the ..,n$O that i, prescribe. coercive acto. namely
the forcible depriva,ion of liEe. freedom, economic and other
valu.... a conocquence of cen.in conditions. Thcoe condi,ions are
in the first place-but not exc!wively_ definite human behavior.
wltich preci>ely by being a condition of a ..nction ...umeo ,he
charactCT of legally prohibited (illegal) bchavior_ delict.
Th. m<mopol"} Of foru 01 lhe legal communi"
Although the variou, legal orden largely agree .bou' the coercive
,.." which may be attributed to 'he legal c.ommunity_th<')' always
....w ..."" " ..
in the <kpri..,..ion of mm,iannl. p><h---<hae onkn
diB'C'< rnr....."lliJIg the conditions 10 which 1M con1:ive acU arc .1-
txbcd.. Tbq di panicularly .......",ing the hUllUn behavior
_t.. Id bot brouIh' about by >t.ipuLuina thoe 1aDe-
'>oru, that;s, 1M oocially ckstrftI. Katul, which o>miw
in oMltpl kha...... pracr;t>m by l.be kpI onkr. in D<hcT wordt.
toac:","io. the "'pl 00lUti.... by the kpl nomu. Tbt ok-
O'dopmm. 01 10.. from boginoinp to ill JIK'ft"
.up in the """"'"' IUlle dil.plal"'. ccncemi"ll: the lrpl ,."luc to be
rullzcd. a lD>denq chat is COllI_ to aU legal on:kR. It ts the
.mderq gradually and irocreuingh to pr<>hibit the uM: of physicll
force r,..,,,, ",a.. to m.on. UIC of force is prohibit.ed by making it the
COIIditioo for ...nel;on, Ullt ,he unction i!$elf il ...'" of force.
Thudore the prohibition of lhe """ of {,,=can only!>c:. limited
on...; and on... must di"inguiJl\ bt.wc"" a pefmillM an,l. prohib-
ited ux of 101U. JI i. pe,mitted "' TO,clion againlt a _iaUy un
b<;., npecially agaln$l "",ian,. detrimental human 1>0_
mvior.... sanction.ha, is, u an l ..,hori<ed ..'" of force
..uble to the legal communi.y. Tbi.d"'inclion doet not yn mca".
boooreYn.II.... the "'" 01 oth.,. than Icg;Illy au,ho'Iiud "" re-
:IlClion:opiwl;an lac.. is and ill...
pI. kpl ord<n do no< prohibit all 0lhCT tinds of IUt 01
fon:e. E""" till.ns of 111m i.o p<obibilCd CO only a li",ieM de-
er. Only 1M L1ling of Ir .. comi<krl'd to
tw a cri_ ill primiLiw 1Ocietia,. """ 1M tilling 01 al"". Of ola.......
The tillinll; oIlhc bu.,.. 'nmr:u i. i.o """ prohibited. it-in lhc
nt'puw oeouc Flloiued.. But i' is no< auoborin:d at. tattet.....1
C"""ually............... is rtuJgUized tha, rtttf IUt 01
p1t"'c:ol is unl........-d this is a limitation of
ptinciplt-it is apoOally authorirt<! ill a run'on apin.. a IOCUlIy
<kt:rimrntltl bet '0 tis<, lcg;ll communi'Y. In thi. c:u<.
the Icg;Il on\.,. exhau.. ively cou.ditiOttJ und...
whkh (and the by whom) ph,.;';"l force maT be uOfd. Since
individual authori"'d '0 use 10= be l"cg;Irdl'd at In organ
of legal ord.. (or of the oornmunity con"i'ull'd by ,he lcg;ll
order). the execution of coet"('iye:arlO by th.... indiyiduIl! m.y be
.t\ributl'd II> communl,y." Then .. are confroOlI'd with a
monopoly of fora of ,he legal communi,y. The monopoly is d,..

if the individualuthmizM '0 u.. force do not h",e
'he character of >peei.1 organ1ltC,ing according to lhe prindplc of
division of Jabor but if lhelrgJI order ,ulhoriz...ll individlL1l. 10
uS< force who consider lheir inter..u ,'ioJated by 'he illegal con
duct of others; in o'her wmd. if the principle of >ell-help "ill pre.
Legol order collulive ,ecurily
When the legal order determine. 'he conditi"", under which, and
the individlL1I' by whom, fortt i. '0 be UlM, it proleen
the individuals who Ih'e under 'hi' order again.. lhe u.. of force
by olher individuals_ When 'hu protection has roached. ""rtain
minimum we .peak of collective ,""uri,y, bee.we the security I,
guaranteed hy the legal order a. a JOei.1 order. Thi' minimum of
protection again" the we of phy.ical fo"," can be reg.trded "'",,-
i"iug even when monopoly of foree is that is, even
when sclf.hdp "ill pte,ail. It is possible 10 conoider ouch a .tat< ..
the lowe" degr'" of colleclive KCllrily_ However, we n,.y 'peak of
collecti .. occurity only in a narrower "n" if the monopolj' of
fortt of 'he legal community ru.. re",hed minimum of centrali
zalion, so that ..!I.help is e""luded, alleast in principle. Collecti,'e
securily, in lhi. narrower sense, exi." when at lea" the quc<tion 01
whether in. concrete .lmalion the law""... violated and of who i.
r"pon.ible for it, i' not an,wered by the parties involvM, but by a
,pedal organ,.n independent court; when, thordote, the question
of whether in a concrete case, the use of foree u a delict or legal
and an act lhat may be attributed to the community. particularly
a ..netion. can be ohjtively decided.
Collli"e .ecurity, then. can ha"e different dege... depending
on the degr", of centralization of Ihe prOCedUTC by which in con
crete ca.... the exi".nce of lhe condition. i. dctcmlined to whidt
the coercive action of a ..nion i. att",hM; and by which lhi. c0-
ercive aClion i. carried oul. Collective ...urity teach.. ito high..t
degree when the legal order i"'talh law courts with compulsory
juti..Jiclion and central ex<:cuti,'e organ< wh"'" cocrei,'e mea", are
so effective thot te.i"ance ordinarily;" hopeI.... Thi. i. 'he
lion in the modem >ta ... which repr...n.. a highly cenlralized
The aim of coll<c'ive oecuri,y i. peace, becau"" pcace i. lhe ab-
UW ANt> ,....T<JU:
..nee of ,h. u.. of physical force. By dc",nnining th. condi,;OJU
and Ih. org:on. fur lh. we 01 f""",. by c'tablishing a
monopoly of forre of <he legal community. the l<gal order paci6es
this community_ BUl the peace of law i. only a toluiy. pe>cc. Th.
law does not exclude the nit of phy>kal force'" man venus man.
Th. law ill no' a folcel= order, .. postulalM rOT by utopian anor-
chi>m. The law i. an order of emmon and, ... coercive ordcr_
ao:wrding to its evolution_an ord.,. of ..curlty. that ii. of peace.
But precisely .. the concept of eoHoed". """urity may b< ddintd
in a IUrrower ....... and applied only whore the m<>nopoly of force
of society is Cffitf1l1ized, "" _ may iMum. that a pacification of the
l<gal commun'ty tak.. place only on that l.."cl of legal d",c]op.
ment in which ..If.help i, prohibited, a,I""., in principle, and col.
1,,<;11,-. _urily in the narrower ..n.. of the word prevail. Acto.
ally, we can hardly ...ume ""on a J"'Cification of IrpJ
(ommunity a. loog a. law i. till in a primilivo: condition. As
Jong a. no (mIn. ""i.t that a"""tain a pm_
hibitM we of has tak"" pIa; as long as e>'ery individual
who con,ide" his rights viol"M by .no,h.,.;. attthorizM to u""
fo",e a .. nc'ion; as long a. the individual again.!l' "'hom for<;<:
wa, U.M i. authori",d 10 reacl again" thit we of fo",e by Ihe u...
of loree, which he tan jwtify .. a unction (tha' i., a. a reaction
against a wrong ",ff...-cd); ., long a. blood Wlenge i. a legal insti
ullion and ,he duel pttmiucd and even rcgul.tM by law,
.. long .. only the Hiling of free feUow (ountrymen, but not ,he
killing of alien. ond .lav.. is reg.roM,. a crime; long. finally.
a. war i. nO' prohibited by international law in the rela.ion. be-
,ween Ita,e" one cannot very well a""'l 'hat the Slate of law i.
n=rily a .taft of p"a.:e and that the securing of peace i. an co-
.....ial function of ,he law." An one can say is that the develop-
ment of .he la"- run.;n .hi. dircclion. Th"",fore, even if pea is
Tcg:udcd an abool",e mo....1 value or as. ,..luc COmmon to all
pos;ti'-e motal otde..-whkh. as we >han ..ela''''';' nOl the cue--
,he sceuring of pea. the pacifica,ion of the legal community.
cannot be con.id.,.ed .. an ...en,ial moral value COUtmon to an
legal ord....: i, i. not the "mor:al minimum" common to all law.
The prohihition of aU use of for<;<: reveal. the tendency to en-
MThl. """,",.", .-lIiao,"'" 01 ... vb "" .......to,,,,,, ""_.
r.....nd p<>" p,.,..,trd 1."1 """.".1 "0"", 0/ '--...., Joo". ""_ ...
LAw ...........n.ru: 59
la"F tho 0( faN thlol arc aubliobcd by tho lepl order ...
aIOdi..... aI. coercive acu; Ibis Ift><IeDq bu ck.dof"'d. far bqood
IhiI pruoIUhition. by tho macbmml aI. conci.., xu AI COIIK'"
'l.UU>Ca ooc ool,. 10 tbr '* III Io<u. bu. all<> 10 othn acu. and
....,.. 10 ....;.;,..,. 0( acu. U tho eom,he ac< eubl.i$bed by Ihoe law
d a raaioa apino< beha....... .and if tho fuDc
...... 0( IUCb '"" aubliIl:I....... is 10 ponm. wc.b a beha....... fondi-
ridlUl or seoer.U p"eYuuioa). Ibm IhiJ ac< bu <he dwx..". aI. a
in <he opeciIic and nanow............ aI. tbr word; and <he
faa that a nain bduo..lor U m;ode Ibe cot>dirion for a _Ii... in
,his KlIse meaDI thlo. ,his lIdIa..ior illeplly p,olIlb,ud, a delic..
TI>ere is a <Drrd..i"" !K,wn Ibis <0'''''1'' of sanell"" and
conP' of delicL The ..nc,ion i, Ibe ronscquena of th. dellel;
lhe d.lict ihe condition of ..netion. In primitive lcpl ..
Ibe reaction of lb...,,<<ion again" ,h. iJ dtcClllnl.
lied. rucrion iJ left 10 the diocretion of the indi.iduall whOM:
in<Clem been violated by lhe d.licL arc au,ltoriud 10
Idcmily ift <Oft<>"elo AI a delict wha, has!>ttn 10 idcmi6ed by Ibe
lcpl order only ill and Ibey are au<horid 10 CC01<C
1M oanction aI<lblilhcd by lhe lcpl onI..... The pt"inciplc of Klf.
help f""'&ils. In Ibe (.'OIIf'R of cmlutioo this -roo:oion apinK <he
cklia is inct-asin&IJ ccnonliled, in <hat <he id....t.i6cation 01. tbr
ddia and <he caccutioa 01 tho Andion is ' .... "cd for lfICCiai or
pns: Ibe alUTU and excculi.., alltboritia. I1>efeby 11K p"iDCiplc
of oeU-belp is limited. but il anOOC be ..,,<i,dy elim.inloted.. Eo.."
i!l <he 'lI><Jd<Tn llta%e. in which centn1i..,ion bu <Iw hip.
... dqrtt. a minimum oIlCll-bdp remains, IClf-defmx. ""id-.
Ihctc Ott 0Iber <aJQ i!l1DOticm, cenonlizcd Icpl thai
have !>ttnlargcl,. ipoTcd in lcp1 theo" in which, 10 a limited
ntml, the uoe 0( phys;al fmu is noc ,eservc:d f.... opecial OTpnl,
but left 10 the d.....tt;on of individuah in<CrCsttd in il. We .pt:ol
of Ibe right of corpnnl puni.nmcnt Ibat ....en modem legal orden
conctde 10 pa,en.... a mea", of educa.ing ,hei, <hlldren. I. is
limited to lhe ext.nt lhal it m.... not hann the child', health; bu.
the dc.:i.ion, which bcha.io. of the child i. 0 <ondllion of co'"
poral punishment, that i., which i. pedagogicolly and
hence .odaUy undcsinble, i. in principle left 10 the pa....... who
....y pass lhisngltl to profCJIional cducato",.
....w ..."" ....nzu:
C..,....;",. Kt> lAM ...., ......
As "'" .... froIQ a judicia/IO .... adm.iDilln..i..., CIDallIlU-
Ilily.u "'" oplIoor-t 01: fa<u W. au I:Il.a<!.e wadi.iom lor com:i...,
aN CJO"". Now no< oaly -wty ""'>ocu and _if.-
si<:lN bu. a1.. ",i>tr facu, no< ha.-iIls oM chaTaurr of d<licu.
indudtd. Among <how fa<u;' "'" ,,'spirim WI a dt6niu: iIldioid-
ual has commiu<"d a delia. Special orp.... 1M chanctn III
police agenu. may IcpUy au<horiud 10 cltpri"" "'" IIUf""C'Cd
indiyldual of hillibeny in order '" uftguanll<pl I'nx.o<di"A'
apinn him, in which it will did<d whnh... ha.. in b,
cammilt<"d cltlic. 01: which iu.pccted. condilion for
ollibnlJ I. not a of lh. individ.
ual. .u'picion of auch a beh.vior. Simil"ly. Lhe police may
be aUlhorired by lh. lcpl cnder to talc ptuon. in oo-calltd pro-
c....ody, ,h., iI, 10 deprive of Iheir liberly. in order 10
prCK' against ilIcpl aggrt.lOion lha. thrca", Fur
tIt<1', modern legal ardns pr.....ibe 'M lorad in in"i-
tu.""" of corulilu,ing a public alMi in
boopitaJI of JI"1'SO'" .i.h concogious diocascs. Fun......,
""'y I>c nprnpria.led II nnoary in "'" public inmes<, dontruic
....i....... """y be d<$uoyo<d if inf..,ed with .... o:pidcmic ill......
buildir>Ko .....y be 10m cIowrl by '0 p""""" oolb""'" or
dw: spond of a rnnlIagntion. Thor lqIJ otd.tt of ......Jiurian Ilates
au<horizto tbrit nn-.>u to in OKKa!'ra,iotl (:II"'P'
pe....... .m.- <>pin .. ,..,.. <hey do "'" litee; to Iorcr
them to pe.lccm y kind ()/. bhor; tvm '" kill them. Such _
..rei ......,. morally be violendy ...ldcmncd; bul <hey an"", be
....sidncd as tatJns pbct oulside .he lcpl ord... of ,hcor sutes.
All ,hnc :tCU ..,.,.,i.u,", forud dcpri'''li.... of lilc. lib-
my, and properly as ,he gue<ions of <he death penally. imprhon
mCtll, and nceu<i..... BUl, as ..., >aid, dill'... from
uue<lan. ;"",lat as they ore n", lh. conscq..enct of I IcpHr aleft"
tained, "",ially undesir.>ble acdon or omiu;on of .n indi.ldual;
lhe condi,ion il not. legally u:ertoin"<1 commilltd lor an
nelin il a h"man behavior (an action or omis-
lion) which, btc>.... "",ilily undes;r.>ble, il prohibil'" by
lopl order: and it il prohibi'''' imobr ... tm. legal cndtr ."..clles
,. .".
to i' (or, more correctly formula'M: '0 'he Oct that it i. """'"
.. inM in a legal proeMure) a coercive act, a' thi. fac' i, made by
'he legal ordcr 'he condi'ion of coercive act. And ,hi. coercive
act i. a ..nction (in the ..,n", of a reaction agai",. a ddi<;,) aod.,
,uch diotiogui'hable from other legally otabH,hM cocrcive acu
only in 'hal the conditioning fact of 'he form...- i. a legally a",...-,
lainM human behavior, whe.... Ute coercive act> which have nOl
'he charac"" of ..nction. arc condi<ionl by o,h...- be..." Some
of the coercive act> belonging '0 'he J;OT1d ca.egory may be iOler
prClM as sa"ctio"" if 'he of ....""'ioo" i. no, linti'ed to
",ac,ion. again" a definite human beh.vior wh"'" .ctu.l ex'.'ence
i. legally ...eruinM, but i. ex,endM to .ituation. in whi<;h 'he
coc"'ive act i. provided for a. reac'ion agai"" a deli<;t-hut again"
a ddi<;, whO!lC c"",mi..ion by a definite individual has no, yet
been legally aJCC1"tained. ,hough ,he individual may be .u.pee'ed
of h,,'ing commiued i' ""d may therefore be arrestl by 'he p0-
lk<:; and '0 .i'uatlon. in whi<;h the coercive act i. a reac'ion
agai"" a delict 'hat ha. not even been commluM ye'. hu' I. ex
pected in .he fu'ure .. a powbili'y-a. in the ca>eo of internmen.
of d.ngerou. psychopath. or per10lU of und"'ired. opiniOn>, reli,
gion. and rae... insofar .. 'hey arc intoM in concen"...ion
campo to prevent 'hem from a oocially und",ired behavior of
which. righ'ly or wrongly. in 'he opinion 01 'he legal au,hority.
,hey are con.iderM capable, Apparently, ,hi. mo,i,,, i. Ute b..iJ
lor 'he limi'atio'" of lib<rty '0 which, in a war. 'he ci,i"n. of the
one b<l1igcrcm par,y living on the rerri'ory of 'he other arc .ul>-
jcc'ed by 'he lauer. II we ex,end 'he con..pt of ....nction.. in thi.
",n"" i' i. no longer congruen, wi'h of a delict,"
Sanc'ion in ,hi, wider "'n'" of the word doc. not n""",,"'Uy follow
'he delict.
Fi",lIy. 'he concep' of "'netion may be ex,ended '0 indude all
co<r<;ive acto coubli.hed by .he legal order. if the word iJ to ex
pr... mcrd}' ,h.. ,h. legal order ,eoc" .dlh ,hi. action again.. "'"
dally undeoinble cire.."",anc", alld qua1i.. in ,hi, way 'he eir
cum"anceo a. und..i",ble, Thi. indeed, i. 'he commOn ch.rac'er,
i>tic of an c""rci"" action. commanded or aUlhori'ed by legal ""
den. The concep' or ....netion," undcntood in ,hi. broa-d.., "'n....
tben. 'he fo,ce monopoly of .he l"l!"l communi'y. m.y be formu

....w Il/<D .....
bud by <hit alternatiw, '"T'he UK of fo<u olllWl .ntlllWl is
ritM'r a delict or a IIlInCtion.
r ....i"i.."", of tiM"
As a IUlCUoa-poucribi"llClCial ...dcr, Law humul be-
ho.riot in twO""ys: in a pooitiw ocme. commandi... RICh bcba..
iClO" and tl=eby prohibit"" lho b"h.:n.".; and, nep.iytiy'.
by not a.tadtit>g a conciu act 1(1' cnu.in btbarior. <herefQft .....
po-ohibitiDg <his bth"'iar and not com....ndi... the oppooite be-
Beh>vior thatlfllolly i' not p<ohibi<td io legally permiutd
in Lhis negative snue. Sine" human btha"ior is "iLher problbiwl.
or not prohibi.td,.OO .Inee, 1 no< !",ohibiotd, is to be rtgardm ...
permi.,<:d by Lhe legal order, '''y behavior of an ....l .ub-
jee'td '0 l<gal order In'y be r"g.rde<! OJ regula.ed Ly it_poooj.
lively Or n<gati....,ly. I ruor.T OJ the bth.vior of an indlvidu.I il per.
mined by Lhe l<gal order In d.( n<ga.ive oenoe-:o."d th mean"
Me prohibi.td--the indi.idual illeg.lly free.
The fttedom left to the ....1 by the legal order .imply by
nol prohibiting a "nuin beh..ior mUR bt cfutngtoi.ned lrom 'he
f'ftdom which is "",i.i.dy to Lh" by <ha.
ordt-r. Tl>e fretdcm of.n indi'ld....1 wh;m cnnoi'" in pnmilting
him a =uin by noc pn:.l>ibi.iDg it. is guaranleed by the
kpl ordtt <mI1 10 the exten. Lhal the O<der CIllOIImUIll.t the 0Iher
indi>iduallto rnpoct <his frftdom; IM...dcr orbids w... to inter
fere in <his op/IoeK of frudom, lho.. is., the ordt-r {.".bids a bcbarioo"
by which an indiri<bW is P""""1ted from doing wbal is noc prohib-
Iud and what tberdoo-e in ohis Iemt is permi.wI. 1(1 him. On'"
,hen can lho _po-ohibi.ed (In a ..eg:Il"e pnm,ued) be-
"",.;.". "" looted upon :to ri&",ful: <hal is '0 ..y the contenl of a
righl. which i' the rdIex 01 a corrnponding ol>ligolioa."
Hcn-"'\/tt, not ...ery bd\a.ior 10 pennillal--in ohe
len.. 01. nOl!>eing f<nbiddetl----"IOf"l""'rdtd by the prohibition 01
'he op"",i,e btha.ior of ath",",: nOi e,'tty permitted beha.'or 01.
on" Indlvid.... 1corre.pondllo an obliga.ion o .nother ....l.
h is f'OI'Ilble tha a beha.'or I. not prohibiled by the legal order
(and therdor in thi, ..,me, p"""i..edj. without an oppotlte be-
hlor 01 othen bting p'o1I,bl'e<! by ohe legal ord""10 that thil
oppooile behario<- i. at", permitted. A behavior may not be prohlb-
-u.... '...
itrd. for """rnple. beau.e il i. not related to ""her individual. or
al ltan does Dot hurt anybody. But no' e,.."" e"ery behavior tha'
othen i. prohibited. For example. it may oot be prohib-
ited lhat the owner of a hou.e im",]] a ventilator intO a wall .itu_
ated directly at the borderline of his property. But, at the ..me
lime, it may DOt be prohibiled that lhe owner of tbe neighboring
property build< a hou,," whOil. Qne wall directly adjoino Ihe ,,""ti
wall of the l1m home ond ,hereby nullW.,. the
elleel of the vemilator. In ,hi. ""ampl., one p.tty i. permitted 10
p.....'em "'hat the other party i. pennitted tQ do-n.mely '0 pipe
air into Qne of his room. by a vemilator.
If a beh."iQr opposite to the IlOl: prohibited behavior of another
individual i. not prohibited, ,hen a conllic' i. f'O'"ible against
which the order mak.. no provi.ion. Tho ot<ier doe.
not ..el: to preven, this conflict, like other conAicts, by prohibiting
the opposi'e behavior. lndeed. Ihe order cannot try In pre'
venl all f'O'"ible conflicts. Only one Ihing i. prohibited practically
uni..rsally by modem order" In prevent another individual
by force from doi"3 what i. not prohibited. F01' ,he exerci.. of
physical f01'ce-roerch'e action-is prohibited in principle. except
wh.... il i. positively petmiued f01' cer...in auth01'ited indi,idu.1s.
A ord.r_like any n01'mative .odal order----<:an command
only specific acts or omiSJioDl of acts: therefore, no ordor can
limit the httdom of an individual with ...pee' <0 the ,otality of
hi. ""tnn.l and internal behavior, that i. his acting. wi.hi"3,
thinking. or feeHng. The legal order can limit an individual'.ftce-
don> more or I... by commanding or prohibiting more or I.... But
a minimum of frttdom, that i., a .ph... of hum.n e"i.teDCC no<
interfered by command or prohibition, remains te"'''''ed,
Even under the moot totalitarian ord... th.... ""i.ts oomething
lil:e inalienable freedom: not aJ a right innate and DaHl...!. but ..
a con.equcnce of 'he tcchnically limited J'OiI'Iibilityof positively
regulating human behavior. Thiphere of freedom, boweVtt, on
be a' legally guaran'eed only to the ""..nt that th. legal
order prohibits interference, In ,hi. r..peet the conMitutionally
guaranteed .......ned civil libertits are politically particularly im
portant. They are tstabH.hed by PTtwi<ion. of the coustitu'ion
, limit the competence of the legi.l.tor' to the "",en, that the
lattet lro nOl authorized (01' 50 amho'ired only under .",,"ptional
....w "'''0 " ... ruU
condi,ion.) '0 ;$Ou. norm. ,hat command or forbid a COTtain be-
!tavior, ouch at ,h. p='ice of a ce'tain religion or the expre..ion
of certain opinion.,"
c} Th. lAw AJ a Norma,ive Coercive GrdM;
Legal Communit), ond Gong oj Robber.
The low u a coerei,'e ord., i. oome,im.. characterized by ,he
.tatement ,hat th. law command. a certain behavior "under
thr....' .. of coord actJ, that i., of certain .vil.. Bu' th" formnla
,ion ignores the Donna';'-e meaning with which coercive act< in
general and oanct;ono in particular are otipula,ro ,he lepl
order, The m.aning of a ,hrea, i. that an evil will b. inAieted
under COTtain condition.; ,he meaning of a lepl order;' that cer
tain evil. ought to b. inflicted und.r certain condition> 0<-
=preooed more gene",lly-----that cert3;n coercive aCt< ought to be
""ecuted under certain condition.. Thi. i. not only the .ubj,iv.
meaning of the ac" by which the law i. but .0100 ,heir
objecti'-e meaning. Only l>ec.>u.. ,hi. normative meaning i. the
objective meaning of th.... acu, do they have the chanc,er of law-
llipulating, norm<.....'ing, or norm-.exce:u,ing acto. Th. "",ion of
a who undel threa, command< ",mebco:ly 'D ",rren
der hi! mDn.y al", h.. the .ubj,iv. meaning DI an "ougbt." If
the .itu.tion cre.zed by .uch .. command i. del<:,ibed by ",ying
th.t one individual up,..... a will directed .oward the behaviDr
01 another individual, th.n one mer.ly dcsctibco the action of th.
Ii"... an actually happening .vent. The beh.vi<>r Df ,he o,her in
di.idual, how"".r, which;" intended by ,he will of the Jim, con-
no, be dcscribed as lIOIItething ,hat .ctually takes pi""., becau.. he
d.... not y behave and may not beh.ve at all in the way th.. the
lim one had intended. It can only be d....ibcd .. ",mlCthing that
according to ,he .ubjective meaning of the command ought '0
take pl.ce.
In thi. way every .iluation mU>t be d",ibccl in which one in.
dividual .xprc.... a will directed toward .he behavior of another
individual. 1n lbi. respec' (namdy, on far .. only the .ubj.ive
meaning of the act< .re con,idered), the.. i, no difference be
lween d.scribing the comntand of a robber and the command of a
lqal orpa. n.. diller",," appan only wborn lht objrc:'i.... _.
i.. of the avnm.nd io dettribtd,.he command dirled (fOIl>.....,
iadividual I<n<U<I anotbeI. Thm _ only 10 d,e com-
llWId ollht Itpi "'"P". no< '" lhat of lht..-obbtt. !he objeuivc
lDCaAi.. of a ""'"" biDdiac lht acIdrnKd individual. tn othn
wordI,. we inlefpl"O'l one ooaunand. bu. not <.he otIwr, asall ob-
juti>'C:ly valid norm; and .bm lnlefpl"et in the one asr tIw:
of 1M nonfuifilllllm, of lbe commmd ",itll a coen:i....
act -'01, as a (i.<:.. a >ta.....,." ,ha. an nil ...11 k in-
Aiclrd), whn'al in the other aK, we ;otnpret ,hi. connection 10
mn.. WI an ...il be inlliclCd. Therdorc we interpret ....
Icmal inlliction of the <",il in the accood oltu:>.,ion:Oj 1M applica.
tion or cx<:01tion nf an objectively vaJ;d norm, Jlipula,ing .,...-.
dve act ... a ""net;on, but in ,he fiTS. "Illation_if we offer a nor-
mative illl...p,e... a criruc.
8ul why do we imerpret the meaning of .he one :let
alto .. iu objec';'-' m.... i"ll. but not '" of ,he o,h actl Why dn
we ,bIt 01 ,he ,wo acu, whkh both ha he ...b;..:.i,.
maning of an only OM <sublilMd a lid, th.. is, bind_
ing. norm/In nthn WOI'lb: W..... ;. <he moon lor .... ,..IOdi.y 01.
the nona th........ comitkT to be: the objeo.i'-e _in, 01. <h;' aet1
Th. ;. the 'I-.iOtt-
8y.u>aly.ting .... .. ,h:o., in'npttl .... _ as lfglll (tlul
it. _ ..lime mQning is ..........) ..e 1ft the anfWft to
, 'IU<:Ition.. Such an the th:o.,
.....keo ouch an intnp<_,Oon flC*ible.
Let no .sun from nrl ....."""'tionoed in,ttpreu.ion 01. the
killing 01. on<: indi"",...l by anotheT ". the <OlttUlion 01 I <lath
KntnJ and no< ". mutd". Our baJftI .., the
ucosnilioo, .h:o.. thc XI 01 killing conSlilu'eo .... tuCU,i.., of
.....n decision ,h>t h>. commanded ,he killing'" a ""niolt""",..
Tbi. meom: We luribute '0 tl>t: acr. of the coun ,he
meaning of an ir>divid...l norm or>d in this way in'...pre, ,he indi
vidual. who perrOTm ,he ac" II cour<. We do ,his, beau.. we
recognize ,he act of the COnrt a. the eXe<:u,ion of. llotlO,e ('hat i.,
of genen.1 nontU "ipulo,ing coercive actl) in which ..... e lee no<
only the .ub}rcti,e b", olio ,he obje<:,i,e meaning of an OCt tho'
Md been ...... bliohnl byc...t.;n individuah whom we con.id.... f.,,-
,hi. re"""'.;oS legi.!>to... F.,,- "'e ,he "'" oI.leglol..ion:to the
.....w AND NATUU
exttution of ,he com,;,ut;on, thai is. of gen.,."l nann. Ibn, ac
cording to their meaning, au,hori.., th... individual"
""abli,h gm=l norms preocribing """rch'e acts. In ,hi. way we
imerpre. lhese individual.... JogioJative organ.. By regarding ,h.
norm, authorizing the lrgi,l.,ive organ no' only as ,he mbjti".
but al", a> ,he objective meaning of an act by definite
individual>, we intpret these norm. as "com,;.".,,,,,." For ,h. hi..
IOri<Allly fin. con"itu,ion .uch an interpceta,ion i. poMible only,
ifwe PHJUPP"'" that one ought to khaT' acwrding to the .objec-
tive meaning of the act. ,hal one ought to pttform coercive acta
only under the condition. and in ,he mann.,. the con,titution stip-
ula,n; if, in otherworW. we presuppose. nOrm according ... which
(oj ,he aCt wh"", me.ning is to be interpreted as "collMitu,ion" i,
'0 k rcgard<d .. e....bli.hing objectiv.ly v;t1id norrm, and (b) the
individll3b who ",abliili ,hi. act a. ,h. eom,i,u,ional .uthoriti....
..... will he developM later," this norm i. ,he !>.ui<: nmm, of the
,,"tionalleg.1 order. It i. not e"abli.hm by a pooi,i"elegal act, but
U p....ul'f""C<l' if the .ct mentioned under (aJ i. interpreted '"
cuabli.hing a constitution and ,h. ac" based on ,h. comtitutiom
are interpretm a.legal aclO. To make manif... thi. ('TC$uppooi,ion
i, ... ....",11.1 fUflCtion of legal .dence. Thi.< ('TC$uppooi.iOll i. ,he
uhimate (bnt in its ehanocter <Mlditional and ,h..efore hypotheti-
<:al) ,ea"'n for ,h. validi,y of the legal ottl...
8y making ,h....ta'em.n" we a,e comidering, at .hi. point.
only a u.,ion.llcgal <mI.r, ,hat i., a legal ord.... wh..... terri'orial
.ph... of validity i. limited '0 ,h. '.rritory of a "ate. The ,eason
for the validity of international law, wh...........i.orial .phe.e of 1IJ..
lidi.y i. not so limited, and the relatiorcltip of the in..mational
legal order to the na.io"allcgal <mI'""" arc, fOl" the p-r=t, OUt
.ide our ditcu..io"."
It wa, olm'ned tadier ,ha, .h. validity of a ,,<>no (which me""
h". one ought to hehave a. the nOno "ipul.t..) .hould nOl; he
with ,he .ffcc.i".n... of the nmm (which m$Ilha,
one, in be', d.... SO hehave); but ,ha, a" ...."'i.1 relation may
exi" between the two COIlCCplO, namely, ,h.t. roc-rcive ordM", pre.
..u.ing i...1f as ,he law, i, regarded valid only if it i. by aod
large effective. Tha. mean': Th. ba";c nono which i. ,he rc''''''
Ct_ I ,.h-J ."" "d_
fD' the validity of a legal order, rei..... only to a eomtitution which
iJ th.. ba.i, of an effectiv.. cocrciv. ord.r. Only if ,h...ctu.l b.h.v_
ior of the individu.l. conform.. by .nd larg.., wi,h ,h. 'ubjectiv..
muning of th. aell directed ,oward thi. hehavior_if, in other
words, thubjl!Ctiv.. m.aning iJ recogniwl the objectiv..
mning-<>nly th.n ar.. th.. acts int...-preted a, leg:ol acts.
Now w..... ready to amw...- th.. qu.,ion why ..'e do not at-
tribut. '0 th.. command 01 a robber, i..ued und...- threat of de.th,
the object;-.. m.aning of valid norm binding on th. addr.....,.)
vN:,im; why w. do not int..rpret this act a. a legal act; why w. ",.
gard the realization of th.. th",", a', crime, .nd not as ,h.. execu-
tion of ...nction.
An i",l.ted act of on.. individu.l dllln<)' be regarded as a l.gal
act, its m...ning C2WIOt be regarded a, a legal norm, be<:."", law,
as mentioned, i, no< singl.. norm, bm a 'J'5l.em of norm'; and a
particul.r Oorm m.y be regarded a legal norlll only as. part of
.ltCh a 'ystem. How .bont a ,ituation, how.ver, in which an organ-
ized gang jeopardize, a ... in territory by forcing
the living ,h.."" und...- tll",at. to .urrend...- th..ir mone-yl
In thiJ .ltuation ..... will h,,'" to distinguilh betwe.n the order ,hat
.. th.. mutual behavior 01 th. memb." of thi. rubber gang
and th. external ord.r. that is, ,h.. command. that ,h.. members of
the gang direct at under ,h.. ,hreat 01 inflicting evib. F.".
it i. only in rela,ion lOou"id.." that ,h.. group beha'... "'. robb...
gang. If and murd...- w.r. no' forbidden in ,h.. relatiom
be'ween th. rObben, nO conlmunity, no robber gang would ..xi.t.
N.......th.I ......v.n the int.m,,] ord..r of ,h.. gang may be in COli
flict with th.. coerciv.. o.d", con<id..ted to be a legal order. valid
for th.. t.rritory in which th. gang i, acti,'". Why il th.. coercive
order that consti,ut.., ,lie communi,y of th.. tobbet gang and
comp.'''' th.. int..rnal and ext...-no.l ord.r no, inlerp"'ted a,
legal ord..1 Why i. the mbjecti,.. m.aning of thi, ooen;iv.. ord.r
(th.t on. ough, to beh.v. in conformi,y ,.-Ith it) not in"'rpr..'w
a. iu objective m... ningllkcau.. no ba,ic norm i, presul'l""""! ac-
oortIing to which on. ought to behav.. in conformity "'ith ,hi.
ord... But why i, no ",eh ba,ie norm p....uppoocdl Becau.. thi.
ord.. don not hav.. th.. laning ..rrectiv.n.... without which no
ba,ic norm i, presuppooed. Th.. tobben' metci,.. ord.t don no,
hav.. this .ffec,iven..." if the nonn,of th.. ]ega] ord..r in who.. ' ..r
"",rial 'pheT" <>f validity ,h. gang opc...., .. arc actually applied to
,h. robbers' activity .. b<ing illegal behavior; if <he members of
th. gang arc deprived 01 their Jihttty or their Ii,c. by COCK;'" octo
that at. illtCTptclro .. imprisonment ""d death ",mene..; and if
thus ,h.. ac,ivity o( the gang j. renninaltd_in ,hon, ii the coercive
order fCgaro".) a. the lopl order is rno,.., elIre,;". <lun the COOt
.h"c order constituting the gang.
If the validity of this coercive on:lor i. , rioted to a <.,(;Iin tn-
.itory and if it i. effective within <hi< "'rritory in .uch " way ,hal
the validity of any other coercive ordot of thi< lind ii eJ<LJuded,
then the coercive orda may inde<d be reg.roed ... a l<gal order
and ,h. communi,y cotl>tituted by it may be regardrd as a ".latc"
-.,.."cn if it< cXlcnul ac,ivity i. illegal according to positive inttt.
national law. Thus, lrom the .;x\<I,mh to the beginning of
century so-<:alled "ates exi"ed along the north
west roast of Africa (Algiers. Tulli., Tripol;") wfIos<, .hips pr<rye<1
npon navigation in the The.. communi tie. were
"pin,.." only wilh r..pen '" their exerci.. of on sltips of
other lI.at .., in defiance of imematio""l law. Y<t, their internal
order pt..umabJy prohibitw mutual employment of force. and
thi. prohibition was by and obc)td, 10 that the minimum of
collecti,'e security ex;"ttd which is coudition fnr the existence
<If a ...,lativeiy fasting wmmuni,y wnstituted by a
seeuti,y 0< pe><:e--a. oaid_i. a function
,ha, nrder. d",igna'ed a' "law" in variou. de-
grtts when 'hey have reached a ...ain of Thi.
funCtion i. an determinable fact. The .tate-
ment that a l<gal i. pacifying 'he legaf community, i, not a
judgment, Specifically, this statoment does not mean that
the realization <If justice i, essential to faw; ,hi, valu., there.
10..." cannot an c1emcm of the of law and em
therefore nOt a. a critrriou 1
< the di>tinction a
fegal community and a gang. Thi. h""e>'er. i. di"inc.
tion by St. Augustine who oays in his Civitas Iki: "S.t jn..
tice a.ide then. and what are kingdom. but thievi,h putcha...' be.
CaU"" whal purch.... but littl. kingdoms?" .. A stat.
-,.tn' A_,... n. c;/] ./ G<>d, 'no... by joll" '1<0.1, ("""'bu"", ."",).
,'01. t. _ ", <hap. ,.
which i. according to Augu",ine a legal community, unnot exist
without justice. "Whe", 'rue just;';e is wan,ing. ,here un be no
law. FOl" wha, low docs, ju.'; docs, and wha' is done unju",ly, i.
done unlawfuUy:' Bu' whal i. justice? '"J""ke i. I "irtue distrib-
uting on,o everyone hil due. What justice is ,h., then. ,h.. take.
man f",m ,he true God and give< him un'o ,he condemned fiend.?
",hil dimibu,ion =tding '0 due? 10 no, he ,ha, take< Iway 'hy
po<lCISion. and gives ,hem to ""e,hat has no claim to them. guilty
of injustice. and i. no< he II<> likCloo'i"" ,hot tak... himself away from
hil Lord God, and give< himself '0 the oavice of ,he devil?""
According to ,hi, reuoning. ,he law i,. ju'" cow:i,'e orde, and
i. di",ingui.hed from ,he cow:ive ordcr of 'he robbe.. by 'he jU5-
,icc of its conten,.
That ju"i," cannot be ,he criterion diotingui,hing law from
o,her cocrd"e order. follow. from the relative character of the
value judgmen, acwrding to which a social ordcr i. just. Saini Au
gustine rccogni... U "just" only tha, order which giv.. each hi,
due, .nd appli"'lhi. emp'y formula by saying ,ha' an order i. ju"
only when i, gi".. the true God-who. '0 him, i. ,he J"dco-Chd..
lian God. not ,he god. of ,he Roman<--wh.t i. hi, due, namel)' ,be
"'on!lip ,hal i. expre""'" in a cenain cui.; ,h..,...fnre, according to
Augustine, In order tll>' docs not conform wi,h ,hi, """ulate, can-
not be law, and ,he con,munity ba.led on ,hi. order canno' be a
".te, but only .. robber gang. Wi,h 'hi., Roman L>.w is denied ,he
character of law. If ju"ice i, ""limed '0 be ,he criterion for a
norma,ive Ol"der 10 be d..igna,ed ... "law," ,hen the capitalistic
t<><:rd,'e order of ,he W.., i. no, law from Ihe point of view of Ihe
Communist ideal of j""ice, oor ,he Communist cow:ive orner of
,he Soviet Union from ,he point of view of the capitalist ide.l of
justice. A concept of law wi,h 'uch cnn!C<]uenc,," i, unao:<;eptable
hy I posi,ivi" legal "ienee. A legal order m.y be judged '0 be un
jn" from ,he poin' of view of a certain norm of j"'tice. flu' the
faCI ,hat 'he con'ent of an elf"".i"e >cn;i"e orner may be judged
unju", i, no TOMOn '0 ..f"sc to acknowledge ,hi. t<><:rrive "rner ..
legal order. Af'er Ihe victory of the French Revolution in ,he
eighteenth cemuryand after .he victory oJ ,he Ru"ian Revolu
,ion in ,he ,,,,entieth, the other "at.. , h o " , ~ d ,he distinCI indin.
,inn no, '0 interpret Ihe ce>erdve orden ..tahliobed by ,he rev"lu
'016" \'ol. II, _ "" tll.>p. ".
,ion u legal nrders 2nd <he ae", of .he uvolu';onOTy governmenu
.. toga! a<:lJ, l>ta.u.. the onc government had violated the monar-
chic principle of legitimacy and ,he other had aboli>hed privau
pr<>J'<'rty of the mean, of PTodu(tion. For the l."n.m.d rea>on,
even American COurt. refusod to aclnowledge ""to of the revolu
.;onary Ru<si.n gov..-nmen,,.. legal ""II; ,he COUtU <kdOTed ,hat
th..., ....re no' 'en of. "ate, hut of robber gang. However,
SOOn" the remlut;on_bom .",erei,,, orden .uruM OUt to be .rec-
ti,-c, 'hey w<Te recognized a. legal o.okn. Ih. gm'.mmelll' a. ,taU
g<>vcmment1, and their an........'e a<;U, ,hat u, legal " ...
<i) ugal Obligo/iollJ without 54nelions'
If the law i. COll"",vrd of a. a coercive order. ,bC'll the formula by
whi<:h tbe b..k Donn of a nation.1 legal order i. ""prew:d run. a.
lollows: "Coercion of man agai"" man ought >0 be ex<"tei""" in
the mann<'r and under ,he conditio", dotermined by the hi.tori
cally Ii.., con.titution." Th. ba'ic norm d.legatesth. lim oon.ti-
tution to preMOril>e the procedure by which the nor"", .tipuloting
"""",i.'e acU are to l>e created. To be intapreted obj<,<;t.iveiy as a
legal norm. a norm muU be the .ubj<,<;tive meaning of an act pet.
formed in thi. procedure. hence in a<:rordance with the ba,ic
norm; besid.... <he norm must stipulau: a roereive act or must be
in ...ential relation to .uch. nonn. Together with the l>a.<ic norm
the defini';on of law .. a <:<>ereiv. ord... i. pre,uppooed," From ,he
defini,ion of law ., a <;<>erdvo ord.... follows ,ha, a beh.v;or m.y be
regarded as legally <;Omm.nded (i.. a' ,h. con,.n, of a legal obli.
gation) only if the contrary behavior i, nude the condition of a
coere;ve act dir<,<;ted ogain.. the individual <hu' beh.ving. I, i. to
be noted. how.,..... that the coercive act ;....11 need not be <;Om.
manded in ,hi. lenle' i" ord....ing and may be mer.ly
Against lh. definition of law a. a coerciv. order, that i. ag.in..
the inclu.ion of lhe elemem 01 coercion imo the concepe of law.
the objection. have been mised ('l that legal orden actually con
tain nonn. <hot do not .tipulate coercive ac", norm' ,h.. permi,
or authori.. a behavior. and also nonn. ,bat comnund. beh.vior
.. But 'ho "" ..... " no< KIm""'t wit. "''' ""'nil'"" ..... am.. ,ho bo,I<
"""" b DOt >n<q>L
withou, attaching '0 the opp<j'e bl:havio. a coercive a.ot; and (oj
t1u, ,m, nonapplica,jon 01 ,he norm. that "ipulate coercive "",.
a,e ftequemly not made the condition for at", funCtion.
ing as "",niono,
Th. sond obiff.ion iJ not valid, bcc.au$l: the definition of bw
... a coe,dve otd", can m, rnaintainN e"en if the norm tba' stipu.
I.t... a (O<'Tcive an is not it>ell.....,mially conn<'CtN with a norm
tha' .tt.och.... in a concr<:te ca"" a ..nction to the nonordering or
none"""uting ol the coo,dve act-it therefore, ,h. GO<'T(iv. an $l.ip-
"lat.d in the g<"nOTal nonn io to be imerpre,t obj<'C,ively not a.
commanded b", only as authorized or po:sith'ely permitted (al-
though subjective meaning of the act by which the &ttletal
notm "ipulat ... th. a.o, iJ a (ommanding), A> lor the li....
objection, the definition oE law .. a Old", can be m.in
l.inN with r"'pt to norm, that .uthorize a behavior not
having c""-raet'" of a co<,dve OCt; or nonn. that
permit .lUh a behavior insofa, ... ,hey are no.m., be-
cau", they are ",n""ted with no,m. ,hat stipulate the
act._ A typical e><ampl" for norm. dtN a' argumenlJ
against inclu.ion ol coercion Into ,Ihe of law .re ,he
ootm. of It irguN that the norm. of con
alitution that r<gttla'e ,he p'oced"re of legislation do no, stipula"
oan.:tiono as a reaceion ag.in" nonobsavan<e, Closer analpi.
oho..... that 'h.... are dependent nomu ..... bli.<hing only
one of UndCT which coercivc 3ClJ stipuI."d by
othot" norm. 31" to be otd...ed and Constitutional
nornu .u,hoti.. the legisla,or to cratC norrtU-,hey do not <om.
mand nation of nanns; and thc .tipulati"" of $On(-
"ons do not into qu=ion at alL 11 ,h. p,o,i.ion. of the con
stitution are not obs<Tved, ....Iid legal norms do not into t'X.
i.trnce, the norm. tt<:ated in thil way arc ,'oid or Thi.
","am: the subj"",ive meaning olthc ",u e.t.oblisbed un<onSlltu.
eionallyand therefore not according to the ba.i< norm, is not in-
ter[>fCted as ,hciT objecti,'c meaning or .uch a t"mporo'Y intcrp,c
tation inn"lled."
The moo, importam cas< of norm. which according to trodi.
tional S(icnce ollaw legal obligatio", withont stip"lat.
ing .ann;"n., i. <he O<llllrd n,tural oblig";on. Natural obliga.
!iom a,e obligations ",hoo< fulfillment (.OnnO' "" .=ned in a
(oun, and whoM: nonfuUillme", u not the condition of. civil exe
<",ion. Still, OIle 'pealto of. legal obligation, bccoUl that ,,'hieb,
in fulfillment of a 5O<3lJed n.tunl obligation, hu !>ttn given b ~
one individual to anothor unnol "" ,,"m'ored a. an unju"ified
enrkhmen,. 11 ,hi< U so, however, it "' ...,Iy mean" A genu.,\
norm i. valid stipulating that: (J) if the ""nelid,,)' of. pform.
nee to which the p"rfonnor wa. ltgally not obligated refuse. r..ti
tution, civil execu,i(>ll ought '0 be dir"'ted into ,he pfOp<Tty (>;
the beneficiary; and (oj Ih. vaHdi,y of thi. "",rrion..uipu\.ting
nonn U TOmkIN with , .."",,1 to ca." determintd by lhe legal
oroer, Thi. 'i'uotiQl1, ,horciore, am k d...,,-il>Cd a. a ""rictlon of
the validity of .,,"ction..,ipulating nonn: it i. not nece>oary to
a..ume ,he eJ<i<'<'l>ce of a "'nclionl .... norm.
It i. possible, of COD...... for a l<'gi.l.tor to e.tablish, in" proce.
du... conforming with the ba.ic norm. an ac' whO' 'ubj<'Ctive
meaning i b..havior<ommanding norm, withou, (t) ...tablioh-
ing an act wh"", oubj<'Ctive m""ning i. a nOl;Jn pr<'O<ribing a ",oc-
tion aJ a ,eaction ag.in" the opposi'e beh.vior; and without (.)
,he posoibility of d<'SC1"ibing ,he .i'na,ion ,.. ",.,.triction 01 the ....-
Hdhyof a ..nClion...ipul.,ing nonn." 1n thi> case the mbjeCIi"e
meaning of 'he 'C' in ques,ion cannot be inrerp.eted iu obj...
tive me.ning; the norm, which i. the act'uhi,ive m....ning can
not be imerp...,ed legal norm. bill mn" be regarded .. legally
And ,here .... other reason. why the .ubjective m....ning of an
aC\ ..tabli<hed in conformity with ,he ba.ie norm may be regarded
.. legally irrelev.nt; n.mely, if the .nbjeCIi..... m...ning of .uch an
act i. nO!; a norm th", command., penniu. or authori,.. human be-
havior. A law, es...bli<hed ",iclly according to the comtitu'ion.
m.y hne content that i. not. IIOrm, but the expre..ion of a
religiou. or political theory-lor example, ,he 'ta,ement ,hat ,he
law i. given by God Of ,hat the law i. ju" ot" that Ihe law ...Ii....
the int....., of the emi.. population. Or, to give ano,her example,
in the form of cotutitution.lIy ...tabH.hed >latute the nation'. ton
gratulation. m.y be con<'eyed to ,he he.d of the ,,>Ie on the 0''''''
ol.n .nnivenary of hi. ><;c....ion '0 power; ,hi. may be done
in ,hi. lonn merely '0 inve" ,he congr;uulation. with .pec;al
ooIft1lDi.y. Af,.... all since QllftM..i.u<iorully ..."blWwd KII ..... a-
praonI by wonk. u.. xu mar ba,.., ""y mcanin .. DOt
...., the mnning of ......... If la.. i. ddU>ed at """" at aU. lop!
oci<aa anD<lt diipmot with u.. (J;>Ottpt oll<plly irnl"""". con-

SiDu w law lhc procaIurc by which it it iudl <no
.t.... one might diKinguioh lhil loplly rqubtt:d P<"Xtdurc ..
k,.t ,.".. from ,h. Icpl CDftleo<l ftlablisbtd by ..... pnxlOClaaK.
and "P'""k of. Iq;oJly 1"P1 ront"".. In ondi.iooW Id
m of "'.. this though. is CpI'..-d '0 oomc "",ft.. by lhc di.inc-
lion t>o.",ttnla.. in the fonnallnUC and law in tht' ma'er;,,] stOUt.
Thi, dis,i"",i"" ,h. rae. that not only be-
lu.viur.rcgulallllg norm. arc isluod in 1M lonn of I...,s. but .110
.dmini.'.... ';'. thell.turaH"";oll of. ptlSon, ,h.
approval of ,he " hudget, or judicial dedI;"'" (when, in toin
(ala, ,he l"1lil<!>lor >1.. u. judge). Bu< it would be mo'. conte.
'0 .pul of form of law and content of law r.uhe. ,han of la.. in
1M fonnal and in ,he ,nalC1i>.1 ..n... However, lhe word, "legal
fonn" :and "Iogal cont"m" ... unpreci>c and ...."" misleading in
,hi,reopctt; in order to be in'eJpre.ed as a ltpl ace it is not only
u'luired tha< tk .... be o:m.b1iohed br a certain but
Wo that tk an hI...., a cnu.in ....bjK1in meanilll_ n.c tnftni"l
ckpmds 011 c.hc ddnition of law. prauppaord If>llClh.er wi.h .he
baoic norm. If tk law .. 110I bu. only ...
an oo-dcr .-bI.iWd aoxotdi"l to tk baoic DOnn (and if.
c.hc basic l>OrIIl. is fonnubtftl ...: ....., oughl to behl."" ... tbe h;"
lOrially Iirs! constitution preoaibeo). thm Yll<tionae. ltpl ........
COtlkl aisl. that if. Itpl ........ tlDt unde'r certoin condilion, C(JlIto
maud a human """"vior withoul anotbn norm Aipubting a YII<_
tion ;co a reaction :lpilUt In this 01" tubjco-
mnni"l or an loCI. (OlabliWd in ar.cor<bna with the buk
norm_if this mcaning i. not a norm and in no ion to
r>omI-would be ......nt. Then, a nOTm ts bli.hed t,.,.
lilt cormitution.l l'1li.l.tor .nd commanding. en in hchnior
wi.hout ..,aching. to in nonob""rvancc. could be di..
,ingui.hed from. m"",lnOfm only by its origin; .nd. legal nann
tsl.blithed by cullom could not he di.t;nguid,ed rrOl'!l c"..
,omarily csta.h1ithed moral norm ...11.
II the constitution h.a. (Olabli.hed CU.lOm ... ing bet,
Ibm all -.nl """"" by CUOU>m con>lit.. a port of the
TMrdore.lhm, '" ddinilion of Ia.... whidl. docs not de,......,""
laWai '" onkr. "'_ njcaed (,) Maute onlJ by;".
d..:tin&; the d"""",. of weldon in,o the ddnition 0111... ill ,he
lIw dearly distiopiobtd from any other IOci:al onkr; (a) bea....
cocoa.... is a fx&or oIlP""t u..pom.ace for the ODIIi..... 01 toeial
rdatiomhipo and highly ollbc ookn <:>n"",
t...... ; aod. 00 particul...ly. b;ouot by ddining law ... coc<civc
onkr. a conntttion iI o.c<:oW\.td lor thaI ""'1lS in the calC _
impoTUul lor the ""S"i.1on 01 the law. the law of the n>odern
5UlIC: the conn,;"" betwta> Jaw :rnd ....le. The modeTl' ....c i.
cloIm,wly a rone;.'c ordet'-ll centralized <:oercivc 0'(\(:', limited
in iu ,nntOrw validi,y."
No,m. ,hal ar<: .he .ubj"C,lvc meaning of legi.l ..;.,. acts and
llllo. ImlDllnd a cerlain behavior without the opp<l\lltC behavior
being mode the condition of a ..nction are V<fY rare in mod<'Tn
lqal "'den. If lhe oocial orden d..ignat.d .. law did COlualn .ig.
nilian. IIl1mbns of ..""tionl... norm.. <hen the definition of law
u a coercive ord.... could be queotioncd; and ,llrom the elIisting
_lal orden at law the c1n1lm, of contion were to d...
apptar_ p<ediuat by Man'.oo<iaIimo-lben l.hQe IOCiloI on:Ins
_ld fund.,.",mpl1y th,.;, dL;onc;I('. would
-fromthe poi... of ....... of <be olfttcd definition of thei,
lqaI cbanacr. and the _ial ......... cautitnlai by lhml woulcl
... their as lUI.... III. MMiian __ <bc ....
aloof with thc ........ the bw-would wilber awar.
It ...... pointed 00. nrtitt ""'" if one nonD """,,,,,,ndo I cemin
bchlvior :o.nd I oe<:ond nonn ..ipubla :0. ..naion II met.....
again.. nonoboervlnce. the tWO nornu are tied 10 "llch Thi.
uplrticularly true if a _ial OI<kr_ the legal ordu-eonn"and.
a certain speciAcally by auach,ng I co<rdvc act as I.1ne
lion 10 the oppoliu: bchav'or. a behavior accotding 10
such an OId.u may bc .egatdcd a, commaRded-<J.nd 'II. cue of a
Il'pl ordn' as legaUy comnundcd-<>nly so far '"" the oppooil. be
-a. I" ..
LAW A ~ O sAnJll
havior i. 'he condition of a .unc,ion. If a legal order, .uch ;u a
"a'n" pa..cd Iry parliament, oomai'" One norm ,h., preocribe. a
cetlain behavior and a second norm ,h., a"ach", a "'netio" '0 tI,e
oonob"'rvance of 'he Ii..." then 'he Ii..., norm i. not and independ
en' Dorm, but fundamen'ally tied 10 'he """ond: the Ii ...t norm
me,..,ly d...iglla'es--neg.,i"ely--<he wnditi"" under which ,he...,
Olld "ipulale. 'he une,i",,; and if the ><:<:ond one pt>litively desig.
na'e. the condition under which it "ipolat'" the ",uction. 'hen
'he Ii ...t one iuperAuouo from 'he point of view oi legi.lative
'echnique. For example: 1 a civil code OOIItain. the norm 'ha' a
debtor ough' to pay back the rcaived loan 10 the creditor; and the
<ond norm tha' a civil execution ough' to be dirtc'ed intn the
property 01 the deb'or if the deb'o" doe. nOl repay the loan; then
overy,hing pre<cribed by the Ii...t nonn i. contained wnditionaUy
;n 'he second. Modern criminal cod'" u,ually do no' contain
norma tha' prohibit, like 'he Ten Commandment<. murder. adul
tery. and other ctim... : they limit them..lv", to a"ach penal ",nc
,ion. '0 cenain behavior, Thiho"," dearly ,ha' .. nonn: "You
man not munler" 1. "'pernuo",. i1 a nOnn i$ valid: "He who mur
d.... ough' '0 be puni'hed"', it Iho\V$, lunher, that the legal ordet
indeed prohibi.. a certain behavior by a"aching '0 i' a Anction or
that it commands. behavior by ."aching a "'netion to 'he "PJl'O"
'ite behavior,
Dependent ate al'" those legal nonn, 'hat pt>li'ively penni' a
certain behavior. For....,.. mown before-,hey me,..,ly limit the
.phere of ',didi,y of a kg.l norm 'ha' prohibir.. thi' behavior Iry
attaching a ...nClion to the Dppt>li,e. The example of ..Ifdelense
h:u been ci'ed earlier. Another example i' found in the Uni'cd
N"ion. Challer. Article " paragraph ~ , forbid' all memben to
me force: (he Charter ",tach... to the ult of Iorce the .. nctions
"ipula<ed in Anicle 39. not (he Charter penni .. in Article 5' the
we of fotce:lJ individual or collective ..If-<icfenlt by limi,ing the
general prohibi'ion of Article., paragraph 4. The n.med .rticles
form a nnil. The Charter could ha"" combined (hem aU in a.ingle
artide forbidding all members (0 Ult force which doe. no' Mve
the character of individual or collecti"e "'If-<iefeu", by making the
thw remicted u.. of force 'he condi'iou of a Auction. Ye, ano'her
example: A nonn ptohibits 'he ..Ie of alcoholic beverag.., that i..
mal.. it puni,hable; but th" prohibi""" i, , ..,,>eted by ano,h.t
norm >ccording to wllich 'he sale of "'_ beve.ages, if a Ii"""'" is
obtained. is no, forbidden; that mt3m that 'he sale i' no' puni,h
The ..,.,and norm, restricting the 'pheTe of validity of tbe lin,. i.
a Mpendcnl '10=; it i' rnuningful only in connec,ion with 'he
Ii",; both ferm a unit. Their COnten" may bt in ,he
.ingle norm: "If somebody ",lI, alcoholic ",ithou< a stat.
Ii""".." he ought to bt puni,hrd." The function of ,he merely
ncg;o.tiv. p<rmi.\Oion, oomu,ing in the nonprohibition by the legal
onlor of a ceTtain behavior. no, bt con.id<ted here ..
negative penni..;"" i. not granted by a P"';';'" norm.
A legal norm may nO, only the .ph..-. of validity of an.
other norm, but may entitcly annul the validity. Th..., derogating
n<>ton 100 arc dependen, norm., meaningful only in connection
with other, ..nclion'tipnl'ling nonn,. Furthtt, l<gal nonn, .u
'hmiring a certain behavior a"" dep"ndem norm. like",i.., if ",u
thoTi.ing" i, nndttstood '0 m..n: conltt upon .n individual.
l<gal )'O"'er, tM' i., the pow...- to <Teat. legal nonn., The'" att.
thori.ing nonn, designate onir one of the conditions undtt which
_in .n indcp"ndem norID-the co,""i"e act i' prcs<:ribcd. Th"",
are the norm. th.t authoTi.., 'he c"".,ion 01 general norms: (I)
the norm, of the conl'i'u'ion which rcgttlate legi,lation or in"i.
tute c""om a, a la"'-creating lac,; and (0) the nom" that '"8"I.,e
judicial and admini""'ti"e procedures in ",hich the gene..l nOTm,
created by statute or cullom ore opplie<! by authorized cOnrt< and
adminillrative official' through individual norm, created by ,h...
To give an example: Sup""," the l<gal orott 01 a "'''e pmhihi"
theft by attaChing to it in a ".tu," the P"""lty of imprisonment.
The condition of the puni'hment il not merely the f.ct thot a man
has "01..,. The 'helt ha' to he 'lICcruined by a court authorize<! by
'be l<gal order in pTocedure determined hy the norm' of ,he
legal order, the COUtt has to pronoun... punilhment, d....mined
by ,Utu," or c,,"om; .nd thi. puni,hment hal '0 he executed by a
diffttcnt org.n,The Coutt iuthori'ed to impo.., in <crtain
proced"re, a punishment upon the thiel, only il in a con"i'ution.l
procedure' gene"'l norm i' cre.ted th....",h.. '0 theft. <crt,in
puni,hment. The norm of the c",,"innion, ",hich ."thori,.. the
creation of thi, g<neral nUTIn, d..ermin.. a condition to whkh the
....w ""11 ".<TUU
Annl"" iI auached .,.., 01 Ia.. lha. &tcribts thit .......<ioo
$lll'" ul{ lhe individual, .uthorilcd '0 lcgi.... hn., iautd. VD-
naI.-m armo-ding 10 which. thief 0. 10 boo puni<bed in 'room
way; and i1l.be ooun aul!lorited br lhe Code 01 Cri",inal pl'OCftd.
inp ill a Jl""'"'dUK po"aaihtd br tho. mdt has :ucnuinftllh.a':aD
Indindual has llwf,; and ir lba. coon has ordcm:Il.be
kpIly punia!>mwl; .hm a CIO"Uin..pa ou,gh. 10 P'-
the I""'Uhmmt.N By thus pl.....ing the ru'" of Law tha. dot-
lOibts the law. i. 0. thaI .Itt: DOfIIII 01 1M ctINI.itutioa
... hich the of not'1IIt by 'tfULa.illg lhe
onplliUlion and proeMU.... 01 and \be nor.... 01 a
of Criminal ""'cture ,,'hieh authon.. the crea.ion of
individual nonm or the judicial COIlTt dcci1.ioru bJ rquling
organ,... ion and procedure of Ihe iminal courLt, are
nonn.; for they only condilions und.... which lhe puni
.i"e sa"nion. aT< 10 be exUled. The execution of all cow:ive
.euI.ipulalrd by a Irpl ofd...._including Ihose .ha. are oniued by
au adnliniltnni"e procedure and u- thaI do r>ot have lhe chaT_
acta 01. ..o><:.i.,.._i, wnditioocd in that \11111""'" The con"i.,,-
.ional (lotion of the general non... to boo applied br COlI,U and
"IIrnci.... and \be t:mItion of the individUlI u""",
br whicb tJ>es<, orpm ha.'e 10 apply the gcnnaI norms. a.... as
mIlCh CIlndiu.- 01 \be aectr.ion oIlhe coaciYC act as lhe...."...
....in"""'. 01 the bet 01. .... delia or II oohn dial_a ..hid>
.be lcpl.-..... haw rnao:Ie \be condition 01 connre _ ..... '"'"
not anctions. But tbt ....,.,...1 roor-rn \hat ..ipulatft the act
undcT all thac condi.iont 0. an indqlmdm......r -.R-nen Ir
the coo:rcm: .act 0. Dol COIIImandcd ba::aux its IIoO<trXlttioa it DOt
rnao:Ie lhe condilion 01 a further oonci"" an. If WCll1 lhal in Ihito
"- the COCfCive act .. oUlhorilcd the won!. "au.horilCd' is
used in a wid.... ..,.,..,. It .hen don not lr mnn <onferrin, a
lrpl P""'Cf in lhe ........ 01 a power.o lrpl norm" bm abo
conferring Ihe 'n pcrfonn <ot:Kiyc acts >tipulaled try Ihe
ltgal norm. III a .en.e, then. Ih.. POW" may 01.10 be deoig.
"Olcd a. a legai pow.r.
D'p"ndent norm. ore, finally. abo Il,.,.. Ihat furth....
Ihe mUlling of other nonn., by a concept uoed in tee-
on<! nonn '" by ou.ncn.allr ime'p1'eting a occoo:uI norm ot.her
wi..,. 1'.....umpl., a Criminal C<o:Ie might rontain an arlicl. IIr-
.....w ..",n NAnru:
i"l' MBr munkT i,.o Ix <he JM,hayioo- of 211 individoW
wttith int=oooall, CO'*l 1M deo.th of another ind;vidml.
dc6na IDUrtkr, howtvu. lho utide has
Ie oaI, in connection ..-;,h anick that lOY" Mlf a man
committ mu""",", 1M autbo:JriHd .....n ought 10 impoK 1Mdo'h
paWt}'.- And tItis articlr. apin, is iDsq>anbly o:oonKttd wi.h a
'hird article lhat "P' -n.. darn pnuoltJ is 10 bt' canifd OUt br
II follows. lhal a Iqal onkr ....y tot dlaraoctttUtd ... a ooen:i...
order. c>_lhough 00'1 all ia conci .... acts:
nOm" that do not roeI'd..., IoCU (and hell do
nO' >mm.ond, but au,hori!c l!>e creation of norm. or poIi'i.,]y
penni' ... definite behavior) are depend.1ll nom". ,.. lid only in
COflnt<;',on wilh nonnl. that do nipul>!.e """rei.'e acu. Again, nO!
all norm, that stipula,e a coercive ac, hut only those .hn ltipul..",
the coercive 3<1 a. a rnclion "'lIalo.' a <ttuin ht:havlOT (th.., iI, ""
a ..nction), command" specific. namely 1M OppooilC, !>eba.ior.
Th4, ,,,.,.nore, is another TOuon" why tho 11w don not have ex
a commanding or imp',.,";"e chanacr. Since a [egol .
dtt. in the ........ jUit d<octibtd, il. on:In, it may bt d...
lCrihcd in ICntmal f"'O"O'''.tilll Wo' und.... tpi6c conditiool
(Wol it,. undtt aJDditionl <kcnmiDftl by tIMo lopl ordn) 1pKi6t
conti'" _ ought 10 bt prrfollucd.. All rdCV1lnt ....I....ial
c"rllainm in kpI ordn fill in lb.it td>nuc 01 01- bw
","""bled by ""K 01 ... whidl 11 '" be dis.
linpilMd from kpl __ esublishcd by 1MkpIIUI'-lty.-
"a. 1.
-a. TL
y dc,.rmining Ia",-oo fa, U it is the .ubjec. of a .pe:d6c science
of law---al nonn, it is dolimit<:<i again" nature; and ,denee of
law ~ i n > l . natural "ienec. nut in addition to legal nor""" ,heT.
arc other norm' regulaling the behavioT of men 10 each other, that
iJ, social norm.; and the science of law i. th<:Tdor. not the only di..
ciplinc directed lowud the c<>gnition and dt:sctiptioll oE social
norm. These o,her """iat nonn. may b< called "morah," and ,he
discipline dirttttd toward lheir cognition and description, "eth.
ics." So hr a, jll"i.c i. a pootulat. oE moral., Ih. relation,hip be
tween ju>tice and law j. included in the rclatiomhip between
morals and I.w. It .hould be noted that in ,he common n<3.vof
language, mont! j. often mi,,"" up with c,hia, jUOI .. law i. mhed
up with ,h. ""i=<If law: and ,hat to ethia i. auribnted wh.t;. a
function of moral>: that it regula,.. human behavior. that it "ipu'
lau. duti.. and righu. in other word., that it authoritatively posiu
nonn. wherea> actually it. function i. the cognition and dc.crip-
lion of the norm. that have bttn crcatod by a moral authority or
by erntom. Tho m<thodologieal purity of the .denee of law i.
jeoparditc<! not only httau!oe the bar that separate.;1 from natnnl
science i. ignored, bttt ""en more.lO b<c.au.e the !<:icttce of law;,
not (or not dearly enough) separated from elhia-that no de..
di.linetion i. made betw..... raw and moral .
The "",ial ohar.scttt of moral. i. IOmetim.. called in que"ion
by pointing to those m<mll norm. th I""",ribe a behavior "ot
toward other individual, but toward oneself-.uch a. the norm,
that prohibit .uidde or I"eocribe rour"8'" or eha>lily. But even
th"", "orm. neCur only in the aware"ess of ",,"l1y living people.
The behavior 01 the indi,idual, which ,h"", norm, ptncribe, TO-
f,," directly-it if true----<>nly to thi, individual; but indirectly to
O1h.. merubet, of the community. For this behavior become' the
objttt of a moral norm in tl" con",iou,n"", of d,e community, only
beam", of its consequences 011 the community. Enn the so-called
obligation, toward on"",]( are social obligation. They would be
meaningless for an individual Iiving in isolation.
A distinctioo bot",.en 010131, and law cannot relate 'n the behav_
ior to which the norm, of these two social orden obligate man.
Suicid. may be forbidden not only by moral" but also by Jaw;
courage and cltot.l,ity may be mnral as well a.logal obliga,ion'_ Nor
is the frequently a.""",d opinion Correc' that law prib.. oxta_
ml and moral, intemal behavior. The norm. of bo,h orders deta_
mine both lind. of behavior. The moral virtue of courage con,i".
not merely in the intetn.l quality of feadeom""" but also in.n ox
ternal behavior cooditioned by this quality. And if, On the other
hand, a legal order prohibits murder, it prohibits not only the
btinging abou' a man', death by the e"temal behavior of ano,her,
but aloo an intemal beha,-ior, namely ,he intention to bring about
ouch a result_ The "imemal"' behovior_po"ulated morally a<;<;QTd
ing '0 lOme moml philooophen--i, .uppo<ed '" l11.i" in behav
ior which, in order to be qu.lified a, "moml;' must be directed
.gail"t O1,e'. inclinatiom or .gain!t one', egoistic;>1 inte..... So far
a. thi.< merely meam an obligation cre..cd by a moral norm to he-
h,,-e in a cetlain w.y i. 'o"'y that ,hi. norm i. valid,
even if inclination or egoistical imerest ate opposed '0 the COm
manded hehavior-then thi. also applies '0 obligation. "',....d by
legal nonn. It i. una,-oidable tha' a social order "'ill pr..cribe a
behaviot that i, poSlibly directed against some inclination. or
egoistical ;ntere't> 01 the individ"ah whose beh.vior the oro...-
ulates. It would he ,upern"o". to prescribe onl)' a belravior tha,
c""form. '0 all inclinat'o,," and imerest. oJ 'host wbjrctrd 10 ,h.
nonn. People follow their indination. or try '0 re.lite their in'.r
em even withoU! being oblig.d to do 10. A soci.l order i. mean
ingful onl}' if a .llil.,ion i. aimed., other ,h.n ,h. O11e ,h.. re.ult>
when evcrybody follow. hi' inclination' or tri.. to Teali,e hi. in-
'''''''', which would be pTe..nt 'he , ...1idhy and
n... t>f a .odal order,
It i. '0 be noted that, if individual,mbjected to a ,oda.! ord... ..,.
,ually IJc,have in conformity wi'h 'he nOrlltS of that order, they do
10 only because ,hi, behavior with their indina'iun Or an
egoi'tic.ol int.....t, which wa. elicited by the social order and i.
possibly-but no, nw,,,,,,rily--oppos<:d '0 the indination or in'.,-
e1t that would be pre..nt wi'hou' thc intenerence of the social
o,der, A man may have con,radictory inclinati"". or inter..u. Hi.
actu.l behavior then dcpcndo on which indina'ion i. more inten,
,ive, which inlere" monger. No social ottler i> able to eliminat.
m.n'. inclina'io... and egoi"i...l imer.... '" motiv.. of hi, actions
and omi..ions. The social ottler Can only create. if it i. to be ellec_
tive, the inclination or the interes. to behave according to the on-
order and oPPOOC them to indina'ion. and egoistical imeresu
thaI would be pte..nt without that order,
The mention<d ethical doctrine i. somelim.. unde"'oo<! to
mean that only a behavior dir",,'<d again" inclination or egoi",i.
cal im.....t h.. any moral value. Since "to hav.. a moral value"
mean. to conform with a moral nonn, ,h.. doctrine impli.. that
morab prescribe t<upp,.... one', inclination' and not .0 Tealiz<
one'. egoi,,;cal intere.u, but to OCt from other motive., Th"
mea", that the moral norm refen only to th.. moti"e 01 one'. be-
havior, Apatt lrom the lac. ,ha' the fulfillment of the postul.te to
oct (rom motiv.. other 'han inelin.,io", and egoinical int.....t i.
p<ychologically impossible. moral order wh"'" norm relate. only
to the moti,'C o( the behavior pr..uppo.." dillCTent socia.! order.
which prncribco an CJfternal behavior, A notm of morals which re-
lates only to th.. motive of the behavior. i. incomplete; it
em be valid only together with tlte nonno that prescribe the exter-
nal behavior, and tit.,.. norm., too. mull be moral nunnl.. Not
every behavior i. moral wh.n ir i. pcrform<d again" inclination
and ego"tical im....." If one obel" somebody .1.. command to
commi' muttler, then thi' act cannot have any moral value, .ven if
performed again" hi' incHn"ion or egoiotical inter.... a, long ..
murder i' morally forbidden, A beh.vior can It...e moral value
only if not merely th. motive but tb. behavior i""lE conform' to a
moral norm. In pronouncing a moral judgment. the moti,. and
.. LAW""," .......U
IlK -,v;ltcd beha..ior c:aonoo: be ..,pu:olCd. For this ru...... ""'-
1M concq>t 01 monls cannot Ix limited to the nona:
your ioclina<iont, Iorqo the raliD.<ioo 01 JUUr qoielic:al in..".
nt. Bu. o:>Iy by '" 1iOl;';<II tfw: ..........pt is it 10 diJtift.
JUish IDlInh llIlId law ... tlK former rebtiD to in,,.,..,,,,1 bdl.I,ior
mol <.he lau.". prucribiJII abo ..... 1t,,,ttI:I.l1 bdnvior.
9- MOIlAu, " POII.,1\"1: 0t.Du
Nor is it to diJIinguiJlllaw and"..,.,.1s by rriCl'CflU to tile
CR'llion U1d applicaliOll 01 ,heir nornu- Moral norml, p.i>cly
lik,. It:gal n<>l'UlS, arc created by cUllom and by "'u of will (for a;.
ample, of a prophet or the founder 01 a ",Iigion, .uch .0.1 Jesl1l). In
Ihi, ..noe moral!, lih the law, bec:oU-Ie actually posited, are pos;.
"ve, and only positi.",. morals are the object of ",ienLific e,hics.
even a. only posi,ive law il ,he object of 'he lciencc of law. II i.
true <hat a mor.ol or<Ier don not p"",idt lor OTJ!"nl workin8 ..,.
cording .n the principleJ of division of labor, thaI is, central or
p'" lor 1I", appliouion of nomu.. This appl ication COO'WlS in ,he
moral ......Iualion 01 othtT individ....Jo' behavior ill rqul.ttd by
lhis onkr. BIlt, a primitirc lopl oRIn too is denIQli.ltd and, in
!hi< nspt<:., is jrwli.. inguilJ'lable from a monJ. ord<:r. " is loir'"
cant that 1M gmenl inttrnalionallno_
tin>cl. io comickrcd m<:rrly :as in,""""",! ",crall.
A diJl'"",,," ben<ua law and monls <1nnIX be found ill ..Nit
tlw tWO oocW onkn oommand or prohibit, but <>nly in "- thq'
(O<TImond or pwbmit a cnuin behavior. Tbt furwfammtal diln-
mel!' httwrm la.. and <nonb iI: \.0.... a cocrci..., ordtt. w, is, a
n-..t;'<e ord<:r <bar '0 bring abou' a CClUin behavior
by attaching '0 1M oppooite behavior a -nlly orpniz.ed
10: ..h....u. moral. ill a ooc:ial ordtt ..ithout Iud> pnc,ionl.
...l1oCtion. of """"I oppmval norm
conforming and di...ppronl of norm-<>ppoting behavior.
and no cotrdvr al:u art :as oanctio.u.
Oner la.. ond mor.lo are rognized .. dillr"",1 kinds of norma
Ii ... tyRrms. thr 'l .....ion of thr relatioonahip of law and monlt
.ri.... Thi, queo'ion h.. ''''0 meaning>: One, What i, ,he relation
,hip be'we"" the 'wo? The oth...-, What "ughl i, be, If both q"....
,ion. arc int.tmingled, miounde"'tandings re."II. Th. fim qu...
tion i. rornetim.. amworttl by uying th.. law by its very na'me i.
moral. which m""nl th" ,he hehavi", commanded. or prohibi,ed.
by legal nor"" i, al", commanded or prohibited by ,h. moral
nonn. Furth.rmore, tha' if a ><>cial order command. a beh.vior
prohibited by morab or prohibits a beh,vior commanded by
mornb, thi, om.r i, no' law. because i, i. not jnu. Th. q"estion is
.1", an,wered, bowever, by .",tiog ,ha' ,h. law may, bu, n.ed no<,
he moral_in ,h. m.ntioned scruc, that is, "j""'"; ,ha, a IOciaI
ord.r ,ha, i5 no, mornl (which m.an>: jn") may neverthcl... he
law, ,h. po""la i. admitted ,ha' ,h. law ough' to be
moral, which mns: ju".
If th. qu."i<m of ,h. rclation.<hip he'w.en law and mornlJ i.
und.....'ood a' a que"ion conc.rning ,he con,en, of law and no' a.
a que"ion conccrning ilS form; if it i, ..id ,ha' law according '0 its
nalUr. has a mo..1 con,en' or co""i,u'", a moral value; 'h"" one
a"""" by .tatemenu ,ha, law is valid within thpber. of
morab. ,ha, ,he legal ord...- " a part 01 ,b. moral order, ,ba, law i.
moral and ,h...-c1or. by iu nalUr. just. So fa, ., '\lch an ....rtion
aim, a' a j""ificotion of law....... nd ,hI' i. ita 'ru. m.aning_i, m""
preo"ppooc ,ha' only one moral order i. valid cons,ituting,n abS(>-
lute moral valu.; and ,ha, only norm. that conform wi,h ,bi.
moral order and therelou comti1\l'. an ab",1 u'. m"",l value. con
be regarded.,.. "law," Thi, means: one proceeds from a defini,ion
of law, wbich determine> law as a part of m"",]" which iden,ifies
law and ju"ice.
But if an ahoolu," nl". in gene",l and an ahoolut. moral nlue in
partkular i, ujcc'cd from ,h. point <>f view 01 >cientific cognition,
bccau.. an ab",1 ute ,,,I u. can be a.. "med only on ,he ba." of reli-
gio". faitb in 'be .hool"t. and ,ran"""nd.nt authorIty of a dei,y; if
one m,," admit ,h.t. from th;. vi."'poin,. an ab",lu'e moral ord.r
excluding ,h. po..ibili,y of the validity of .no,her motal <lrd...-
doeo no, .xilt; if on. d.ni", ,ha, wbat i1 go<><! or ju"" according to
,hat moral order il go<><! under all drcum'tane<:'. and wba, i. evil
1<c<nding '0 that order i. ,,,il under all circum...."""'; if, further,
one admiu lhat at diff,,,,,,, dme. and with different nations and
""." within ,h....me na,jon. depending On .arion, d""". and
profession.. very dill"'''1 and contradictory In",...l aTc
"did; if OIl. grams ,II" under different cin;um".nc" different
MharioT may be con,idOT.d good or evH. just or unjust, and noth
ing h", to b<: con,ider"" good or ""il, jn" or unjust. unMT all P"'"
.ibl. circunnlancc.; if. in ,hott, one aclnowledge> that monl
val"". arc only T.l.,ive: 'h.n, ,h. assertion that "",,;,1 nOTIT" rnn",
have. moral cont.nt, ro"" be ius' in order '0 quAlify a. bw, urn
only man that ,h... norm. mn" contain something common to
all possible moral 'l"''''", as 'f"'''''" of justi
. In view of
,mordina!)' heterogeneity, how.,,,,, of ".11,. mcn in fact h",. con.
as good OT nil. just or uoju.. , "' different time. and in
different phccs, no clement com,,'on to ,he cotllentl of ,he variou.
mnral on:lcn io de"ctabk It ha. been ..id ,h.. all moral 'j'Olem.
pn<tul..e to f'T""""'e the peace, to ioflic' force on no one. But al
ready H....di'u. taught that war i. not only the "fath",," (hat i"
the ClUIe, 01 e"erything, bu, al", ,he "king:' ,h.. i .. the high..,
norm'Cr..ting au,hori,y. the highe" 'alue. hence "good"; that
righ, i, figh,. and figh' therefore in... And le"" "YO' "Do
you ,hink ,h.. I have come '0 gi"e peace on earth? No, I tell you,
but rath.... divi'ion...
lem, proclaim. thereby tha, peace i, no, the high." value, at
lea" no' for 'he moral md.... of ,hi, world. h i, possible '0 deuy
'h>t tnday many ate cO""inccd that war h.. mnral ,alu.. be.
caule i, mak.. JXl"'ible ,he prac,ice of vir'u.. and ,he realiza,ion
of ideal. that arc higher ,h.n the "alue of peace? Or i, the mnral
ity of pacifi"" uncont""cd? lloc. the philosophy of liberali",,_
,ha, compe,ition, cOIl'.", guarantee the best .tat1l' of .odety-
conlurn, with ,he ideal <>f pe.ce? Thi. ide.l doc. no' reprelen' the
highelt \'aille in an moral .yo'.m. and no vaille at all in IIOnte, But
if on. conld detec, an elem""t common '0.11 mor.l ,yotem.
",,-lid 11(I far. ,h"e would not be 'ufficiettt rcaton to regard a, no,
"moral" or not "ju"''' aud th.-rdore not .. "law" a CO<1'Cive order
that doc:t no, contain thi. elemen" tha' commatld. a behllvior
'hat 11(I far in no communi,y hat bc.-rJ co",iderd to be good or
jus< and th.t prohibit.< a behavior ,hat'" fur in no
h.. heen cnn,idetcd '0 be o'unjult, For if one dnct not pr<,-
lJIW " ~ D "'0.....'-'
.uppooc a" a'pTlon, that U, ahsolute. ",oral value, one is u""ble
to determine what mUll be <:onsidered good and e,it just and
unjUSt, uud... all circulUsta""",. And theu, undeniably, aloo th..
which ,he mentioned co<:TCi"e orde, command. may be con.id,
ered as good and ju", aud that which It prohibi'" as e,il and
unjust; so that thi> OTdet too i>-relati'eJy-moral Or just. All
moral orders have only one thing in common: namely, that they
are social notm. that i. nOT"'" thot order a c<rLoln beha,iOT of
",e"-directly or indirectly-toward other ",en. All possible moral
.y.t=. ha'IC in oommo" their lorm, the "ought": they p,eoerib<
something, they ha"e normati,'e ch"aer. Mor:ally good is th,t
which COllform. ,",'Ith the social norm th.t pr.....lbe. a certain
human beha,iOT; mOTaHy evil thaI which I. oppooed to .ucb
nonn. The ",l.tl'e mo",l ...Iue i. cstabli"'ed by. soci.l norm that
men ought to be beha"e in. cert.in ,",'ay, Nonn and ,alu. are OOT-
telat;"e oon..,plS.
Unde, these pre<uppositiOll' the .tatement "Jaw i. moral by n.-
ture" does not mean that law has a certain COlllent, but that it is
nonn-n.mely a social nonn that men ought 10 b<ha-. ill a ..,'tain
way. Then, in this ,dative len", e"ery law i. moral; e"ety Jaw
con.utute. a_relau,<-moral "alue. And this mrans: The que..
tion abou, the relationship between l.w and morals is not a qu","
tion about tlte cottlent of ,he law, hut one about its form. Th.n
one cannot ..y. as is sometim", said, that the Jaw i. not only nOTm
(or command) but also cot",i'ute. or rraH>es a value-sueh an as-
..r,lon i. meaningful only if an absolute, divine ....lue i. p",.up-
posed. For the Jaw com,;,,,,,,,a value preci..ly by the fact ,hat it is
a nOTm: it <:omtit"'''' the legol volue which. at tbe same lime. I. a
(telati"e) moral value: which merely means that the law Is no,m,
The theory, howe,er, that the law in ito ."..,nee repr....,,'" a
moral minimum_that a c""reive order. to he r.,..rdod as law,
must fulfill a minimum moral poo,ulate_u nt>< th....eLy accep'ed.
For '0 assume the ",i"enee of this pootula,e ["",upposes an abso-
lu,e lUor;olity. determined Ly i ... oo",ent, OT at leasl. con,ent c.om_
mon 10 all positive moral 'y"ems-usually ,he ideal of peace. Fmm
what has been ..id it foHo....that ,he 1.,..1 ""lue, os uord h....e. does
no, rep",sent moral minimum in this sense--tha' .pecifically,
the pe.ce v.lue is not an element es:sential lor the con..,p' of law_
, SU'loaAnoH or LK.u,.
... Mooo..u. o...as
If i. it:oooumed that 1.1... monl by then, PfeM>ppooi......
monl ........,. it it _"'Iess 10 dClWld dw <Iw law
"",ItI to bt monI. Sl'Cll is IQMniogful ...Iy (and tile
prauppoocd .....-alit)' yanhticl for the II. only). if
<Iw pa;o.iblli.J' of the Qiileou or an immonllaw is
in 0lhcT wOldl. thr definition of low doa no< inchock ,hot
olm"..l O)n'OD'" J( 1>eooy of pooiti..., la. &m.andJ. di"inction
bttwem law and monol. in gene",I, and law and justice
in panicul,., thm ,hi. i, di,,,,,,M .inot ,he ,,,,ditioml
view, r<gardtd " obvious by moot juri ..... which prelUPpostt ,hat
only cne absolu,ely ""lid moral order and there lOT< only <>'" .bso.
lute junk"j".. The demand for ...""ra,ion be......" bw and
monlJ., law and ju"ice, "",.no .hat ,h. nlidi.y of. poIoitivc lopl
order it ind<pendmt of ,he valid;,y of wit one, 001.1, .,.lid, at-
IUl<: mont ord...., "lb." moral order. the moral or<kr".r u<d
I...u. If only Tda,i'-e moral ""lueo aTO pr....ppooni. 'b.....hot f'<""
,ulate Lh>.. the law "",101 '0 be moral, tho, it, jUOl:. can only ",un
tho. the Ionnati... of pooitin law ""llh. 10 conform 10 OMopocilic
nw:w:al among tM many S)-.tnm. Thi" J>oo,,'nTI".
<loa not adlKk the poooibili.y of II... pou:ulatt tlw tlw lorma."'"
of pooiu.-e law ""&fl. 10 COGl....... w,lh ano<hrr monol _J"C1n_nd
oo....lIy perbaF- <Xl<Ifor<m wi,b i._hik i. do<. ..... coni"",, wilh
a monI.,....... th>.. i. dilf...m. I 'l. It prouppooi"l only .da-
.ive valu.... !he dnn;,nd u madot 10 ratt law and ..-.1. in gm.
.....1. and la.. and j ......... in panicolar, <ben l.hio dnnand <loa not
mean th>.l La... and """"I" I.w ..... af<' unma.ed; i. doeo
..... """"n lhal !he conrqx of law il ouWde conrep' of
Good. For Ihe rol""'p< oil"" '.good" cannOl k tk6ned Olherw,,,,
lhan al ,ha, whid> ought .0 be: tha, "'hid> confo"", 10 a lOCia]
norm; and if law il .. nonn. then ,hi, Impliel ,ha. wha' il
lawful i. "good." The postulate, made under .he ,uppo,ition 01 a
rellti,'i"ie '"eory of valu. '0 "pan.e law and ,noral. and III......
fu.. law .nd jUllie m...ly m.an' thu: (I) if a legal ord.. i.
judgcd 10 be moral or immonl, jult or unjwI, II>oc .""Iultions
"'prtM the relalion 01 the legal ordn to on" of manJ f>C*ibl.
....w ANn MOa",...
monl '}'Ite.'" but not to "the" moral ..m therefore con,d
tu'" only a relative, not an absolut. valu. judgment; (o) ,he
of a p",iti".legal ord<"r does no, depend on itJ conformity
with OOme monl '1"tem.
A rela,i,i"ic theory of .....Iu. i, often mi.und....tood to mean
that th",.., are no val".. and. particularly, that there i. no ju,tice.
It mean. ta,h., Ih.t "olue, are tel ..iv., not .b$Olut. that j""ice i,
,.Ia,i"e no, ,,!oJ"'e; that 'he "alue. as e"abli.hed by Our ItOTm-
crea'ing acU caltnot claim to e""lude the I"""ibility of opposite
It i, obviou, that merely rela,;'. mor.l. <:anno' render th" func_
tion-<Dnrion,ly or ttO<;<>nJCiollJly demand.d_to provide an abJo.
lute .tandard for ,he """Iu",ion of a poslti ... legal order. Such a
ltandard of evaluation .imply cannot he found by >eienti/ic cogni_
tion. But thi. d.... not mean tha' ,here i, no ,uch 'tandanl-e,,,,ry
mor.l '1"'''''' Can ..-rve a"lIch. But olte must he aware, in judging
a po,;,i"e legal order from a moral poi", of ,iew (a. good or bad,
as just OT unjll") tha' ,h" n.ndard of """Ination i, ,el.,i,e and
that alt evalnation baJed On a differ.ot moral .y"em i. nO, .,,_
cluded; fllnher, tha' a legal ord.r evaluated on the of on.
moral .y".'" as unju", may well he ev.:Ju""d a, just on the ba.i,
of ano,her moral '}'I'em,
'3. JUSTIF'CATtON 0 .. LAw nrROUGI< ;\f"""...,
A juoti/ic.atiOtt of posi,ive law through morill i. po"ible only if a
COntra" can "xi,t betwe<n ,he moral and th. legal nonn_if 'h.....
can be a morally good and a motally had law. If. motal ord.r.lik.
the one proclaimed by Paul in hi. Letter '0 ,h. Roma", pre>eribeo
to observe under all circnmstance. ,he nOrm, enact<d by ,h. leg.l
,",hOTi,y .nd 'herehy """Ind.. any di..,epancy between it and
po.iti,'.law, then it i.< not ]>OMible '0 legitimi,. th" positive law by
,he ord.r. For if all positive law, a, willed by God, i, just
(like everything .1.. th.l ."i,,, i, good in$Olar a, it i. willed by
God); and if no posi,i,'. law i.< unjust, beca"se no,hing that exim
can be .vil; if law i.< identified with justic.; and if ,ha' which i, i.
id.ntified with that which ought to be, then th. concep' of justic.
a. well a, 'he concept of the Good have los, th.lr m..ningt. If
no,hing bad (unjus') .xim. then nothing good (jllst) can exi".
u,w .."" MOMoU
The to difeTrntLotl: law and monb, and
this: from "andpoint of cognition of
Jaw, it. justification by a mo"u oroeT diffeTrnt from
legal order, i. hnl"""ttI. ba:au... of of Jaw i.
not 10 or its .ubj<'Ct, bue '0 btow and d""CrilH'
it. legal nonm.:u prescriptiom of wha, ought to IH'. rom,i
value>; YOt funCtion of sci.nce of law i. no, ,h. evalua
tion of iu .ubj<'C' hut iu valu.,.fru dOllCTiption. Th. legalllCicnti"
docs not id.ntify him..lf wi,h any valu. no, even wi,h the legal
value he dellCTibcJ.
If ,h. moral order d"", "ot prcocribe to obey 'he positive legal
oroer under all citeum,mnc,"", if. in o,h.. word., a discr.pancy be-
a motal and a legal otd., i. possiblo. ,ho" ,ho pos,ul.,. to
sq>arate law .nd moral", sci"""" of law and ethics mean' that the
validity of positive legal nonn< doe, not depend on ,hdt confonn
ity with ,itc moral order: i, mean., tit., from ,ho '<andpoint 01 a
cogni,ion diTCctod toward positive law a legal norm may be con
.ideTed ....lid, e,'en if it i. at ....'i.n.. with tho nlOral ord....
I' i. par>monttl and cannot be cmpll..izct! cttough '" nndeT
.tand tha' no' only on. mor.1 order ....i.... but many diff"",n' and
.von conflicting on..; that a po.itiv. logal order may on ,h. "'holo
conform with the mo",1 ,i.... of a certain group of population
(e.pecially the lUling ono}. yet may conflict with moral vi.w.
of an",h.. group: and th.., abov" all, ,ho judgrnctt' of wh.. i.
monlly good OT ""ii, morally ju"iliahl" OT unju.tiliablo, iubjtet
tocOll,;nuouo al i. tho I.w. and that. legal ord.. (or
of iu normll} tha, at ,ho timo of iu validily may have conformed
wilh lh" I"'''uht.. of th. moral or,u,T th.n preval.n'. may .. iIl be
judged to be immoral loday. The lh..i., "'Idoly acccptcd by .radi
lIonal.don.. 01 law but T"jcetcd by the Pu,.., Theory of Law. thaI
the law by in natute mUll IN' mo",l aod ,ha' an immoral """ial
oroor i. nOl leg.1 ordor. 1""'''1']>0''' an absolute mornl order.
th., ill, on. valid at all ,imo. and plac... Other",i.. i, would nOt be
possible to evaluate a """;al ordor by a 6xO!d ".odard of
tight .nd wrong, indopend..., of .nd pia...
Th. tll ..i. lh" law I. mo",1 by n"uro-in ,h" ..n.. ,hat only a
mo",1 "",,;al ord.r i, T.jO:Cled by ,h. Pure Thoory of Law
not only bo:c<tn.. thi, tIt",i. P""'PPO<O' .n moral ord...
hut .1", lH'cou.. in It> acu",1 .pplication by tho lICico<;" of. I.w pT'"
Qiling in a unain ltpl communi.,. this tb<sis amotlD.. to an un-
ai.icd ju<ti5<:a.tioI1 of tho: national onkr that eotuti,u,..
",i._uni.,. For i. io takm for pnttd tha, """......... na.ioaaJ
cnnci"t ordtr io" Iqal ord.... 'Tllc dubiouo tt.ar>dattI of an abto-
lu,e ....,..Ji..,. io appl.... 0011, to tht: mnci"t ordtr of otI>C'f .....iom.
Onl, thty art disqualil'iod at immonl and thtrrf...... ao nonlaw,
wlom ....., do not coalonn with tttUin ",,",ub'tt. with wttich
OM" ....... mncin ortkrcoal<H= lorCPttlple, whm thty fcctlg
or do nrnsni: pri""tt p'''P'''''. or whm""" are d........
cno,ic or democn'ic. Bm tincc one'. own coerrin order u
law. thm. according to ,he above-meruioned .hai.. it mutt a1Jo be
moral. Such juttification of the pooiti"e law m', poli.ically be
convenient. "'en ,hough logi<:aily inadmi..ible. From ,he poin' 01
"iew 01, .denee or la... it mUlt be rej,m. i, II n<>l the
tuk of thi donee '0 ju"iry thela... bj' aM.>lu,e or rel",I"e mnub;
bu' to 1now and 10 d<ICribe i,.
'4. N....l M TIIZ OaJItCT
no: Scu."C& OF lAw
he obvious SlUemenl that the obj<'\Ot of Ihe ",irnce of law;'
the law Include. the I... ohvioul 1t.>leme1lt that the objte. of
'he ocienee of law "Ittdl MTml, b,,' human b.thavior only '0 ,h
,Uent tha' it i. by Iq:al norms:u colldition or t_
qll""'., in oth... words. to the ""'ntl thai human b.thavior it
con,..., of legal Ilonru. 10''''''''_ nlatio<u a' obju of l!><e
1Cic<lce of bw I.tpJ rdatior>l only. tIw is, "" rtlatioas oomti.
tUted b'/'Irpl """""". no.. ocimce of law end.eaWln '" UIIlIpte-
bend iu object "I..,.n,:' lWDdy from u.. ......-point of the law.
To comprctlmd ......ething l<plly """'". to coa>prd>md lOme-
thing law, that il,:U lep1 norm or .. the""".", of a legal nOrm
......... determined by. legal nonn.
S.....TIC AND Dv"'.... 'c T"UIO.Y
w. ditci"",ioh a ...tic and dJ""'Mit tMorr oIla <kpmding on
wlwther the OIIe or l.hc other .. .....pha..m:I_d...
h........ belLa....... by nonm .... 1M noor= rogubUI\II
h.......n b<'1uo'';0I" {thaI is, wb<:lher the togllition iI ditt:Ul:d IOWllm
lhe legal '-1DS cua,fd. applied, or obtr<d by acu of h..""", .....
havioror toward the ocu of <TCIltlon. application. or obcdimcc de-
terminC'd by lqrotl norm.)." A<:<:ording to the lin
objecl of the lheory of l.w i, law a, a 'plem of v.lid nonnl-
lhe law in it> >lale of 1'<:St. Ae<;o:>rding 10:> tM 5CCo:>nd. tM <>bjecl e>l
.0. .., .....-...
logal th>ry is the proce. in which law is croated and applied
_the law in motion. Wh.... by it i. 10 be noted ,ha, ,hi> pn"'...
jn"n i. rognJa,<d by law. For it i. a most ,ignifiant p'0uJiatity of
Jaw ,ha, it regula,es ill own crea'ion and applicotion. The crea-
tion ollhe no,ml-\h. pmc... of legi,lodoll-i, regu-
lated by the constitution; ,he formal or procedural ....'nto. regulate
the appl""'t;On of the malmal .... lU'.. by the con'" and ..dmi,,;'"
,ntive OTWin', Th...<fore. ,he aclI of law creation:rnd la"" applica.-
,ion" th>.t <OlUli,n'. the legal process are comidcred by legal
cognition only to the """01 that they lorm ,h. wn'<'I\' 01 legal
norm.-lh.t they are determined by legal norID'; h<m<:c ,he dy
namic of law i 1.., di=,ed toward legal nonn., namely
,oward ,h= ,ha, regulate the creation and application of ,h.
,6. LG..L No..... RULI: OF LAw
The .aen<e of law, by comprehending human behavio, only 10
thxt.1ll that it i. ,h. 'ontont of_which ",cans. d"'ennined by
-legal norm>, <epT<$<llts a no,ma,ive int.rpretation 01 it' obj..:'.
Th. "i.ru:. of law d",ribe. tho leg.l Dotm. (Tted by",," of
hum.n !>ohnior and to be applied and obeyOO by ouch acu; and
,her.by d.seri,,", ,h. notm-<:ostitutOO la,ioo. be'wn the fa'tI
d<t.nnioed bj' tho no,m'. Th. """0'" by which tho seieoce of
I.w d<><ribos ,h... no,"" and r<lationships muot be diotiogui,hOO
.. "rnl", of l.w" fTOm tho I.g;ol OMm, that aT< cre..oo by the l<gal
authori,i". app1iOO by th.m, and obeyOO by ,h. logal .ubj.cu.
Rul" of law (in a des<riptiv. seose). on tho other ltand, ar. hypo.
tltctical judgm.nu .tating that according to a n..ion.l or illlcma
tion.ll<gal ord.r, uod.r ,h. condi,ioo. d.tctmincd by this ord'T,
co,tain consequeoc d...nnined by tb. ordeT ough, to take place.
usal norms aT< not judgmonts, th.t i., th.y arc nO, otalCm'nts
abom an obj..:t 01 cognition, According to th.i, meaning they ne
command,; th.y may be .lso J"""11i..ions and authorizations: but
they arc not instruction. a. i, often maintainOO wh.n law and ju,
i.prud.ncc are .rroncou.ly <qualcd. Th. law comm.nd. pcTllli",
or authorn... but i, docs oOt "teach." How.va. when l<gal nornu
are linguiotically .xpr...ed in wo,m and "menees. they may ap.

pear in the i<>rm of ....rtiontaling be.... Fo< the norm
that lhd. ough' to "" puni.hM i> h"'luently formulated by ,he
legisJaoor in ,he ",menee, "Tholl ;. puni,hw by imprioonmen,";
the nOlm ,ha, the head of .ta,. i. authoriud to .""dude i.
""pr<.-ed by ...ying: "The head of .ta,e conclud.. "<,,,i..:' 1m
pan.n" i. not ,he lingui.(ic ferrln, hut the meaning 01
,he law<tt.,ing, llorm'po>iting act. The meaning of lhe act is
diffe",,,, from the meaning of til<, law-<!""'ribing mi. of law. The
dif!<relltia,i(>ll between "rule of law" (in German: RcchI$-Sat<J
and "legal nono" (in GemLOIl Rech...N",m) ""pr..... the cliff....
enee be,w""" lhe function of lopl cognition and ,h. entirely
diffe<en' function of legal authority ropr...nted by the organ. of
thelegalwmmuni,y. The ><ienee of law hn to know ,he JoW-<lJ it
"eTc from ,he ouuide-,md to describe it. The legal org.n.. a,
legal authoriti.., have to c,."ate the law "" that afterward It may be
known and described by the seien of I.w. It i. troe that the law
applying organ, al", ha"e to know-u it were Irom the imide-the
law they are applying. The legi,lator who appl i.. the con'titution
ought to know the con"itution, and the judge who appli.,. the law
ought to know the law. But thi, knowledge iJ UOt the .,...,ntial ele
mem o( their (nnction.; it i, only the preparation for their func-
It i. further true tltat, according to Kant', epi"emology. the
science of law a. c<>gnition of the law. like any cognition. has con
"itutive chancter_it "cre...,. iu object insofar as it comprehend.
the object as a m.aningful whok Ju" a, the cha", of sensual pet.
ceptions become. a cosmOl, th.. i.. "nalUre" ... uni6ed .y"em.
through the cognition o( " .. ural science, so the multitude 01 gen.
eral and individual legal nonm. c,."ated hy the leg.l org:"'., be-
comes a unitary 'Y'tem, a legal "order;' through the ..:ience of law.
lIut thi, "creatit\ll" ha, purely epi"emological ch.tlI"er. It i,
fundamentally different from th. <:rcation o( obj" by human
lahor or the c,."adou of law by the legal authority.
The difference between the function 01 the science o( law and
the functIon of the lepl authority, and th<tchy th. dIff<t<JtCe be-
tWeen the pT<.dllCt of the on' and tha, of the o,her. i, fre,!uently
ignored. Lingui"ic.allj law and science of law a,." often used
.ynonyruoUily. For example by .peaking of "dauical intern.tional
Ct, JOlt, ",Da<ctl... -Tt>< """,1,",1,.. wn<>rr '" tbe jooJid>1 d<tiMoL
b .... one aaually me:uII a <nUln lheol'J of internationalla..; .,..
by opeakingol 01. law ". IIOU= of law, one mnm lhal 1M
tcimct ofla.. an t.! a bindi,. .s..;.ioo of a Law cue, Bu. (ho,
oOmce of law an ' Jamk Ibe law. it CUIDOl jlfnaibt a =-
Wn bdlarior liU w law crated by t/>r lrpl au!heri'T (m thr
form of .. iftdiridual 1>QnIl>). No jurist an <kay Ibe <So-
.....Lial di.""mtt bnWftn. law published in the olliciaI p_
In,,, and a tc;mlilie commmtary '" this bw-bctwcnl ,he penal
CUlk and a ,,,,,,boot on crimi...llaw. The .... formuL:"td
by the -:oinK" of law that, occon:Iing '" a una", Ilpl ordtr. oomt-
thing ....p 0 be done or """ 10 be dOM. do nOl impolt obIig:o
,ion. nor conf.... right< upon :lnybody; ,h., may .... ,rue or blse.
nu' <he n<lnm enacted by ,he legal au'hori.y. imp<>:linS' obliga.
,iOll' and conferring "gIll" upon ,he leg:oJ robje<:U 'r. nei,her uue
nOr fob.., hut only or invalid; ju", a. faeu are n,.i,lo.... true
nor f.I .., bu. only "";'Wlt or llonc><U,enl, and only ,'n/eme"t.
abom bel< an b<: ,rue or f.I..,. For e",,-mple. ,he ,.(I'eme", COIl-
llIi"ed in a tal <xl c;v;1 la.. ,"" penon who doa not fulfill
prom.... of mam"i" h 10 compmsa.e for tb< damage CIIul<"d CIr
d..e ciril affUtion o"lht 10 Ill: di......"" into hi, ;. b.he
if <he b .. 01 the .....e...hlch 10 de<ocribed in ,his l<pl,,,,, dots lKX
...bliob IIICh an obIiption bent..... i, dots noI preocrilll: IIICh a
eMI Cl<1l'''''' TI>e antWr to tbe queotion 01 ..hnhtt RICh a
kopl """'" ;. nlid wi,hin a ltpl .,.-<Itt elfI be-lncliucdy-
boaust <be r>onD. 10 be nJid, ""'" have ....... o-ea"d by
an empirically iden,ibble KI. BI.. <be nann maaed by the lep1
aulhurir;y (p<e-ribina eompen.. ...... 1m- <be all<! (i";1 CJ(-
IIlion in <Me of elfin be true or bten.....
i, i, ..... an abolll a fatI--no< a 4nttiption of au objecl
bul a f>rnttiprion-an.d iu, _h .he objecl,o be delo:ribed by ,he
ociena: of taw. TI>e norm con.. itut"" by the (pracrib-
ing ,""""u'i",, '8"i".. a penon who doe> no< "",nl.S"
prnmile and d.......... <ompen\;l,e for <he damaS") and ,he '''',e-
m..,t formula'ffl ,he .<o;i..,ce of bw and drocribing ,hi, norm
(,h., execminn ough, to I>e carried 0'" .ga.in" a pcrson wl,o d.....
nOt hi, maniaS" promise: .nd d..... no' <;<>mpm\;lte lor .he
damage aused)--th"", ,""p.,..iom are differ"". II i,
,httcfote <ot"...,i.." 10 ,hem ..
"I<pl norm" and "rule of 10.:' II foil"," from.hat hal been Did
LAW ...... SClI:NCIt
that d.e ruI.. of b.w bJ """ ocima: of Ia. ar<! not 11m
plr of the lopl _ ontM br the kpl authori..,.
The objeoion that rula of law are a1p<rl1uous is oc-.IO obriousI'f
unfounded. bowntt.... """ thai a ....ttrn.llcimoe is ",peril...
ow baide ....tul""C:. too- DIIun dooo ..... """Iif... judf itl IpOkm
Inc! wriltm wordI, II """ Ia. doa. il>t ,i_ thai I rIIk of Ia.
formu.1.lwd bJ the ocimtc of I is a1peri1uous bnide the Iopl
oorm CUlt"'" bJ """ 14isl110t" (:In be "'" oul'f b1 poinli"C oul
thai ouch ........ would .mounl 10 the opinion thu ocitoli6c
praentalm of I criminal IIw iI IUI'ftllUOW bftide thil criminal
II thallbe odmce of I.w il I<II'ftlIUOUl baide the I.
Si""", lcgalllonnJ, bl:inC prCKripciOUl (.....1 i,. COffil\1l.ndl, I'l'r
mll$lonl1Ithori....i(JIlI). can neitll hoe true nor fllw:. Ihe qu....
don Iri.IQ: How COn logical principl e:!puillly ,lie Principle of
Ih. Exclu"on of Cottl ...dlctlon .nd ,he Rule:! of I"fer.",. lie.p-
plied '0 the 'ela,lon lietw.... I....l "or..... If, accoTdl"l In ""di.
,ion.1 vi..... ,h... prinodpl .. It. applicable only '0 alSCTdoM .....'
con bl: Itu. or "'I..,. Th. a"ower 10: Logical prin<ipl", uc applica.
bl., Indl_,ly, to legal norm. 10 .... c>:ten, lhal Ih.,..n: .pplica
bl. to """ rules of law whidt dncribe th. legal nonttl Ind whicb
<:Ill be ..... or bloc. Two lcpl nOl'lltS arc con.radictoo'f."" ca:n
Dot both be ."Iid .. """ 0ImC time. if the tWO rul", of
Iaw .....1 dcocribe them an: COt\lradiaorr: and one ltpl norm tnIl7
be deduad fronI .t1OIhn" if .he rIIla of law tha. dnt:ribe them ca:n
rorm Iogial oylJosism.'
Thi. i. not lnmmpotibl. with """ bet that thac ...Ift of law an:
OUfl:lI....u:-..a aDd m.." be OUsftt-llllaDCOa, heallit' they de-
x:no. norm. prncribi"l thallQmOClh.ing ougbt to bt. "The ""(to
mm. dCKribins """ valid;,'f of norm of criminal law tha. prt-
Jaiba impriaottmmllor thef. would be fal.., if it._to 117 thaI
accordinC '" <hat norm theft iI punllhcd bJ i"'prj.....mm._i.
would be fal..,. bcc:r.u.., ,hcr<: ar. dtctlm"alVes in whidt dapi'e
,h. ""lldily of thai norm Ihcll i.. in facl. not puni.hcd: fOt" """"'.
plh.n the .hi.f I. nol ough,. Th. rul. of I dClCribing this
..........., .... NoI" .., tor ,II< 'PI"Icobltll' 01 ,''' IoJI<aI ",h><lpl< 01 ,II< .
" ....... '" ""',,..."""'" .. pool,l 1 "...., .... ' .. ,"Ide b, It.n, ,., .
In J .."..... In 11_ 0/ R_ I'ooowl. .... ..., ..I....
l'I n ....... <b< ..,so 01 ' ...._ku 5od<tJ b Up! ""'''''
0D0l 1'1 y_, __........ 'tot). ",. ...1<. _ .. "'" ."'1.......
01'100 _0110_ .. __ -J.<drt_ .......-'..... Xlt: ,
(VIoooo>. Odobtr.,0,). """ .......). .... xn, 'OS (N ,-,il"'l).". __
....w "NO SCIE1<CE
nonn can 1><' fonnuJaI<d only in this If somebody he
ough, to 1><' puni'h<d. But the "ough'" of 'he logal rule dOtl not
have a preso:rip,ive charac..r. Jill: the "ough," of the logal norm-
its meaning i. <kscriptive. Thi. ambiguity of 'he word "ough'" ;.,
overlooked "'nen ough',.....m.nt< are id.n,ifiM wi'h i,npera,ive
t7. CAUSAL SCU"CE ""0 Nou,
By defining Jaw .. a norm (or. to 1><' pr.,;isc, a' 'ystem of norm<
or ... norma,ive order) and hy limiting the so:icn"" of '0 'he
cogni'ion and description of legal nOTIIU and '0 the norrn-<:<Jn"i.
'ut<:<\ ...la\io,," 1><'twccn the norm-<lctermin<d (act<. the l.w i. <Ie
limited agains' na'ure, .nd the 'dence 01 Jaw a. a .cience of norm.
i. ddimitM .gal",\ .11 other science. that 'f' directM to",.rd
ca.....1 cognition of actual happening>. Th"eby a cri"rion h
been ;u<;"tain<d according to which ouciery can k differ
entiaL<d from n.tu,", "",ial science from natural Itience.
One of the many definitions of naLure identifies it., an order of
'hingo. Or' Iy",,,n of elemen". th.t arc linhd ... cauoe and eff..:t.
which mean. they arc connectM according to 'he principle of
cau..lity. The ..,....1I<d I.w. of n.ture hy which ..lenee describes
nature arc application. of this principle_lor example the "ate-
ment that a metallic body expand. "'hen heatM. The relation be-
t",un hea, and expa",ion i' that of caU.IC and effcct.
J( a social ocience, diff"cnt from natural Itience. exi,t<. it mult
<kscrib<' its object according to a principle different from cau..l.
ity. Socie'y", the ohject of .uch a science. different from natu",l
science, i' a norma,i"e order of hum.n beh..ior. TIl...e i. no
cogent rea"'n. however. why human 1><'havior Ihould not k un.
derstood also ... an clement of nature... der...minM by the prin.
ciple of causality_why it .hould not be explained like the fact< of
natu," a. cau.. and eff..t. 1t canno, 1><' doubtM th.t Inch ",.
pl.nation u possible at lea" to certain "'tent, and ha' actually
been givct1. So far a. a science describes and explain. human be.
havior in thi. m.nn..,., and i. defined science be<a",e i'
h... lb. mu'u.1 behavior of m,,, a, it< ohject, ouch a
canno, be con'idClM to 1><' ....ntiaUy diff..<nt from the natural
.....w AND scrENCE
If we analyze our ".'em.,," ab<>ut hum;rn km.vior. howev",.
we discover that we connect acll of human behavior loward <ach
othor and tow-am othor toe.. not only according to the principle of
"..li,y (i.. a' ooU$e and ellOCt), but abo ."""rding to a princi-
ple ....'ir.ly different ron> 'ha' of caulali,y_ prindple fOT which
science doe. not a' yet have a generally accepted word. If we .uc-
ott<! in proving that .ueh a principle exi,u in our thinking and i5
applied by 'he >tieD""" that 11",-. as their object mutual human be
havim .. determined by norm. (that is. b)' scirnas ,h" have as
their object the norm, which determine the behavior) the" we are
entitl<d to CQmid.,,- "",iery a. an order or 'r.rem diUerent from
that 0{ natnre and .he sciene.. concerned with society a. different
from natural scien"". Only if ""'iety i' undentood.s a normative
onier of human behavior can I>< of., an .,bject
diller.... t fmm th. cau",l.,rder of nature; only th.n <:an sociallCi
.nco I>< "Pf""'d to natural Only il tb. law "a normative
order 01 mutual bduvior can it I>< diff.rentiated [wm nature, a, a
social ph.nom'DOD; only tb.n can ",i.nco of Low as a social ",i
I>< [r(>!II Datural
Th. diff."nt fr<>m causality. that apply wh.n de.
lIttibing a n.,rmat;v. human I><havior, may I>< caned im.
pulal;tm. By anall"'ing thinking it can I>< d.rnonlrated that
ill the rule>.,1 law (th. ICDt."".. by which of law de
.\Crib<" its .,bject. lh. law; in contrad"tinClion '0 legal nonnl which
aT, preICriptioo,) a principl. it applied which, although aDalogou.
to causalily. i, ... characlOri"i<;ally [rom it, It i.
analogon. in 'hat thi' has a funct;oo in the rul'" 011...
imilar to funCtion of principle or cau!ality in law. 01
notnre. For the following i rul.of law: If,"
individu.1 commits a crime, h. ough' t., be puni,hed; or: If an in.
dividual d".. not pay hi. d.bl a civil ex""",i.,n ought to I>< di.
rected into hi' or: If an individu", contract. an inle<'
tiou.s di...", h. ough' to be interned in an in'titution.
fonnnlated: conditions determined by legal order a
c"",ei .. act. det.nnin.d hy ,h. leg.l order. ought to uk. place.
Til,. i. the ...rlin--memiontd ha,k (otm of the rule of law. Pr.-
ciiely like a law 0.1 natu,e, the rule of <""nee" two dement.<.
Bu. the conncclion exprwed in the rule of law has a m<a"ing e,,-
tirely cliffeun' from Qtu<aJi,y, ,he conn"",i"" expr<SS<'d in law of
nature. Qui,. pa..mly crint. and puni,hment, civil delict and civil
tlccm'OII. diseas" and imernmem of the ,jek individual aTe not
connected;u cau.. and effect.. The rule 01 law docs no' My," ,he
law of na,ure doe" when A i" "is" B; but when A is. B "ought" to
be. ,,'en though B actually;" not. The T...", for the dil
ferent meaning of ,he connection of element> in the rule uf
1.10' and in law of nantro i. ,hat the conn",,';on deo<:ribtd
in the rule of taw i, brought about by a legal authority (th>! it,
by a legal norm <..>ted hy an act of will), whrr<oa' d" connt<
,ion of cause and "ff""t U inMpe"dem from .uch human intcr-
The dilf....nce doeo nO\ app"Of wi,hin ,he f"mework of a reli.
giou..mc<aph},ical view of the world, where cau"" and elf.." arc
rontl.."ed by ,hc will of di.ine crea,or. According '0 thi, view
the law, of na,ure dcocribe ""TOfU th.t .xpr... the divine will-
norm,. Ihat i" which command n.turc to b.have iu a ccruin way.
Con<C<Ju.ntlya metaphysic>llhenrj" of I.w p....n<4 to di",ov... a
U3.tural law imman.nt in na'ure. Fr"", the point of view of
",ien,ific view of the wotld, howevet, within "hich only. pooitivi.
,ic then,", of I." can be eotabl;"hed. the differcnce be''''n th.
(can...l) law of natur. and th. tule of low must be maint.ined with
all emplta,i. 11 the rule of law i, formulated: "Under cenain Con
dition' cen.in con<C<Ju.nt.. ought '0 tak. plate", il. in oth.r
worth. th. norm-creat.d connection 01 the facu d.t.rmined in a
legal norm .. condition .nd con<C<Ju.nce i, .xpr.soed by thc word
"ought," thcn thi, word;" not used in it< u.u.l ",n"" a, h.. be.n
laid befo...,." "Ough," usually cxp..,,,es a comman<l., not .n
.uthori...tion or penni""on. The leg.l "ought." how.ver, thc con
junction whith in the rule of l.w connett< condition and con",,
qUctlce, cmbraces all ,ht rucani"8": the command. thc authori.
lation. and the po,i,ive permission of a con""luence. The "ongh,"
of the rulc of law design.t.. all thr.e normative function'. Thi.
"oughl" mcrcly ""pr...... Ihpecific me.ning in which the two
,,,", of faeu are conn..,<cd by. lcgal nonn, which m.an' in a leg.l
p. ,.
.......... "I1>e ociencc of I.l.. ClftnO( "'p'.... thil< notm<.>.fd ((11\""'
ion--particuLuly """ conn<aioo bcn<ttn cklict and unction--
Othctw.... ,h.m by thecopula -""8hl..NToreodcr lhelpOci6cmeon-
U. in whda """ kpl nom1 lddr_ u.. kpl orpnt and log:oI
... the.ocima: of law cannot (onnula... the rule 01 law ooM-'
w;,.. than by ..yinlf' M Aooonii"l 1O:l CftU.in """live Itpi ordn
and uodn- cnuUl condi,ions. amin CCIIlnIllmcc ""Iht to
pIKe.- " is not 00ITUl to uy. a< has been aid: lhc ICimtt 0110...
Il>en"lyawns tlu ltg:>l norm of" ltgal oo-dtt is Min Iom'-""
molD th.ttdo<f: it don not-in rnnm,di..inction 10" lqal
nol'm-4JSttl :on ough." but an "iL" 5i""" an looenion .hat
norm comm.ooing. authoriaing. or pooi,;yely pn-mitting a cerUllo
behav;"" """,lou" or i...... Iid.. annot m""D .hal thit beh.,;.". ac-
lually .al... place. it ClOn only mean that ,hi, behavior "ough0
,.k" pIa""."
SpKi6cally, .he oc:ience 01 law il not in a po<i.iQrl '0 alOC" that,
aocording '0 a ''''<ain lqol ol(r, ml<1tt the condition .h>! a delic,
hoI !>ten commilled. a ,:melion i. " .....1ty If the ""mee
of Jaw ...n,,'o "",kc ouch.n .,..,.,;.., it would conflict with rnJ
iry' deli<......... without Ihc W'Oion
.....ing pba os stipulated..,. the 1<1"1 orde'r; and it ntIC w
objm '" be d....-ribed by ........ of law. Thit it "ill true ........
if tIM: kpl DOnrd ... "" by"'" ocift><e 01 law a..., nlW!.
that ;. .....y that 1M ""hay;"" detmnillCll. by than 001",'1 (in an
objo:ttiye _) ... tak pb only if the bch:orior taually con
fonnt with tho: kpl ooder in ......, m<:a>uu. -no., dti_of
1MIqpl onIer-i, m.... be ou,"""",,-ilonly the eundi,ion 01 1Mn
lidily, ROC 1M nlidily ilXlf. If the: odomoe 01 law hal ... """,,11I
tM ntidily 0I.h,., 1.,pI onI...-hat is. llIe spKi6c lDftl]ing willi
which 1M legal onln add,..,..,. "'...., indi"idualt IUbjea to
it; i, c>n only st>ole IMI according'" a cnuin legal ordn under
Ihe ('OItdition that a <t>oin delict dnnminM br tI.,,, levI onln
has bttn committtd, urt>oin ..nnion d<t<rn>int<l brrMr
ntd.... '" take place; ,he...,by rhe word "ought" ""...... both;
,h, .ho"io" ,h.. ,he <x<cUlion or ,he .. nclion i, "'..... Iy omhor
bt<! or pooi,i".ly petmiutd and ,hi'uation th.t ,h, ,xecu,ion i.
>mn,.nd<tl. Th, ",let of law '0 be rormular<tl by th, .dtn<:' of
law c>n only be IK1ght.",u",,<nu. But in thi, ...pecl w. h.... '0
gnppl< with logical difficul'y; By ming Ih, word "oughr:' ,he
lAW AND selENa
rul. of Jaw rotmuJated by the ",i.nee of law doe. nOl. ....um. the
meaning of the legal nnrm delCfibed by the rule; the
"ought" in the rule olla'" hal only a d<>criptive ehaTOeter. On the
othet hand, from the fac. that the tule of Jaw dcocrihe. some,hing
does no, follow th.t what i. de><ribed i. an actual faCl, I>cctuoc not
only actual fact., bu' also norm., tbat i. ,hpecific m.anins' of
facts. may he dcocribed. Specifically, ,he rule of law i. not an im
petative; it i., rather. a judgment, ".temCtl' abou' an object of
c<>gn;tion. Not does ,h. rul. of la", imply any approval of the d.-
""ribed legal norm. The juri.. who de><ribe> th. law scien,ifically
docs n'>, id.ntify himself with the legal authnrity enacting the
n<>Tm. TI,e rul. of law remains objcctive dncription; i, doe> not
beenme p''''''ription. Th. rule does no mnte than 'tate, like ,he law
of nature, the link between two.lem.ntl. a lune,ional connection.
Although tbe object of the science of law i. 1<'g31 nonm and
therefore the legal values con"i'uted by th.se nonns, the tuleo of
law arc n...mh.le... like the law. of nature of the natural ",ienc...
" , ..Iuefr.. dcocrip'ion of their object. "Thi. means, th.. the
description hal notela,ion '0 a meta-l.gal value and d"". not im.
ply .ny .motional approval or di..pprm-aL If a juri", de"'til>ing,
from ,he point of view of 1<'g31 ""i.nce. a posith'e legal order,
O&$Cr" tha, und.r a deterntined by the legal order a
...nction ought to be executed determined by 'hi. order, h. a...rto
thil n.n if he regard. the imputation of the ",nction to the condi
tion .. unju>" and th<rclore di"'pprov.. 01 it. The norms ,hat
con"i,u,. the legal valu. mu", be differentiated from the n<>Tm.
acconliug to which the formation o the law i, ..-aluated. If the
lei.nce of law i. called upon ., all to an.wer the question of
wheth.r a conctet. behavior docs ot doe> not conform to the I.w,
the 'nlw.r can only be an al>ertion to the e!fe<:, tbat 'hi. behavior,
in the legal ottle' d<1Ctibed by the science o law, i.commanded or
prohibited, auth<>Tizcd <>T not authorized, pennitted Or not
permitted_regardl ... of whethe' ,bit behavior i. judged by th.
On. who mak.. the ....rtion to be morally good <>T b:ld. and
whrther he approv <>T di..pprO'.... of it.
Since the rul. of law in a d.scriptive ..ns.c, lik. the law of na.
ture (of the hatural sci."ce) ."pt...... a functional cooncc,ion, it
can al.., be dcoignated a. Icgallaw (meaning law in a legal sense.
German: Rulmguel. in analogy to law of nOlur., A. was em.
ph...iled of law hy wing word "ought" e"
pTe"'" .pccifie meaning ill which condilion and conoe-
quence. particularly delict and .anc'ion, aTe connected by th.
legal nonn; ..h....by 'he ronnection by 'he legal law is
analogo"" yet differ.nt, from connection of cau.. and .ffect
.xpr.......,j in a law of "",ure.
Pteci>ely a. the law of natu,.., (th......nion d=riblttg
I. DUl the >0 legal law (the a""Ttion de>crib-
ing law OT, in othtl word" the of law formulated by
ocienc<: of law) i. not the described object, ""mely the law, the
legal nOrm. lalleT-<lhhough designated a, "law" when it h..
g.II....1 nUl a law In a "'"'" analogou! to a law of
natu,..,. For the legal norm i, no' an a<senlon docTibing a func
tional connection. Tbe legal nonn I, nm an a""nion a' all, but
the m.aning of an act by which something;" puscribed .nd by
which 'he funCtional connec.ion b.tween facts i. first tab
li.hed_a connection described by the rule of law, the legal law.
Th. Tul. of low tltat pr"",nt.< iudf a' a leg.l law h.. a general
char.teter, like the lawof natUT., which m.a", that the legal lawde
>cribn tlte gen....l nonn. of the legal order and the ,elatio",hip"
constitu,td by th"", nonn,. The individual legal norm" created
by judicial d""i'iun or administrati ... acu, are d"""ibed by the ocl
eoc<: of law .. a concr.te io described by natural
.dence by 'detting to a law of nalUre tb.t manifelts it"'lf in the
A tex'hook on phj'!ic. might, for example, contain
worm; "Since, according to a law of a metallic body
.,.po.nd. wh.n b.ated. the me",nic 'phe,.., .ha, physidst X
dropped befo... h.ating througb a wU<><kn ring, did not p"'"
'hrough it alter heating." 0, a on Getman criminal l.w
might ..y: "According 10 a legal law to be formulated wi.h Td...-
.nce to German law, an iodlvidual who committed theft ought to
be punl,hed by a court by imprioonmeut; ,h.....fo,.. tlte Coull X
iu Y, having determined .ha. A ha. committed thel. has decided
that iI ought to be forcibly confined in prison Z for one year." By
oaying that Nil having committed a <:<enain thel. ought 10 be forri
bly confin<'d in prioon Z for one year" the individual norm I, de
tcrlbed which Court X in Y b.. enacted.
If the connection between condl,;ou and consequence. ex
pressed by the word "ough'" iu the rule of law, i. cantd "imputa.
....w AND 0,
lion," !'fih.P' a new wOTd but not " uew conc"", i'
int..wuc<:d into a which UoM 'he coucop' d...ig.
natro h.,-e by tho word "impu,ation." Thi. i' impliro in the
co""ept '"""ponsibility:' That an individual i' for hi.
h<havior mean' tbat he may he puni'hed for thi. behavior; and
that he i' iltt,!"""ibl . 0' not responsible, mean, that h. lor ,h.
behavior_bc<au"" he i' a minor or i",ane--may not be
punisllro. Tha' means. 'ha' in the /irst cr"" a delini'e behavior i"
in the """ond ca"" this behavior i' nol, eonn"",ed with punid,.
ment: 'hat beh.vior i. or i. not a condition lor punisllm.llt;
'hat puni'hnle", is or i. not impw.d '0 'h. behavior. It i' trUe
'ha' by oaying: an individual i' r..pon.ible or nOi respornible for
hi. behavior. one mean. 'ha' ,h. behavior i. or i. not imputro to
'he individual. But the behavior in que"ion is imputed or not im_
pu'e<! '0 the individual (...hieh meano: the individu.l i, ""po",i.
hIe or not r"porr'iblelor hi' behavior) only by faCt that in 'he
fonn.. C>le the 1><ha"ior .. conne<;tcd witb a "'nction and th""eby
qua1iliro a, a d.lict. wh.rea, tlli' i. no, done in ,h. la"er co"'" 10
that. ,h",.fore an i"..ponsible individual cannot commit a del k,.
Thi, means. howe'''". thot imputat,on m.",Iy consi.,. in thi' con-
ntion between delie< and ..net ion. Imputation. which apr......
i,,,,,l in ,h. conp' of rcspon<.ibility, is ,h.,-d_ not 'he connec.
tion betwoen a conain behavior and an individual who titus
htha,._.. a"umed by traditionalthenry: lor thi. no connec'ion
by a legal nom, i' n"'....ry. htcau,,", ,h. behavior and 'he behav
ing individual onnot ht ..,parated; e"en tlte hthavior of a not re
spon,ible man i. "ill hi' b.havior (hi. action or hi. ",Iraining
from action). e"en if it i' not 3n imputable d.lict. Imputa,ion.
implied in 'he coru:ep' 01 'etpon,ibility. i.I 'he conn""tion betwoen
3 cenain hthavior, namely a doliet. with a ""nctiou. Thercl'or. it i'
paMible to ...y: 'he lanction i, impu'ed 10 the delict. but 'he ",nc-
tion i' not "eff"'ICd by" (i. not "cruoM by'") delict. 11 i' obvi
ous tha' s<:ienco of law doe. not aim at 3 causal eKplanation "f
tho legal phenomona delict and ",net ion. In the rul" of bw by
which the science of I>w describe, 'h"", phenomen,. i' i, no' 'he
principle or cru",lity which i' employ"", bu' "no,h., p,inciple
,hat "'e d"'i/;Oat.u as impu...,io'"

'9- TIIZ 1'Jw<o"-& Of' l ..PVTAT1O!'< ".

T"""",so; Of! hn<nt>"I< MA."
All i""tuiIP';'" 01. pri",i.i.'t and of primi"..., .......wi'y
>howl that ,he same iJ :II the buis 01 thc
of by prim,,;..., men." mu> probobly did """ ....
plain ....'un.l phen<J<nmll accordi"ll to thc principk of eo....lit)'.
Thil tht lund>mm.al priDcipk of ""unl oc:icnce--likc
"'lUnllCiencc i ....lf_is ,he xhie<'rmcn, 01 a nla.i"..ly adn.nccd
ci"iliu,ion. Early roan interpreted bcu p""",iYcd by his ..noel
acxording to the .."", principles ",hiell regulated the relatiocuhips
to hi. fellow men, namely a<X,mling U' oo<ial norml.
Whm men li,-.. togethn in l group the ide.. arises cttt.in
behavior is good and another i. bad; in other worth: ,h., ,he
memben of the group oug'" to b<:h...e undor cerl.;" condition, in
"",,,in manncr 10 that ,he individual who in. concre'e ti'ua,ion
tlni ..... the oppooitc behavior and o<,ually behavn accon:Iing '0
!.hi, desire, iJ """,", no< 10 have bd.;,...,d n he ought ,0). Tlli.
""""" <hal in !he comciown.... 01 oocia.lIy li.ing the ide. "".
"u that """"" binding 'M individuals "'i"b.", ir mu,,,,,1 tot.
havior. FltI'tbomnort. mm liring tIlgI:<htt in a poup their
IlImu.ll lxha'rior ao<ordi"110 ouch .-ms that ICl.l1.Illy come inlO
hd.., by cwtOUl, <hclu&h thtJ a", ioterpmed It W am>-
"""""" of a IUpnbU-" authority. okldo. .-nu ol ........kind
a", prnbiIbI, <hoot aiming a. a ftSUinioD. of W ........1 impulot
and w delire of agrosion. Inca< and mllnkr are prllbabl, w
old(M crimes, outb.,.., and blood ,e"tlj\C the oldest IOCiall,
orpnimJ ..octioos. Thcoc unctions were baotd on a nile Iha.
dominated !he oociallife of primi.ive ....n: the nile 01 retribution.
It inch.1dtd both punishment and ,..,..-nd. It rna, be formuLuod
roughly :u folio..., If rou bch..... tightl}'. rou ough, to be ,'"
wardod, .... t is, a ought to be bcslowod on y<ItI: if you be-
h.we wrongly, }'on ought to be p"niohed, that is. evil ought to
be inftic'od on you, In ,hi. buic tnl_, condition Ind consequence
arc not connected with each olller 3ccording to the principle of
ClIuuJi,y, but according to tItc principle of imputation, So for "
-a, tu.. , .. ...... lr'-'" (Dn "_ 'M'). "" '., pol
......,. -' .,...... 'M.\I. pp. ...
lAW A'''o SCINCi:
any n.ed lor an explanation of pheno",.nxi.ted in tho mind 01
primiti". m.n at all, it was met by the principl. 01 ""tributiOll. If
an ovent wa, r"ll"rded as harm/ul, it ",as in",rpTOted as. punish.
m.m f<>r bad bohavior; if an .v.m ...as rogard<d a, boneficial, it
wa, in'..preted a' a reward for good boha"ior. 1n o,It.. words;
Mi.rortune_that is, detrimental "".nt. Iik. poor harv.". un.u._
emful hunt, dd....t in war, illn.... Or death_w... imputed, a.
punishm",,', to tho wrong bohavior of ,h. ",.mbon of th. group'
wh.""... heneficial "'""".-.. good ha,,.", ,u=(ul hum. vietory.
health, long Iifo-w..e impu..d, as ...,ward. to tho right bohavior of
tho m.mbof>< II an ,,.nt DCCUtl"Od which, in the collJCiou.ne.. of
primi'i"e ",en, roquirod an .xplana,ion-;ond this wa. only an
"""0< that dirtly alfoct<:d thoir int.ros,-tl,.y did not an:
"What ih. caure of it," but "Who ;, rospon>.iLI. lor i,?" Thei..
was nt>t a co",..I, it was a normative imerpretation of nature, and
>.inco tho norm of retribution, according 10 which thi, im.rprota-
tion tak.. pi""", i. a .pocifically lOCial principle regula'ing tho
mutual khavior of m"". thi. kind of imorpTOtation t>1 not"TO may
k characterized a. oocionorm.th'. int<rp...,tation of nat",.
So<allod animi'm of primi,ive man i. hi. vi.w that no, only
human kings have a soul, but all things. including obj .." that ac
cording to our vi.w are inanimat.; tha' in the ,hings, OT behind
th.m iovi.ibl. bot pow.rfol .piri" .xi.., whieh mean, that all
thillS" arc penon'. Thi. vi.w impli .. that things boltav. 'oward
men ill the .. m. way that m.n bohave toward each otber, namely
according to the principl. 01 tttribution. Primi,ive m"" belie'..e
that th... ooul. or .pirito cr..te mislOTtun. for mOll as puni.h.
ment. and forton. a. TOward. The link thaI exi'll according to ,he
bend' of primitive ""'n bo'...""n wlOng behavior and mi,funun.
as puni,hment. and bot.....n right khavior .nd fortone as reward,
i. based on the id.... that m i ~ h t y "'pethom"n bo' petlOn.1 beings
operate nature in lhi. way, lhal is. according tt> .h. principle of
retribu,ion. Th.....nee 01 aoimi.m i. petsonan"ie. that is. oocio-
nonn"ive. interprctation of nature-an interpretation according
to tho principle of impu",,;on, not acct>rding to ,he law of cau..l.
Co"""IU""t1y, tho concept of nature a. an om.. of .Iom.o" con-
ncctM together according to tb. principle of causality. cannO' be
It>rmed io tb. thinking of primiti.,. man. To him n.lUre "part of
his society .. a nor,nat;ve order whose clementi at. wnn'..! with
ooe another acwrding '0 'he p.in(ipk of imputation. Tlte duali'm
of notu'e a, a <;;In...], and society as a nonnaLi>'., order i, nnkoo"'"
'0 him. ThaI outh a duali,m .xim in the thillkingof civilized man
i, the result of an intellec,ual development during whkh hum3Jl
and other being<, J"'T""no and things, are di"ingui<hro. and the
tau...l explanation of ,he ...,lat..ioo,hipo between things i. "":""it,d
from the llormad,"c interpretation of ,h. rolationmipo be'wecn
men. Modern leienee of natuTe ;. ,h. ,..nit of it< "m>.ncipation 01
the normative from ,he ><Xi"l intc.prc,a'i<.,n of namre, and [ha'
meallS rom animi,m. Paradnxi<;ally fonnulating: thi. p,oc... we
might $Oy: At the IH-ginning of evolution. during lh, animi<tic
pttiod of =nkind, 'hero ."isted only lOCiety (OJ a nonnll,;ve ot
"atuu ... a cau",1 orMr wa, created by only afttt ,he
laner Jiber.lted itself from a"imi.\JJL i,,"rmnent of ,hi. Iibera
tioo i. the of cau...li'y.
00. O..,.IN OF TItE l'J..tNC'PLE
Law of Cauoali,y probably h.. ilS origin in the Norm of
RelTibu'U>n." Thi1 developmen, i. th. ,.".ult 01 a tran,forma,ion
of principl. of impull,ion according to which in the nOrm of
r.tribmion the "roog behavior i. conne<;ted with punishment and
the right behavior with reward, Thi1 proce.. of tramformati"" be
gan in the philooophy of nature of the a"cien, GT<ek. h iigni6.
canl th.t the Greek. word for cause, 4iti<>, originally meanl guilt:
,he cause i, "guil'y" of the effect, i. for the effec'; the
eff""r i. impu,ed '0 the cau" in ,h...m. way ,hat the punishme,,'
i1 imputed '0 the ddi". On. of the earHe" lonnulation. of 'he
law of cau.aJity i, the famous fragm.nt of Heracli,us: "If ,he Sun
will o...m.p hi1 prescribed path, then ,he Eriny rhe handmaid.
of j_ice. will lind him OUL.. Hen:: the I3w of natUT< "ill appears
a. a rule of law: If ,he Sun doe. no' lollow hi< pr.scribed pa,h he
will be puni.<hed. For ,he Erinyes are ,h. demon. of reveng<: of ,h.
Gr.ek r.ligion a"d Dike i. th. gOOd... 01 retribution. Th. decl
.ive step in the tran.ition from a norma,i"e'o a cau,.l interprell-
K<I.... P....vll, ""d 1< .,.);"" pp_ '59 E..... "'-1'" .n4 "....... pp.... lI.
,jon al nature, from ,h" principle 0( imputation to the principle
of ""uuJitj", in man .ware th.. ,h. rel.,i"", b".
,"'ecn .hings (as di"inguiollrd from rdation. b<-,,,,,,,,, men) 'n'
ind.p,m"",,' of. human or '''p'rhuman will. or, which amo"nt.
10 ,he ..me, aTe nOt dC'e<mined by norm..-i, consisu in man be-
coming .w..... ,h.. the b<,ha,';or of things i. neither ptcocribed nor
pem1;ued by any authority. Only grnduaUy ""uld the principle of
o.o...li,y di'-c,t itself of all ,lags of a"imiuie, ,b.al is, p"nollali't;c,
thinking. Far .xample. the id<:a that """,,,lily m.an. an absolutely
ncttM.1ry tolion b<>'w,,<,n cause:rnd .11_....'1n ide. ,ha, <till pre.
vailed at the beginning of ,h. '"cnli.,h fi'my_i. mainly a
con;cqu"""" of the vicw th.. it is the will of an absolutc an
powaful lr.n",end"",.1 authority beyond ,h. Teahn of hum.n
cxp...-icnce whid> connects the cause with ell:""t. If thi, view i,
.h.ondonM, tllen notlling ,undo in way of eliminating the
of n"".,..ity from the of c.ou",li,y and of "pladng
it by the demen' of prob<lbility. If, however, the clemen' of
n""".. ity i, ","inM, it mm! unde<go a change of meaning_i,
must ftom absolnte n"""<li'y of a will. ""pressed
in eause..ond..,ffect relation. to a of human tllinking,
that i" to ,lie .. ""lidi,y of a p""ul.te of human cogni-
Soc",.. SoWCO'
Once the of cau..Hty i, recogni'M, it io al>o .pplicable
to lIuman kh..'ioL p'ychology, ethnology, hiotory, sociolngy
di.dpHn.. ,hat human khavior their obi"'" so far .. it i.
detCtminM by cau",l13w', ...bich so lar a, it <>ceutS in ,he
Ifalm of 0' natural a i. charaet.....
ized .. "sociai ",jenee"' b=use it i, dilfoM 'o....t<! the mUlU.1
beh.vior of men, thi. ",ienee, 10 lar as it to e.pbin
human behavior cau..lIy, i, no, """'nti.lIy diffetent from 'he
natullilocienc.. like phy.ics, biology, or phj,.iology. How faT mch
cau...l ..pbn.tio,," of human behavior are possible i. anoth.,
Th. dilfCtence e.i"ing in thio '''pe<:t bet...een the men.
tionM social .dene.. and n",ullll ",i.nce. i. only on. of degree.
not of principle. An ....ential difference ..i... only be'....en nat.
un] .oeims and lOCW lIcin>s lha. do .- illterpm <he
mllnaal bd>arior 01. mm KDlII'diDlI;IO <he principle of aouoal'ty.
but:ottor<livig 10 th;at of ilOpuuot.ioll; tbeoe an: the llcialca dwdo
l>(lt how h.._ bdLlorior. &tnmintd by aoUlil b......
uU:o pb<c in <he roalm of MU1.al. nali", bu. bow it """,. to take
pbu. det=Dincd by th>o. is. man-<mdc ""'""" If we
0f'l'0It the of nJuet with ...hid>...., an' hert conarntd to
that ol ...nmoI nality. ohm m- nJua an: ..".."..;,..ted by pooi.i...,
""""'; lhnd<>tt. tht objta oJ. tbeoe I<ICW ICinlUl is by no mcanI
unreal-i. abo hu.. rallt,. bu. ," reality iJ dillcreni f...... the no."
unt ,.-atilT- it U.. lOci.>! ru,li,y. Such ooci.olockneel a: cthia (the:
otiencc 01 morol.) and jUTisprudl:ncc (the tciencc of law). If we
def,ign.o'c lhem a. non'>alive I(:imct.l, thiJ does nOl mun du, ,hey
prncril>e norm, for hun" behavior and the,..,by command, au-
thori,., or pooitivcly permit a 'rui" conduct. but that ,hey dl:.
oo;rlb<: ettui" ma..made nOnll. and the relationships between
men thereby created. The lOCioJ .dcnu.t is 1\01. .. _i,,1 aUI"n,i.y.
iii......k i.o nOl to .tgu.b.tc h......... oocicty. but 10 know and under
lUnd iL Socirty as the objtc. of .. normaeive oociat is a
11.".""."..., o:rdn of the mll'II"; bd.rior or men. Tbcse bcloo'Iz: 10 a
1OCiety.... far ... wi. bth... ior i. rqulll.... by ouch an ookr. that
is. a"lboriz!ed, ... poooitiYdy pnmium by lhoe Older.
II i, is Olid Lb.., a ecruin IOCleey is ccnso.i ted by " norma,i""
onkr ......bti.. lhoe .....twl beltariar of a Itilude of ....... one
....... rClllain a....... Lb.., ordtr and oociny DOl 1_ di6trm.
l.biDgI; tba< they an _ ard <he """'" <hin&- Iba, mo....
in no<hina bu, <his onkT. ard lhat. if is doilJll"ted .. a
communi.,.. <hen aomtially Iba, ...hicb tbex ...... Ita"" ......
....., is nothing doc but the order regulat'''lI m..tual be-
This becomes ""niclllarty clor in the a... of a ord.... (....
lqat community CO<lJlitu,td by it) which includes mm 0(
dilfnf'n. ,ongu... racft. religions. vi...... 0( tile world, and_
belooglng '0 dHleten, anUtgonillk groups of
;n'er...... They ,II fortlt l.g.l commu"i,y so Far .1 they
lubjen '0 .. legal order, thai mean. so far a. thol, mutual
beltaylm- II regula,ed by ,ho "''''0 nor"",,;Yo ord..... It that a
nonna,ive...-d., II valid ooly if it II by and 1,'S0 elfec
t;ye; and ,bat, if a JI""""lin order, aptcia.lly a lopl order. II
effective one can oaf' If the condiL;olU, determined by ,he norm,
ol the '(ldal ord.,., ac(ually eXI'I, the consequences conneclM with
these condition. 101m probably o:or; or, in <:a>e of an effective
legal order: if a delic. detem,in<d by ,m, legal ord has heen
committed. then the sanction prcocribed by lhe order will
probably take place. A..um'ng that the relation hetween <au.., and
ellt i. nOi one 01 absolute """"..ity. but of mere probability. and
the ....nce 01 causali,y con.;m in lh. posoibili,y '0 predict (utuTe
,he" it op.,.'" as 1I1<gallaw. are no dHk,..,n, from la..... of
na'ure and ,hould therefore be formulated a. ";0-""1<"<0" and
not a. "DUght..nten.... " Pl'cd",ly as lh. former prrdici how na
tu," will behave in ,he {uto""",, the 10"'" PT.diu how """iely (or
,he ......) will behave in ,h. future. A law of na'UTe "Y': "If a
metallic body i. heated, it will expand"; a legal law "'Y': "If a man
st..lo. h. will be puni,h.d by a law cou,t." S,arting iron, Illi,
...umption ",m. di"ingui,hed Am.".i,an repro,.nta'h", of ,h. 00-
caU"'" ,oali"i. ""hool of jmi'prude""" ....n th.. the law i.noth
ing bUI a .bom wh.t th. court> will d""ide-that ,he
law i." .<;ienc. of prediction." In opposition to> ,hi, view i, mu"
be said: the ."'teme'" 'hat Iegall"w like law. of na,ure are """t.
110m about fu,ure events <;lInUo, ref"" to norm. enacud by ,he
leg.l authority_ne;'h.. '0 the genr",l norm. e.tahli.h"", by ,hr
legi,lator nor '0 ,he individu.1 norm. oe,ned 1ry <;(>UTt deci,ion.;
that mean., it <;anno' ref"" '0 ,he I.w. bll' only to> rule olla... for_
mula."", by the ..i'''''e of law. deocrlbing ,he law. Legal norm....
otr",,"'" ""rlier, are no, ."'rtiono-nri,her a....,.,ion. about fU'ure
Uor aboUI past events. True.hey u,ually rrIa to fu'ure human
behayior. bu, ,hey do no, a><ert ,hat thi. beh.vior will take place;
in.tea<!. they command, .u'hori"" ptrmit it. On 'he other hand,
,he IrgaJ rules formula."'" by ,h. ",i.nce of I.w are indeed
....rtiono-no>' """Ttion', hnw",,,,, '0 the effect ,hat something
ac,ually will happen (like 1.1'1' of natu",) hut a"."ion. '0 ,he
.ff"", that ",mlting ought 10 happen according '0 the 1.1'1 de_
scribed by .he ""ieno: of law. It i. nOl correcl to object th legal
nann. at. reeogni%"'" hy ,h...ienee of law a. val id only if thev 'Te
elfective and 'hat, il .h. leg-ai rul", describe only effec,i'e l<'j\al
norm.. tile legal rule. a", a.......i"". about ac'ual h.ppeninj(>. For
"alidi,y and elecI;ven"" are no, identi,,!. A leg.1 norm i. valid
...............1T'..".,.., r.- ,..,j ''''', pp. 'OS .

AI"'" m'! '"'''"110 .. JOU <XlI'
Alp."!J'1O u"!ln.!"uo:> p>l"p,,,d AIPJ0'l mUOll
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.lUJOU 1cll>11.... u:>S 'Il' I.'", Alu.w!m ""0 ''''("m,! '.unin Jill "'I
1"""'] "UO"" W.IOU IO"P!_'il'''! ''1' JO uopru&., ''1' I. Iroo ,ou
P''''''!P '1 'I "UO!'1"1' lmO' JlW)'!l)"d JO l'c, ''II ','"4'0U .....p
"'"j JO ,'o,!'" '4' "'.J II". 'V "''''''IlU.lI'lOJd '!'I' ,,,und IOU p>'u
'M ...,"".'>oH ""'In) ''II U! JI><I' Ul-" "00 '4".'" ;>o!w;>Id
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V .,UJ,1J 'mmJ ,n""o ruolu!p"ill ,,. "UO",JO "nu,u JO <1""1
"41'4'" Iqnop" ''''''1' '''P!''''lI -"m"U JO ""1 '4' ''I'!'" 1":rr>u,P!
'ou mq '0' ,noliojou. "'"I 0 ""11"1 '41 ''''.1 JO 'I'u 10
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-uo:> '" Il(llno ,,,,wmOllo. PU" oo!"v U"wn4 JO ,uoJ '4' lnq
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'UlOS I! '''1l utl ''I' ']11'" .UUOJ""" '"11' '''[lO''<'q 'I ""<IdOl pUV
01.''';orU! ,. "WI ''''I' UOPU"'!" "l\lU OJUO!'" O'lll '>JIll"" JO "'"I
'1[1 '1'1," "lIJUO:> U! '! '"'I' punoJ '! ""J" II -,u"oodo 'W00Jq OJ'"
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n""3':>I' <INV "'VI
dor<: of legislation. A pr<dic.ion of a jodicial rl""i'iOll,
O1\<n'i.>Hy r"U on the fact that the COUtU by and large apply the
gto"a' norm. cr....ro by lcgi.llator or CU,tom; .he pT<diction
thcfore cOIl.im m=ly in the SUI<'ID... , 'hat the cOUtu will de_
cide .. 'hey ought to decide acrording to the ""lid gon.....l nOn"'.
Th. pH,dictions of realistic juri.\=d<nce differ from the rul ..
of law of nonnative juri.prudence (norm"i,-. Jeiene. of law) only
in 'hn th..., predictiOn> are iH,atemenu not ought.....'.m.nu,
but-being i.-otawncmo-do not tend.. 'he mUlling of
'he law. To the that <ourU creale new law by their d<'Ci-
sion., predictions ale jnlt .. irnp<>Mible ., prrdktion. of general
nOTrru 10 be created by legislalon. General norm., however. con
stitute the bull of the law with which the science of law i. cOll-
cerned. But enD to tI.. """"n .ha. p'cdieti01u po.. tho'"
ar< not Lho wl or of law, which i. abl. '0 d.""il,.,
individual 3nd g""......l nOm" only thoy !>ttn
and valid, Th. prlictioll of. futur< couct deci'ion nlight
I,., co"'idetl part of .. of a pr:actlcal1awj'eT courneling
hi, But cognition of law mu", not I,., confounded with
logal advie..,. E"en if a by aud effccti". legal ordet could I,.,
by which, law' of a""rt th..
uudot condition. cortain con>e<]uell= actually plac.
(in word" that, if i. which according '0 ,hi.
legal ord.r i. d.fined by the law-applyiog organ a, a Ih.
sanction proocribed by legal oro"" will I,., O'<ccuted) .,iII, it i.
not :ieuc. of law .hat aim. at .uch a description, For ,d
enee 01 law. by formulating rules of law, doe.< not descril,., a causal
connection bu. a nortl1"i,. connec'ion of
its object: imputation,
.., DtPFEU"cr... 'rll. PR'''ClPLES
Th. Hnguinic fann in which ooth of ,"usalit), and
of imputation i. pr=nted, is a judg-
in which a eertain condition i. connected with a cer"in
conl<'<luonc But, a. we Stttl, meaning of Ih. connec'ion
i. differ"'" in two c:uef" The prindpl. of cau",1i.y "'yo: "If d
is, b i' (or will 1,.,)," The of imputation oayo: "If d
i., then b ought to be." A. an exomple ollhe application 01 the
p,inciple of causality in a delini law 01 nato", may serve tho
eorlie...mentionod ph}'licallaw that describeo 'ho effect of heat on
Following are examples, in the realm of nonnativo OO(;ial ",i.
"""0', for lbe application of 'he principle of imputation: II "'me
ono h.. rendered to l"u a good servico, you ought to .how grati.
tude; il """oone h sacrificed hi. life for hi. COUntry. hi' memory
ought to be honorod; if IIOm"",ne ha, .inned ho ought to do
penance. These ... ethical sentences or mo",l law. thar oxpr""
pooilive nornu. thal i. nonu. enac,ed by a ..ligiom le3der 0'
created bycu,tom,
}'ollowing are examples 01 legal mles or legal law. in which
pootive legal nornu are expr.,...,.j. th.t i. no,m, en.cted by a I ~
illator or created by CuStom: 1 l<Unoone ha' commiued. crime he
ough' to be punished; if romeone doe. not pay his debt, civil exec
ution ough' to be di'ected imo hi. property.
The difference between cowality and impu,-,-'ion con,i,,,.
mentioned before. in 'he lact tha' the 'elatiomhip be'ween the
condition .. caus" and 'be consequence as elleet, expressed in a
Jaw of na'ure, i. not brough, about by a man-made norm (al is the
reladon between condi'ion and consequence in moral or leg.1
law), but iJ independen' of man', imerf"ence, Since the .pecific
meaning of 'he aCt by which 'be relation be'ween condition and
COtl>equence in a moral or legal law is h'ougbt about is a "norm,"
_ On speal< of "nonn.,i"e" 'elation... dlotinguished from a
"owal" rel.,ion. "lmpula,io
" mea", a normative relation, Thi"
.nd nothing else. i, expressed by the word "ought" when It i. used
in a moral or legal law.
Another difference between causality and imputation is 'hi"
Each concre'" canse mUot be regarded .. 'he effec' of .no,ber
callse. and each conc,e", effect a, the cause of another effect. '"
that the chain 01 ouse and ellect i. endl"" in both directio", in
conformity "'ith the essence of caus-,lity. To thi. lOU"' bc added
that "...,. concrete "'em lies at lhe imersection of a theoretically
unlimited number of cau..l chains.
The .ituation i, differen' wi'h re.pea to impUlation. The COn
di'ion '0 which 'he consequence in moral (IT legal low i.
inlpUlro-uch patriotic death to which honor. bellefits to wbicb
....w ..."" XlE.'<CI: 91
sn"'udc. lin 10 whith pcn;uI(e, (Ii_ 10 which punilhmal' a",
ifllpu<M--<oll m- oonditions a" "'" also COI\M<lUftKa
wIUcb mUSl imputed 10 0Iher condil""" And tho COI\M<lun>ca
--beeKw. gmi".ck. pawoot. pun4t=mt........-l "'" t'laWil.,.
f;IlDdi,iCIns 10 wlUcb fUlthcT coaacq:umca are 10 imputed. no..
IIUDlher ollinb 01 an illl....t>otion. <hain is no< unlimited. tho
Iintl 01 a ausal chain, bu, limited. Thett is an end pnUlt in tho
imput>oUon chain. bu, """""t 01 tho kind in tho auAl chain.
The ouppooition of a li.. a_, a pri_ ""....-naIOSO'" l(I !he
CIld poinl in the imput>otioa win_is incompatible with the ida
of au""li.." or, a, an.,. ta'e, with th.. ;,In of awalily as uprnoed
In the laws of das&ic.ol pIIysia. Th. idn of a fin. cau.. which....
th. =..ive will of Cod or ahe frn: will of man. pial" a deci,i ..
role in ..Iigiou. m.taphyoia, il likewi.. _ ".id". of prhni,i,>.
thinking, in which the principle of cau..li,y i. no< emand.
pated from that of imputation.
I,. THE PJ.oou"" Of' nu
On the dillenU bttWttn imputation and caUAii.."
namdy "'... imput>o.ion hao an md poin' wbern> a._li,y hao
noI. rau 'M a>DtrIII K,wun the nca:ssity prnaili"l in Da'U'"
and tbc freedom ctiIl.ill( ill -ir and .. .,.."Iial foo' tbc .-...0.
11", ",lationl bel....... mm.. ThaI man, as pan ollUlUff, is ......
hee mnm tha, his bduorior. IooUd UP""' as a Ila.unol be<. it
a.UKd by ....... lawaccord.... 10 the Ia.. of na'ure-<""t hl1 be-
""rior must be rqarded as the den of tboe fxu and tht:rriOtt
determined by tMm. &11 tha, man. :as a monl or lqal poraon. is
and lben:fore mpoa,iblc bala diffttmt meaning. If a man
Is held n:sparuibk. morally or legall.,.. for his monol or immonl.
hil legal or il1eg:ol thaI i.. if human beh>vior i. in'...
preted uoordi"t 10 a lnotal or I"!PI law as merit, .in, or delict;
and if to ,h. meri, i. imputed a reward, to .in a p"".nce, .nd 10
,h. deli., a ..nedon. ,hen ,hi. Impur..ion .nd. in the \>ehlvior in
terpreted ... merit, lin. or tklic,. To \>e tru. it iI e"'tomary to oay
that the merit. lin, and delic, a", impu'ed to the min ...pon.ibl.
foe Ihi. \>ehavior. But the ..al mtaninll'of thi.l.. tem.nt is that Ih
.....n ought 10 \>e rewarded for hl1 meri, (more prce'"I.,.: that the
rn<ti, of thi, Illan ough, \0 be rewarded): that the man ought 1<>
do:> """ance for hi> .in (more ,hat ti" .in of ,hi. man
ought to h,,'. its penance): that the oiminal ought '0 be pun-
'''",d (mOTe p,;..ly: that hi. crime ought to get ,he pnui,hme",
it d..",). Il j. nol behavior defined a. merit, ,in, or crime th..
i. imputed to the man_mch an impntaton would i>< mptT8u",,',
.inee human behavior c.anllo' be "p"rated from the bchaving
human !>ting. If the qu."ion of imputaMU j. ",i..<1 aher a man
has bchav<d mtTitotion,ly. hao ,innect or h", committed a crime.
,hen ,hi. quell;on i, not: who h.. ""rfoTmed the mtritorion. drffi,
who 11<.. commiutd ,he .in or the crimel-.h;. would be a que.,ion
of fact: the moral or legal qu....ion of imputation is "Ilhe" will> is
,c.pamibl. fOT the behaviorl And thi. que>!;on mea"" ,,'ho
ought to be or who ought to do pen.nce or be puni,hed?
It i, tI.. ,..,ward, the penance. the puni,hment that a,.., imputed ..
,pecific conoequence, to .pecific condition>. And the condition i,
the behavior that ""pt=n" the merit, ilit, or crime. The imputa
tion of the ,..,,,,at<! to the met;t, of .he penance to the .in. and 01
the to the crime includ.. the imputation to the man,
although only thi, imputation i. cle.rly in the common
u...ge of language,
The problem of monl or leg.l "".pon.ibility i. fuodamentally
witlt that of retribution; retribution i, imputation of
reward to merit, of pena""e to .in. of pUlli,hment to crime. The
principle of ,..,tribution a behavior whith i, ill con
lormity to a norm with a ..,,'at<!, a behavior which i. in conflict
with. noml with penance or pun;o!lment. Th", it presuppo... a
norm that command. or prohibit, thi, behavior or iJ a norm tll3t
prohibits the behavior jll.t by " puni,hment to it. Dut
the behavior th.. constitut.. the condition lor the ...
wat<!, the p.",.n, or th. pun;,hment may it..11 be
or as consequence of a d.fin;te condition. If by imputa.
tion we und.rstand every connectioo of " human behavior with
the condition unMr whkh it i, or in a
norm." the" al"" th. behavior to which, as to ic.s con
dition, the ",,,..d, the penance, or the p"ni.hn,ent i.
mal' be to the condition under whkh it i, or
cr, I', ..'d h"'
ro< example: Monl. command that if someone" In need he
oUgh' '0 be helped; if klmeone obep this command, hi. behavior
oUgh' to be appro....d. il be dilObe)'., hi. heha"io< ough' to be di ..
approved. The "'nctiom of approval and di...ppro,,1 are in'p"'ed
to ,h.ir immedi..econdition-4he commanded aid and the prohib.
i'ed nonaid; tbe commanded aid i. imputed '0 the fact whO$<:
;mmedi". condi'on i' io: na",ely tha' ",nlebody is in n.ed. Thi.
fac' is 'he medi"e condition of ,h. appro'..al (Iunc'ioning .. Mne-
,ion) of relld....ing aid and 01 'he d"'pprO\'al 01 not rendering il.
Ano'her ""ample: The law comm.and. ,hat if klm.one receives a
loan and doeo nOt repay i'. d"il execUlion_a. a ,anction-ough"o
be direcred into bi. proptrty. Tbe ..netion 01 civil ""ecu,ion i.
imputed to 'he nonrepaymen, of 'he loon. d.6ned as a delkl-the
nonrepayu,.." being 'he iunoediale condition for ,hi...netioll;
tbe commanded repalme", m'he loan is imputed '0 ilS imm.dia'e
condi,ion, 'he receip, m'he lo'n. Thi. fac' i. ,h. mediate condi-
'ion of the sanc'ion 01 the ."ecution. Beyond 'hi' mC'diate COIl'
di'ion of 'he ..nction nO imputa'ion tak.. place. Bu' the reward.
penance. punishment (including civil execu,ion) are no, impu'ed
'0 their mediate condition, bUl only '0 'heir immC'di"e condition
_meri' ill, deli<:1. Reward, penance. punishment are not im-
pu,ed '0 the condi'ion und..- whi<:h a certain behavior i.
commanded as m",i,oriou. or prohibi'ed as .inful <" unlawful:
they are imputed to 'he man who behav.. in conlormi,y Or in con
fliet with 'be command, or, more preei..I)": hi. bebavior in
confonnitl with 'he command is rewarded, hi. op!""i'e behavior
penanced or puni,hed. In this behavior end. 'he imp",a,ion 'ha'
cons,i,ut.. hi. m""l or legal re.ponsibilit)",
If, how.,..,:, a certai" event is 'he effect m a can"'. and if thi>
cau... a. alway., i ~ l f hu. cause, then thi. caUle, '00, aJ cawa , .
mora, i. a caule of 'he evell' in que"ion. Thi, event i. not only
refe-rred '0 its immediate COule, bnt 01", to all lIS mC'di ..e """",
and thus is i",erpre,ed a. the effect of all 'hOle caUIe' that form au
infinite chain. The deci,ive point is: the behavior that, under a
norma,ive (Le_. a mOT.1 or legal) order. i. the end poi'" of an im
puta,ion. is, under the causal order, no end poi'" (neither aJ cau",
nor a. effect) bu, o"ly a link in an i , , ~ n i ' e (hain.
Thi. then. i. ,he lrue meaning of the id.. 'hal m'n," tho mh
jecr of a moral or legal order, 'h,' i., as a lnctnl>er 01 a society and
as a moral or l<gal p'ntm, i> "free:' ThaI man, ,nbj..:led '0 a
moral or legal order, i. "free" mean<: he i. 'he <Ud poin' of an
impnlar..ion that i, poooible only on .he bui. of ,hi. nonna,in
order, A<;wrding to the n....l vi.w, how.ver, freedom iI nnder'
owod a. the opp:jte of caw.al determination. To be "fre." mea",,:
not 10 be .ubj..:led to the law oj causality, It i. wuolJy said: lie-
co"", man iI !fee or has a free w m ~ n d dli.< m..", according '0
the u.ual view thai bit behavior i, not .ubjeeted to .he law of
cau5ality .hat determines i" in.oc.r a' hi. will i, ,h. cauoe of
dfoct.l, but not the .Ilt of auoes-----lle i. r..pomible, which meam.
apabl. of mo",l or legal impUl,a,ion, Only becall'" man i> free
an he be made re.pomible for bi.< behavior: punl.hable for
crim expec'ed to do penance lor ,in.. eligible to be rewarded for
meri The a..umptlon, how."", tlut only man', freed<>m (that
i>, the faCt tba, be i. not .ubjecled '0 the law of cowali,y) ma....
resf"'lll'ibiii,y (and tha, m.am: imput:nion) poooibl. i> iu open
conflict with the fac.. of >o<iallife, The ..ublilhment of a norma,
tive, behavlo.....gulatlng <>rder whkh i. the only ba.i, of imputa,
,ion, at'ually pr..uppooa tha' man', will i> causally d.terminahle,
therefor. no, free, For i, i, the undoubtable Junction of .ueh an
oroer to ind""" human beings to observe the beh.vior com
manded by the order--to tum nonn> ,ha, command. tertain !>e-
havior into pos>ible motiv.. determining m.n', will '0 behave >c.
cording '0 .h. norm., lIu, thi, m.a", ,ha, ,h. idea of a norm
commanding a certain behavior become, the au.. of a norm
conforming beh"ior, Only becau.. the norma,iv. order (ao ,he
Con'''''' of ,h. idea, of m'n who.. conduc' 'he order r.gul....) In-
.....1.1 i,oell in the causal proce.., In ,he chain of cau" and elf..:",
does the oro.r lullill it.l >o<iol funt,lon. And only on ,h. ba.i, of a
normative order, tha' pr..upp""" 'nch Clusality with respect '0
,he will of the human beings .ubj"" '0 it, i, impu'a,ion po"ibl .
Earli .... i, h.. been said it would be ornorle.. to I..u. a nonn
commanding 'hat IlOmething ought to be don. of whleh i, is
known beforehand ,ba., under a law <>f na'ure, it mu" n...... rily,
alway. and ev.rywhere, ,ah plare. Thl. "em, '0 admit that
normativity and .."",I;,y are mutually exc!u,i,". How.ver, this to
nO( 00. The norm tha' we ought to .peak the truth i, not ..n..I...,
forw. have no rea50ll ,0aSlume. law 01 nature 1C<:OTding to whleh
C1'. po II.
"'0>1 "'us! speak tho lnIth .1...)'0 and kJlow <hat
lIICII .... .put the lru,h and at othc1" tilncs lie. Bu.........
IDlUI opeab lbe ....th or wbm M lies, tI>cn in both o>et his be--
IoaTior is c:o.-IIy d..n='IlCd. lhal IDaDI, dnenniMd b1' law 0(
.... Nor. by. law to wlli<h _ ",we'MY"
IfIC'1.l 1M trUth or .,hAJ'llw, bu. by anotl>tt bw 01 n:ll...... (or n-
by....., attOIdin& to which IIWI. cbooocI WI bd\a.icw from
which M ""pet" tho rrca,tsI ...nan"'l!"_ ideo of the norm
thot one ougb' to ope>t Ihe truth can """form'., with this
1... 01"".....-dt:OClin "'OIiu lor bdlavior llCCOfdinl to the
!>Mm. It norm that would prncri"" that man ""ght not to die
orould b<: ..nsel ... btallS< we know brlDRlland ,hit all rom
m".. die according to. I.w of ,,.'"It. Til<: idu of ,"ch a norm
Cannot be an ,ff""" mo"ve for behavior aOrding '0 ,h. norm
but in COT1.ndic,ion to ,h. I.w e>f n'!IlTO. The ide. of ,"ch nOTm
i, r f>T<'C,,,,ty of ,h. bet of ,h. posoibili,y of au...]
.Woe ....
Somiznn i. i. odmittM ,h nun', will. lit. all kappmi"8'- i.
aetUlllly countly d........;OI. b... it is aurnd 'M', in onI... '"
1WI1<e poIOib'" man mu!ll "" toprd<'d as il
hil,,-i!l ... frte; tho, _ns. _ i. nf:tOl'1' I(l main
tain ftttdoIIl <JI...-ill (tha. i.. aual no:-innmin.a.ion) .. a nOttO-
H-..........hen impauUon nnaI7lized at a conneaiOll <JI. fao>
dill,...... f...- augli,y b.n by _ mom in ooollia wi'" it. "'i.
6aioa bKomnoup<Tlh.o.....
Since the dclenll;N'ion <JI. thc -.ill acconli"8 to thc
la.... <JI. au.ali.y an..... bt !lmin!. aome "";",n '0 bt abk
to thc poosihili.y <JI. impaUtion upon thc ... fact rna<
man. ahloough no< nroncoool" bdi"'... to bt fott:
,h.,. base thc aMumpoion .11.>. bt btl;"'... him..11 10 bt Irtt on
'ac' rna. fttls ........orw when h:o< commilled a lopl or mon.1
wrong. Bu' ,hi. i. no< Corr'. Ry no m""", do .11 mon 1..1 ,10-
mone as a .....,,1. of. commhted wrong. .n. m.ny do not
...,gard;oJ, wrong ,ha, which. according '0 .holtga.l 01' moral order
under which .hcy arc living. i. a wrong: t>csid.., wha, is wrong i.
dHIe...,n' aa:ording to difl' ont lcgalor monl Mde... Men f""l TIO-
tt>OrX even if lhcy aTO .on ,II.>, llIc'y have commi"ed. de! thq
,hcm..lv<'S rqard u a wrong. forud by a tko. w,", nrongct
uw AND
,he olle that preued Ihem '0 rd'r.. in from comminillg Ihe
de.,./. E"en a convinc"'/ de,"tmini", can f",,1 ",rnone when he h..
done somelhing that he con.iden to be wrong: ju" a' even a con
vinced determinist doe. by no m",,,, d.,.", Irom hi. view the con.
du.ion that a behnior forbidden by moeal. OT law must not be
disapprov"'/ ot not be puni.h.,./_th.. no irnpu,ation muSt take
place. Imputation pr"'upJ'O"" neith" Ihe fact Ot fiction of Olusal
nond<lerminatiOll. not tlo< .ubje<;,i"e error 01 man to I>< f",e.
Some writer. I><lieve they can use the following way.o solve the
problem 01 the .onnict be.wn fr:<lom 01 "'iIl .. an indi.pen....
ble .upposition 01 impu\3tion and .he principle 01 cau...lity thaI
d<t<rmin"" all "'enlS, Aman u moralll' or legally rpom.ible for a
happening if i, "... caused either by hil aCl of will or by hi.lailuro
'0 ptrfOrIII an a(t 01 "'ill that could have ptevent.,./ the happen.
ing. He i> no' r"poDlible fot a happening when i. wa> no' <aused
by hi. act of will or hi. failu", to penorm .n acl of will th.. could
ha"e p""'en'ed the h.ppening. Th.. man i. froe merely meallS,
accomilll: '0 ,h= wri<crs, hi. a"'aren",. '0 be .ble to :oel he
wishes. The f:u:.., 'hey m.intain. are entirely compatible wi,h
st,ict d.,enn ini'lll because the :oe, of will or the oilure to ac, are
considered a> r.ausal1y determined.
The allernp' to maintain the idea of fr:<lom of "'ill by inter.
preting it as ,he awaten"" of the f'O'o'ibility 10 aCl as DOe wishes
must fail. For ,he awareness to be able to ac' a.olle wish.., i. the
knowledge ,hal 011' acU are caused by our will. Rut 'he question i.
not wheth" our aClion i. caused by our will_indelermini,m doeo
no, deny thi!; bu,. ralher, ",hether our will is cau'l3.11y detennined
or not. If the mentioned a..empt i. not merely a denial of freedom
of will, but i. 10 reprcsen, a oolotion of the problem ",hile m.in.
taining ,he .uppooi'ion tha, re'pon.ibili'y .. posoible only under
Ihe condi,ion of Irttdom of will. then we 're merely confronted
wi,h a ,hift of the problem. By presen'ing the problem in ,hi,
w'y, i, i. merely proved that. mmal.legal imputation i, I"""ible
and aclually occu" though tho will i, causally determined.
The 'upposition tha< man h a f,.., will (thal i,. a c>usany not
del.nnined will). j, n..,e.... '.,.----.o it i, re<fu.mly argned-IO ex
plain ",hy only men, not ,hingo, animal and n.tural events are
m.de morally.legally '<,po",ihle; why imputadon tak", place only
wilh ' ..peet 10 m.o. However, imputation tak.. place on]l' ",i,h
lAW "'''0 SClI!.NCf;
r.spec' '0 man btcau<c and insobe .. mornJ and I'gal ord,.. com
mand only human behavior; and 'hey do 10 bc<:au.. it i, ..,umed
w..t ,h, idea 01 theie nor"" create acts of will only in man_am
'bat, in turn, cause 'he comm.nded heh..ior. The .xplana'ion,
tb...dor., i' not tb. Irttdom 01 will, but, lu lb. contrary. 'he
cauw determin.bili'y of the human will.
Another argument in favoe of the dogma of ,he fr..dom uf will
i' lbe reference '0 'he fact ,bat mooom l"ll"l on:!..... exempt cortain
cases from r.sporujbili,y (and ,hat mean., Irom imputation). bo-
cau.., i' 10 said, in th... ca<C$ it cannot he ...umed 'hat a free act
01 will takes place, Thu., children and ,he men",lly ill ar<: nOl.
hold respomibl. fo.. their conduct and its efftcts, and even m.n-
tally ..n. adul" if they are placed under "irrosi"ible compul_
si.on." Th. explanation for ,he fin, twO c:t<CS ii lh. a..umption
thaI children and the men'ally ill (bee.u," 01 the condilion of
,h.ir con.ciou",...) cannot, or nol .ufficiently, he ..u",d, by ,h,
id.. of I'gal nonns, 10 beh.,'e in conformity wi'h 'h"," nom,,;
olher motives are u.ually mong.. ,h.n ,h... ide'" .specially .inco
,h... indi,idu.l. do no' "'m know of legal nom". For mentally
sane adults, bow"''', i' may be a..umcd lhat u,u.lll' 'he idea uf
legal normS and of ,hvil co"..qu."ces of lhei,. violation is
"rong.. mOlive 'ban 'he mOlive, lhal lead to an illegal brh"'ior.
To br 'Ur<:, lh... loner motives may also br strong.. in an adul,
and a menl.lly "ne individual, bu' lhi. would be 'he excep,ion.
Mooem legal orde.. pre,upp"'" an av....ge human bring and an
average .., of eXlomal circum".ncci und" which peopl. act
cau..Uy determined. If I""h a human bring under .uch circum
.tances exhibits a conduct lI,., the legal ord.. prohibits, 'hen
thil hum.n bring i. ""pon,ible lor hi' conduct and its effects
according to ,hilleg:ol on:! If h., causally d...rm;ned by ciecum
ltances olher 'han tho.. p upposed by 'he legal order. exhibits.
conduct prohibiled by the leg.l oroer, 'hen he ilsaid to 1<1 under
irresi"ible compulsion. Actually man alway, ac,. under i"esi,,;ble
compul.ion, beau.. his ac'ions .ee a l w a ~ . cau<ally determined;
and ca.u..lity, by ill "ery natme, i' irrcsiSlibl. compulo;"", Tho'
which i. called "irre,i"ible compulsion" in legal terminology
.ctually i' only a Ip<cial ca." of irresistible cornpubion_namely
th" lor "'hieh th. l.gal oeMr doe' nOl .. ipula" r<:'p"",ihilitl',
'\'hen impUt>liou t>kcs place, itt..i"ibl. compulsion iIw.y>
...nL But imputation don not take place in .very ca... of
irresi"ibl. c<>mpul.ion.
Finally mu" memion th. view that d.ttrminilnl and moral-
ltgal re.pomibility can con.ider! In be comp:uibl. only by re.
f=ing In th. fact that OUr knowllge 01 the cau..l d.t.rmination
of homan behavior i< ittad"'l.uot<'-that w. do nOt know, or not
know oufficiently, th. cau.... that detenoine human behavior. 1
we folly lnew ... cau.es w. would not be in a position In hold a
penon respunoible for hi. behavior and their con...quen"",; th....
fore 'he "To undent,md ev.rything m.an. to forgive
everything."' To undemand bdL1vior 01 human being
m..n" In know its cao....; In him meanO: to renounce '"
hold him reopun.ible for hi. behavior, to renoun"" to blame or
puniili him, to renounce to link hi. behavior witb a ..nction-that
i., to renoonce imputation. Uut in many ca.<eo in which the cao...
01 hi. behavior are known and hen"" hi. behavior it ond<....
lOOd, imputation i. nO< renounced, the behavior i. not forgiven.
Th. pro"crb re.1S on the error that causality excludes imput3,ion.
Itlollowo that it it not fTCcdom, i.e_, nond<termination of will.
but its "cry oppooite, camal determinability of will. that mak..
imputation !"""ihle. One don nOt impute a ..n<tion to an indio
vidual" behavior l>c<:ausc he i< h-ee, hut the individual i. f..e be
cousc one imputed a ..nction '0 hi' behavior. Imput3tioll and
f..Iom (in thi...n) ... iodeed e...ntially linked. But thi>
f..Iom cannot exclud. cou..lity, and don in f""t not exclude it.
If the a""lion that man a. a moral or legal f"""Onality i. Itee. i.
to have any meaning. then thi< moral or Itgal freedom mwt be
compatible with the cou..1determination of hi. behaviOT. Man i.
Ire. inonfar and becau.. rewaro. penance, or puniohro.m are im-
puted a. con.equence to a cOTtain human behO"ior; not becau..
thi. conduct i. cau..lly indetcrmined, but altbough it i. causally
d.t<:rmined, nay, berdu... it i. ca.....lIy determined. M.n i. Ire<: be
cau.. hi' behavior in end point of imputation. And thi> be-
havior CMt be an end point of imputation ",'en if it i. cau...lly
detennined. There/ore ,h...",ality of the natural order and
f,,Iom under a moral and order.re not incompatible with
each other; ev.n .. the natural orocr and the ltgal.moral ord.n
arc nOt contradi"'ory-and cannot I>t cootradictory, I>tcausc the
one i. an order of something that iJ and Qth.,... of
ocmethins tho. _, 10 k I_patibili" as OllIlK<\umce of
lopeal con,r.>d.iction (:lit nJMonly betweman UIft1ioa ,h>._...
th.i:Ilr u aft<! an UIttlion mat i. iI IIor," brlW'ftn an .-n.ion !hat
-.mtt.h.... -eM 10 be mel an a"",,"ion tho. it .. ..,., 10 k;
bu .- bt...... an ....uon thallltlllXl.hi"ll if md that it 00111
"'" to k.
%4' FACTS ()mg. THA:< ........ BE..........
As Coo<n...,- OF Soa.u. Nouu
The principle of impuu'Oon,;n it> Ofigin.1 munins. <onntoe.. 1"'0
:rocu of hum:rn be......j"': .he behavior of one individual wi,h ,h
of 01'10<1\." .uch as the mQral law which connKII TOwa,d with
mtti. or ,he rule of bw (0 1';011 ,6) which <01'11'11> puni.h.
ment with crime; or it , ..nncel. the behavior of.n individual wilh
another behavior of the lame individual, such as the rule of. rei;.
gio," OTdcr whkh conncclJ pen.nce with .in. In all ,11_ c.ots the
human bel..;>'ior pracriMd by. nann i. by &l>OI.h.,
human bd>avior; condition and """""'lut:nCc arc acu of human
bellavior. Bu. the nonns of order r>r<:d not only ran \.0
h.......n bdY."..".......h..,. Clln IIJo ,da .., o<hn bcu. As we II>en-
.iono:d in ... dilr....... connection, a...,.", -y forbid. lUin be-
huior tIuI '-a <>"rUin cflla CMJ<:h as mmdtt). and IM)nQ "..,
C"m..v1 ... cnuin bd>arior <ha. is no< only oondi,ion\ by "'"
bd>avioo- do anotbtt in<!i>id...l, 00. abo by othtt bert. weh ... tbe
_I """" ollori.. yw. neighbor. if ..""bod, "",lI"i,. lO"
oo.ogh. to deli...,. him fl'Olll "is ..Ilerin(; or dw: Iq;:ol norm: if
oomriIody is a publ;" <bnll" beaux lie is mmtlllly m, be: "",,,,....
be fon:ibly iDl<'med. The imputllUon ...hich tllko platt on the
ilui. ol.he principle ol reo,iil"."", (and ..-hieh 'cpTn<n1l mor;r]
and legal relJ'O"'ibili.y) i. only a oper:iol, albei. the mOM impoT
.ant. of imp..",.ion in .he wider ....... (n.mely. me link
between a human behtor with the """di.ion under whic:h tI,l.
beh..I", i. commonded by. norm). All ,et,lbu.ion I. imputJtlon.
but no11 imp",..ion Ie"ib,,,io,,. lk.id.... it i o be "o.ed .h..
norm. m.y refer '0 indi.id".l ...i,hout .efeITing 10 thei, beh..iQT
;u for eumple in .he co.., of li.bili,y f<>T .he delict of oomeone .Ioe
.nd. in .he cue of I11<i"" liabili.y.
II in It.. "".emenlut "Jlder <:eTUin Indi.ion Uftain bu
"",n ough. D' tab plan. tht wndi.iono do noo. or '-
..........'" a lou,,"''' bcIu..ior; and il (U"Mr. in this
ax wo .he con"",';'" bnw"", tht coadi.ioni"l be. and tht
condi.ioDed. h"....n is dai:gnaoN as lhnI
thi. _Ott"" iI.-d in a wid... wnw .han tbt .......1 _. roo- tht
CIllIUIe'lunKt is .... only Unpu.td '" a human (00-. "'....,
.he IUUaI .......inol<lgr: .he CO>:Ut'qunll<e is no< oaly impnoN '" a
penon). lo". '" f.aeu 00- "",emal c1rctllDllaIlUS. Bu. i. it alwa,. h,,
man beh>.,ior <hat i. impnttd.
"5. CATI'.coouCilL N.......
App..enlly >OI1Ie JOcial nornu lItimand a certain behavior un-
conditionolly-under all drc"m... nce.........nd in 'h" I<1I1e "" Clle-
gorical non",. in oont...<1ininction to hypothetical "orm. The..,
are certain nOn'" commanding elUin omi<sion (rdnin",.nt)
u.h a" Thou .hal. not kill. not Ileal, not lie. 1 ,he", norm. l>Ctll
ally did tl>e character of n..rgorical norm.. i. would not be
pooaibl. to 'nter"",. nor.... ti.ely .he lOrial tion. cr.ated by
RICh norms, in a 1U.....cnt that coanCCU 0 .lm>ttlll Q condi.
tion and comcq_; .hen.he principle of imputa.i"" ......Id not
be appliaohlc. But nen nonm pr""";bing rd:r.oinmmt cannot he
atepic:al. A politi ac.;"". obYioud,. Clnnot he pr.......ibld un--
conditioo:t.all" hecaux an loCIion is only unda- ecruin
condi,iom.. But nen rd:r.oinn>ct. cannot he uncondi.........lIy pre.
ICribed; otho<-nrioc the could he untoadil.io..aUy
obc)'ftI or ..ioUt..d, Rcfnin t.... is potoilole onl, under ,,",
toin condit....... A man canllOO till. JotnI, Ii. under all circu_
....nt... hut onl, undtT ruin condi,ioa-..nd tfocrdoo-. he can
td"rain from tilling. ..cali,.. or Il'i"ll: only undtt <hac conditi""..
Th. condit;"". under ..hith .-.froining from a renain action ..
I'rucribed, i. the totality of all circum.......,.,. under whidl ""h
action u """,hIe. Ileoides. in an cmpirin.lrocicty no pr.,.;ripti"".
(and ,hi. inc1udQ pT<'CTiption. for reln'nm."') arc ptlfliblc .ha.
<10 not pennit 01 cxception. Evcn Inch fundamental prohibition.
a. not.o k'lI. nO( to take lOmeonc .1.. pTopeny witho"t hi, pc.-_
I1,is5ion. nO( to li. are valid only with certain relerVati""", Pmi
leg:t1 orden al...." mull "'pulat. the condition, u"CI.r ",hkh
it i. not prohibited '" kill. to tate property. or to lie. Thi.. tlIO.
uw AND
demon.,TO'" ,h.. all gene",l norm. 01 an empirical """ial oro....
(including geneTal norm. of ref",inment) can p",,,,ribe a certain
beha"ior only und.... certain condi,ion., Therefore "'el)' geneTOlI
nonn euabli.h.. a relalionship belween two ..to of lac", which
may be described in the $Utom<oI: Undn- certain condi,io", ,r
,ain consequence< ought to take pl.ce. Thi, i" .. wa. shown, ,he
formub,ion of ,he prin";ple of intputadon, a, di"ingui.hed from
the prin";ple 01 Clusali,y, Only individu.l norm. [.ltn be c,uogori.
cal in ,he .en.. ,hat thO)' command, .uthorize, or p"'itivel}' permit
a ceTtain behavior of a certain individual wilhom condition; for
example, "'hen a CouTl th" a certain organ h.. to direct a
certain civil in,o a 'r,ain propeny; or that a certain
organ h.. '0 imprison a CCTtain criminal for a certain ,ime. How
e,'er, "'en indi"idual norm, may be hn"}lhetical, th., i". ,hey may
prescribe. certain heh.vior of certain individual only condi
tionally: for exantple, wh<o ,he judge orde" ";vil execution illto
the properly of the taroy debtor only under the condi,ion ,ha, Ih.
debtor d""" no, pay the owing amount within a certain tim.; or
"'hen ,he judge orden the carrying out of ,he puni.hm<ot 01. eer,
tain indi,'idual under ,h. condi,ion ,ha, .he indi,idu.l comtni".
puni.hable del ic, wi,hin a"" ,ime.
6, Tit., 01' OUGlf"
Th. I""'ibili,y 01 nonn..i,.. ",i.nee of law (of a ",ienee 01 law
,ha' describe. the law .. a .y:"em of nOTlm) i. """.,ime. qu...
tioned by ad...ncing ,hrgument ,hat ,he concep' of ,h. "ough,"
("'h,,,e expr"';on the nonm i.) in",l".. or meTely id.ological
fallacy. From thi, i, i. concluded ,hat a normative ",i.nee of law
(a ",ience of I.w directed at the cognition of nomts) ",mnot exiu
-tbat ",ience 01 low i'l""'ible only a. legal 5OCiology. Legal ooci.
ology hct' nOt to ""lid norm. but to othec lac" a. cau",.
and Sociology .., foc wba, couses induce
a legi>1ator to i..u. the'" .nd not otloer norm, and "'hat .ffeclS leg.
i,la,ive a<U ha'.., Legal oociology i"'.<tig.... in who< way eco-
nomic facts oc religious idea, influence the activiti.. of leg;'la.
ton .nd judge<, and which are ,he motiv.. ,bat ca"", men to con
form or nOl conlorm with ,h. leg.l order, Therrfore, no, law itself
i! the obi'"'" of c<JgI1ition for leg>.l .odolog)', but certain parallel
phenomena in n.tuTe. Lik""'i>c a phl'.iologi". who im."ig;a'..
chemical or phy,leol pro<...... which condition or accompany ett.
lain r""ling<. d"". nOl gTa'P th..., fe.lings ,hem..lv.. which, in
fac. cannot I>< chnnicalJy or phy,leaHy gra.pM. l>ecau.. ther aTe
psychological phenomena. The Pure Theory of Law. as 'pific
ociene. of la..., j, .li''''''M towan! ,he legal nom", it i. nOl dirttt<d
tOWarn fac..; it i. not .lITre!M 'oward 'he ""IS of will whose mean.
jog Ihe legal nOrm, are, but '<>word ,he legal norm. a, lhe m"",,
log> of act< of will. And 'he Pure Theory is concernM with facto
only 110 faT" they .re determined by leg:t1 nmm. which ar. the
meanings of act. of will; and th= "".nings and 'heir mutual re-
lations arC 'he .ubj"", of ,he Pure Thfflry of Law.
If the con""p' of the "ought" i. rejected as ",,,..I,,,,. 'hen the
law-<:Teating acu can mrToly l>< perceived a, the mean, of Ininging
about a crT,.in l><havior 01 men.o whom th"", ac" .re
as cau... of certain effeelS. One l><H...ts, thrn, '0 he able
to undrnland lhe ltgal order merely as lhe ugul.rily of a cen.in
course of bum.n l><havior. One pUTpo..ly ignores lhe normative
meaning of the law-croaling .clS l><Helling that the meaning 01 an
"oughl" differen' from one of "i," cannol l>< ""umed. In 'hat
ca... howe"cr, .he meaning of an ac.l in which the leg,1 auth<>Tity
comm,nd., a"'horilts, OT I""'i,i"ely permits can scientiEcally be
descTibed only .. an auempt'o in lOrn cenain idea. whose
mOlivating power .a"",. them '0 l><have in a ccrtain way. The
nOnn tha. one "ought" not to ..e.1 or thaI. thief "ough'" '0 l><
punished is reduced to lhe ,ta"rnrnt that "'me individuals seek
10 induce othe... nM to "eal or.o puni.h the thief; .nd th.. lOrn
usually from stcaling. and ,h., a lhief i' punished if, a, an
exception. 'hefl is commiued, The law-in it, relation betwern
law-cT""ing and law-ol><ying men_i' viewed a, an enterpri..
COOlp3rable '0, "'y. that of a hunter wlto places a hail to catch
game. The comp3rison i' apt no, only heca.u.. in both proc.....
the f"". of mOlivation i' ....... ,ial; it is apl also becau.., in 'he view
of I.w here char.oeteriud, a deception lak.. place in lhe p......nta.
lion (by the legislator or by 'he ."'rnce of Jaw) of 'he l.w as a
norm. From this viewpoint "norms" do no, "exist" and lhe Slale-
menl ,h" thi, or lit .. "ought" 10 l>< h.s no meaning. no. even"
.....w IKU>OQ 'o!
>pi6c pooiti, lcpl -'''J. dill"<UDt f..... a "'onl _ins.
t'fOID. this point. _Iy natun.l, .,.....11' tc<tncr;Ud,
C'YUltl aod <he legal xu lDnt'IJ in thrir anuali". b,.. nee thrir
$pi6c a>eani"J. a", tUm intuoomidcr.uion. Thi. opoci6c mtaD
inc. <he Mough..R" .:, )Idi,.tu tIx Krio!ogical
lID iokological fallacy aod tw DO pIaet' in. lICimti6c ok.
ocripci<llt of <be bw.
Suc.b b1lacy indd ill ",antt il <he IqaJ """gluM is
'0 comt.i"'1e an .... But OM annol .palt of an ideo-
iogical fall""" " "oul",R in <he law-dnttibing of taw
m....i' has meaning ofl 'p'6c lunolional connKlion. It has
1>'1 .....wn abo w, ouch a iptti6c funct'onal connoclion.
dllr.",nt from a au",1 con"..,.ion, ,. 'he imputation. Th. cau",l
connoc"on which lopl socioiogy describe>, conti". (Jr i' ."i'li at
all) I:>o,w..n cottain economic or political laCll Ind 'he ilw
cr.a,ing "CII on the OU' hand Ind I:>o'w..n th.", ac" Ind ,h.
human I:>ohovior 'ho' the, i"'.nd to bring lbout on 'he ...h.... I"
'he la"n cue. the au",i eonnK'ion ""i... only il'hl< I:>ohavior i.
actually moti""'td by men', id....bou, the i"..",ion of ,h. Ia....
noting actS, motiva'ion which by no ......... is .i....l.. the cue
bea"'" obedience co ,Ite law i. &e<j.....tly awed by other mo-
'iva. .U. hown.... I ..... oth... fxu an connecltd by Icpl
i",pu",<ion: not the !.aw<reUiDl!; act with <he lawoObcr'ns be-
harior. bu' <he bet determined by <he lrg:ol ordn. a condition
with the mnscq....... determiD<'ril by thilt ordn. Imputation. lib
CI li..,. is a priJociple of onler in h"""''' thinlt'''J..nd thnd"'"
j "'lICIt or jWl ... liltle an illusioa or itIcoIosr as a .....1i..,.
....hidt-touoc H,,_'.or Kant'. wonlo--isonlya thinltinrhabitor
Cllego<J of thinking.
Thai the IUbjKti"" ",ng oflaw<ttating acto i. In """"'I"
annot be ....iowIy d ittl if th..., acts "'" lootrd upon aa:otding:
to their """''ling as IfIl....ntlt. a. 'mpentiv..... Quntion:lble i.
only wh.th... ,hi. can be litO in'erpreted as ,h.ir ohjective m""n
ing: wheth.r 'he "ough'" mlY I>t: upon as In oltj..,.iv.ly
,..lid norm that impooet oblig'lion. and oonr.... righu upon indi-
vidual . qu... iott i' in wh.. way law.."e..ing acli diffe. from
och... command.. for """mpl. from th. oomlYtlnd of a high,,.y.
Wd.1'I'- j t
'Of ....W AND tcID"CIt
man. In oht P"'rudi"ll i'l'&"I oht condi,ion was shown under which
thit diJrerenlialioa is poooible: .he condition iI: P"'at>ppo6ilioa of
bui< '-<D.
If all "1Gnin&: is denial. to the IXWm (loolcd upon ... objoc-
!ivdy ,.uid) wllict> ..,....;.u.ct the JI!NOIon DIlled
-if aU _inKis dcD.iod to Uw: it .......1<1 be
Is 10 SlIy: uthio is IcpUy permi..cd" lhat is f...-biddm'; be-
Ioonp 10 me, tha, to "X is wtillod and Y;, obIiplcd. The
lhoutandt of ..",,'0> in ..hid< the law is e<proeacd daily would
be ......1..... In cor" 10 thi., the bet is und""iable II",. l'\'ny-
body undo:ntuJd, ,cadily Iltal ;1 i. one .hing 10 "'y' "if it legally
obliptod "> poy $',000 to B:' and quite anoth ' "There i. a c....-
...In chana:: ""', if .dll pay $,,000 W n.n Ev ybody ur>d.nund.
th31 i, it one thing 10 Ny' "11,l/. bcltavior it a d.licI acrordi"ll' to
Ihe law .nd ought 10 be puni,hcd according to the law"; and 'I"ite
a dill.....n. thing W "'y: "He who Ita. done Ihi. will probably be
p"nithcd," The imlIl.1nem meanings of Ihe aeu direcled by Ihe
leaitlator to the la..... ppl'ing orpn, by thit organ-in Ih. judie"'l
dioion or the .dmini.,.:nh... acr-w the ."bj<'<t, by ,he ... hjcc'_
in the legal <nnsac.ion-oo the other ...bje<:t is not comprehended
in the .....em""l.bout. probable conIX of f..,ure btlta.ior. Stoch
MaLcn>al1 is iHucd from a point of ,'iCY thaI uansn<lo the law,
I. don no< .""wtt ,he tpifically Iepl quation of whal ""lb. 10
happen lICItCIf'ding 10 the law, btU lhe mca-Iqal q......iort of ..'hat
attu.JJ11 happcnt and what probably will happen. Tbc Icpl IU<C-
tnmlS W, oac ough. '" behave in a oenain ""'1 Dlltnoc bt K-
dlOnd 10 ....tcmoeIIlS a...... prncn..... future f:ocu. the
former do not refCO' 10 Aocb baa, not l'\ 10 oht bet that anain
,ndhiduala wi"" ,ha...... otis''' 00 btba in a ttJUin ....1. Tbc
legal judgments refCO' 10 .he specific mcanin& which ,he Fael or
""'" an act or will hat; the "ough.," the nontl, it P"'cciscly thi,
meaning lbal it dift....nl from thit acl of will, Only if
il "nd<'ntOOd:u a corunll 10 tl>c reality of {acts-tbu ii, iF ideol-
ogy i. und....to<><J ...,'erylhing that i, nol can..lly d.l....minNi
rcality or a dClCripl;otl ,,' ,hi. reality_th.n law llorm
(Ihat i', ...h. 'me.ning of Ihese Kit, dilf.re1U {rom til. <;J.uoany
det.m,ined acto) ;. .n ideolngy, And then the ",bj1 of the sci
enee or law that dcsCTiha onl, the no,m, and nor ,h. xU in their
ClItUllly dnerm,nNi conn,ion with other bc........."nd dcocrioo
'hem in rules of law that do not....."" am,,! conn""';",,, Jih Ill<
l.w. of n a ' u r ~ . but linh of imputJo,ion_i. an i<lwlogy. Then the
PUT< Throry of Law ha3 "P",,,,d .he way to lha' ,-jewpoint {TOm
which the law may be undentood a. an "ideology" in thi. 'p<ci6c
"'me:_. a sy.tem of ronnea;OTl! different from 'hat of nam,.".
The p""'ibi1i.y and n=",ily of ,uch a diocipline dirted to-
ward the law as .. nonna,i," meaning i. proved by the (act that the
>e;enee oE law h.. been in exi'lence lor millennia--.. ",iena: whith,
a. dogmatic juri.prude""e, oeTVes Ihe intelleaual nttili of Ih<e
who d""l wjth the law. TheIe i. no rc>son '0 lu.'. (hel. emirely
logi,;""". need. u"satisfied and to gin up such a science of I>w.
To replace this seiena by l ~ a l oociology is imJ'O"iblc, beo:au.. the
lauer U COllC,ruM with an emiroly different problem. A> long a. a
religion exiOl>, 'here mwt be a dogmatic theology that Cannot be
roplaced by religiolU poy<hology Of religiom >o<iolog,'; in pte-
doely the ""me manner the.. will be a nonnati"e 'dmee of law a.
long lhere j. a law. The nnk of thi> Ieienee in the 10lal 'f.lem
of ,heleienee. i' a subordinate qu.. tion, Whal i. important i. nOt:
to give up thi' Ieien<;e of law 'ogether with the ca..goti .. 01 lhe
"oughl"' or lhe norm; bnl: 10 confine this Ieienee of law 10 i" mb
ject and to darify critically ii' melh<xl,.
If we do no' under1tand by "ideology" everylhing lhal i. not
nuunl reality or ito dellCl"iplion. but nonobjective p''''''''la,ion of
the .ubj"'t influenced by 'Ubjeclive "alue judgmenll ""d glorifJ'.
ing or dnfiguring the .ubject of cognition; ""d if we d.,ignate as
"reality" nol only the IUtural realily a' the oubject of natural ""i
.nc., but every .ubject of cognition indnding the ,ubi"" of the
""ience of law, n.mely J'O'itive bw, .. legal reality; lhen a presen
ta,ion of l'O'itive law mml keep iuelf free from ideology (in 'he
ICCOnd meaning of the word). If po<iti'" law i' looked upon ..
normati," order in relalion '0 'he rea lily of aCinal happening"
which, according 10 'he claim of poIitive law ought 10 oonform to
il (ahhough, actually. it doe> nol alway> confotTO to il) then pool.
'iv. law may be clIancterilrd a. "ideology" (in the fim meaning
of 'he word). If poIi'ive law i' looked upon in ill relalion to a
"higher" order, which claim. to be lhe "'ideal law," 'he "righ'"
law, and demand' thal lhe J'O'itive bw ought '0 be in conformity
with 'hi. order-for example, in rela'ion 10 nalUnllaw or to lOme
type of other ju"ice-then the J'O'itive law {trn.t iI, the law
created by human .., ,he nlid law, the law that i. by and large
applied and obeyed) a' the "real" law; and ,he" a
theory of JXlOi,ive law which .. the lattor with mlural law or
any other type 01 justice in oro.. to ju.tify DC di"'lualify the [><'\li.
t;,. law mwl I>< ... "idrological" (in the >.oM meaning
of ,h.. worn). In ,hi, ",n,. the Pure Theory has an outopoken anti
ideological u.ndellcy. The Pmc Theory thi, tendency by
presenting pool,;,". law ,.., {tom any admix'u with any "ideal"
or "right" law. The Pu,e Theory d..i,es to pr...nt ,he law a. it i
no' a. it ought to be; it seekslo Imow Ihe ,..,.1 and posoible. not ,he
"ideal:' ,he "tight" law. 1n ,hi, """c, the Puro Theory is a radical
realistic 'h.."y of law, th.t i., a theory of legal po,idvi,m. The
Pure Theory ,du",. <0 evaluate ,he po;<i,i,-. law. A ,cionee, 'he
Pu,", Thwry rega,d< ;,,,,If ,.. oblig:".d to do no m"'e to
gnup the essence of pooith'e by.n an.lysl. 01 ito "ruc.urc,
10 undcnt,"d it. Splfic.olly, the PUT< Th=y tef"... to seTVe any
poli.ical In"",... by supplying them with "ideology" by which
the e,,;,,'ng social order is ju.tifi<'d. or dl"lualifi.d. In thi. w.y the
Pure Theory prevent.> Ih.., in the name of the science: of low, a
hightt value i, to po.ltlve low tkon it actually I."", by
iMntifying it with an ideal law; 01 by denying po>ltl""
value. and ,h"" any ""Iidi,y, by claiming th" It contradict.> an id..1
law. Th...by lb. Pu.. Theory plac.. itoelf In oha........ cont"", '"
juri'prudence which, consciou,ly or unconsciou.ly,
sometimes mOle, oometim.. 1..., h"".n eba"",ter in
the ..,.ond of the "Old. Preci",ly this ami.ideologiC2J.!
,endency ,how' tba' tit. Pur. Th.ory of Law i." true science of
low, For ""enee a, cogniti<>n hu the imm.nent tendency of
ing ilS ,ubject. Ideology. however. v.il, re.1 Ity dthtt by glorifying
it with the intont to con..rvc and to defend. It 01' by mi.rcpr..."t.
ing it with the intent to .ttaCk. to d..troy, and '" rcplace it by 'n
other. Such ideology I. roo'.d in Wi,hing, not in Knowing; it
.prill!!" from =tain imer.." or. more correctly. from in"'re'"
other tbau the Intereot in truth_which, oE course, i. not inlendtd
'0 say any,hing .bout the ,.Iu. or dignity of thoo< o,her inte.......
Th. authority that cre.'" the low .nd which therefore te>
pr"""," it may ne>t an ideology-free cognitiOrt of 11lI
product; likewi... ,he Eore.. ,h.t try '0 de"tCIJ' the ox"ting e>ron-
and wish tD replace it by .unth"", thnught tn be better, may unt
have much me 1<>1" .uch a cognitinn 01 ,he law. A tTue ",ience nr
law, however, doe< not care aoom the nne or the oth...., To be
such a _denee 01 law is 'he aim 01 the Pme Throry or Law.
S<mc/i"n, 0/ National and Inur....lional LAw
f the law i.<coneeived a. a<""rei,'corn"" ,hat is, .. an order 'tip-
"Ialing coercive act< :u sanction., .hen the Iaw.<J...,ribing rule of
law appca.. as the ".'.ment tba, under cottain condition.. deter_
mined by the togal oroer, a cerlain coercive act, likowi", dO'
temlined by tba, order, ought to boo performed. "Coercive acts"
oro act> executed even again.t the will of tI,. a/:ltd individual
and, in <:a'" of ' ..;....0<., by the of p1,)";cal force. From ,h.
prrcMing page. it follow. that tWO kind> of eo<rrivc ae" mn", ""
rim, coerci,'c aclS rna, arc .. ncliono-th<ry are as ,cae.
';QIU against an ac.ion or relrainment dotermined by the legal
onl... ,uch .. imp.;",,,m.n! lor ,hel" and, second, <""'dve "Ct.
that do ,,,,, h.,,, ,hi. ehOT""', ""eh as ,he lorttd imanment 01
individual. amiete<! with an muess constituting a public or
individual. considered dangerous of their rac<:, political
vi.,.,s, Ol" religiou. convietiom; and fOTCible de"TUClion or depri.
va,ion of prof"'Ity in the public int"""st. In the lall<T the
conditioru of the coercive ace include no action or rofrainrnrnt of a
definitr individual dot..-mine<! hy the legal or<:kr.
"Sanctions" in the .pedfic..,.... of the word appear_within na.
tional legal orden-in two dilf..-em form" ... punishment< (in 'he
narrower .. of the wotd) and '" civil executions. Both type>
consist in the fordble innktion of 'n evil or. exp,ased negatively,
in ,he forcible depriv..ion of a ""I"e; in 01 copi'al punish.
ment the taking away of an individual', lik in 01 corpora!
punishment. as cmtom.ry in earliec tim... blinding. amputation
no. STAno:: .uncT Of' ...... 'og
ol. pan of body; in""",, of imprioanmm. dq>ri.....ion 01
libnty; in GISt 01 a the !ali.. away of _ ... np<cially
<fly. n.., dq>riv:o.lion of .;ghlS ""n .bo be Mipul:o..... as a
puniJhmem, 'uch:tO I.... 01 In office or 01 polilical right!.
Ci.il u'CUlion tOO i' .he infliction 01 an evil. I. is di.
tingullhcd from punishment in thai civil execution;" carri'" <lUI
in order 10, as i. uW.lly IIi<\, "righting a "rong." Tile .,all""
rigb.iD,g of a WTOIII con..... in the endillJl of .he MI'" of :lBal ... w
... 0""'" by "'" unbwful btba.ior and in bringins abou. a MI'"
01 albin tha. confomn wi<h "'" bw. Thi< ...", of:o.lbin may be
the .. _ "" tIM: OM ..... <boold ha"" hem broup. about by a bw,
lui behavior of .he <klinqu... " b". if i. is iatl"*,ble to bring
abou. "'ch a .... of .lbin, another one an function "" a ,ubOli.
IUle, F,lt:o.rnplcs for lormer case arc: A bib,O f"lfill h;" dUly to
to 11 3J1 ob)"1 in A', poISCSS;On, .he .."ction of ,ivil exec,,
lion con,i". in .he forcible .. kinglway 01 .he object rom A and
r<:nderirtg i. to Bi or: A fails to 011 h;" duty ollppcaring bel",""
the COlOr< IS a "-i,,,",,; the Yn<tion oorui<u ill forcibly A
before the court, which means ..... A wm be del" i.ft! 01. h.iI lne-
doat too this purpose.. ...... CUlIlple for the bu.. 01. the
..-.tioned """""' A bils 10 llU'a hit obligation 01 raodcrinsll:an
obju nOl in A'I or to pttfono <ClUi" work lor JJ.
n.., IIncliQn 01 ci..il ....ecution <onsi... in lorcibly toling .....y
Ironl A I piece ol ill Vllue '0 .he objecl or
work that A owe,.o B, and in to 11 proceed. from altC
tionln8 off that of p<0perl y. 1 the unlawful beha.ior eonm..
in au,i"l damage 10 individual (I' in <he 6rs. a"" I..,
eumple). then the sanction 01 the execution aIRIi... in npairing
the illcplly caused dlImage- In .... t CHC, t.hcrc is a omaln similar
ity bel....... the lUte and the civil .,.eattion. BOIh arc cnfo<.......nl
produreo di.-eacd agains< I"opt.t,. Thq- diller!rum...ch 0Ihe<
I" lha" in asc of.he fine. which ......11.,. hal the chane 01 a
pecun"'TJ penalty. th;. roes inlo a public f,,"", wh in
01 a (ivil ulltion i. il ginn to illegally dlffil8""
indi.idual in order to r'p"ir the rna"rill or motal damage. In
.hilc..e a definite purl""" detrm'linrd by .he lcpl order i. mani
rCl'. which i. no< Jo in case of 'he puni"'mcnt. It ;1 hlrdl.,. ""","ible
to define the (:(lI\pt 01 :lIXlJ<ding to its purpok. be-
<:auS( purpme 01 the punilhmcn. is _ no< dirtly-
""t! lTaTlC .uncT OP lAw
n"wn. from the 01 the IcpI onItt. That !.hio purpooe
carui... in prnmting (by dttt'lTina) the commilhon 0' _I";""
ol an aeti<m iI an inteTpretalion whidt iJ abo in caoe 01.
aimiDall<pl ordft-. at>bliduaea.... no< lNciousIy ck-
In'1I:Iinrd by the ick:a of pm'WtiorI. but simply by the of
I'ftributiorl.: tD mal;"'.., il with eYil Capiw puniohmen. :llIId
i",prioarImcnl rnnain laDle whnher lhq wilh
dlt ""..-pow: of. p<e>mtion or wilhout iL
In this rupo:t it nO mcntW dilt:ermce bonwfa! punioh-
mtn. and ci,il """""tiorl.. b:a_ the felt u an nil by !he
dectftl individu.ll, ""'7 a prn'en,i,..,..Rect '00.10 thai in ohio
ax'M compmsa'ory and pr........ lll.;vC dftt.. may boe combined.
80th kin<h of s.>n<:tiom-punllhment and civil el<eocullon4.0vc to
he ordered by the judie;,,1 or adm'n;,...,''''' authorities In I pr<><:<:.
durc itt up for ,hi, pu..-pow:. Thero/on: it i. ntcnsllry '" din;n.
guilh judici,l puni,hm,,,.. In be or<krttl by criminal con,... and
admini"n..i,c punt"'m.nl'o be ordcffii by admini&lrativc author.
i.i... judi<oia! civil ",,u,lon 10 be <>Jd<nd by &til COUrU and civil
aro;u<ioru to be by adminiotrativc .uthori'lel. II OJ .100
to ,he act by which the sanction ol'kc 1"'1"
i>hmctlt or civil aocu,ion is om""'" from lbc act bJ whkh Ihe
llOI'M ...,.,led bJ Ibis 1Itt. is appliod--<he punishm.... t or civil
lCtecootion is anied ouL The butt act is ...waJl pnfonned bJ ""
"The santtiooo of gmnal b .... ttpriIlIh I.ftd waT (as
bItt). ate nrithcT de''''''' ,.. ptInisluDm. nor as
eucuti"". but 1beJ ....... <p<..n fon:ibl< <kpri.....ion of ...Itlts
or. in oIhtt won:b, " viol.tioniptlbled bJ lbc 1<pI ord<T. of
oobenri>e "",,led in'<TeIU of .,... ....'" bJ anocheT. If it i.
uouml ,h'lt ..,ording 10 f'O'i.ive inlemationall.w one: IU'" rnaJ
IUOT' to repri..... or.o ..... apiltlt anoIhtt rtli'" anlJ IF the bu<'T
Tef""", .0 rep;lir.1>< ilIepllJ Cluvd domagt'; and Ihat Ihn<: (Ott.
d"e """ (repri"". and WIf) maJ be ,.,,,,,,,,utl only for .he pur""""
of obuining reparation; then a '<'TtOin .imilarity til,
",neti"", of gellmol intern.,ionallaw ."d civil exT,,"ion may be
acknowllged. It i .. however. di,put,d wllClher "pri",lnd wlr
.....y be interpttll:ll "'nellan. of inl.......tionall.w.nd whnh<'T.
th<'Ttfote. inlemation.ol law may be regarol Ii leg.l orlkT."
dl ....
.) Tiu lk/ia {I,u IV....." is NOI .. h,
C",""UW.. 01 llu Uw
to tht I""'"i"i dty.;.... tht Ktion .. rdnin......n
o:>mti.,tint u.. mndition of th", (Oncivt xc onkrrd br lIlc kpl
0Id0r "po...nll 1M dellc' (......Uy called wrong"), and the
CXIftci.... XI icpo_nu ..... A.ot1...... An .:tion or rdn.inmml
Ulllma the 01 ddict only if the lqal ord<1" "",k.. i.
tht (()Ilditi"" 01. concivc 8<1 ... oanction. A :IoU as-
JIUIlfd tho chanr..,.,. of ...netion only if the leg-III ..d ""',.. it
the corucquenc. 01.. dclinit. action or rerrairllll..... AI "'....i""ed
before, coercive acu IlipuJated by the lcg:al oroo OJ the corn,,-
qUell'" of other facu, or. nO( "oanc,ions" in the .pecific weaning
of ,h" word; and ,h. condhionlng foctS--<incc 'he)' arc
d.elerminM actions or rdninmc"ts of CeTuin individual......-do not
hI'. ,he chane..... 01 dclit...
Thord...., a <kiini,. ",,;on oriCfn.inmenl is
j .. assumQ--<Ol'lIltrd with. cotn:ivc xl bcauoc this
action or refn.inmm. is. <kli/:l, bu, definile :action or f.-...in
mnn is. tidier. bec2_ II is mnlK'Clrd with. conci.... Xl. !hal is,
with. 1UICtion .. itt conlItquellCe. No intmanml quality. no rda-
lloa loa mcta-Jqpl .....u.....I .. di"';"" norm is lIM: moon lor qual ..
1Jirta; ,..prifioc hllllWl bd..rior 10 lit ttg3rded as driict; but o<>ly
and adusi..,ly tbt: toet WI tbt: poolti..., Icgal ardor hM aodr thil
bdta>ior tbt: c:onditioa ol a o::omi..., an-d a ana;on.
The doctrine prn'O-,lina; in rnditiocW jutiJpnlocknu Wt a
mor.oJ nluc ekmmt is immanm. in the <lOOlapu of delict and
idno .h..>. a delic. nnoarily mWl man oorneth'''Il
ionmonl and Wt punish""",. "'uK naoarily -.etbi"ll
di.r.onor..ble--i. untmable, if fOt no OIhcr fe1.tOtl than bcu.... uI.
ttee nlati..., e""neter of the f<'Sflt'..., ....Iue Judgmmts. It
may well that the beltaviOt which, .wnding to a poo.;ti..., logal
ofder, i. ttee condition of a ..uction i. con,idercd imnto..1by Cef_
tain groupo, but mOTaI by other groupo, FOf example, a m.n who
kill, hi, '""ult....,u. wife or her lov", i. a rnmirtll according to moil
pooi,ive lcg:al onie.... but hi, action nuy by no m.an. be di..PI''''''cd
by all, and may eYen be "1'I'ro...d by many ill the exm:ioc of hi. not'
ural righ'lOddcnd hi< honor, The duel. puni.....ble under tile law,
io f'O:I"l"daI .,min a entai.........um of oociny by no IJlCIU ' ... monl
but. to the WDtnl)', a monl obIiption, and the jail pro-
_cdas tbe CIllWt<jllmCe, it IlIJO.
far as the civil <!diet. and iu ............ ace"......) an: aJQ-
cemed, cnditiorW ju.iipnadm<e don DO< alUmJlC 10 "wI>-
llOin the doctrine of the ......,tiaI lII<ln1 qualilicotioo of tbe drli<L
From tbe point of win< of a l.beory 01 J"D"itin ta.... lMn' is DO bet
wi by iudI_tho. ;., ..p"IlCli 01 a corIK<lUftlUaipullll.d by u...
Itgal onL:r--is a dditt. Tbne att DO mat. ;,. "', bu. ""If ....s..
poI!ibito. Thit it only the COfUC<[ucntt or the principlc.lemnll,
RO:JgD.iud in criminal low' "ull..", cri.en ""e lege, nul,. P'"'
,inc lege; Illd !hi> prillCiplc which is valid JlOl only lor criminal
law, not only lor criminal bu. for all d<lieu. not only for punl"'
ulcI1l hut for all sanctionl, i. me.dy a consequence ollopl poailiv.
illn. The "cry same bet may Ix ddie. according l<> une legal
order ,hi, o,der aluch... sanclion '" it, bu' not kCOrd.
ing '0 "noth... tho. j>Tovid.. for no .""h conseque"c. 11 il
cvilkm .Jut the legal onl<r nuk.. a <n...i" hum<>n bc:h.>vior the
condition of '''0<;''0<1, bca.... 1M l<pl au.hori,y TtgartU .hi. lx
haviorashannful woocitlJ,1Kna undninblc. But from .ht point
of an 3l1all.... of tht UnlD>Jlerll meaning of 1M kpl ord....
<h;, is for the coocq>I 01 tht delict. II 3
anaUl. twh>.rioo- has btm the condi.ion of a WKlion. <he :ac.
lion is 10 be rcgudcd ... dclin. n"ftl by "- juriM ...no .....y no! reo
prd il .. del.rimcntll a' .U and pcrl>ar- n..... u.nul. .nd ..ioce
''tnlI. -n... dislinnion bct"'toen 3 bel Ih,,, i dclin boa...., it i.
punishable acmrdinS 00 poo.itivt Low and 3 f:act <h,,, is punishable
bft::o, ..... i. is,. by its.-cry IWUU. 3 dcIioct-lhis dillinClioa is baoed
011 3 D3'u.-aI-tow dow1ne. h pr....ppoo<s w. tht cIIa_l" 01 de_
lioc.. tht neoga""e ,."luc. is immanenl in ur.... in bao and l'O"ul.o,..
preo<ription of punisIJ",,,", by pooiti,.., Low. When ,II" nural.law
doorin" of valu'" being imman"n, in ",ality i. rejlm hen the
dillineri"" ct>lIaJ'OC$<
Such word, .. illtgality: l""aking'" or ,iol ..ing' tht I.w,
"xprt.. th" thought of a nogation of the law; they gi"e the id"" nf
Klmtthing that i. on"ide the law .nd dirttttd "-g,inlt il. th"'''en-
ing. inle1TUpting. or "ven aboli.hing <he exi.t..,ct of law, Tni.
1<lt3 i. mioleading; it i. elUot<! by doe f:act that the rtla,ionship tw
t,"""n a norm tbal prC3lCTibcs a anain bch>.viot and an .'....1
bdlavior which is the contnry of the prncribed one are inter_
preted .. logiul contradiction. But a logical contndiction can
exiOi only between t"O ,tat<me"10 of which one say. ,Ita, a i. and
,he Other that a i. m>t. Both ,"temen" canno, be true. Bet"een
the norm-<lescribing .talement that a lIlan ought to beltave in a
certain "'ay .nd the 113tem""t tha, he ac!Ually doe> not SO behave.
no logical conu"diction exis... Both .,atements r.an "and !ide by
.ide, both can be 'rue", the same ,ime. The exi"""ce or validity
of a nonn commanding a <'<'rlain behavior i. nol "brohn" by the
opP",ite behaviOT_in 'he way lhat a ch.;n migh' be broken th.t
le"en a man. The chain of law le"en even tbe man who "breakJ"
the law; the nOnn i. not ",-iolated:' as a human being can be vi.,.
laled (lha, mean" injured in hi.> ""i"e,,<,<,) by an ""foreement "'.
tion direcrrd against him. If a notmotive order command. a cer-
tain behavior m....ly by attaching 3 ..nction to iu oppo>ile. 'heo
the e""nti.l lac,. are e"hau"ively described by a conditional
"alnn""t that ..yo; "JI a cerrain behaviot i. present. lhen a cer
tain sanction ought to be ex""utrd:' In this 'ta'emenl. the delict
appeana. 3 condi,ion. oot a' a negation 01 the law; and ,hi. show.
that the delict i> not a fact ...nding oUIOide, much 1... in oppo>i.
lion '0, the law. but a fac, in.ide Ihehw and determinrd by it_it
shOW1 that the law, ,""cording to iu nature. relen .pecifically to
thi. fact. Like everything ebe. SO the delict (in German: Unre<hI,
literally "\lnlaw:' liL: "u""ction") C3Jt legally be nndentoo</
only a. law. 11 we 'peak of "unlawful" behaviot. we mean by thi.
the behavior that i. the condition lor a c""rch'e act as ...",:tion; if
we .peak of "lawful" behavior. we m.an the opposite, a behavior
by which the coercive act i. avoidrd.
The Pure Theoryof Law. by reinterpreting the delict_which in
the naive, prescientifi
thinking is COll<O",vrd of a. a negation of the
Jaw, a, "un_law'_. a condition determined by the law, fulfill.
a .imilar function a. the<>I"l'O' toward ,he prohlem of theodicy. the
prohlem of evil in the world creatrd by .n-good .nd all_powerful
God. Since C\'ery,hing .hM exl.,. mm' k concei,-ed a' willrd by
God. the q"e..ion ar'"'' How Gin evil be conceivrd ~ . wille<:1 by
the good God? The an.....r gi,..n by a comi"ent monoth.."ic th".
ology i. ,hat rvu mn" be interpreted a. a condition nee....,..,. for
the realization of the good. The a.\:!umption 'hat ....iI i. not the
wMk of God. but directe<:1 aga'n" God. the "'ork of ,he devil. is
-. ((lmpo.<ibte with !he ouch an
_ption ......w Impl, ....., -.cepe 01 an iUlti.cocL
$ina tJ:>o. ddic< is '""" ,he GOlly e-dioion 10 wlUdl tanttioa is
auaehal ointt 1MCGDdi......'''1 faa as _ .sbaI1 -rbe ......
J-UI 01 many parts, indudinJ buD.D. bdlarioo- rna. anDOl bot
deinl'd as delia (1Udl as. for CAmpl lhc xl aeati"l;
lhc cn-rnoJ IloOnJl .hidllktnmin.. <he delia; and !he judicial an
dcccnnining ..., ailtmce ofl alnCrft<' oidia). u... quesc;';'" ario<s
how <he beha,ior .0 "" dc&ned as delia io 10 be di.inguilhed
from othn- kluvior ,h:I. octun all" pan 01 the condition,,,, facia.
OIinarily. tI>t dcliet is lhc bo:havior 01 \he individual "PUnt
whom ,he .-,."j"" >Ct. funaioning" ..net;on, i. directed. Haw
ever. ,bi> delinition of ddict applin only if the ..nct;OO
agaiml Ih. delinquent_ d",. iI, lh. individual who. by hi> "'.
ha.;or, hal <ommiuod th. deHct. Thi, i. the cue-diJcusstd later
--ol li.bili" for ooe', own behavior. But th...nction nd no,
.l.....rs bt dirocted _galnn ,h. delinquent, or not only .pin.. him
alon. hut may abo be dirOOCled "PiM' an<>thtr individual or .....
ttaI o<hrn. Th" is tht of !;,bitity for JO<IICOIK tloc', bchaYior.
In tho. c:ue the lqal order muse <lcttmlint the .tlatio;Nuhip be-
tWftll the deHnqumt and lhe liable for the delict 01
the ftwmn. The losal onkr ""'y "",t.c liable the fatba". the
opouoc. or othn mnnben 01 the ......-n- or wi<lct- family oIdle
dclinqucnL If we dcoiputc. for pta.."..... oIliDguistic limplilia-
uon. at all thooc indmdu.als who _ in a lcpUy dem
miMd ...bticrl. to the delinqOCll' (mcmben 01 <he lamily. c1....
lU'e). Ihco delict may be dcfiMd .. the bd>arior oIlhat individ-
ual topimt .......... or apinS! ...""'" TCIativca, <he .nc:tion is di
rect"" .. a comcquroc.-.
08. !.zc;AL O"''''AT1ON (Ourv')
ANn Ltu,LfTY
d) Legal Obl'gdti,," and Sltn",all
The bchvioc command"" by ...,d.1 order i. th.t which an indio
Y;du.1 i. oblig'''..J '0 .dop" All indiyidu.l ha. the obligation (0.
duty) '0 bcha,'e in a em.in way. il Ihi. bch.w;or i. eomm.oo..J
by the 00<;"'] oroer. To Ay ". bchu;ot i. coml1llln<kd is oynony
mow wi.h laying '.n lndiYid.... 1hu <he obllgaoion 10 behaY\' in.
....A1lC OF lAW
certain way." Since the legal ord.... i. a social order, the behavior
which an individual i> obligattd to adopt i> a behavior whi<:h, di
roct.ly or indirectly, h to take place toward another individual. 1
the law i. conceivtd a c""rd"e order, then a behnior can be
looktd upon ... oblcCti"ely legally comm.ndtd (and therdoTC ...
the content 01 a legal obligalion) only jJ ... legal norm attaeheto
coc",h'e act ... a ..nClion to the opposjte behavior. To be true,
legal nOrm and legal obligation arc usually diflerentiated, and it i.
said that. logal norm "ipu;"t... legal obligation. But the legal
obligation to behave in a certain way and the legal norm that p""
ocri"'" thi> behavior a.. not tWO different bCII; the legal oblip.
ti"" i> Ihi. legal norm. The Ol<IlOmem; "An individu,l i> legally
obligated to beh,ve in a cenain way" io identical with Ihe ltat..
mene: "A legal nann comm'llld. a certain beh,vior of an individ
u,I.' And a legal order command. a c...tain behavior by attaching
a Janction to the oPf'O"ite behavior.
The legal obliption, like the legal nann which il idcntie>l witb
it, hao a general or an individual character. The legal norm whi<:h
commandl compen..ti"" for damage, "ipulat.. (or, more cor
rectly: u) a general legal obliption, The judicial decision-,h.. iI,
the individual legal nann_which ptCocribc< in a COllete.. co", that
an individu...l A h.. to compensate an individual B with a .um of
money for a damage which II had caultd B-thil judidal decilion
"ipulat'" (or, more corrt1y: i,) the individual legal obliga'ion
of A; whereby it i. merely .tattd, however, th., ,he rendering of a
.um of monry by II to B i. the conlOn! of an individual legal
norm. U",ally, a legal obligation i. men,iontd only in ....., of an
individual legal norm, and .iftC<' traditional Iheory conoider. only
gcncrallegal norml and ignores the exillcnce 01 individual nor<m,
Ihe identity of legal nonn and legal obligation i. ov...looktd, and
the lcgaJ obligation i. rcgardtd .. an objec, of legal cognition
dille..n' from the legal norm albeit ",mehow connected with the
The attempt to tharnct.rize the legal obligation in thit way
lead. into error, It leads. for example, to ,he ...umption that the
lcgal obligation il an impul" immanent in man; that it;' the urge
to behave in a way th.t he f..I.... commandtd: that it i. the obli-
g>tion (or binding; from U/:""", to bind) c<>uotd by an innate,
""'und, or divine norm whose obsen.mce i. '"leCurcd"
through the legal order by .tipul>ting a ",nc,ion. However, a legal
obligation i. nothing dot but the po;<jtive legal norm which com-
mando the behavior of an individual by attaching a .. nc';on to the
oppooite btho,tor. And ,he indi,-idual i. legally obJig:ued Ie> adopt
,he commanded o.havior."cn if ,he ide. of thi. legal OOTII' d"".
no' create any impuJ... toward ,h. commanded behaVior. cvell if
he h.. 00 ide. of ,he obligating legal norm at all. a. long as \he
po;s.itivelegal principle prevaib that ignorance or the law i. nu
Theby ,h. concept of 1<g>J obligation i. determined, It i, fun
damem.ally connected wi,h ,h" <If the ,lane';"n. Legally obligated
is the individual who, by his beb.,-;or, i1 able 10 tommit the delict
and th.,..,by bring about the ..ne,ion_the potential delinquent;
o:r the individual who by ,h. oppo"te behavior;' able to avoid the
",netion. In ,h. fi... we 'peak of violation olan in
the >eWnd case of lulfillmon, of an obligalion. Th. indi,idnal
whn lulfill. lh. obligation lmpo>O<! on him by a legal norm, obey.
,h. nonn; th. individual whn, 'n co", of a viola,ion .x""nt.. th
....ne'ion "ipuiatO<! by th. legal norm, applies the nonn. Both lh.
of ,h. legal nnrm and the applying of it repr m a be-
ha,ior in conformity with ,h. norm. If hy ..elfec'h,.n 01 a legal
ordor w. undor"and the Iact that indi,iduai, behave according '0
Ihi, order, then the effecti,'.n... manil.,... it>ell (oJ in the actnal
obeying of lh. legal norm. (tha, i" in the lulfillmenl nf th. leg.l
obligalions ..ipulatO<! hy the norm.) and (b) in the application 01
the norm' (,hal i., in the ex""ution of lh. sanction, >tipulalO<! by
Normally, ,he conteTIt 01 a legal obliga,ion i. the behavior of
only on. individual; hnt il can aiso be th. beha,'io, 01 'wo or
more. Thi, i, th. if an obligation may be fulfillO<! by on. 0'
th. other indi,idual, and ilth. obligation i, "iola,O<! if it i. ful
filled by neither; or if the obliga,ion can only be lulfilled by th.
<oopeTIllion 01 an, and i. ,ioJated j[ lhi. cooperation doe, nOt take
T,adi,ional theory .mploys, bcoid. ,h. concept 01 legal obliga'
tion, also ,he Coocep' of a ".ubject" ot "holder" 01 the obligation
in ,h. >;1m. way a. it empIO}... beside the conc.p' 01 .ubjec,i,'.
righI, the concep' of 0 .ubjec' or holder oIlhe righl. Both are in
dudO<! in the concept 01 0 penon having rights and obliga,ion.
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"'.., .L::d$"V C>UVU
THE STATIC ..... OF ....w
pose obligatiom, and that the .pecific function of Lb. law_in con
uadistinction <0 morals-i. '0 confer rights. But a. ooon .. it ;<'C-
ogni>.cd ,hat the obligation to beh.<'. in " certain way means
merely that this behavior i, commaodtd by a nOTm, and that th.
legal order-like ."cry nonnative ordrr--<ommalld. a certain
boman behavior, then "'0 impose an obligation" mo" be ".
ganl<d as an """mi.] funcl;on of the law and mu" even 1><
""knowledged .. the primary function, .. will be .hown in the
an.oly$i. of ,he function of "conferring" right," that follow. 1><low.
Stnc.. Donm nOl only comm.nd or prohibit. but may also a,,_
lborioe behavior, it may not be .uperfluou. to point out that, il an
individual is authorized to beh.,". in a ecruin way, he 'hereby
uN<! not nrcessarily 1>< "blige<! to thi, beh.,-;ot. Since "to au-
thoTioe" mean., in ,hecont""t of a legal QTd<r, '0 confer 'he power
'0 law. only action. not the refraining from a<;'ion.
C2II be the of an autho.iza<ion; a command. Ott the other
hand. can rcl.... both to action and reh.inmenL Therclore OIle
may be Icg:oJly obligated '0 do something: or to rof"'in from doing
but one can !>c: oulho";xed only to do some,hing. How_
evet. one may be obligatw to make usc of one'l authoriza
,ion; an ac'ion to which an ittdividU<l1 i. au,horized by tho legal
order may. at Lhe .. me time, be e<>mmandw. tltat i" it may be
made the e<>n'"'" of hil obligariolL The judge is authorizw-tha'
i,. the legal order "'" coufetrw upon him, and upon him only, the
authority_to in,pose puni.hment under cenain e<>nditiono. He
may. but ueed not, be obligatw to impos<: this puuishment: and
he i. legally obligated to do ro, if hi. not doing ro i. placw uoder
..nction by the legal OTrIer. ume i. true, if a certain behavior
i. positively permiuw (by a norm that make. an exception '0 a
gen.......1prohibition). The Icg:oJ order may, bu' need no'. ",pulate
an obi igation to make us<: of this ""rmi..i,m,
In this e<>nnec'ion i. might be permitted to repeat: if the rule of
law i. formulated in the .sentence that under certain condition. a
coercive act "ought" to be performed, the wOTd "ought"
docs not "'y whether 'he performing of the cocrc,,'e ac' i. the e<>n'
tent of a legal obligation, a po.itive permi..ion, OT an authoriza
tion; all thr<e ca.... ate covered by it. Jl the l'>vrd "ough," ii
'0 d...ignat. the meaning of aUthrce ca..... 'ha' ii: if the ..u!enee
"somebody ought to behave in a certain way" only mean. that this
behavior i, "'puluM in a norm, ,he 'tal""'ent .hot oom.,.
body i. legally obligattd (h... a legal dUly) to behve in a CeTtain
way. ,."ren '0 a behavior "'hkh it the opposite of 'he b<h.vior ,hat
i. the condition of a )<'rd,-. act .. " ",nel;on. And ,hore i. a legal
obllg>.tion to cxoc"" ,hi. act if the noneJlocn,;on i. ,he condition
of anod,.. eMrei"" act a. a ""oe1ion; <>the....,.. the ex"",ut..ion of
,h.. eot'ei,-. act .. only aUlhOT,>ed or positively pennitted. Legal
oblig..iotl i. nOlo or no, immedia'ely. ,he behavior th", ought to
be." Only ,he eoere;'-. 0<1, functioning as a ...""don. ought \0 be.
If we ..y: "He who i. 1"",lIy obligaud .0 " cclt'lln behavior,
'ought' to bdUlvt in ,hi, way aocording '0 the law," we only"'"
pr'" ,he ide. 'Ml a <<>erei,-. act;u" sanaion ought.o be ""'cuted
if he d,," no, behave in thi, way.
0) Liability
The concep' of legal ""'pon,ibili,y. or liability. i. c..enti.Hy con-
nected, but not idmtkal lI'ith, the concep' of leg.l oblig.,ion, An
i, legally obligated to beh.,'e in a certain way, if bi,
opposite bella-'ior i, made the condition of. eo,,,,,i"e act. But thi,
e""",i,'. act need not be dirted again the obligated
_the "delinquent"_bu' m.y be directed againot .nother indio
vidual related to ,he former in way determined by the leg.l
order, The individual .gainst whom the lanction i.direct! i. laid
to be "li.ble" or leg.lly ' ..po",ible for ,he delict. 1n .h. former
ea", he i. H.ble for hi, own delict_in which caoe the obliga,ed .nd
the liable individual are iden,ical: ,he p"trntial delinquent i,
liable, In ,he ICCOnd cue an individual i, li.ble for a delict com,
mitted by """eone eloe-the obligated .nd the liable individual
are not identical. An individual i, obligated to a lawful behavior,
and he i. liable for an unl.wful behavior, The obligat! individ
ual C.n bring about or avoid ,he ..netion by hi, beh.vior, The
indivIdual. how",'CT, who i. only liable for nonfulfillment of .n
other indIvidual'. obligation (that i.. for 'he delic, commiued by
oome!>ody .1",) can neither bring aoout nor .void the .. ne,ion by
hi, own behavior, Tbi. i. obviom in C'" 01 crimin.l li.bili,y for
"""eone el",'. delict, that i" whm the sanction ha, the char.>cter of
a puni,hmmr, Bur it also .pplie, ro civil liability for the delict 01
MC}, p,
somtone elst, when the !anction ha. the charact.. of a civil ""ecu
lion. A i. ohliagatm to ..nd"," t,OOO to B, if the l<:gal ord"," "ipu_
lat.. that a civil "",cution;' to bl: directetl into the prop<:tty of A
or C in the event that A d"",, not ..nd.. the t,OOO to B. C cannot
bring abou. the sanction by hi, bl:havior. bl:<:au.., the condition of
the ..nction i. the bl:ha"ior of A, not that of C. Nor om C a"oid
the _ction by hi, bl:havior, if he i. only liable for A', ci"il delict.
Thi. would bl: the Gt' if the l<:gal ord" ",,,e to stipulate that the
!anction i, to take place against C if A foilo to .. nder t,OOO to B,
""en if C rend<:" t,ooo to B; th;' mean" if the legal order docs not
accept the fulfillment <:>f N. obligati<:>n by C a' ,ubstitu,.. Not
only may C be liable if A doe. not fulfill hi. duty to rendor t,ooo
to B, hut h, trL1y also bl: obliga,.d to rendet t,ooo to B, if A docs
not fulfill his duty. This will occur if the legal order ,tipulates (a,
it u,ually d"".) that civil ",,ution i. to be directed into C, prop-
erty, if eithe,- A oc C fail. to render ',<)00 to B. In this cast, C-u
the subject of ,he obligation It. render ',000 to B_is able to hring
ahout or to a,..,id the sanction by hi, behavior, In C1>C of Hahility
for the nonfulfIllment of a legal duty con>ti'uted by civil eXecu-
tion into a property. tWO """ibilitie. must bl: distingui,hm: (a)
that the prope.,.,y into whid> the civil execution has.o he dirw:J
is the propcny of .he individual agail", whom the coercive ac, i.
dirccttd; and (b) that the l'rop<:rty i, .hal of someone else over
which this individual ible to di.po>e. In the former case the in
dividual i, liable witb hi, pnlOfl and hi, proper'Y: in ,he latter
c:ue t,,o individuah ha"e to be con,ideretllor liability_the one
who has the authority to di.pooc over the prop<:rty, and the other
who is the .ubject of the right> which constitute the prop<:rt). One
i,liable with hi, person, the other with hi, prop<:"y.
In the cast of liability for somtone eJ..,, delict, the behavior
,ha, i. the condition for the sanction is not a behavinr nf the indio
vidnal agai"'t whom ,he sanction is dirrettd. but the bl:havior of
another individnaL The individual who i, liable for someone
eh..'. delict is no, the 'ubjre, of a det"mintd by ,he
legal order 3! the condition for a !anction; he i. only ,he objre, of
a behavior dete,mintd by the legal order., the ronsequence of a
delle!, namely the of the coercl"e action of the sanCtion. In
thi, re.pect a certain similarity exi... hetween this stt of lac" .nd
that which i, 1""""'" if the legal order stipulates the earlier.
" ,
men,ioned coeTch.., acU which do not have the eha",eter of .. ne
tiono: In these tOO, ,he individual agairu, wllom the coo",ive
act is dimoted is nol the .objec, of a I:Jehavior delerrnined by lhe
legal order as the condilion for the coercive ac'; bu' only the
object of a I:Jehavior deurminrd by the legal order consequence.
namely ,he object 01 the coercive acto dimolrd against thi, individ.
ual. The difference i, th>! in ca... 01 liability lor lIOmeone e1....
delict, the condilinn. of ,he coercive act include a rtain beh.vior
of acertain individual. where.. in ,he cale of roercive acts Lhat do
nOt have the chaneLo' of sanetio'''. ,he condition, do not include
.uch hehavior.
d} It,dividual o"d Colleaive Liability
The differeno<: between oblig-ation (duty) and liability eap""'"
il$elf lingui.<i<;aJly too. One i, obligated ,mesel/ to behave in a cer
tain way; one Olnnat be obligated that ",mWlle el .. beh.ves in a
""rtain way, But one can be liable noC only for one', own be
havior. hut aho lor the behavior of lO1lleone el ... Liahility for a
delict committrd hy $Omeone e1.. conlt..'e a preventi"e effec' only
if a relationship ex;'.. be'ween the tWo that .1I0w. the a""umption
that ,he obligated individual (the potential delinquent) regard.
,he execution of the ..netion .. an evil even if directrd against a"
olher indi,idu.l. Fo, example, if the "'ne,ion i. direclrd against a
member 01 ,he family, da". or nation, ,hal i., against the member
01 a group wht>SC members more 0' Ie.. identify the"'lelv", with
each the obUg.ted and ,he lial>le individual belo"g '0 lhe
""ne collec,ive group, Such a relation i. u.ually ptnupposed whe"
the legal order stipulate> liability for Someone else', delict. In ,hi
..n... liability fOT a delict committed by another may be charac-
terized a' collective liability. But one om '''<riet ,he concept of
coll..,i"e li.hility '0 caSCI in ,,'hich ,he ...netion i. no, directrd
against a ,ingle indioidnal, bu' ogains' rnany or an member> of a
gronp, to which 'he delioque", belong,,, for e""mple in Co" of
blood re"enge, which rnay be e"ecuted og.i"".n members of the
murderer', family; or in the ca.. 01 the $anc,ion. of international
law (repris:tls o"d war), which ore dir..,ed again.. ,he member>
of a "ate wh_ m-gan hal committed. violation of inUrn.lional
'tHJ: srAnc 0' ......w
CoIIe<tive Ii.hili'y is a d".rac<o,i"i" <:1omrn' of primitive legal
orde,.. and il closely connected with primitive man', collectivistic
lhink..ing and fnling. of ,h. lad:; of a .uffici.ntly mOllg
<'gO Imciouon... the prim;'i'". man iden'ifits him...lf SO mlUh
with the member. of hi' group 'ha' he i"",'PH'ts any .igni/i.o.nt
drtd of a group member as a drtd of "'he gronp"_. som..hing
'ha' "we" have done; and he th....fo..., claim. the reward for lh.
group in lhe same manner .. he aa:ep" ,h. puniIDment of 'he
wbole group. But individualliabilily provail. if <he sanction i. di
'rettd <'Xcluoj'-ely agaimt lhe delinquent--the ooe who by hi.
behavior huwmmiUed the deliCi.
OJ Liability B=d Oil Faull and Absolul< Lwbilily
It is <wIllmary to distinguir.b liability baoed 00 .tull and absolute
li.>bility. Where the legal order mak.. an o<,ion or rdrainment by
which an undai,.,.ble "vom i. canoed or not (.g., death
of a man) condition lor a "mction, it i' poWble to diltingui'h
the case in which wa> or lo,..,....,n by
the individual whose khavior i, being and the,""" in
which the ev.nt happ<n<d withom hil in'''''tion or lor..ight, "'ac
cidentally" .. w. u,ually say. The fint case i' liability based on
rault, 'he "'cond i. abaolu", liability. II the ..itable ..,,<'Itt i'
in"'ndod, it i. f'O"'ibJe '0 di"ingui,h wh.,her the intention of tbe
porp<ttaterr "a. ,ubjtively "maliciouo_that i', whether the
","ent w:u calt.lCd or not prevented with in,.ntion to do ha,m:
or, '0 the contrnry, with the intcmion 01 doing good, ferr example.
il a doctor cau..,. the dea'h of an incurably 'ick patient in o,der 'n
hi' 'nffering. "'Faull" i' a .pecific clem<'Itt 01 'he delict:
it corni'l' in a cc"ain """iti ... relation"'ip ktwttn the psychic
behavior of the ddinqurnt and the ""ent b,ough, about or no,
pr""ented by hi. """'riot khavior_it con,;,ts in hil in,.ntion or
1000coight. But we 'p<ak of alolu", liability if nO 'uch ,dation.hip
""i".. il the event i, neith.... lerr...<'It nor intended.
Liability based on fault n'nally include> tho ca.., of ao-called
negligence. Negligencc i. pt...",t when the bringing abont or
nonptevention of an event that i. und..irable from the vi.wpoin,
01 legal order i. lo,bidden. although the ""ent Wa' "eith....
fo'cseen nor in,"oded by 'he individual. but could nonnally have
YHI: ....A11<: .... OF U.w
been (o","'en ."d could not ha'-e been brought about or could be
p"'vemed_ This mean', that the l.-gal order command< to f""es
enta;n und..irahle events which, as the tesult 01 a certaiu b..
havior CUt be 10"'....', and demands that .w;b a"
event is not brought about or i. pre,-ented. Negligence con,im in
the omi"ion o( a foresight comnlanded by the legal order. Negli.
gence i, not_lih lotesight or intention-a positive rel.,ion be-
Iween the mind of the delinquent and the undesirable event
brought about or not p,..,vented by hi, actual behavior. Negli_
gen.. consi'ts in the lack of thi, kind of ,..,lation. In thi, ..n..
negligence i, a deliCt 01 omi"ion lor whkh the legal order otipu
lates aboolute Hahility.
1) Tho Obligoljon 01 Ropa"I;on
Y,,,,!"ently the l.-gal obligation of an individual to repait
material or mornl damage <;;lu!ed by him Ot ",meone ebe ha' been
imerp,e<ed as a ",netion, and thete/ore this obligation h.. al",
been designaled a, "liability."' Such a com'ruction, howeve" eou_
fweo the corn:ep'" of obligation. ",nctiOll. and liability. A ",nctiou
pet" .. is not an obligation-it can but neM not be 'tipulated a'
.uch_but it i. a cne",i,.. act whkh a notm attaches 10 a certain
behaviOl, wh""" opposite is the<efo," legally commanded, lhat i,.
lhe content of a legal obligation. This can abo be exp,es.!ed by "'y-
ing: the ",nction i, the coerci'e act that (on,titut.. the legal obli
gation. Liability is no obligation ,ithet, a. has been mentioned.
but the <elation betwn an individual against whom a coerci,'e
act i, direc,ed and the delia committed by him or JOmeone el ...
Obliga,ion 01 an individual is: to omil the behavior whieh consti-
'ut.. the delict. The legal O1'det may oblige indi,-iduab nO)( to in_
Aie, damage OIl others, without "ipulaling an obligadon to tepair
the unlawfully couse<! damage. An obliga,ion to make reparation
e"i", only, if not only the C3m;ng of damage, but al><:> the no",e
pandoll o( the unlawfully caused damage ",,", made ,he colldilion
of a ",n<lion. The fact that the legal order e..abli,h.. an obligation
to make Tepara,ion i. COIT,,<:t1y described ill ,he rul. of law: "If an
individual causes dam.ge '0 anothe< and d=nol repair it, ,hen.
<oen:ive act ought '0 be di,ec,ed against the property of an indio
vidu.l': ,hat iI, all individual ought to be forcibly deprived of
TKI sTATIC ASrUT o:r ....W
poope"" and Ibis ought 10 1)0: I'tI>Iinftl. <0 the i!ldivid....J
u rtpa.uioo for u.., g.Wftl dam>g<". It 1nS -.,.ionf<! ,h.......
mdi.-id.w muId tM, oblipd no< to anothn', wilhou. hriJII
oblip:l1O repair 1M mopll, (:luoM dam2ge. TIlit -w. be the
QW If tIx indiTid",,1 could no< ",uid !he p ..... ion by -.Lins
reparation lor Ihe an indj,'id...l .
aoIOl'dia>g ... paUli.., Law, avoid Uw IaOCtioo> by .....ling repon.......
for the TIl,. mu.... the iDdi,..d....1 iI no< only ohIipted
lO ,..mun (rom cou,;nl '0 another but. if he CIIus.d
da....ge'. he i, abo oblipted 10 DUke p"n.tivn. sanction of
civil tWO obligatio"s: The obligation not '0
call.. (.hit i. the ",.. in oblip.ion) and to make rrpan-
,ion for the da"l>.g<' mesally cauO! (thi, is wbs,itmc obHp-
tiw, which tak.. ,be pi"". of lh. viol.ted m.in obliption). The
obligation <0 m.ke r.pUlliion for ,h. dam.ge il DOl a unction,
but a ...!>Miml. oblig>lion. The ..nclion of ciyil uution ,ok..
pia ,..h." ,hi. oblip.ion i. not (..Hilled. If ,he .. ncl;on of
civil "":I"ion is di'tete<! Imo ,he proper'l" of ,he inodi-id...1 who
hu c:ou>ed da....g<' by hil ""flay;"" but n.. ..... madepara.ion,
Ihm i. liable fa.- his own <klirt ,hat mnsisu in not ""'ling
for the daln:lgo: oused by his nUl for this
edict anothtt individual on be 100; this is 'M 0" if ....
""",,lion of ....ccution II .0 ... dirtn1 into the proptT'y 01
a-"tt individual ..11m Ihe 6nt doq DO( fl,]lill his duty 10
...aU rq>U3tiort. n.. oocond individual is liabk only if be (2I1lMK
avoid Ihe Annion by h'.....1f maung "'P",.",ioa lor .IM: dantOg<'
ouotd by fi", indh-idual. A<a>nting '" posit;'.., 1.1... ""","tT.
1M: usuilly on an>i<lthe Anoion by doing 00. Fa.- be nonrully ..
not only for .-rr.,.. ion 01 <!.Imago: "",uw:d by ind'-
pr'.....nly oblip bu, is .r", IIttOtId.rily oblip'cd 10
repan,ion ror by .he fi", ii,,,,, laUtT has
not so. Only as oubj1 of ,hi, oblig:u'on. not ... objt of
Ii.bil"y. <:an be a"";d anc'ion by hi, ""horior. nu' then ,.
Oot only 101" iI1tgal nom.v.ra.ion by ,ht: fim 'nd, .. 'du.l,
but .1", r01" the ,i"I"'on 01 h'. own oblig..ion 01 rep".,"ion.
N.i,h.r thi hi> oblip,ion '0 m.h '.p"r.J..ion for ,h. d.m.ge.
no. hi. li.hility lor ,he fulfillm.n. of ,hi. du,y. i anc,ion. Th.
Anction Ottuf1 only if .. ,h. fif1' nor >t:COOd
.... k.. rq>antion for damagt'.
Til" STAT'C ....PI<Cf OF Lo.w
g) CoUu/ive Liobilily Al Ab,aihle Lu.bility
II ,h. san.tion u nol direcl<d again" ,h. delinqu.n' bu'_as in
ooll"",i," liabilily_gain" ,,'o,her individual, ,hen ,he lilbili,y i,
alolu'. FQT n<> inner ,onntt,ion ""isu betw.... <h. liable indio
vidual and ,h. untk.iuble even, brough, .bou' or Mt pro,.ut.d
hy lb. illegal beha"ior of '01"..,n. else. Th. Iiabl. subjtt' mn"
have nei,her foreseen nor in,.nd.d ,h. ",'en'. But i, is possible
that ,h. legal order "ipul.,.. liabili,y lor d.lict commi,ted by
""m..,nlse only if Ih. delic, waS culpably oommilled by Ih. de
linquent. In thi, case the liabilily ha' ,he ,haracl.r of li.bili,y
bas! on fault with ret""" 1<> <h. d.linquent, and of ab""lute lil
bili,y wi,h ..."pttl to the objttl of li.bilily.
"9' u.w L'< .. SUBJ"GTl\'E
0) Right olld Obligolioll
It i, IIOual to oppose 10 the concept "obligalion" the conc'"P'
"righl," and '" cod. priority of rnnk '0 ,h. lauer, Wilhin lh.
,pher. of law"... ,,,,,ak of "right and dUly:' and not 01 "duty and
right," a, wilhin ,h. 'phere of moral" where greater lIT... i, l.id
on dUly; and wpeak of a righl as somlhing differ.nt hom law.
But ,h. right i, law_l.w in a ,nbj""tive ..me of the word io COn
,radi.uinclion to "law" in an objli"...nse, Ih.1 iI,' legal order or
'yslem of nornu, In destrihing ,h. law, ,he righl i."" much in th.
foreground Ibal the obligalion almo>l disappcan; ill Gennan and
French legall.nguage, ,he ",m. word, namely and droi', U
used to d..ign.te "right" a. "..ell as "law," as " ,ystem of nann'
forming a legal ord.r. H.nc., in order 10 di"ingni.h righ, and
l.w, i, is no<:....ry '0 ,,,,,ak in German of ",bjdrives Recht and
obidtive. Recht ubjli"e law and objecth" law) or of Rechr
im lubjek/iven Sinne Recht im objektiven Sinne (low in a
",bj'i,.., ..nse and I.w ,n an objti". sense); and in French of
droil ... bju/if and droit obj_Cli/.
To und.ntand ,he essence of the German term , ..bjeklive.
Recht i, dilli<:uh l>ecause"" many differe", soU of fa, ... are cover!
by this lerm. To one sel of fae" ref." ,h. , ..temmt ,h., an indi
nm sr"TlC ....PECT OF LAW
has d<U Recht, 'ha' i<, the "tight" to in a
><>-y. Nothing marc may b< m<:an, by thi' lhan the negaL;ve fac'
that the individual is no. f,.,.bidden (he j" in thi. sc"se,
nogativcly to act OT rdrain from acting: in ,hi. way_
th.t h. i. lree to OT to "lnin I,om a certain action. Bu.
the ...."'m.nt may mean .110 that a "",tain indi.idu.l i. legally
obligaled-<>r, in<ked. dul all individuah au IrgaUy oblig'ucd-to
beha"e in a rtain way toward anoth individual (that i., tow.r<I
the entitled individual, Or 'he lubj..:. of the righl). The behavior
which i. the immediate obligation of an individual toward an-
other. may b. a posith" or negative I><havior, that is, it may be"
specific a<;.ion or refrainment. The ac.iun con,i", in tendering a
performance by ,he obligated individual toward .noth.... individ.
uaI. The perfOllllance may comist in tnn.fening a certain thing
(in German, s..chleistung) or in r.ndoring a S<'rYice (Dien:srleis-
lung). The refrainment which i. the obliga,ion of an individual
vi""vi. anothor individual may either be the ,efraining from a
certain a(.ion (for example, killing ano,he' individual); ot the
,draining from p'e'.'enting or impairing the beha"ior of another
individual (.,.petially p'e"eOl;ng or impairing ano'her individual
in hi. behavior toward a cc''''in tbing). In 'he laller cast we .peak
of tol=oting the behavior- of one individual by another, and we
jUXlapoiC the obligation to perform (ui'tung,pflichl) to the 01>-
lig.tion '0 ,olera,e SC>TTtething (Dulduog'Pflicht).
Th. ohlig"e<\ behavior- of one individual toward anotber corr.,.
'ponds wi'h a certain behavior of 'he other individual. The latter
may demand the behavior of the forn,er. In tbe cate of an oblip.
tion to petlonn SC>TTtething. the other individual may =ei"e the
thing Ot tendered oervice. In the case of an obliption
to toler..e lOttle'hing, the behavior that corre.pond. to the obli.
gated behaviut comi... in the beh.vior to be tolerated; in tbe c_
of toler.uing a certain behavior in relation to a certain thing: in
the use of the thing; if it i, food. in conmrning it; !inolly even in
d",troying it.
The behavior of one individual th" corr",pond, to tbe ob-
ligated behavior of the other i' ",ually d",ignated a, the coment of
a "righ("'_<.. the object of a "claim" that corr"'ponds to the
obligation. The behavior of tbe one individual that corrnpon<b to
the obliga'ed bebavior of the other particularly the claiming of
THE ...ATIC A'FECI" 0" ....w
.he oblig..ed behavior. i. d..igno.ed .. ex'rd,ing a right. How-
ev", in elSe of on obligaLion to r.frain from .n ocLion. ,uch .. LO
refrain from murd.... or burglary. on. does not u'u.lly .peok of ...
righl or claim "nOlto be murder.d" or "nOl '0 be burglari>ed," In
cue of an oblig..ion 10 tol..... 1<: ""m.thing, th. behavior of the on.
cor"'.ponding to the obligation of lhe other ipok.n of "en
joyment" (German: Cm ) of the right. Particululy .... 'peak of
e"joym... ' of a right ....h we d<31 wi,h ,he ,<.tC. comummation,
or even da'mnion of a ,hing.... hich anolh" individual i. obli.
ga'ed '0 '01..... 1<:.
Thi. "righ'" or "claim" of an individual. howev..... io m".ly the
obligation of ,h. o,h... individu.1 or individuals. Jf the right or
d.im of.n individual io .pokCTI of a' if i, w'" different from the
obligation of ,he other, ,he imp'...ion of 'wo l.gaJlj relevant facto
i......,ed where oniy one io preoent. The fact in qucs,ion io ex_
haustively de><:ribed .. ,he legal ohligation of One illdiyidual '0
behay. in c.rtain w.y toward ano,her. Tha' an individual i.
ohligated '0 b.have in a cortain way mean, that in ca", of lh. op-
posi'e beh....ior a ...nction ought to uk. place; hi.obliga,ion i, ,he
norm ,ha, command.thi. behavior, hy .uaching a ..nction '0 the
oppooil<: behavior. If .n individual i, obliga,ed to nd... a per.
formanco '0 ano,her, ,hen the petformancc to be reeeh'ed by the
o,her con,d,utco the con,ent of the obliga,ion; one can render
untO another only that which the oth.... acccpto. And Han individ
u.l i. obliga'ed ,ow.rd anoth.r to toleral<: c......in beh.yior of
the o,hcr. th.n the ,olerance of thi. behavior i. th. conten, of ,h.
obliga,ion. Thi. me.no: the behavior corrcoponding to ,he obli-
gated l>ehvior, of the individual toward whom the obligation
.xi.... i. cod.t....mined in the !>ehayior that conotitutcs the <:onl<:nt
of ,he ohliga,ion. If One d..ignatcs a. "righ," 'be rclotion"'ip of
one individual tow.rd whom .no,her individu.l i. obligated '0'
c.....in behavior, th.n ,hi. right i. m....ly a rcflCC1ion of ,hi. obli
It io '0 be not.d th.t th. "suhject" in this ",I..ion.hip i, only
the oblig;ated individual_the one who an viol.1<: or fulfill the
obliga,ion by hi. beh.vior; th. "entitl.d" individual_the one to-
word wbom the behavior i, to toke plaee-----i, only the objr" of the
behavior whkh, becowe corr"'ponding to the ohligo'ed behavior.
i. cod.l...mined by Ih. lau.... Th. concept of. right which i. only
TH& ,rAnc .....u:r or UlW
'be rcfttion 01 a I"PI obliptioo_d.c concq>< of" ",ofla. rigllt"
- ....y facilitate, '" an ,iliary I:OI1pl. daaiption 01
l<:pI .u,....<i<>n; but from point of vi oi a oc:Vn.ifif;:all, 1'""
cit( doraiption of l.he kpllit.....ion. it is pc:rlI.-... llIi. iI 1Ori-
Om. from lbr bet w. one Goa ..... in aU <:aJCS of a kpl oblip.
lioa.........,:a *rdIa. rip.H If ,be oblipud beh>rior of.be one
indiridWlI doco _ rdn 10" opi6aUy d"';pml. other indirid
..aI (lhal it. if it doct not ha,'c 10 Illlc pbce wilh rapoct 10 a opt-
cilicllJy dnnmined indi.'iduoJ) but refen OlIly '0 ohc lopl
co",""u,,',y as 1UC1I. 'Mn_hho,,&h one of a
"rigl.. of ,he communi.y" (q>t<:i.>lIy 01. the .....'e) 10 the ..yior
of .he obliptod individual, Iud> he oblip.ion '0 do ,nm....,.
iCrvice--onc is $l,i,fi<'d in OIlier "" to ...."111. a l.gal obHg::llioo
..',thou< a ""rr"'ponding rcA., righ.: for .xample in cu.. of 'he
legal norm. that pr<>eri"" .. certain human behavia. to"'ud "'u".
a"im.lo, pl'Ill" or inanimate objttlS by poin of puni$l,mcn,. Ir i.
!o.hldd"" '" kill cer\;lin anim"l, a' cena;" ,i""" (or ...).
'0 pi<:k ecruin flo"' ..... '0 cu, e.......n 'TC'CS, OT '0 dmroy rUin
hiJlorical mooumC1l'" TI""", all' obliga.iono whio:h--indi_lIr_
(>li" ,owan! the legal (OtIl",uni'r in tMw objects. Bu.
110 .dIn: rigbto ne -.mcd on the pa" of 1M animal.. plan ....
monumntu. Tho: tha. the protected :animals, plan and
inanimate objoocu a.., not ...bjto of the rdIn riKhto lxaux
ob;.aa a.., ..... ..Mil ..... (Onttt.. rOT Mpnoon.R as.., .han
_. means legal Stlbjon: and il the ... of a rdlc:l< right .. the
indim....1 'oward ..hom the bebnior of aD obIipttd indiridual
Iuoa to lake platt. ohm ani.....l. ftC. lOWanI. ......... men an obi;.
p.ed in a anain ......,. ne indeed ... of a righ, to thi. be-
ha"lor in the..".., 1C1l.., in ..hich the cn-ditor it.M subjon of the
righ' tha' con.i... in 'M oblip'ion of 1M aut ., hat b<-at
uid. il a man is obli!!,,'e<! '0 behave in a <>erlain """y to '" an.
OOM< m.n. only ,he lormer. not ,he !au.,.- i. a .....bj ""mely
,"" .ubjec' of a" oblig;uioo. Si""" .he rriI"" tigh' il id.".,tiol with
'he obli!!,,'ion. 'he individual to...ard ...hom the obligation ,xi...
,ann", be t"Prdro as a "lubjK'." beeau"" he i. not ,he .ubjcc' of
,hiJ obliga'ion. The individual toward "'hom 'he ohlig:u<:d be
havior has to lat. place. il only 'h' object of .he behavior. i" 'he
same way a. the a"imal toward which the individual i. obliga'od
'0 behave in a entain way. Abo un'enable is the argumC1lt ,hat
Tnt ..,.ATJC ..",aT OF UW
animals cannOt "m.le. claim" ,ha, would corre<pond to the obli
g"ion. For it i. no,e...nti.lfor the exi".nee of a r.fl.x righ, that
the obligated behavior i. being daimed. Th. fact that. d.im i.
not being m.de or e.nnOt be made for ",me r.aJOn doc. not
ch.nge tbe legal .itu.tion.
Ad.im to be mad. in a legaf relennt .et exist. only if the nOn
fulfillm.nt of tb. obligation con be ...."ed in I....."it. Then.
ho...ev.r, a .ito.tion prenil....bicb i. ""tirely diffne", from a
me", ",flex right; it "'ill be disrus..d l.ter. A reflex ,ight, 3t any
r3t., cannOt exi.. whbom the corresponding legal obligation.
Only if .n indi,-idual i. feg.lIy oblig.ted to beh.,. in a certain
way toward anothn, ha, the othn one. ",ight"' to thi> behavior.
fn<l..,<I, the ..flex tight of the one conoj"" ",l.ly in the obligation
of tlte oth...
The t...dition.1 view that the right and the obfigatlon ar. two
dilfe-r""t obj..:.. of legal cognition, that. in fact, the form.. h...
priority in ..I.tlon to the latter, i. prob.bll' rooted in ,h. naturaf
law doctrine. Thi. doc'rin....um.. the exi".nce of natural riglots.
inborn in m.n. that ar. valid befo,e any posit;"e legal order i
....Ioli.hed. Among ,h..., nam...l rights. the right of individu.l
proper'y play'. m.jor role. The function of a positive legal ord.r
(i.e., of the st.te). "'hich tetminate. the , .... of natur., ill-
a""ording '0 ,hi. doc,rine----to gu.rantee the natunl righ.. by stip-
ulating cor""ponding obligation. This view ha. influ.nced the
TCpresentative. of ,he School olHistorical Juri.prudence. "'ho in-
augunned the leg.l positivi.", of the nineteenth century and
doci.i,-dy in/lueneed the concept of. gen....l theory of law. Thus,
..yo: "Historically. subjeive rights existed long before
a ..I1",on",iou. n.,ion.lleg.1 Ornet (. " ..ej had de,'doped. They
were hosed on the penonality of the indi,-idu.l an<l in tbe recogni
tion which they "-ere able to ochieve and to enforce for the per>on
and his property. Only by abUTaction waS the concept of a legal
ordrr gr-adu.lJy d.rived from ,he exi<ting .ubjocti.e rights. The
view, th'TOfore, ,bat .ubjcai.e rights arc ",erely derived from an
objec'i>'e law is unhistorical .nd etroneoo.. "" If ,h. a..umption
of the ."i"ence of n",ural right< i. rejected, and if .ubjective
rightS are r.cognized only wh.n e".bli,1Ied bl' positive legal
""",i<h .,,,,.. ,;" R"''''.,. R." (<tn p ..ul,....hI<. ....
Part t p. "5.
'SO TH& &ToOne OOSPI!CT ".. ......
ordcT. Ihm i. '--'eo ....idtol that a oubjective righ. (u a rdlc:
tiJIU) praupposa a corTapondi... lcpl obIip;ioo-<ba. Indftd.
i. is chit obligatioa.
110) lu.I 004 ud lUi ;.
1AfIun>caI by 11,_ jurUptudmce we Il$IlalIJ diloti.....i"- lx-
I_a Tighl 10 a lhiDI (ju.l ed. feR) and a ri&bl apinK a I'""'"
(ju.l ill ptnoIIaJII). Thq dittinctiorl q mWodi.... beaute cYnJ
righ. to a UoLDg .. aloo a righl apin.. a 1'"""'. If ;" onkr '0 moin
uin Ih.. distinc.ion s.cllenr111 and P.....,IID1reelll).
the former q ddin'" .. me righ. Q/. an individual 10 dil!",* OV" a
ceruin ming, one overloob tm. ,hi. tight t:Ofl.i", in the
oblig>tion of other individu.l. 10 '01.... '. 'hox dilpooi'iolU,
10 'hat ,h. righl to ,hing il .110 righg.inn lletlOll. I< i.
,h. rela'io" lx,.....,,, Individu.l. which i. of primary imporunce,
.nd mi. rel..ion i. impli.d In Ih. righ, to. mingo 10 ia corutitUled
by 'he ohlig"ion Q/. ",h... indi.idu.all to <ol....,. ,h. diopooi'ion
ov a (eruin ming by. definite individual. Tbe tdation to the
thins .. of -.-J.ry imptlftana. beawe i. m..nly..TVQ toclarify
m. dclinl.ion of the fi.... tN,ion.
The .ypial rigtn to a ming (or tn! riglll). which is "'" '-is
for the diy'tK1ion. q """ J"'OPOf'y righe. Traditionalll:i<:aa of law
clcfi.na il .. lhe ad....... doomi........ Q/. a penoa ...... a thiDg and
I......by distinpioba th" rich! m.o the ri&b' '" daim ...tUdo. ..
""" basis only of peuoa.al kp1 ..,la.ion.. TIW dittinnion. on im
porw:1I for civilla.... '- an ouupok... chuxtn.
Si1lCO .... law u a IOciaI onto.- rqu1a..,. .... beba"ior of indiri<!-
uall in meir dirul or iDdirl "'latiODI to ooMr- inoli,id...l....
ptopet Iy. too. can lqally con.l.. only;" a cnuin reIa.ion lxt....,..
..... indl,idual and 0I.her individual .. Thi. relation i., me oblip.
'ion Q/. th.... oth.... individ"all ..... tl> di....rb .be fin' one in hil
difpooition over a ..,uin ,hing. Wlul il dClCriMd al .he uclwi...,
'dominion" of an individual ov.r. thing ilthe legally fli!",la'ed
(Xd... ion of all ",hm from .h. dilposi,ion 0.... 'hi, thing. Th.
dominion of m. on.. i. m..",ly ,h. r.Au of 'he """I ion of
m. oth.... Til<: dominion i, a ",Iation bet........ m.... oth nd
,h. OM. in th. Ulual tenltinolorr' a ",I.,ion bo.wcen pnsoru.; and
-a. h 0Dd..1.
only oe<:ond.1rily a relation .0 hing. namely a ,..,latio<> of ,h.
otlle.. to the ,hing. by which ,hcir lation '0 the one (the "own-
or") is "lahti,hed. Nevertl,.I .... th. ,,,,di';on.l definition of
pTOptrty a. "xclu.ive dominion 01 a (><',...", over a thing i. main
,.IDrd and 'h" legally .....mial rel.'ioll i' ignOTed. Th. re""'" fot
,hi. is, apparently. 'ha' the definition of property a. a Telation 1><.
,ween an individual and a thing veil, <he :onomicl.lly dtd,;ve
{unc,i"" of this ",I.,;on_ function which (if it ref.n to owner
.hip of the me"", 0/ ptoduetion}-i. rightly or wrongly. 1.l><lod all
"nploita'ion" by """aliot ,heo'1'; which function cCTuinly i.
pr=m in the ,..,Iation of the owner toward all other ."bjects who
uc excluded from 'he di'poo;,;on of the thing .nd are obligated
by ,h. law '0 r"'lpe<:' ,h. own...-', ."e1mi,. power of di,poo'.ion.
Traditional sciene" of law itubbornly oppooed to acknowledg<'
the right of rn" one ,""",Iy .. a re!lex of the obliga'ion of 'he
omor, bau.. troditional "ien,e 01 law btHev.. that it ought to
,,""... if only for idoological r""",n., the primary ChanCleT of the
It i. p",f"",ble, bau"" devoid of any idrological tcndrncy, '0
'p<"ak of ",la.i"e and absolute ""flex rights. when de"ribing the
two sets of fa,ts characterized by tradilional scient:<: of law a. jUJ in
"""ooam and i'" ad rem. To behav" in a cOTtain way toward.n
individual may be the obligation of an individu.l; this i. so, fOt"
exampI", in the TOlation 01 d e ~ t O t " to creditor, for here on\y the
debtor i' obligated to r"nder perform.nt:<: to the creditor and
therdore only th" creditor has a ,ell"" right 10 'he pe,formance,
The obligation of the debtor and 'he ,,,II,,,, righ' of tbe credi'or
""ist only in TOl.,ion to" specific individual .nd iherefore only
TOI.,i,", If, howev",. tbe behavior refe,.. to a .pecific thing. then it
may be 'he obligation of all otheT individual. to behav" in a CeT'
'ain way ,oward a .pecilic ind"idu.L Thi. i. the ca.. of the Tight
of proper'y: for here, all o'h.... ,re obligated not to pteven. a defi
ni'e individual from, or di"urb him in, hi. di.position OVeT a
tbing. The "'""" Tight that con.i... in the obligation of the..
othe,.. i' directed again>! all thO$< oth"" and i in thi' ",n5O, an
absolute right. Terminologically the distinction betw....., r"l.tive
.nd absoJu,,, ",H"" rights i. no' a very lelidtou. one, because 110-
called ",bsolute" rights are also only relative; they consi.. only in
the relation 01 the m.ny to the one. The reHex right of uwn"nhip
'3' nAnc MJ'1'.C]" 01' lAW
xlIaally is.- an at.>I ..'t rWlI; il is lh<: refIo; 0( a m..toi.tWk of
obl.......... ol an inddtml'''''lt n..mboerof ....1s tow;ud.....,
....th rapcct to ...., th,.. ,n allI.Ddistinau. to a
cb.im., which .. the rdla of only ...... oblipl..... of a spiic iDdi_
ridwol taII3nl. a_ha- 'f't'CH;c tndiridWll.
II<ICIllO>tiarJ .-ria.tiort to a thing. """""".... is not lim,led to
ala of the M>Q/ltd iIU M ,not bu. auy also "" proml in .IKcue
of claim> or i";" pmo....... rOO" elWl>p1e. if a dcbcof it oblipled
to rmdtt a thing.o tht crtditor. let w ...y. if _body is
obligated by a con'ne 0( ...It to Inns(... lht _"t>ttSh'p of a ope.
d6c pie of mM... blt OO".tal =ate ". In
thi. alit .igh, of tht crtditor is dirra<'lluat\ fTom i.... o.d
in thol his right correspond. m... to, ,he oblip'ion of a
IptCiflc individual.
In lhi. an,lysi. only ..flu Tight i. con.id....td. It play, a dt
,i,i"e role in tndiuonal although thi, "right" of the
one is nothing hut oblig,,,ion of anolh.... or of all 10 lJc..
....."" in a "a",in way loword ,Itt fiTlL If, how."". 'ht .igh. of
J>fOP"rlY i, ddinM '" thot ltpl POW" 0( """'.. 10 ud....u all
otMn from lht dispooilion (tVC'T a thiog. then Wt art no longC'T
dtaling with a mC'Tt ,diD righ,_ An iDdividwol ...... tltis Itpl
powa only if lh<: bw a..lhoriJ>es Iti", to......n in ODtlrl lltal thc at>-
lip...... not'o him ........ his disposition of a aTtain thing
had brm. r;ola,td.
c) Tu A P>oI.t.led r"lC'TUt
TIlt' ddinitiort 0( lbc law in a ath;..ru"" ....- "" a pro-
tltd int......... rnq....ul, prnnlltd by tnditionol Kim oflaw,
rtf.... to thot rip. as 1M .tft... of a legal obliption. This defini.
lion dtatly di>piays 'ht dualism .hal'3Citri"ic for lndi.i"""l
Kitnu of law; I"" rigttl. ,h is, lhe law in a .ubj<irt ........ is
Jux,apoocd "'ilh 'he law in .n objecti,,, "'1>"'. TIlil du.li,rn con
.ain. an <omrodi,,;on. If tht la.. in .11 ObJocl.ve stnlt
i nonn or sy>l"'" 01 norm, (s nOTmat'v. oroC'T); .nd if ,h.
righl a, ,h. I.... in a subjliv...n.. i1 something dilft.-
ent. Ilamtly imtresl. lhen law in an objecti...., ..mt ."d righl a.
la.. in a .ubjecli..., ,."Ie cannot hot suboumtd undt1' rom""",
concept. Thi. contndiction cann", be avoided by admitting. rc
I.ti"" between l.w in.o objective sen.. and right., l.w in a sub
jecti"e sen... n.melj th.t the JaUCT I, an inter... protected by the
fotmer. If the law i. conceived a., norm. the Jaw...-e>en in a ".ub
jective ..n..----<:annot be law.protected imerest, but only the
prote.tion of this is. the law in an objective sen...
The protection con.im in the legal orocr att",hing a "'netioo to the
violation 01 th;" mCOln., in "ipolating a legal obli
gation not to violate the internt; 'uch os. lor example. the legal
obligation of the debtor to pay bo.ck to the creditor the loan te
i."Cd. According to the intetcStthcoTj', the right of the creditor i.
his intetest. protected by the leg.l obligation of the debtor. in the
tepayment 01 the loan. But bi. right.' a reflex right i' oothiog but
thi. 1<'l)31 obligation of the debtor.
from the point of view 01 the inte....t theory. the ..."mption 01
reftex right doc> not seem to be possible if the act to which one i.
ohligated toward the oth.... romists in inRlcting an evil on him,
Thio io the Ca" if the act h.. the character 01 a ",ncti,m prescribed
by ,he legal order, and if the commanding and executing of the
"'nction in concrete .imation. hal bee" made the Content of the
offici.1 obligation of the la"applying org.n. Norm.lly, nobody i,
imeteSted in the 'ulfeting of an evil. If.n interest i' protected by
the obligation in question. it c.nnot be.n iot......t of the individ-
ual againot whom the ..nction i. dil<'Cted; in the mentioned exam_
ple it c.nnot be the int....". and therefore not the right. of the
debtor who doc> not lu1611 hi' obHg31ion; the int....', and thete
100e the tight. of the creditor i. protected by ,h. 1<'l)31 obligation of
the deb'or to tepay the loan. In the ca.. of a criminal sa"ct;on i'
cannot be the imereot, and th...-c/OI. not the right. of the wrong
doer, tho' ;, protected hy the obligation of the law<lpplying o..,.,n
to punish the wrongdoer, If ncveflhel ... one ."umes ,ueh a right
-as i' "'metimes done-if (Kle "'Y' 'h" the wrongdoer h.. a right
to be puni,hed. hal d.iro to ,h. legally "lpula'ed puni,hmen'
(that i. to the fulfillment of the obligation to puoi'h h;ro). ,h.n
,hi, view ......" on interpreting the community', int....' 01 reacting
against a delict by a ..ne,ion, .. the imerest (the "welfund...-_
"ood" int.rest) of the delinquent. nut usually the int....t of the
community. or. more correctly, ,h. protecTion of thi. inter..' hy
1J4 nc Alt'U'f or ......
the oIlicial dUly 01 'M 1a pp1ying organs. iJ ..... desipalfd as
...l>j.i,c rdln righ.; in <:oam>on languav one d<><s ..... In all
aOetI of a 1"",1 oblip!ion 'I"'ok of a CL>lT<1pOI1ding rdIt:l< righL
d) The AI
III .ndi'''''''l jurilprudenee. tbc: int.".ot theory iJ opp<Kd by ,he
will-pow... ''-''1'. xcordl"!J 10 wbich tbc: '''right.'' U .
tbc: la... in a ID>OII'. iI a will JIO"'<'T wnl..--:! by tbc Iq:al
order. Tbneby. howeY........ objt iI ddined <hal iI dilrrm.
from tbc: one Ul ...hidl the in.".nt lheorr Trlm, rwndr an au
lhoriza.ion. a I"PI pow..- mnl....-cd upon .he indivUlual by the
1"1"1 ord.".. A Hrigh." in <hi> _Ie iJ if the condiliolll 01
,h. ""nc.i"" ... cO'l$,itut.. a legal oblig,,,i,,,, includes a mo.ion.
normally of th. individual in r.IOllon '0 whom ,he oblig,uion ex-
i"'; ,he moll"" i. aimed a. the nu,1on of Ih...netion on<! ha,
the f<mn ofala....uit brough. bd"on: the low...pplying oog:on. Then
thiJ Otpn ....y apply the ttt'"""1 _ (tho. iJ. enaco the individ
ual norm """ a..aches a coocrne anaioo. to a a>nrn:te delia
atablioMd by the orptt) if .... autboriled individual--lhc plainlift"
_mal:a ouch motion which SIaN the ptoeedUK of the low
applying oo-pnpecilially the judicia.! In thil """" ,he
law. tho< i.. ,he legal not'lt'. 10 he applied by the 1"P1
orpn. i,", ,h. di'poIOl of. 'f>"'Cific individual; and in ,his KIt ....
the low i, ind.t<! "hi," law. which mcan" hi, righ" If in pr...nl.
ing ,hi, ,i,,,otlon w. moke " .. 01 the auxiliary coru::epc of "refl.,.
right," then we OlIn lay th:.t tbc: righ.-the lo:flcx 01 the legal
obliga.;o.-i, ,",!uipped with the 1","1 pow..- of the entitled intli.
rid....110 bring 01>0". by ala i. the aKu.;on 01 a oon<:tioot as a
metion apiruI tbc: ful&1I 01 the obIiption ...'-e rd5cx
.. hil righl: ... il iI 1.,.. bu, not quil. oD.'ftedy. fonnulalt<!:
10 bring: about. by a la ui., the enl_1ollh. fulfillmenl 01
.hi. obllg:otion.
TIlii."o,lon ;, no< ..",,",,"iv.ly d""";bed by ,h.
obliptlon of on. individual to behove in a c.".ta In way 'oward on
",h... individual. For ,h .-n,ial .Inn.... i, .he Itgal power be-
......cd upon the latter by the 1","1 order '0 bringlboul. by a law
",i...he n<culion 01 a lannion as a metion apinJt tht _luI.
na .sTATtC AS1'1<CT OF uw
fiJimem of tbe obliga,ion. ,hi. legal power i. something
from lhe logal obligalion against who", nonfulfillment
the former io exercioed; only in lhe exercise of ,hi. legal power i.
the individual the "mbject" of a right different from a mere
of lhe legal obligation. Only if lhe logal order confon mch a logal
power we faced by a "right" in a .pecific, l"Chni<;aJ seme of ,he
"'"Old, which i. lhe logal power conferred for the purpo'" of bring'
ing aboUl by a law .ui, the execution of a sanction a. a reaClion
against the nonfulfiJlme", of an obligalion. To "",ke u'" oE this
legal power i. "e""",i.. 01 righ..' in the .peci.6c ..nse of the word.
Thi. exerei.. i. not codelermined by lhe behavior that coftl.timt..
the contont of the oblilption .gainst whose nonfulfillment the ex
ercise of the leg.l powor i. direcled. In lradition.l linguiotic nsage,
10 be ,,"other behayior of the individual in relalion to whom
the obHg,nion exi... is de.ignaled .. exerd.. of righu," namdy
,be behavior tha, correspond> to <lu: obliga,ed behavior and i.
cod..ermined by it. It i. tbe exerria<: of ,he teAex righl.
Acwrding to lraditional lheory. each right of an individual con
tain. a "daim" to the beh..ior of anotheT individuat-namdy 'Q
that behayior to wbich the "'<ond individu.l i. obliga,ed towatd
the fint: the behavi", tha, constitut.. the COntent Qf the legal
obligation ideotical with the reAex right. Rut a "claim" in a
Iqf<tlly tel..'a", oen.. is aaser,ed only in exerd.ing the legal power
with which. reHex right mwt be equipped 10 be oa<alJed law
in tlt< .ubjec,ive ..,nse of the word. IIa" individnaJ. tOward which
anOlher individnal is obligated to a certain behaviot, does nOl
hO"e lhe legal power to bring about by a law suit the execution oE
a sanet;On a. a reaclion .g.inst lhe nonfulfillment of the obliga.
tion, Ihen lhe a<:t by whieb he demand> fulfillment of the obli.
gation haa no .pecific leg.l effect; the aCt is logally irrelevant,
except for not being logally prohibited. Therolore, "claim" as
logally elfeclive acl exi... only when a oo-called law In a ,objeclive
oen" exi,", ....hich me"", thot an individual ho. lhe just chancLer
ized legal power.
Neither this so-called law ill a 'ubjective ..noe not the legal
obligation i. from. and independent 01. ,he I..... in an
objecliye "'"... The fonn.,., like lhe leg.l obligalion, i leg.1
norm: the logal norm which conEen a .pedfic leg.l power upon a
Tl<I: ' ....ne .uncT 01' lAW
cnuin iDdi."iduaJ. Tha. this indiiduaJ "hM" " ri&ht. i...... a"fW'
cil>o:: I'PI p""""". ontly meBIO ,hi Jeg:ol nOfm lou made ... cu
tain IICt of <hi. ....J the wndirion for cC'nain mscqu"ntft.
If traditional .hooty dtarac..'i..... ,he right as .. Ira..l powe, con
ferred by tbe l<gal ord... ,h.." ,II" theory h... in mind the 1011"1
power uC',ci><:d In ,h.. law $,,1. Ilut not only ,hi, ltgal
alone il undentood by right (i..... doe law in ..... bjoc.il'<' omx).
but this p"".... in UMln=ion with rd\o::r; ,i&"., ...... is, 1M
oblipciorl againw. ..boor DODf"J&lImm acn:ioe of the ltpl
pot<cr" direeu.:l; in o<b<-r wordo: .. rish' wi,h ,hia
l<pl poo<n. TM _phHis i,on .... rdks. ti:gtlL AI. hal bttD
demon\u:lItcd "1>0>',,, howr\..".. the of ,ig'n ,lut is more
then a me,"" rdlu of a ltgal obligation ron"; in ,he fact tha, a
leg:ol no,," oonf..n "1'0" an indi,i,J..al the leg;ol power to bring
about hy. 1.w luit ,I, ""u,ion of ...nc,i"n at .. , ...ction .gai""
\l", """1"16111",,,,, of 'he oblip.'''''' We "",an ,IIi, 1"1\"1 norm
conlcrrinll"" ltgal po....... upon all individUllI. WMn in the 1011_
ing ...., OfIC"k 01 .. tiah, in Ibn;CIII o=oe.
no. cou.bli.r. l of JUdI ";&bu, unliu nu.bli<hmm. of
!<:pI ob!lp'i<lns. iJ .., fUD<tioa of law. To cou.bl ....
sudo rilhcs Oftly a pouibk...... a DCS$l'T ".""ion of
law-.l lptCiallcpl lCChniq"". Ie is ohc lptCilio:: of tIl(
api<alifl, Icpl insofar ill ,hi. order g"onnl"'" ;nllitu
IIOB of pri"ote property ond con.ide... (lpi.lIj irnl',i(\.
oIl inter..",. Thi. lechnique dot. 1101 prevail in all 1""'" 01 the
copi",li<t legol order, ond oppea... fully developtd only in lhe
,nlm of IO<aiIM I'd,,,,,,, 10"" ond in aome 1""" 01 admioiit"ui'"t
law. Mcdtrn crimi...1 law does noc..... onl, nult
..... of th.. lCChniq"". In tb<: aM! of murdn ..........slaughccr. lhe
.inst whom ohc prohibiud hal <aktn pba,
has ceawrllO and <hc<d....e CIIn".,. bri"ll an ....:tioo> .i.... obe
murdeTeT or nunolloyer. bu, altO in ocher caso of crimi...l be"",'
iD'l" th( individual ",'100 il ,he victim of ,he cri",e i. rtplar.nl by an
0'll"n of lhe '''''e who... pl'OOtCulor tJ< officio 11Im the f"">C<du...,
thl' lead. to the eXl'Cu,ion of the ..net ion. Hence the CiSCoe< of
righ, for p,ivote law comi... in th;" the 1"Il01
order confen Ipi/;c Icpl POW'" upon an individual (OOl an
dlbe communit,. but an individual .ndi,ionaUy delig.
....l<:d II ''priYll'" penon" and ld....ll, upon tb<: indi,-idual
loward whom indi-'idual is obliga",d to in a ar-
l.3in w.y_namely the P""'or to "art procedure
to a court d""i,ion in which a concrote ""nelion ia OTderro as
roction again" violalion of obligation.
Like .ubj""t of an obUgalion, .ubjre. of. right abo may
be not only individual. but ,wo or individual>. Subjret
of a righ, ,wo or individuals if the obligation (iden'ical
witll reae" righ,) constitut", beh.oior tow.rd twO or mOTe
indi,-U1uab; and if I'llal powCT '" bring about by a law sui.
e"""u,iou of a ",nuiou as a Teactio
agailUt nonfuillillmem of
obligation may be e".",i\Cd by on. individu.l or oth.....
alt<rnativdyor in join' cooperation of aU of
Thi. legal power conf.rred upon an indi"U1ual regularly in
dud.,. authorization to appeal again" all unfamrahl. COurt
judgment (in a "'..... lIed appeal pTocudings) On ground<! ,hat
judgm"" is not in conformity with law; by thi.> act a pro-
is .tarted tha' may set aside the at"",ked and re-
place it by another. Such l.gal poWCT is no, only grant.d 10 the
indioidual iu rda,ion to whom the obligation bur al", to
s"bj"", of the alleged legal oblig.tion. According to
procedural law, not only plain,ill but al", def.ndant may
appeal again" a judgmcot unfa'oubl. to him. Th. legal power of
the is to oppo" the ""tion of the plaintiff, to
pr...cot the .nforc.m.." of an obligation Which, in the view of the
dolend."" docs not exist. In ,hi. ca.., w. do not characterize the
legal power of the defendant a' a '"right" in the 'p<'Cific technical
AO:OTding to modern administrative law, an analogouo power i,
(onlrrred upon the individu.1 towarel. whom an .dmini."","'e
order i, directed, which, in hi. opinion, h", nO legal ba"s-that i.,
toward whom an indivUluaI norm i, dirted hy the admini",at""
authority certain behavior of thi. individuaL The
affreted individu.l i. authorized to appeal 'Vimt the ael.mini"ra_
ool .... and tlt.....Ly to .l.3rt procedun'; tbat mal" k.d to th.
en.,ment of another individual norm by which ,he fonorr i.
r"",inded or modified. In thi, ca.., too, w. do not uoual1y >peal of
"right" in the ,rehnica] "ole of the word,
Tiu ,il. !'wi/iN Perwl .......
By the >U1ftnm. that an indiridual Ius the right 10 btha"" in a
anuin , ('f ific:olly; to C3lTJ .... a <nuin .....y be
mant. u "" ib;l, lhal fUd> :octirity is lq:olly ..... pn>hibited
10 this iDdividuaJ Of WI Olhcn are obliplal not to prcvml thio
an;'",.,. or tha. u.. <:IIutlfd individual Ius a lqal power 10 >l2rt
pr<l<eodingo in cue 01. vioWion of the <lI>n"Opondi,,& obIi-
",lion. The may .'-0 <>:lIUUt in <hal an Ktivit,. for in
lUna the of bwineM, in order 10 be 1...r"l, is DXIdi-
lion'" by a pcnni..ion colle'd giv"" by
an "Tn of ,he commun;,y, :I. g<Jvc,.."m..., l authority, eim...-
within i" fr"" diJcrclion or only if some ..m.nu >r< ful-
filled. To arry on the 'Ctivity without 'hi> "ll"Ie;.] permi"'on is
prohibi'td, ,h., is, .ubjt 10 ...."C.lon. This p".mission doe> no(
coruin in the mere ''''galive ,,,' of no< being prohibittd, but in
the pooi,;"" "'" of a commllni!y org:on. I< plaJ'l an imJlOlUnt role
in modern a<!m;"isua,i"" law. Thil right, booed 011 In oIlicPl pn'
miooion. i. noc a rdIn right: it is nOl the function of a coripOD<l
ins obJig:>tion. It involves a IqpJ pawn to the .,.",n. that it (IXI
it an aulhorization 10 pcrlorm anain lqal
weh <he ... of liqllOr or of cnu.in drugs, dq>mdmt .... Ii
CftlII: orcooc ion from tlM:autharitid.
1) TN PoIilic.J llitAU
The soalkd "polilial reprncnl a spttW (:11"10'1. n...y
.. u....UJ ... the POW'" 10 inftuence the forma.ion of <he
"'ill of mo. ...."'; '0 panici!",'" dirutJJ or indir,IJ in
fomuolion of Itpl ordo:r in which of the 1U,.e"'
u.,......... In how<"Yer', one corllidm
only 'M gon...... 1nom" of ,hi. order: mUllet. P,nidp."ion in
,h it, the of the g.n......ll"l!"l norm. 1ry Ih....
to In. no,m. i. u mi,l el.m.nl of ,h. democratic
lonn 01 go'emm""t. in eon,.... to autO<n.lic governm.nt in
which ..,lojtJ are excluded fro<n tharing in .he lomu'ion of
will of and 'herefore have no poIitiall righlt. Dnn...
aa'io; teg;.b<i.oo may be diuctlJ by "the thaI iI"
Ihooo= IUbjcclCd 10 the D<II'1nO. In thit cue we .pcot of a dir1
cknIocnq in whidllhc indi..idual has <he rigbllO ute put in th.c
lqilJ.auvc popular uocmbly. join in the dixusoioo. and in _ing.
Or, th.c people participate in lc&'oblion only indirccdy, whid>
IDftDI WI th.U NlH't;"" i. cun:iood by a parliament ckcood by
the people. In this cue Ihc of me IDnn:aIion oflhc will of
Ihc SUll.C-the <mUon of pcrallcg:U ,woll1lCt.: clcc
,... of parliament and lepilotioo:> by memben of parlPmcnl.
Tbcrcfvoe in Ihit ""'" , .... riah.. CIlin of me individUlllJ forminc
II.., COfllllIUCIlC}': Ihc .igb' 10 Ole and tbc righ' of .... eloe'od 10
be ..,emben of parliament and to join in the dllCWlion &rid ded
sloru the.e. Thcoc at. the political tigb....
II the rucncc of th... tigh.. CON;'" in grDlting individual, ,h.
capacity of participating in ,h. fonnation of the will of the Ita,.
(in ,h. creation oll.-gal nonn.), the.. the righ" cot.l>li.hed I>y pri-
Vat. law, the private right" tOO, ue political righ": for ,hey 100
.1I0w the entidod individu.l lO ..to pan in the rorma'ion or the
will of th.....te.
The la,,<"< i. eap'CI4Cd in the individual norm of a court dec..
>ion .... 101 than in Ihc general norm ol the lI1tule.
Then arc Olhcr political righu !><side. me right to Ole r.... and
in parliamcnl. Not only lqisluivc but alJo pttnnlftltal, admin.
innuvc, and judicial orpm ....y-acamling to a dcmocnlioc
tomIitutioD--bc called to their by eltioo. IlUOfar _ the
f"lH'tions of thcx orpna it .... <mtion of law. Ihc rcspcai>'e
rigbu 10 Ole "'''bUlt. lil. Ihc parliau>mw-y ript 10 Ole, me
lcpl powcT to participate (indirccdy) in the erntioa of thooc
IcpI norm> wbidt me "'P1lJ arc auu-ucd to ernie.
To IUbsnn:Ie the pri""l. right (that it, the legal power to bring:
about by a bw lUit the C<OCUlion of a SlDCIioII 11 a lIpinOl
the nonfullillmmt of an obliption) and the polilical riCh'
(which, too. is a legal po"cr) und.... one and the ...rne concq>t,
namely. the right as the law in a ,,,bjeni... sen". i' """iht. only
in"'far as both ClIp..... the ","'e lcg:ol h1IlC,ion: p.rticipation of
,hose .ubjected to 'he law in th. eTellion of the I.w. In doing 10
one mull k..,p in nlind that the pri... te righ, difl"en from the
poli.ical right al'" inlOr.... 'he fun<lion of the legal powe. i'
diller...t in tWO Cloct. The credi'or i. authotirc<l by the lopl
otdcr to panicipa.e. by brillginl a law lUit bef."... the coon. in the
creo.ic>n of the iDdivid.,al noon of tho: judi<:w dision.. in order
10 bring abou._ it iI .......wI, 10000ubted---dw: f<I'lfo,ce_o. 01
tho: ful.6lJmrn. of tho: obIig..... of hi< <k:btor. ....bj<. of ,he
political right, ouch:u tIw YOUf. Iw Ibo kgal p>Wtt '"
in the an...... 01 kpI DOnDS; bu. tho: puTJ>OOI' of ,hit io
not flJlUU>m' oI'M f.. oJ. another indi.id....r. <>b-
lip -ani the ,....... The atclllioo> of t.h.is lrpl POW'" _,.
bu. n<'td D<It bot, pannU! by lqal obligation impooed upoll
anothn- individ....l. j ..... as tho: cxcn:ilCof an ... 'horiutioa .... ' M.
bu. nom{ not be. the coou:m of obligation of tho: ... lhoriud
indi,iduaJ. The judgt ...., be oblig:...d '0 aacpt .be oedil....',
law .u;t: and It<: i.lopLJy oblig.lIcd '0 do '" if hi. ,.d.... l i ubj'
'0' dil<il'linal')' p'milhmeu. Of """i"" apin:n iol..oo of hi.
o/lici.11 duty. Bu. ,he l<'gal pow(r ,onftrrcd upon .he creditor,
wbkb i. hi. right, doc. not "'IVe the enforcement 01 the f"Ifill
..,ent of .hit oIflCial dUly but the ."fore.mem of Ihcl,,16lhnCIl' of
,h. deb,or', obliga.iOl1. I\. polling dork an be oblipttd to ,<,.iv.
and coont the VOl... of ..... _en; and he it 10 obligatcd if.M """-
pafonnan<e of ,hit lullC."" Iw ..ne."" a> CODK<lun>. But
tbe legalpm<'" implied ,n lboe political ri&,,11O <lie doa not oem
.oenforu the fuHiUmftlt 01. tilis oI!i<:W dUly_ It> purpow-in COD
tDd....inc.ia:l1O the kpI JIO""ItT constituting the I"'i....te ,;pI-is
not 10 rQClagaimt the _fuUillment 01. an indiYiduallq:>1 obIi-
pt"". but-inditectly-to participate in the ltT""t"" 01.
.--b) ...hich Iepl obIip'>o.u eoubIiJbed.
TM political rip.. include tht= iI>Gl1l<d fur>chroenul rights"..
libertiet ltipulat<d by moot -.derlI constitutions. They pantttft
equality bc{ore tbe law. frffdono (i.e. in>iolability) 01. property.
of , .... penon. 01. opcuIt (opecio.lIy of <he prest). 01. conocience
(espeo::ia1ly 01. religion). 01. uoen,bly. and othen. All these _ilu_
tional guaramen do not in tbenueh... cool.... righ,........,..,ither
mere rdlex right> nor private rigbt> In tbe ,echnical len.."
They an: prohibition. InlOlar a. tbey forbid the ,iolalion by
.tatut... o"'tutory orden of the guar.ttttecd rights. th.. is, to
limi, or reICind tJ,em; but th..., "prohibition," do not in ,he ma'n
(on,I" in imposing the Tcpl obHgation upon the legi,latlY. organ
'0 refrain from en.(ting .uch ,,"utts, they <on,i,t in the poISi-
bil'ty that such sta'Utts or "atutory orden. if enx,M. may be re
pe.1M as un<""..i,uoional" in a.perial pro<Mun: .....blis/ltd f<ll"
this purpo"'." The constitutional gua",n'ee. of fundamental
rights ar. provi,iom of th. con11i'u'ion bj' which th" coment of
"a,ut., .nmed by the l'Si.1alor alld .latutory orders i..ued by ad
mini"",ti,'e organs i. d.'.rmined nega'i'ely. and a pro<edure ...
labli.hed by which sta'U<'" and i ..'utory orden not conforming
with the.. provi.ion. may"'" r.pealed. Fundamental right. and
libertie, m.y be ,'iolated not only by lIatu'.. or .tatutory ord....
hu' al.., by .><ccoti,'e orde.....dmini"Tative acts, oc judkial deci_
.iun" 'ha' is, norm. which are no' enacted in the lorm 01 ,,",U"'.
or 'tatutory orden may have an unconstitutional con,en' and may
be allllulled for ,hi. rea"'lI. Evell if 1I0t enacted on the ba.i. 01 all
unconsti,utional ,tatute bu' having nO ""ote at all a. their ba<i.,
they may be annulled for thi.lormal ""''''II .Ione and not only in
co" their content is in conflict with a mate,ial "prohibi,ion" 01
,he constitution.
The COnstillltionally gu.nn,ced equ.lity o( the individual. $Ub.
jcct '0 the 1'S.1 oroer doe< no, mean tha, ,h... ought to be treated
equally in ,he nOrmS e.pecially in 'he ,tatute, i..ued on the ba.i.
o( ,h. constitution_ Such equ.li,y i. not intended 1>ec..... it "'ould
be ab,urd indiocriminately to impooe 'he same obligations and the
"me righ" upon all and aduh. the ..ne and
the in""ne. men and WOmen. AJ! for equali'y in 'he ""'U''', the
con<titution can guarantee it only by presc,ibing th>! ltain
differenc.., .uch "' diffeTens 01 ''''e, religion, ""to" 0' property
must no' be made in ,he 'tatutes-tb", ..atut.. whkl, do m.ke
onch difference' may be annulled as uncons'itu,ionaL If 'he con
stituti"" doc; no, determine specific difference, that must not be
made in ,he statut.. and if the consti'ution comains a formula
proclaiming ,he eqnal ity 01 .n indi,'idual., then this constitution-
ally gua",n,,,,,d equality can hardly m..n anylhing el .. bu' c<]ual.
i,y the "at",... so-<alled "equal JUStice under ,he law:'
The goa",n'''' of ,hi. c<]u.lity me'n' that the la"'-applying
organ. arc p"'miued to conoider only tho.. difference. "'hkh lhe
st",ute. to be applied hy 'hem expre..ly tttOglI"-"_ Thereby no,b
ing eJ.. i, "ipubted but the ge"eral principle of ,he lawful"ess of
'he application of the law, immane", in .llla",; and lhe prin<iple
of 'he legality of the applico,ion of ,,",utes, immanent in all
,ta1ule" more generally fonnulate<l, the tau,ological principle
cf. h"j, ",<-<0;'" ''TI>< '"""""'''u,ton.t' ""'u1<."
.,."... nAne A,nCT OF ....W
that norm ought to be applied in confOTmi,y with thi> """m,
principle which expre,,,,. only 'he meaning immAllrnt in uch
nOml. A judicial deci.ion which does no, InRie. upon an individ
n.l pun;,hmcnt provided for in the "otul. to be applied only
bccalUe ,h. delinquent i, a white. nOi a N<gTo, a Chti"ian, no, a
Jew, although ,he ,UUUle in determining 'he delict not con
'ida ,h. "",. or the religion of the dclinquent----luch a judicial de-
cuion i' megal and .ubjte. to appeal for the ...me TO""''' al a
judicial di.ion inflicting a punl,hm.m upon an individual who
h no< oommitted "delict in .b'/....clo In the .taWte
and """,,",.ined in concu/o by ,h. court.: or as a judicial dcd,ion
inflicting upon an individual who IUJJ committed .nch a delict.
puni'hment nOi provided for in the .tatute to I>< appli<d. TI,e un
constitutIonality of the dodsion in this C3.., doos not ..prntn,
ground, for .ppoal or annulment dU!"e..nt lrom th"'" 01 i'" me-
A comtitutional stipula'ing 01 ptopony
may meroly mean th...Wut.. a",horizing 'he gm'emment to de-
an of his property against bis wHi WIthout com-
poOla,ion (except in ca.. of of p1"openy a. x ..nc'ion)
may be annull<d .. 'uncorutitution.1." Such a con.. itutional pro.
vi.ion i. not actually a prohibition of Uptopriation. It r<"fen only
to uncompensated upropriation and doe. not stipulate. legal
obligation of the legi.lator to refrain from onacting .uch ... tllle.
The "unconstitution.I" stature i.....Iid law until it i' indi'idu
ally or generally annull<d. h i' not .'oid. but voidable," The
.ituation is analog<JUS when the con"itu,ion guarante." freedom of
religion. Such a guaTOnleo mean, thal a Italute prohibiting the u
erei.. of a cercain r<ligion m.y k annulled as uncon"i'u,iona1.
An effective guarantee of th... IO-Call<d fundamen..1rights aud
likrti.. exi", only if the gu.tanteeing consti'ution rn:oy not k
chang<d b}' ordinary legislation bu' only by a .pecial pT<><:edu,e.
which differs from 'he ordinary by requiring .pedal condition.
te",lering 'he enactment of a "atllle more d'llkuh.uch a. a qu.I .
fi<d majority 01 the memk.. of the legislative body or more ,h",
a 'ingle reoolut'on." For if the constitution may be ch.ng<d by
ordinary "at",... then no "atute. and hence no judicial deci.ion
Cl. pp, '7'.'
-Cf. PI' ... I.
and DO au on a ....,..te. Qln be lnllunf:d, ..
N b.au..... the coruti,ution io ... iUoidc by "'.
$llltu", for iUlpbnc of nlidi.y. 'Tlw:fdon: thn." tIO
1ft fCO" fnrvbJJM"T>W ripu and libn.iQ ""<:II. if Ibo coruti.utioa.,
ODly IUloCkr ......., dificul< <XlOditiocu,. puvllftI u..
libmf" merdr to u.. Clum'Wt it is DOt lilnil.<d by.
in othn" WI:lrdJ, u.. CIlIII*li.'"'ioa au"-..... to otipub.IC, in lfIoo .....,.
01: ordwry JePLalion. urocompcnoo.rd upropria,i(ln. 1.0 1<11-
DUe pro/libiud by the consti'.. li..... in n .....,.
ta'ulCS iwfUU>g obJiptiOllJ &ad conferrillg rishu and 10 limi, in
IlICh lla'"'''' certain liberti.... Such a " p.csmt
if. I<>r example. 'he conttitutioo "Y': '"Th. invioLabili.y of J>TOP"
crty i. Il""",ntced, Uncompen"",ed npTOpr;'uion in .he public
imeren il pennittrd only if .u<horized by. lU,u,e"; Or: "Eve.,.
body lou ,hight, wi.hin ,h. limita,ion> ."ahti,toed by .Ulule
f,ul1 to ""pr.... hi. opinion."; or: "All dt;zen, hove ,he right to
.....mbl. IDd to form alolOciadOfll. The nBC.... of ,hi. rillh' is rq.
..llle<! by OUtu,,,-"
AI long os W COIIJl;'u,ioml guannt of .It( fullo(b",cnul
righll"'" li.......icI IMam noching than <he fact """. <he .....,-
IlIOl'J rauiaion of these r;ghlund liber.i.. is tkrc.'ti more dil&-
cult. no righ.. n" prtI(fl.; noo: tdIu: rigb boa..... "'" "pro-
of ..-...rirtia>( lq:iolation prnt>t>tonad by "'" co<Uli...
.ioort, dots .... CUlloli.tllO: I<:pl obligation; and tbtrdort no rizh..
i.D u.. 't'Chnio.llctlluitlt.. if by....ch righ.. is wodt:noood tho: kpl
power of bringing about by b. aui.. u.. cnforomlcnl of "'" ful.
fill......1 of obI.tiobo.. A ftlncbmmtal rigltl (or liberly) "'pr<'-
....... ript in the IftIIOe of lcpl PO"" if tho: onkr cool.,..
tlJl'OD the indiYitl.... alfmcd by ;an tlDCOItSl;t.. lionltl ........" tho:
1"1"1 po.tt 10 initl:u".he procaItI." tlu. the .nntll ......1
of the w><omtittiliONI ""'ule, Sinu "'" mnning of lhe act by
whkh a nornt i, rq>alcd il. norm iUO'lf, we an ..y: Ihe oo<al1c.'ti
luntbmcnl11 righl OT libcrty il the legal PO"''''''' 10 pllr.kipo'e in
,hc creion of Ihil norm, ThUl, lor ",",-mple, ,he e<>nllilulional1y
g..aron'ud righ' 01 rdigioullihcr.y il a right in ,h" lpecific lech.
ni<:ll Jen.., if ,h" proudur" for Ihe l"Cp""l of. Ita,.. ,. 11<.11 r"",icu
...ligio... fr/:edom m.y be initiale<! bl' any individual affcc.e<! by il
through a lind of ..."io pop..14ru. But ,hi, righI, II I politicol
nghl. a, thc poIi,;""l right 10 \'OtC, i. di"inguithe<l lrom Ih" JOb-
I""P)."PO! ''1' In'''lU SOllq 0' :la,"od I"s,( ''1' '4'j!
'100 '<Woo IEll'1I! "" J" ''1' 01 AIOO Inq 'lnl""
1"""!'nl!"OO'''O "" jO IU>"'S '0 ,," 01 fn'Il
10" POI' lU;><\d. ill 10!"ldw", ''11 '('I p'""!'!U!
.c"d '4.1. -1"s,II' ii"!",, 'OJ "O!,!"p I"!,!pn(".o,," ','!'U"!"!,"p.
U" '41 ,noq. S"l'q 0' .,,,,od 1"s,1 '4' "! S"!"!IUOO
''Ill!, .I". OIo'J 'UM OO,,! '! lU.I<lU I"np!,,!p,,! ''II JOI":Ki,.
""''''-I_ SO!'>'1 ,,, (.,,,,od Id'i 'I'!) '4110 ''IS!. '4' 0''1'
,.!""qlcll'l .I,," ln0'l".1t [l:>Eu> '! ,oq """,,, lo"o!,nl!"uro"n ".
0" J'>''''lIOU '! 'p.>'.10!,' '! "O!lIl'!l'''O' ''1' .1'1 pa>l""--'u"," .1U>q!1
.I<l "Ill!. !"'''''''"punj ''1' 'P14'" Aq uo"':>;>p I""!p"( ID
"1U'OIp" ''I' JO OIIDU ''11 JI ''''''"If '"'I' JOI0>d:l. 1=
.,,>1l" 'I'!'" p.>",>ooo, ""'4""'" '! ID '",., ",.,"", '"4' .I<lJ ",,,.,,,
l,uO!lnl!""O""" ''1' JO I";><I>J ''1' "'ldUl! uuoo I""p!,,!p"! '4'
JO Irn", "1' .. 'pnm,",,! 1""p!A!p"! >tl' JO ,.pi!." '! ''IS], (",u,m
'''Pu''J POll"'""" ''1' 0''1' :ill.O" I""p],,!p"! "1' JO 1";>d>J ''1' '" S,,!
-1'"'1 >J"po,,,,d" >lU!'!"! 0' ",""" 1"lJ>1 ''1' '"'I ""0" 1""p'A'p"!
'!'1' .1'1 p.>1"1I" 'l(l A1UO Jl PO" :,"',,'" (""o!''''!''''o,
"n U" JO '!''''l "\l UO p.>w>J, '! "uoo 1""p!A!pU! "u J! "pro,.. :C'11O
"1-"0!'!"1' 1"!'!I'''!" -'" "0 ",!"c,,'1"!Wp. 0" Aq J'>'"IO!A,! mnp
-;>;>') JO .'!I"nb, I'""1"""'''S .11I0001101[1'UOO ''1' JI ""O!""'" ='ll
)0 "o,,""'"x' "11 01 'P"'I ''''I' :unp.>;><d "." 0, .,,,,,,,, ]olJ>l
''1' '"'lOll," ,"',." I""O!""!""OO"" ,," Aq p.>'''1I"
"1' 'ou '! '! '1m '. ,nu 1.""p01'''''O;>'''' JO ,s""od
>tl' "! ii,,!,od!,,!uod illO.q "! '"'I' 'I,m Suruuop>d 0I0'J p.>l!
.q!'101d .11I"lJ>1 :>.to ,u-.&.o ='11 u''1.1. '''4ii!] I",,!l!!od JO 10 '''9]0
10 ""I '" 'pn, tl",m'l,!"nd 'UI""" ill''1' uodn "!11"! AO'" U"O'
1"1""" " 'I"U01111'I""lY.>Un '! 'IO'''l' '41 "''''' u, 'lu4' '!'1L
'p.>ullllJ,mnoo 10 'p.>I"jj[nillD.ld 'l"'AOJddu 'A",! .1''1' ""n,o" ''11
I" 'l1IUUO!,nl!''''O' ''1' 'OJ 'lq!",OO= 'pOW >I. (,,... ''I' JO l""''1
''1' JO tl,.. ''1' "S)':Cluno, 01 ','"'1 0'1"') U!'1':> )0 lJ><jill'W
1'''0 "'I p""od "10"'" "Elltnwmd -'" , ..",dd. 01 "
I! """l"') "",, ''(1)01'.''1 ''1' ''''II ,.":odd,,,! PUO "1'1
""00 '! " ,og ."\O,,.! '''OJ "! "141 I""O!lUlll'
uooun SUI""U' UlO.J m.'J'] 0' AJ'O'l ','!'OI'1&>! 0 ",Ell'I'!O 01 '1'1
'1<><1 'lp"'"4'! 1! 'UOl" "'DoU", 1"'!"'1'" '0.f '4SI-'- ''I' JO ",f'l'"
''II PI","OI UO!,.lI!!'!o "0 JO m>tulI!llnJ ''1' jO m,m>.:>.l0J'" ''1'
'In. "'"I ,''I "'0'1" Sul'q 0' '" ",\1;>0 10u.>OJ> .,"'10J ''1'
,uq, '" '14S!' "",,!,d 0 '! '1']'1'" '>i">i ("'IU'[:I''ll "1 1l(l!!. 'Al'''!
"'.., AO ""'-dSV 'lLV...,
gena:oI rq>nl of a ,hat yiolata <.1M: oonotl....ioNll'
guuut....... "'I.u:tl.i<r or onl, ""'" is <.1M: l(><:J.\le:l f..nda
.........1rip, a rigb. (in <.1M: "J'f'ci6c lttitniallnLW) of the indi\'id-
Su.mmariring """ IlIUJ ay: 'Tbt: rigb. of:w. Iodly;,haal is titbrt a
nttn I"dIn rigbo-"t rdIa of a kpI obI,*"Uon ltltiIting_rd
.his indiyidu;tl; 0'1" a pri"'te rip. in <.1M: tedtniol ....._ht kpI
pawn .. pon an indiyidullO bring about by la_i, <.1M:
mfon:ftnml of <.1M: f"lfillmml of an obI'*"tioo nioting _rd
him (i.e., <.IM:.I p""'"ft'.o p""icipo.e in tilt anlion of the indi-
vid",,1 norm b, which thl: anelion is onI...od th:a, II a'ta<:htd ".
,he nonful/illmmt of the obligation); or a poIilkol righ.-the
legol po..'n an individ'L.I (.j lu porticipo\e di.e,:\l,. as a
member 01 ,he Itgi,la,i,.. popular a..emhly in ,h. crea,ion of g.n.
enl logal no"m known .. Italut or (2) a, ,ubj ..t of a porl;.-
men...,y or adminlSln,i,e voting righ, to participat. ;ndi ....tly in
,ht ""a,ion of legal norml for wltme e""..ion ,he eleeled organ il
authorized. or (J) '0 particip.o'. in the o,..,a,ion 01 the norm by
which the validi,y 01 an uncon..itutional ""U'e th:at viola,,,, the
"'I.nalit, or freedom i, repaled g<:n"",lIy (i.e., for all
ptNOibie cues) or indi.id",,"y (i.e., only for a roncrfte cue).
fin.1l1r, a pool'i... penrlislim Rlvm by gov.....menul authuri.,
may alao oon<U'ute. right in ttdtniall<:Dlt of the .nm.
so. Cu'..aTY T'O AcT; Orpan."a;
..... CootaP1" .. MQua.....
aj Ca".m, 10 Ad (Ha1ldl"",>tiJIi,leil)
The lopl power, dis<u..ed in .he pro:ediug POI" a. (.hat
i<, ... private or poli.kol rishl). i. onl, a spttial c:aoe of tha, I ......
tion of.he legal ordn dacribed her.... Mautboriza.ion,' f.om ,he
poinl of vi.... of a lepl teience ,ha' d.-:ribe> ,he legal oro... by
.ul.. of law. 'he function of ,he legal order <ottJi,,, in connee,ing
e....t.in condition.. determined by Ihe legal order. will. a coercive
a".1", determined hy ,h. leg.1 {>,d...., ., a conlCq.. Thi.
eoerdve X't " Ihe cono.eque".. P'" ."ceIltnrt. To be ."'. among
.1.00( condition, .Tt 10m hich in tum 3re by lac..
do-tenninM by the legal orcI Ind ...hid!. in '-"i, ......... In relative
conooqu"""""'" For elt>nlpl... jf thr l<pl ordcT praerioo a .......
ough. (0 bt punisMd if approprU:I a found objea aQd <loa
not repon to lh.. polic<: , .... "'" hal found i., thm lhe fan of 'M
.WOP' Lui"ll 01 the found obj<a is l.he condi...... for the faa cl
DODrtponinr;---;a fan ","'do in iudf, with iu condilioa.. i.
dw: conditi"", for a o::oercl-e la- TIw: coaci.-e aa aloM i, C>:lI>JC-
'I"""" ..ithou. iUl<1f beil'lll condi,ioa; i. is the last
the l<pl """"'lurntt; and if .he act is .....nc.ion., thm
lh.. Itpl comooquencc is ,h.. oonorqu",""" or.n iIIcpl act. In ..ip-
ub,;,,&: <Jut !.be act_which iun aet of hulJWl behavioo"-
ought to be perfonncd. the \;ow Ita> the of a nonn.:oti""
ordn regulating human behavior.
The function of the l<pl order dMC1"ikd as ."thori....'ion re-
lot'" only to h..man """av;or. Only human bthavior II oul!>ori,a1
by ,he legal omer. In Ihe brood... "''''', a (ertain I><",vior by a
cntain individual i. "'Ulhorixcd" by the legal order nol only if.
1'1"1 pow"" is upon him (,ha, is, the a.pod'y of ....ing
lqo.l nonns). bu. 0100 gmnally. II the individual', """ior i.
made th.. direct or indircce condi,ion of t"" CO<'fciv.. ocl as lhe Je.-
pI ... or if ,his bchovior i. in .IX acl.
OWl" faclldnnmmed by 'IX lqal O<dn .. mndi,>oru a"= n(II '0
berqardtd ill Haulboriri.H Wbm tbt ItpI ord<T .i",,1.>(('I: Hlf a
IIWI i, ....lning from 01\ inltiom IX ougllt 10 be conlinod
'0 a hoopital
thm tM lqal (IIfd.., aul!>olilft "" individoal 10
u... act of in",",,,,",'; but it don n(II aulhoou.e "",body
'0 ret lid. 10 litis wnw...., bu....." &tn
mintd by u.. otckr .. a cood:ilion or """"ftl_ItUl,'" re-
pr<kd u bring by 1M1"8"1 anln. "TbtltUln who CUI
nhibi, socIt a l>c/Qvior i, mabkd by lhc Iqrol ordn to belut"" in
lhio .....,. hu a cal*'it, confetTed up'" him by anln.
II ,hi, capaci', is dcsign.. al ......,..".iDtion.
!his wd does l\OI
imply apptm\l1. t:""" "paciry of commi"ing delicl i, a
capaci,y conferred by lopl ordn only ..""", eemio
lndivid".h '0 commi, delklS hy 'b.ir behavior. whkh '"
a condi'ion of toerd,.;oct th" functions's a ""nction
--cl the act whkh is dire<;'W ap;n" th..." (or ..lvn) .. a
u""e<l"enee oltltei. behavior. Only tbe individuals qu.li6ed by
the lopl ord... e>n KIImit they are enabled by .IX
1q>1 ordn '0 do to. flu, 'helxbll"ior ..... con.i,u'", delia b
na "'FAne .uPCr <>I' lAW
prolIibiled by <he lop! order iIIwt tbo: beh>.vior ...... <:(lD-
dition of a sanctiort--and, being prohibited. i, is not appr...td.
Hawna-, >he word iI aloo u>cd in a narrower
......, wbell it doQ i",p1y in <hio _ - .....
dor:o DOt include the opacity of OIICIUIliuing I ddia; in >h.. .....,
tndititlall oheo<y spc:W of opaci'y to act (U....I"""/..i,u")
in amondistinctioo. to to COIJUai. a (DcliAJo-
filti,hil), ddinin( tl>e Iom>tt ,.. lhe Dp:aci<y of I man to bo-io&
a....... lepl dfecu by his beblvior. Sin<e thtoe "dlfCtI" are "'"
dl"fCtI in the ouoal sense. OpKily to act comiJu ill a.....,.
opaci,y conferrtd by >he legal order to bring about legal conse-
quences by his heba"ior, thaI is, consequences .,hicl< legal
ord.... attacl>n ".>h,. behavior. Til_legal consequmen how
eYt!', no, >he lIJ1C,iom which CO/'''''Iuencc of beMv;or arc
dircacd aa:oin" the individu.1 ""h..ing in thi, w.y (Le., 'gain"
the delinquent or hi. ,cl.,ivet). The capacity 10 bring lbou
$OInt:tion by one', ""haYior capacity to commi, I delict and II
diainguilbed from the capacity to .ct. The legal '0
which lhe corta']>t capKi,y to act ufen are, a.ccordi"l to
,radi.ioaallcience 011.0.., esKnti..llly obligatiooJ .nd rightl o ....ted
by 1"&,,,1 opKi.y to act II pri ....rily the cap.city
to oondualepl .... nRO'ioN (CacM/Uliltiieil); bu, capaci'y to
a<I aloo mana tbo: capacily to inllumce judicial procedure by a
Law ..l, or an appeal (l'rtnaJ/ilti,Acit)..
This boI..,..,.,riDncd ClpKIIJ ill JIO"'"" conf,...,.ed by tIoe 1ep1
order '0 puti<:ipL1te in tIw: oelltion of an (nd,ri<!uallepl nonn"...
...blishcd bya judici..ll deciloion. It is, tbm,' lqpl powft"nd ......
ferring >his paw.... IIle>tU in the IUrTOW..... _
Ipir.c."""", of >he won!.
But abo >he lcgal capacity 10 conduo<:' legal .nnucliont, ,hot i,
IOAY. "'" cap"dly of <:!'tOting obliga'ioni aDd righ,.. " ouch lcgal
pow. For legal obIip'ionJ and rightl are .....bl;wft! by lqpl
norm" and ouch nonu, .re anted by legal , .. ngetion. An
'llIly.u of the Icgall"mo<:tion, ,he COlltract. <lcmonlt"..",
lh;. The conlract Itipul.t.. th., contncting ""fliet ough'
to bl:havc in mum.l rel.,io,," ;n c..... in w.y; ,he C"n-
tr.o<1 of tale. lor example. Ilipul.tel ,bat the !CUer ough, 10 rendcr
an ob}c<:IIO the buj and ,he hoI}'.... a ",m of money 10 ,he sell ....
i1oecon'nocl , .,hOl< IUb;c.:,ivc IIl.....ing .. on The
lopl orda, in <l.uUoorWnI individual, by am<nl .-.... to aNI-
clude COG<nas, eJn;,us the ",bjti,.., me:on.ng ol: the lnNllCtioa
10 an objective one. "11M: confTXt etta...,. abliptionl 01. thc toII._
trlICt.inB pania. beau.. thc Jepl orne.- _;on. 10 a be
havioo- COIltnry to the tnms of d.. 00IIU'Xt. I .. ohis _ the
Il<lna auted by Ibo uanaacUon is a d<prndm. I\OI"Ill, n.. con
tnlCl "utel righ.. of oM mn1rxlin& pannos. ba_ 1M ltpl
onkT....-by aulharizj"l <he to rnadudc o;o.mxlS--
a)Ofen upon the alIrltnlC"n, particJ the lcpl powe>" to king
about by a Jaw ...i. the ...rorttlll'l'n. oJ. <he f..lliUm"", ol.1>e obl'-
pt,oa etta""'- by me conu"OCt...'hie" lb<2nS: to bring about by a
Jaw lUit the """"",ion 01 .."e,;oo ;u a u>oction again.. the ,"iola-
don oft"c obligation create<.! by the and ,il ... to partici-
pate in the U"tation of ti,e individual nOml 01 the judici.l
decision. The capacity 10 Induct legal ,ran>a"i.,,,, jJ ,he ca
padty. confcrr"", "pOll individuals bj' til< order, to croale,
on the bali, of gen......l Itg.1 norm., J<gal norms of a lower level
and '" participate in the en'''""" of individual nOm" '0 be 0<'-
alocl by me bwcour... Thlsc>paci., iu. true lopl pown.
1 "'.' is underwood '" m....D the OIpaci.y of bringing
about lcpl eoDKqumcn bronc'. and if ODe rcprdo as a
corucqucncc 01 a Icpl ,nruxtion lhc lcpl obIip.icn-and that
""""'" an iDdj,iduall>(lt1l>--<'rcatnl by this Xl. lhcn lbc opoO'J
01 fuUilli"ll' Icpl oblipliont" ,lou ... lbc 01 avoidi"( """
oanu..... by aM" awn bduorior, mar aloo he UDdcntood ...
i'f 10 act. ThnriD. lin tJ>e--.-ptin---lcpl alWC'lUCDCC 01 fulfill
laCIl' 01 an obllptioaL
b) Co..pelmu
I, ia .tM1ily to be otero w. u,., """'rei$<! 01 thia lcpl POW'" has
nJtI1tially wnc du.t'Kttt ... the runction 01 a lcsi.lalivc organ,
a,,,horir.c<! by <he lcpl ordcr, to create gen.nllcg.l norm.; an<1 ..
,he fU,,<,ioru of the judicial and admini""uive organ., .,,<hori.ed
by ,h. 1<'g.1 order, '0 individual Ic!>"1 nonn. by applying
dlO$C gcn=1 on, In .11 lhese just as in thc ca.IC of th. ro-
.alltd ..padty to arl, all I"thori",.ion is present to or to
participatc in thc .reation of. lcpl nonno-in all 'Moe thc
Icpl order conf.... a Icpl powC't upon c...... in indi..idualL Bu, not
I"'S0 ..udlo" JO llb,uo,
'01 "'1""'P "'l,.nrn U011JUn, '4' JO ''''m'''' wOJJ lU'.I.:IJ!!P'1
'041 u'41 'AI!UnWUU" {d,! 'II' 10 mdlo IOU
UO!lJunJ "II ']""Pl"PU! ''II """" ='11 U! '",U!S ,:"U',
.:><IWOJ,. '0 ..uop"'l"l,n(., P'II"'" W''11 uoon p".u:>Juo, .I.:IMOO ,do]
'1 IDU :A,!UnUlUJ<Y.> !oli,[ JO ..su1!&1o" P"II"" "'_ 'UO,,""'U"-'1
]d.>( "npuoo 01 MOl {"tuopOU .\<j P>l!104'O! ,[O"P!AlpU, lOU
'UOl}JunJ '14' U! '"m. '41 .I.:Itp!'U"A puV 'A'lunWllJOO
]OUO!,...1.I>1'" U!'111M 'IOJ lUE'uoowl tI" Ao(d 'MO( \"""!'OU'"
U! ,{q pa!lOtp"o "10" Aq p>popuro Aq 'w'ou ["-,,,u,ll JO
u0]10"" ''I' '"'II puo :"PlO [olio[,tp Aq P"'lID4,no ..mOl
.,:><1 Aq p""npuoo 'UO!"""O'I ,"3o[ Aq P"''''''' "'l AO'"
'<mou 1"",,,,ll OlIO Inq 10np!Alpu! A\UO lOu '"'I' "",ou :>q 0'" "
puy ,UllOU (do( jO 00,,0= ''II :0"''' ''I' '! lU"<ro, '4.L
.uO]"onJ '4' JO ul OJu,J.:IJl!P o:>q lO"u"", '!'I1jO UOI
0"" ,:",u'I:odmo,.. JO "OOl'''ll''!ln(" to p"loull,,,p ,ou '! ""''11
uodn p>J"llIOJ J.:I..oo ,<301''1' 'U"'O'J '!tpl0J 'J1 puo 'Al1unmlUOJ
"II JO "ru1!&1o" lOU puO ..'UOSl:><l 'Ilti!ro" "'l 01 P"""Pl'uoo
"'0 (,,,,"]dmoJ 0 O'IM ID 'Io:>ddo 10 "'lIOU 'Al11 "'lM 10) AI""l
.:>woo ,.",olio 1m' MO( 0 lluuq 'mp>1[l.ld "lIU"lU!wpo ID ("P!P
.n! 0 u, 04.... t:>IUro ''11 Jl W ',UOII"",,,,', ["S>[ ,m", "opuo, 0'1'"
']"OplA1PU! "1' II J.:IMOO [o'il>[ ruo!l'unJ ''''1' H- U""'I
''''l A'!-'"11wP ]"11"""" '4' "olq [!uollrP"-'.L ''''1''0
""." 01 ID "uo"l"P IE!J1Pn[ '1"'" 0' '''lOm'I'''u,
Ol,("npJA'PU! "1m'", JO All,,",,'" """, "ll uJ "JJllOI:>d
woo., '10 'lonpl'lP"! "" JO (tlqJl!. 1""'11100 .0 UU'I
''II JO JS"" ]""!"'P" "p U! ",{.Il!, PU! ',UOp""'U.'1 ]d.>( "np
'''OJ 01 A"JEd., ''I.L '.1.:11"0 loll,[ ''I' Aq P>ll'IuOO ""'00 10&>[
JO "'p.,x:. til II,,,UO' 'I"'IM p:m.lJJuoJ '1 UOIPunJ ''I' 50 '"J
to P>U'lOO! 10" '1 JO ld"uro ''11 JO uOllm,m,] '!'I.L
.. .. ID "UO!'''!p'!,n(" P'll"" lOu
llUJI JO "'''''' [""UtpOl ''11 U! 'l'IlI!, 'I'! 10 1411!J
10 ",,,.,x:. '" 'jo:>dd. "!U' .,,"[ .\<j 'UllO" ldo] JO ''I' '"
'l\:dl"!l..d 01 Jo 00!'''''''',,",1 10So[ 0 Aq <OUoU 101lo! >1u'n 0' .."'"
.,:><1 "o.,!,d" 0 uoon P>H'I"OJ ,>MOO [olio, 'q.L .. Jo
..uO!lJlp'lmr.. 10 flu:><l .lroJ'I1 1""01'11"'" '''!'!-I04Io0
'p-. '0 'uno' ."0] '" q,n. A'lum"mn" JO ruo.ll.1o JO .tl0llJunj ''1'
01 lJ:><I", '1'1" ',,,,,,, 'woo U] .. '1'" 01 All""""".. JO
"'o>q, louo)l'pu, "'op "MOO l',llJl 0 llu!'''lllO' JO ."., [[0 III
......., J.:>:IdSV "uns XlU
TIt!: ....TIC ....PI:CT OP "'W
c) The Concept oj "OT8"4n"
"Organ" of a community i. an individual who ""donn. a function
Lbat can Il<" attributed" 10 the community; it is a function which.
thado<e, ia said '0 be exercised by the community <thoUghl of a.
a penon) through the individual that (unctiom a. lh. oommu
n"f.organ. Thi, is. fiction, because i, i, nol ,he community, but
a buman b<ing ,hI.< neTci... the function. The "community" i,
nothing bulthc normative order regula,ing the !>thovio. of. mul
titude of individual.. True, it is usually oaid that the ortkr wn<ti.
, u t ~ the rommunity, but order and community at. no' .wo
dilIerent ,hingl. A wmmuni,y of individuab. that is: thai which
thooc individual< have in common, con,i,a exrul,ively in ,he
OTdtr which gulate. their mutual ""'havior. The IlI"havim of an
individual can be attributed 10 the community (,nd ,hi. mnJU_
.xpreased without using a fi<:rion--<an be ,..,f.rred to the DOTma
,ive oro..-) only if ,hi, behavio, i, stipula,ed as a conditiOD DC COD_
'equence in a norm of ,he ordec that-u it i, Ulual to "'y-
consti,u,.. ,he community. Rj' aUTibutiDg ,h. behavior of an
individual to the communi,y. by im.rpr.ting it a, an act of the
community. the community i, p,..,.emed .. an acting .ubject. OS a
pe,.."". Tbi. meano: the aaTibu,ion of a function detennined by a
normative ord... and no:ndeml by an individual to ,h. community
constituted by thi. ord.... impli.. tbe personification of that com-
munity: nothing .1", i. expreased by thi. perlOnilying anribu_
tion" than that the behavior an,ibuted to the communi,y i.
d.t.TtOined in ,b. order that con,titut.. the community and i.
th...f ~ authorized by it. To attribute an <K' of human behavior
'0 the community mly mn, to ""fOT ,hi> <K' '0 the onl ... that
constitute, th. community_to undentand it .. an act authoTiud
by the noTtOative ord... The..fo,... ""''1' behavior of an individ_
ual. determined by the uonna,i.'. or<kl" and thu. authorized (in
_'. ""ler ...b'....tlono' ",111 Ib< """"oJ op<I'_;. qu,"""" "j,....."",,,,"
<,oucho"ll, aut ~ _ ,hlo _ 1",..,0, __n.. ncno";" ron_It""
_. ''''' !><t', ,. '''''''''' ,. th, ",.."I _'500, I w.. """'" to d; .
anti... I>d...... "'" (,..p.,";"" 01 """"on I.....,"o.lty .. '"=,.., ; .
...",k>n" '''''" ,I>< nonoo.otl '" two fa<to .. "p!phmt "'p.,,<Ion."
Tb;, ,..",;"01"11'" 00< "..,. ,,';o/a"'"'l' l<ado ,. ,"",,_odjop- I _
oow 'b, ....-d -lmp""t.\oo" 0> th, "" ....- I>d...... , r " , , ~
-cr ,..
the brood." sen...) by iI, can be allribUlrd 10 lhe communi,y con
"i,u,rd by lhe norma.ive OTder, can be inlCTpre'rd a' function of
.h. community; and .v..y individual wltmc behavior U d.ler-
mined in nonnal;". orocr-.\nd thi. mea", ev.ry m.mber 01
the community-ean be TI,ga.rd.d a. an OIgan of lhe community.
An individual i. an organ 01 ,h. communi,y, if and '0 .h,,"'n'
thai, h. f.nd... a ,ha, can be a'tribu'ed '0 the Cornmu
nity; and a bellavior can be .ttributed '0 .b. community if i, i.
dctenninrd a condi,ion or C<lJU]u.nc. in the norma.ive
ordCT tb.t con"ituteo the community. i. ,be primary, the
bo.... concep' 01 ,be function of an organ-il i, "o.-gan function"
iu the b.ood.., <Cn". And i, i he con""pl 01 "organ func/;on,"
not of lh. "o.-gan,' which refe.. 10 the .""miol f..ts. especi.lly in
lhe r..lm 01 legal ""i"""". The concepl 01 organ ."pr...,. lb. idea
of ubjcc/ or 'hold.." (G.nnan: Tragu) of the funclion; i..
tb. pcnonal eleme", of behavior repr=nts the funclion;
this funclion. Iik. any hum.n behavior, co",i"," 01 a penon.l
and a malCT;'1 dement. The eoncep' of lhe org.n a. ,hubjcet or
hold., of. function diff.rent from lhi. i. a concept of ,ub
.lanee and .. ,nch 10 be ",ed Wilh the aw.ren... th.l. f.om .he
point 0/ ,i.w of scienlific cognition. on!lance io be rrducrd to
funclion, In the concep! of lh.organ a. the holder 01 the funetion.
the personal clement i. detacbed f,om lhe mal....i.l clement.1
.hough the tWo ar<: in..parably connected Only with thi. r...",'.
lion can lhe concepl 01 lhe organ be used as .n .u"il iary concept
wbicb ladJit>.tes lh. pre..nlation of the !aet. to which the concept
01 "organ" refen.
The concept of "organ fun"ion" whid! appca.. in tradi.ional
legal ..nninology {.nd which is not onilonn in its u..ge) i. nar
rowe., howev.., than that JlTC1Cnle<l h..... as prim.ry or b.... con
cepl. Sioce the la.ter rel.les to every behvior d.t.rmined by lh.
nonn..i,. OroCT-<O far a. it i, a bch.1viOT dct..minrd by ,he legal
<ml.... and thCTefor fun(tion of th.legaJ community_it includes
abo lh. beh.vior which,,, a condi.ion for a ..nell"", i.e.. a. a de.
Iiet. i. legally prohibiled. Usually, I>owev..... on. d.... no, .uribu
a delic, .0 legal communi,y. The view acc<mling 10 ..'hich the
prohibiled beh.vior i. illegal (unlawful; in German: U",ccht-.\
lin<! 01 negalion of the l.w) i. r.pugnant to the .iew lh.t the
!'P. ' ..... "H
communily commits an il1"83.1 act. i, a ..nd.nCj' <0 at
!Tibut. tn tbe oommunity only a human behavior which i, de..r
mined ill the nonnati,'e but i, not de,erminro a. a delict,
thot i', prohibit.d," l th. ",'oro "authorizing" i. tt$<:d in the
broader >tn'" that indudes also the capacity "to older, to pen"it
positi"ely;' then one am ...y that a tendency exi", to attribute to
a 1"83.1 community only lhat behavior of an individual <0 which
he i. "authorized" by the legal order-that i., a behavior by which
legal norm> are crrated or applied, an oldered Ochavior, not a
prohibited behavior, and a positively permitted behavior; so that
an individual i. co",iderffi to be the organ ot a legal community
only insolar a. he manifests a behavior "authorized" in thi, StllSC,
Howe,'cr, a. we shall sec, linguistic u'"ge is not co",i...m in ,hi.
'''pee'' Occa.ionally a delict i. attributed to the legal community,
e.pccially when the community i. regarded a. the .ubject of obli
R"tio"', because the capacity to assume obi igation. pr..upp""" the
capacity to commit a deUct" But the th.,i, that the legal com-
munity ca""or commit a delict, Le" cannot Ocbave il.legally, im
pH.. th" the a"ribtttion to a legal community i, limited to
human behavior "authori'ed" in the just deocribcd se",,; it
impH.. that the delict, although detcnnintt! by the legal order, i.
not attributed to the community, l>e-causc not "authorized" in the
narrower StllSC. If the attribution to the legal community;' thus
limited, then the individual committi"g a doHct is not intCTpreted
to be a community organ, and hi, behavioT not a, the function of
an organ (an "organ function"). To the 1"83.1 community, then,
only thaI behavior i. attributtt! which refen to tbe concept of
"capacity to ac,"-which doe> not indude the capacity to commit a
If we thu. eJtClude the committing of a del;'t from tbe organ
functions attributable to a 1"83.1 community, then any beh"'i,,r
d.tcnnined by .he 1"83.1 order constituting the legal commuuity
may he regarded .. a function 01 the community if it dOC' no< con
.i" in committing a delict: Thi, behavior may comi" not onl}' in
cation and application of legal nonn., including the partid,
.... _ t. diKl.",t'" ' ... >ndi_ 01 "'" '"""""" qU>llfted., "<1<1""" "-
ott><-< W1d"'om .. lh< ..nctlan. "'" p, ".'
.... f.. ,b< aoP"'i'r 01 , torpOI'Ot...... , ,. """"" ....
"'" ,."""'... "Obhpll"", of 'b, ja,;"l< ....-."
Cf. pp. ,.. t
pa,i"" in the creation and applica<i"" 01 legal norm, by I.w ,oit,
appeal. compl.i,,! and ,h"ecutio" of eOttr;... ac,_]] ,bi, i. ,he
Ja"'-<:tt.ting .nd Iaw""pplying function; but it may abo con,i" in
th< lulfilllllCllt of kgal oblig,"imu, in 'he ."erci.. of ,ell"x righ..,
and in the .""rei", of those right> tbat co",i" in po<iti,'c
permission_Enncti"", ,ha, may l.>e deaignatcd .. law.()bscrving
func,i"". E,-cry jodi,-idual, therdore, who perform. a legal lune-
,ion in the narrower or broader ..n",. j. a legal organ. Thererore
,he individual who exerci"'... legal power by bringing .. I."...ui,
against ",mebody or by conducting a legal ,=,10" may I><:
designated .. "Irgal organ" and ,h, legal power I><.to"..ed upon
him a. hi. "oompctena"_in lh. $arne ..n.. in which the legis-
lator, j u d ~ . or admini.trau>'c lunctionary .,." deai&',a,I as "<:>r'
gan.;' and the legal power bestowed upon them, .. ,heir "compe-
ten",," (or "juri"";aion"). Even 'he individual who lulfill. hi.
legal obligation, or exercises a ""nex righI, or make. usc of a p<>'i.
tive p<nniMion, may be 'ega'ded legal organ. Thi1 concept of
"organ IUl><tion' exp""sses only the relalioruhip of the func,ion to
the normative oroer determining the function.
However. in legal terminology ,he COll<:ep< 01 organ is used in a
still narrower "'n", than here deocribed. Not every behavior de,er_
mined by the legal order, and not being qualified .. drlkt, i, in-
terpr<<ffi;u a function of the l<gal community; no' every individ
ual who perform' ouch a funelion i. de,ignated .. an "organ" in
rhi. narrower st"st. Hi, behavior i, attributed 10 the legal commu
niry .. its function only (and the indi,-idual i. de.ignoted .. an
"organ" only), if ,hi, individual is qualified in a certain way.
Jf a function determined by a normative order i, to be p<r.
formed not by aoy individual .ubjaot to thi. ottler but only by a
qualified one. ,hen a functional di.i,ion 01 labor i. e'tablished_
Only functions exerdsed by individuals quaUr,ed in a ""ruin way
are attribu<ffi u> ,he 1'"831 community; only ,he.. indi.iduals are
deo.ign.ted a' "0'lr""'" in ,hi, narruwer stn",. Communid.. which
have "org:uu" are d..ignated a, "organi>ed" communi,i... Bu'
every cOmmunily must have o.gam-....,"en Ihough not ,he kind
,ha, [unction. according to 'he principle of di,-i,ion of laOOr_
becau"" a community an only function ,hrough organ>. that ,.
,hrough individual. determined by ,he nor""'tive order. If "
normative oroer determln.. ,ha' (,",,,,in funetio,," under <enain
11<:[ ....ATIC A$PI!Cr OF ....W
condition. """y be performed by e..."ry individual .ubject '0 the
order, then every individual in the ex.rei.. of this function may
be a ..n organ. ,he function may be attributed 10 tbe
community. although nO division of labor i .,.'abli,h.d. Dut ac-
cording 10 pr",,,i1ing terminology individual. who do not fune
,ion by division of labor all: not "",)Jed "organ.," their functions
are not .."rib",,,,, to the community.
The qu.olifu;.o.tion. of the individual> wh<>-a<XOrding to actual
legal ,erminology----are d..ign....d as "organs of ,he community,"
all: of "ari"", kind. They ate determined by nnure. if the legal
order preocribes that cena;" function. IDU" be only by
a man or woman or only by an individual of a <eTtain age, of
pIIl"'kal or mental ht3.1th, or by an individual of u .....in drscenl
(if Ih. position or organ is inhorited). But ,he lcgal order can abo
make certain moral qualifications or 'pecific skilll of an individual
the condition of conferring the function upon him. Of particular
impoTtance ilthe qualification which i. constituted hy the ptovi.
lion ,hat the individnal to bf, de.ignated as "organ" i. to be called
to the function in a definite way detennined by the legal order.
The calling of ,he individual to the function may have a dirrct Or
an indirect character. I, ha, a direct chancter if ,he constitution, a
.tam.., or a norm of ru"omary law rer.... to an individually de-
termined man and ,tipulates tha, a certain function ought to be
only hy this man_for example, il,he historically first
constitution prcocribes: "A shall be the head of .tate: or: "The
Constituent National AMembly .han be ,he a...mbly of people
who a<:m.lIy com'euM at a certain day at a certain place and
actually adopted a definite con"i,ution," The calling of an indio
vidual '0 a certain function hal an indirect chaneter if the
cotutitution, a ltalUte. or a norm of <;U1tomary law rrquir.. a cer-
tain act (e.g,. nomina,ion, elu,ion. drawing loti) by which an in
dividu.l i. coiled to the function and thu. made.n organ of the
leg<ll community. In thi. wayan organ i, crted. But even in the
ea.. of dire<;t calling we .re d..ling with the creation of an organ.
A, hytakingo"or the office of the head of 'tate, e,tablish.. ltim..lf.
Kcording to the con"im,;on. a, the organ provided for by the
constitution. The ....mbly referred to in ,he historically 6rst con
otitution. by adopting this con"itution establi,hes iuelf_CCOTd
ing to thi. coTUtitution-u the Con"it"ent National Assembly
provided lor by 'he constitution. Di'"", calling of an individual
(or of individuals) 10 a funclion implie. "'If-crca'ion ol 'he organ
A minimum of division of labot- i. p.....m If 'he lepl
onlor-".g., a primi'i'.., legal onicr-$tipula'" ,hat cer... in lunc
tion., ouch a' 'he a""..... inmen' of the exi"ence of a d.lict in a
concre,c CaS' and 'he Clt""u,ion ol 'he sanction provided for in ,h.
law, ough, .0 be performed nor by each 01 the individuals .ubjec.
'0 the order. bm only by men of. ccr..in age; 01 if, according '0
existing l.w, a lawcatingcu,tom sh.n be cs'ahlished no' hy the
beh.viot of all individual' subj""t to the o,d... hm by the major-
i,y of 'h"'" who have the lepl ,,"pacity '0 .ct; Of, .g.ln. if accord
Ing to existing bwonly individu.ls who have reached. ce,tain .ge
and are mentally Klund .re c.pable to regula,e thei, mutual
""""omic ,elationships by lepl tnmsactintu, Bo, 'hi' minimum of
labor division which not even 'he mOlt ptimiti"e Irg.1 order can
forrg<>, i. no, '''fficien', a<rrding '0 lepl unninology. to desig.
nate a, "organ'" 'he individu.l' authori,od to perform 'he fone_
tion; nor '0 amibuu their functions '0 'he community. According
'0 'hi> terminology a func'ion i' autihuted '0 a community only
(the individual is an "'organ" only), if the individual i. called-
direcdy or indirectly-'o ti,e lunction,
If the general norm' of a primi'i.... lepl order arc not created
hya lrgi.b'i\"e organ hut hy Costom, and are applied nor by l.w
courU ho' 'he individua4 'hem"'lv.. "'h"", rights had been in
fringed. 'hen .he individuals who colt$\i,uu by 'heir b<haviot' the
law-crcating custom and 'he individual' who apply the Cu.tom
created norm. are not reprded .. "'organ.:' .nd 'heir functions
are no, auribmed to the lepl community. In ,hi, ca;c it i. ",ual
to say 'hal the law is created and applied by ,he individual. them
..I,.. who are .ubjcc'ed '0 legal mrler. One .peak. of "orga","'
creating gcnerall.gal nor"" ."d ol "organs"' applying ,he law only
if all individual or an ....mbly of individual. ha< heen called to
'he function of leg;"a"on and if cenain individoals ha.... been
called '0 the lunction of applying the law as judge>. The lnnctions
ol law crea,ion and law applica,ion arc the same in bo'h in.tance.
Bul only in 'he second ca", arc the individuals petfonning the
lunCtions called '0 'hei' lunetioll. by 'pecial acts.
The legal torminology i. particularly apparen' if technically
biply dc.-tlopal Iq;ol ordtt i..... i'u'a a democn,ially
porHammt .... bead of 1UU.. rnmt.i.u,""" ....y Kipubu. that
mmUolly ""'Jld ci.irt;n of a ttnain. anc! f'"'"iot'sly
""'" Iw tbt "". to _e. 1M of I porliamornt
.... a praidmt, .....bliobinc I laW'O'e&tiog orzan, is att tMtttial
pan of tbt protl/dure, and ;. tbnd....e I paru>tl'&,..
kpl fu.not: ...... in the ....now" _01 the """""- DOt
lhe ....",. but the parliamm. or p<aidm. is dncribnl u orpo 01
'he Ra.e; not ,he lunction 01 ,he "Otcr, but .he lunction 01 the
parlw""", or prelidcn. i, deto:ribnl u function 01 the tl'. True.
it i...id .11>, ,he sta'e {.hrough parliamen.} makef II IJld thaI
'he .. (,hrough the pmiden.) i....a dccrea; bUI ooe doeo not
tay lh.. decu ,he parliamenl. although. coolide.ing 'he
contelll of 'he "'>te,', func'ion (as Ilipuilled in the legal order).
he could ,elP.ded as .n organ of the ,tote nO lUI ,b.,n the
I"'rliament or pr..ident by him. although vot..
I"netio" ;u ",..,11 ... funCtio" of or p-r..iden, could
he attributed to ,h.. JUotl'. Th.. diffneoce Ix'wttn th.. fun(lion of
,h.. \'(II"" w, of the elted .....n iJ ,h;': lhe mcmbrt of par.
liamen. or the p-resitknt doa not rn=ly have to IMCt anain
na,u",1 condi,ions (00:, ........tal hohb), but Iw to be called
to bi< functKla by a opecial KC.
This, evidently... abo the ",-by (.) tloe legal tmt-uoru
n:ecutcd by the iDdirid....1I au"-im:l by the legal order (,ha. is,
.he indiyidual Ift'<'T'Il lq.11 .......... a-eatcd by 1epl ,,,,nsac
......) arc not II bans by .he 1"1"1 .........uaity.
bur ar.. """rded ;OS bei", crea,ed by Hprin.u. .. al'bougIo
there iJ a 'endency 10 all bow (cuept in........rional1aw) as
....,.. law and althou&b th....... 1hoo1d. o::tJme<iuendy. alto be a tend
enq to rrgartI. ... stare <>rpm an indiyid....lo ",-1>0 lepl
.",n_.ion" why (I) wh..n lhe 1"1"1 p-roculu", h... '0 be ini.iatM
by a opeci6c act din:.;,ed ,,,,,,.nt i ...... speak in one <::aM: of a
plain,iff. in .ooth.... cu. 01 p"blic (Ihe OCt 01 an
organ of 'he .......).Ithough 'he function. of bo'h a1"C ....nti.lly
'he why (3) inttm.tdon.l bw cr.a,M by c"stOm (C'tl.b-
lilhM by aeu of ....,.) and by '.tI,i... (condudtd by ,\I"') iJ no,
d"",ribed .. I.w by 'he i"'.rna,ion.:o] community bu' hy
the wbjft;.. ol the in.ernational onI",.. n.m.ly 'he indi"id".1
..,.,..; .nd why these individual stat...r. not I"CI"rtIed as organs
at 1M iJItem"ion1 a>IIUDuni'y in 1M;" lIw-acau"l and law-
Ilaide tho ooacept 01 ",'!10K criterioa-iJI addition ..,
cnu.ia a>c>d.i JUodl ... IU, nc..-is <ht bel. that <he iDdj.
\idlUl ucd is (dirul./y or iDdirocdy) caUed to f"nctioo
dcwrmiDcd in oM ltpl order, uaditioGal len"in.... alto .......
plop a coocqx of orpn w""",, ailel"lon. in addition 10 U><X
'l.woIifiea........ is" lop(CilK pa-w ........ of t.he individiW who
ancilcs the [UDC'ionJ COII'Do<d. The 00 'l"",li&cd is
called 'aD official"; I,,'.... we will in....ip'c this opec;". 'l....lifi<;a.
<iOIl of "" official." We thtrdou d;"ingui.lJl OfF'" of ,I>< ....'"
who h...." and thOfC "'1\0 have not ,he .....tUS of oI!">r;ial The
"Ioc'ed mcwlxu of a body an organ. 01 the t. but
not .... t. oI&i"1I. Not only Jfgallu,,<.iom in 'h, narrowa "Ill" of
[''''<foaling and [.....-applying [unnions, bu' aha Jaw.oblO""ing
f"n<t;OllJ arc ,,""billed '0 .be .I.:lle and daign.tcd as .., ...... func.
tlon.." if they are ro:nderl by an indi,'idlUl quali6cd .. IUl. offi
cial. FUD<tiom of very dilfc.,m 'l'pet constitute ,h. con...." of the
offici>.I dutia fur which the.e individuals arc ,apo,uibl. TIIq
play an impon..... mle within Ihc ....'" (uDCtion ailed 'lIdmuu...
U1l1;0IL"' ..
So (u :II divUion of lIllor """,no tho.t lunctions CULDOt
,uod...:d I.,. jUOl: aaybody-not by irodividual oubj\Cd 10
Ibe 1IOmIo:lti"" onIrr---Ou. only by 'luali6cd in a
nnair> way bylbe order, and that !uD<tioIt un<kr u..... dr-
CUIDSQQCa;, ,epnkd at rebti""l,. ttIllnlilcd. 10 far. llom.
IiOG 0( labor aad ,diti.e n.nJiutioa coincjcf(." In C>WDRKCl
parbnc:e onI,. ,e\a.;,-dycm'....JW:d funniow are a"ribu,ed CO
COlDIJluniry; only ,cl..i""ly rclllnJized o<K"-'" are daign:ued as
c.ommun;.,. o.pns, and only ,.bti""l,. rcmnlid comm",,,;,i,,, as
"orpniLCd a>m"' .....itia.
I, i. "codf"'110 'cCmptw(u .ll.a....ith rc:spca co.he: problem 0(
cornm",,,i,y 0'K"'" in gt:t'Ie....l. a..d 01 ....tc Ofll"'" in """ic"'la'....c
larg.ly hove '0 dc.l with the co",mon u.. 01 languagc-and 'ha'
'hil u..ge i. no' .I....yl Thi. is on bee.u.. ,he Itltibu_
tion 01 a legally de'cnnincd func,ion '0 .hc legally
community i. only a "",,(ble. 1'01 n<a:s<a.y. me",.l ope....tion.
'Cl PI'- "'I.
of _nlla,lool ..... -.......... _1,0<1.
'! ',PH'" JOJ 'J! .oJ Apoq
Au. 'OU 'm .0" 'PIl4' ".IOjA"4X1 "''''
JO """""'XI,, 1l,,!X1 'I I""P!A!PU' "''110 A"0"
)0 u'4' ']""P!'lpUI U. JO 4"'P ''1' .""., II! All"'
" .10 PI''1'" JO .IO!A"4X1 ''11 JI "UO!uuO<. JOJ UOI'lpUOJ J'I' 'ou
'I 'O!A"4X1 'PIl.L '<IO!,.ll!lqo u. llU1Ul""'")0 .lqOOOl,OU
P'" lJIPP ll"!ll!tDUlOJ )0 lOU ,." 111 AIl"l"'W ''I' P'"
U>JPI!'1' lng '"opoll!I'l0 uo ,wn"," 0, A'IJoo" ''1' '.'"'1 0' "'1"0
ul UIPP ",!W""'" OJ .l1!J1!dOJ 'A"" "nw'4 pUt ',:re OJ A'I",dOJ
''I' 'A"4 "nw '4 UJ'I'-JJ"'''bx"oo loll'l "<0 "op'"" " .IO!A"'!
'''1 '!4 Aq 1110'1" llu!'q 0, " ''I J' ,"""01 4'14'" '('<10""1"
'!4 .0) 01'" "u!oll, P:>;I'IP "O!lJu.. " JO UOP!PUOO '4' '! .0!A"4Jq
'14 .." "1'''=" "I 'A"'1Jq 0' p.ll!lqo Andol 'I
-!PU! U, Jl "'!"'l""" I""'!.I:> ""pun dn pu"" 'O<lU,," A='1' '!'lL
,oU A"Jod., 1&] P"" "'" 0' A,!:>o<l., '41 AJ0>4' jO"O!'lPU,
''1' 01 llu!p.loJJV '("o"",u,,",,d>J lim",,,,, 1"'11""""') '''''!'''"'U''''
]dJl Aq 01'4' .oJ ..pnp pUt "411!. p"o '''P''P 1I!!I"l "'ljll!,
"I"'x, JI"'IJq '1''1' U! 0'1'" ...d,, 'Ao4 ""w'l"nplA!pu!
=q' """I ll.l'pow 0' llUIPJ= 'II! An',"'Ul pu.
""Pl'4' ',(d""u ,po 0, A,pl!d1tJ
0' P!""'I 1""PlA!PU' A"'A' ,OU mg """I u"'pow "pun "I'"
0' 0".....,'.1' ....ptlS-A'IJod., loBo] 't"'1 "'l'" 'I'"
'PlAIP"1 :"lmp P"o "'Ill!, JO ,,,[qn,,'11 "I """ (""P!'IP"! "om,,'1
A""",, 'A=ql "'.. ''''"I """pow "p"n ""!'''P P"" "'Ill]>
jO ':I'q". '4' "I 01 .10 """P Idol puo "411,. 0' 1""PlAlpul
u. JO A,!Jod., '41 A,podoJ ]oBoI .. ""."ll!"p .uo,'1'
.ur.lVdv:J "tvo:., ",'
,:uclllo" JO ,,uJUOJ ''11 JO JJ"","", "1' JO lluIPUO"
-"P"" "" Aq,,], P"" 'A'I""wmoo 108>] 0' "o,,'u"J 0 S"I
""'Illll" "I "'"1"'0' 4"1'1'" '1'1' JO 'J""",,, '4' JO SUIPUO"
'''pu" UO AIUO " "'01 JO lI{J!>1tUloo 0 JOJ
-uo11...><Io 1","'1ll '!4' JO P!" ,no'l1!'" PJqUJO:Ip "I uOJ "OIl
om!, ]1!lb1 "A'!<I"WUlOO ]&] 0\ p>1"q[Jl1" XI 'lOu P'J"
''''1 ,,(ow "o"Jun] "! :All"nwwoo ''I' JO u,ll.lO "" .. PJlOU
.ll]..p "I 'lou 111'1 'Aow ]"UP!'lpUI llU!UllOJlJd-lKI!l:>U"J
1I\Y1 .L:>:l4SV OU.V,U
punisMd, tbm lhe punislulblc <!diet is Do< oM killin, of 1M indio
ridual. but the viob'ior\ 01. oM fattw:r. duty to suptni the child
and 10 PfC"'"'" Ui an,itocial beha'ior of oM dUld. 1M of
the child Of mmt1l1y ill, wbkh. il uhibiud by indirid",,1
apobk of aaiJ>K. CIDlUti,uta l.bo 01_ of murder IIIUrdn.
1Mchild and thr mIlaU, ill do .... ho.", thc du.ieJ oonsti.
lUted by puni,'.., laftCliono !>a1Ut <!Iti. bthayior is no< thc <'Ondi-
.ion of. punl,;..., ..nc'ion-b<a..... u...,. CUlnot bmavc in a ""y
w. can brin!: abou punitive ..netion; .hq MC .... ClIp;lblc of
OOfDrai,.ing iklia (a,.. no< for tOn). and in thi.
""''''''p''blc of .,ing.
Thi.. howeve<, d_ niX Kf1l> '0 apply to dclicll whic;h a,.., Coo
lIi,u'cd by. finc or dvil execution. For these ..netion. COfl"" in a
dcprivat;on of Ul<:U, p&nicularly of proper,y; and. llCcord
ing to .he n.di,ion,' 'heory. an individual incap"blc of acting ,till
an have prop"", righ... He /Ill' no acting capacity, bu' he II....
legal as-;ity. H...,., . child or in.." .. individual i...id to be the
OWMl" of hou>e .nd ill f"rni"'ing>; if 1M pr<Iptny ..." not
paid. civil """"""ion may bt di.t:CIed into tht propt", 0( the
individual. From th" one might dcduu that the indiri,h..l in
capable of:oning. il he an be the oubjcc< or pn>pmy rights, an
aloo be the ... bjcc< of .... obIiption to poy the ",open, tn. By
.... I&m<' n2SOIllinl an indhridual incapoble or aain&o could. il he
"rqankd:u the ... b;.. of P""Pfttr lights a' all. alto be reprded
.. the oub;.a 01 all obl.ip.,;.- ooost.it"ud br ciril ouno
if only dtaI individual ;" to be the oub;"
01 a obliga.ion w..... br his own beha";"...." 1"lfill or <rio/;l'e
<he obligatioll_nd il the oblip.ion un only be or rio-
laud br the ..ti.--hm the IlIbje<' at the obIiption u
,he tep'"..."...ive. not the individual in",poble of acting. From
,he lac. tha. the l.t,er individual can be the ...bjt of prop-
er" tights could only be deduced that he i' liable for the vlob'ion
of fin.>nci.:tl obligation. and 'hal he con be li>.ble-int<lfar :u hi.
rep.eltlll.tive i' a"thori,<><I 10 di,pooe 01 hi' p.oper<y--<>nly with
hi' property. not with hil perlOn. If we ...."mc 'hat an incop-
able individual cannOt be 'he rubjee. of legal oblig:nion, and
tha' an individual ;. the wbj. of. filW>Cial oblip'ion onlr if he
has to fulfill the obligation from hil own propm.r (il ..e. there
T...I: ITATlC ....1'Y.Cr OF U ..
must to ngard rn( nprCM'.......in u the ...bjm cl
obliption). ibm ... 3K conltorutd ..it.b :on obligation "'lbout a
wbjta. lor _boot nonlulfillmm. ,1M: Icpl up, .........,;.... is liable
only with hi> pcra>n. not .'lh his property. Tradi.ioII&l tbearT
m .... 10 repro lhor rqorarnuti,... at <be oubjca of the <>blip......
wt>;dt he hao ... fulfin from <bc p<Up<f1J 01 the indiridoul ,,-hom
hoe .... aDd which he an "io!au by """'luILllln...... On lbe
other hand. u.. thtor'j' .Umlptt to .-oid ,he ..... "''''Ion 01 :on
obIiplion w,thou.....bjca.OT"Jl>e theory rqards ,he
'''''''pable <Jl arti"ll ao .he lubjf:a of <be oblill"Uon. which mnnl
, ... , the obligation i"rit.>uled '" .hill iDdividuJJ. The obligation
wl10lc co",.." u ,I>< bth,,'ior 01 ,he "'l'rnrnta'i .... i u.ibmed 10
,b. r.p,.....,m... llldhidu.I, beau,," i, is '0 be lulfillO<l from the
properly which. acrordinll' '0 ,rodilion,l,hcol)" i, the property of
,h. Individual oml not of d,. rcpr...ntativc; and beGa".. ,h.....e_
lion. in case 01 nonfullllhncnt, i, directed into ,bi. 1'f<>pr'Y' Tha,
i. '0 .. y: Th. rcptorn,o.;v_..umi"8 tl.., ,b. p'op<r., con-
ccTned it in'<'rptc,td ... bl.lollging.o .he individu.>l_h:u '0 ful61l
.he obliga.ion f.... the ,ndividual, ilia. i.. in hii inll"Q<: for the
by fulfilling obIiga.ion, awi'" tile {orr,hl"
depri''3Uon of prop<'f1y COIUiIkr<d to Ix:long to tile individual.
pr-ibilit, of rqarding lho: obligation as being tile oblilPu-
01 tile indiridual ii boo<d. therda<e, on tho: of ropnling
tha. individual as the ...bject of ri3h....
If by ... ullOkn<ood 1Mkpll""""'" tha. it. tile Dlp_d.,..
l<Ikn<d upon an individual by .he lopl order to -.... by an
acl..... tho: fulli.llDKn' of a lepI oblip'..... thaI anoth.". individual
has toWard him, then the individual incapable of Kling callnoc
h,,,.., a righ.. roo- he ...... IlOl ha"" Ihis <ap>ti,y. Only hif WlIU""1
rcpreomlati.., h:u <hi. capaci.y. Upon tho: la,,.,,., not upon 'he
d\ild <w the in.."" .......he lopl ordeT confer .hi, legal po"......
8m he is obligat<d '0 O'er, ,hi, l'O"'er ill 'he ,mere" of tt", r"p-
reteIl,ed individual. In .he case of ptoperty righ....he oblilP'ion.
wh_ violl,ion can Ix: .''''Tled in COut, by ,he 'la."wry "p""
",n'.'h", are obliga'io". ,owlrd the "pr""'''la,i"e who i, cn,itl.d
'0 di,l""" of ,he proper.y. All o,hen." oblilJ:ated '0 'olerlle thi,
diopooition, .ha..... IlOl W prc'o'ent or otM,.,.'i", 10 in'pair i.. But
,he rtp''''''''to.in i. oblilPt<d '0 dilJ'O'" or the pros>erty only in
-a. pp. ,1.1
T1U< .....ne ....u:T OP lAW
""" ""tt<:>< of tht .epr-.lW individ....l. eopccUlly '0 yield the
1IX CIt C1llWUmpOoa 01 tht P'opn-'y to the individu.>1
to obt: ""."'" 01 """ la,,,,,,', abili,y, III <2M: 01 a claim .. the TdIa
01 .... oI>Iiptioa to p<1'fCltlll IOII>cthiJ>&. the Iw to be
Tmdn<d to <he .optnt'nu.ivt. bu' be is oblip",d 10 Ji'l' tho up-
raeatctl iodiridual tho beodi. of tho pnfonIlan,l' is boollX 01.
theM: limiutioos, impolCl1 "pon ..... n'pnsctlu'ivt...... """ uadi-
........1 theory don ..... ' .......i1c him .. "'" wbjea of .be righu
Q)O<nncd, bu, a",ibu.to them to tho individ....l. If. hown. the
concqx of is ..... as lop! pow. In" .. a lcplly
pro',..lod in"",no, 'hm it i. indNd poooible to regard 'ho individ
....1. in ...hooc in"'ra< .he reprcocnutive cxcrcUn ,Iw: lcpl POW"
,onloncd. upon him... ,he ...bj,.., "I tho righ,....i,loou, any fu;.i.
,iou. a"ribu,i"n .nd the,dore OJ having 1"&,,1 Cl?"",y. liow..-.
the d.finition "I ".ight" II' leg.lly p,,,toctcd. imerto' i. no, ,"c
pubic. [or ,he rca,,'". h...e " ..cd..
If an. h<>lda '" tltc vic... ,hat only 'hit individual i.legally "bli.
""od to behave in a =uin way wlw> by huown "llpoti.. be,,"vior
can viola", th<: obliga'ion and by hia ""-0 conlo.-ming behavior-
CIlI fulfill ,be obliga,ion and th...-.fOtt m.... ,,",.., ,he capacily to
a.et; UKi thal, funhn. a ,,,hl, as a opecific lcpl pow",. can be con-
renod oaly upon an iodividual who Iw the capaci.y to aa..'1om
the obIipt...... :r.ad rip.. ClTl be in<nptet<d_ithout
6c.itiotK .. as obIiptiow and risflu of obt: Icpl
r-epraenutivc. who. bow....... m.... "&Ifill CIt cxntio< them only in
tlw iOlo:nsl 01. the r<pram,od individual. or the _.ype an' tho:
obIig:o.iono and riJ;huCr<alod by Iqpl <nm;onion.. which tlw T"P"
l'Uft<u,i'-e p<1'fonru on ...... If of. the r-epr.,...,ted individual. U
,he obIiplio... and ri;hu. boollX of 'he li...i...i.... impolCl1
upon the rOpTCS<nuliv... ue noI in,...prncd as his obIipuons
and ,,,bu. ,bm lhey can only be regarded as obIip.iono aDd
,ighu wi.h"", a .ub).... P,tc;"ly in Older .0 a.oid thi. con...
qu.nce doa .heory allribu.. 'hem '0 ehe rcp.....med
individuaL Thi. attribu,ion "'p.cocn.. a mon,.1 OI"'T1lion an.l,..
go". '0 .hat wi,h whkh a funclion determined by 'he legal order
performed by an indi .. idual i. attributed ,,, ,he legal con,munity.
The dilf......cc be,"'.... Ihem i, that the I'''.r function i. at-
,eibuted '0 a (''''''eby p<TIOTIillod) communi'Y. the formtr 10 an
individ....l. Sta'utory repr<ttn",'ion aDdOTg"D funaion u. rcl.,od
COIleep". An individual i. S,"do<! a. organ of ,h. community be-
<.aW<: the .itua,ion i. prcsentN llJ ;/ the c<>mmunity would pe...
form ,h. function which ""ually i, perlormtd by ,h. individual;
and an individual i. regardod as a "1""'11I.,,,1'"0 of ,he individual
inoop;lble of acting, ,h.. ,;'notion i, pre",n,ed .... il ,hi.
individual, while not by bim""lf. but through the Icprwmtati".
could fulfill obligation. and "",.rd.., rights: AS if he. while nut per-
5OIla1ly. but through hi. statutory rep,..,ota,;.,., could conduCt I.,.
gal 'mn;actioru creating obligation. and rights which arc hiJ
obligation. and righU. The attribution of the funion of ,h.
OTgan to the wmmonity, ju.t as the attribution of the function of
'he rep",...,u,;ve to the rep"''''n'oo individu.l incapable 01
acting. is a lie,ion. for ju"," it i, no' ,he community, but the in.
dividual designated a. organ, "" it i, no< the individual. but hi,
representative, who displaY' the legally rele.. beh"ior. Only
with the aid of this fiction can the community be regarded ., an
acting: penon, .nd can the individual inc3p>ble 01 acting be te
garded a, haYing the capacity to act and thereby., haYing legal
In addition to ,talUtory repr<:$<nuuion 01 the indiyidu.ls incapa.
ble of acting, a r<:presem3tion of indiyidu.b capable of acting ex.
iou, <:>tabl ished by legal tnn:<a<:tion (contr.ctual represent3lion),
It i, dilfe...,nt from the former in that, in 3 concre'e ca,e, i' i. no'
mandatory. d.,.. no< tllke place directly by law (a. the 'tll'utory
representlltion in which the child', father or a gu",di.n per.
form. func,ion. d<:>ignatrd "representation" for the individ-
ual) bu' it is optional, created by a legal .ransaction. By thi. tran..
..tion an individual C3p3ble of acting .utllOri,.. another indiyid-
ual to fulfill certain obligotions, to exei", certain rights,
cre.te obligation. and rights by certain legal
transactions for the former, With ""'pect to legal transaction.,
direct and indirect "'p",,,,ntation a" som<tim<:s distinguished.
Representation i. cbameteri,ed a. indirect when the oblig3lion.
and rights created by the legal transaction of the repf'<'SCntllth'e at
Ii,.,t become hi. obligotions and rights and are ,hen, by a further
legal transaction, tra",rened by him to the authoriling individual.
Howeyer, ,hi. i. no< representation in the ,pecific sense, beatuIC
there i. not attribution_neither of the act of leg.1 '",nsaction nor
of the obligation, and rights eated by the a.. to the 'Ulhorizing
"".!:tIro f! 1! lJ r_ll>l :>III "",n'!II<IOO ....!'.p' _'! 11
UI 'J.:>IlIO p...<Wl U!<lJ:D '" '! ....
U! 'I."P!A,P"! U"",'I':>q Iltlu _ '<II' 'IIO!I
,.Sll'10 .'Il"'. '! ''1SI' '<Ill I",.", ''IS!, puo "Ol,d!l'!o
JO ,,ll"IPu<>d,,.uO''U ,(.." .. j."o!'!po.L' "1 POO''''P''''
"l'lS!,,, pu, ..uopeill'1O" 'PiON. ''I' ..) 1'18"
-J03. puc lKI!ldll'!O ". ""'''1><1 1IO!'OI" >ou I! "!'1'
P"-JO I'IS!, 8ulpuod= JO P"" ""!lei!!'I" U.
JO ",,",MPq "! 1'"'11 IdbJ 1IM1><I
to f! II "l'lV!, puc U<>!'d!lqo JO nduo:n 0' ""!'
f! ..UO!l<PJ .d>(., JO >d.uo:l OJ !u!p.oo:uv
"OU..-n'l! "lY:lTl 'I'lL '.$
-U, "'I ,,!dAp td>[ la,..cq R .udd. "'!'l: "1.... Ol.up.JO
"! 'q<I "1n DOp [ftlp!A!P"! :>Ill OJ ""!1....,.". '11O!'!l"'J :aQljA
IID!ln...-.-b. Wln'nI 1" """" :>Ill OJ ""!1"U!lf!puIl1W "! 'uo!'
-nIl!-'-". JOI lIOIUl OU "'! >.I:>Il.1. -n",,", puc "",!,<i!lqo
"""'fI JO 01 XI 01 "'p><> O! PO 01
'Acq ltnID .""PJA'P"! "'l/lo "!'" :UO!I:>a"...., :>Ill
o>,nn oq", 0"'11 1:>1110 JO "",E>J:>". "q!!-'-
puc IUO!ldn'i0 II"!"" 1'1 .110 '! "''1'0''0 '0 SO!ld!!'!o
U0fI"'CI"UI loll>j V 'lu-..:l "''110'''' S"tlY'U>q '0 ll",,<i!lqo ,>U,
.""" .'0 1I"I""!"-..:I 'l1O!l""'''UI ,oll>l 0 lO Inq ..UO,'OlIl..,m,,,
JO 1I0xll IOU PI""'" ""'1' 'InO!,!"Y I. " "O!I"'1!"
'10 '1'I'll 'p;IJ!''''l"I"' ''1' 118no.t'l' p;lI'. >;I,!JO"'''. :>IlIl! I'< 1,...
II"" O! p>q!;l)UP ".1l""J :>Ill}! 'ljUO ,u;llJJd I! PJOM JO-
,g!dl Ul ""!1n""""u1'l1 '(lodp"IJd J<[I) JJZ!JIMl1n. :>Ill
1'1 p;If!:;IQJQ XI 'A!lnll:>l>JCbJ'<[1 JO OOlI,,",UUl 1d>1'<[1 !q
p;I'<>J:l tlljl!" :>Ill p". p;lI.....!A 10 p;lUYlnJ XI """ JA!I...UJDJd"
><r' JO UO!''ftoUl [<ll>] :>Ill J.q p;l1<>J:l'I>O!Id!lqo :>Ill I"", 01'1""
""P!'"!J'lIl l"ll!JlMlln.:>Ill JOI I>OP 14>11J!P 'M<] :>Ill OJ !u!p.>O)
..". ""l 'UO!l"'!-'O"Pn. "" II' IJft'I ap 110 PJ'lIUOp>d '''''!P'''IlUl
rd>1 ap """.. 1UJD.>d f! UO!l..........xb.o l>OJ!U ""'!'l: 01 po.u;>JI'ftD
I.... 1""P!A!PO! :>Ill 01 ""''''lUI'. tit""!'
"'!""J lOll .... UO!uam.q "'II plOlOJ> tlqB!l ptII JlIO!ld!rqo
:>Ill ptII '1""!'fA!P"! .Iq _ "P""<!.IOl{ln. :>Ill !q
p;IUUOp>d I'< f! ",,!1:>nU<.n (llll>l "'U. I"'P!"P'"
$!l' ......... .13lt... :>Uv.u :nu
a ..,1lI,;"" bnWtt:ll ind"id....r., lhnIl.he traditional ddinitioa is
_ ....IT_....... tho: lopl ordtt aablish<:o DOl ""I, rda'iono bt-
kpIwbjcca (in tIK I""'-',ional......., of ,lie wonI). w, ...
he<><em ODe individual oblipted to a omaiD bdul.ior and an
individuallO'QrtI whom t..b.iIl:>eho.rioo"" oblip1Olr1. bu.. 3100
he<WftIl .,.,., indirid....l who is authoriltd 10 "' t a nom> and
.notbn indi"iduaJ who i. au,'-ized to apply lbis : and aloo
bn...,""" one iDdi"idual who is au,horillrd to emile or apply a
nom> and an individual who ,. obIip\.ed or by ,hi, """,,.
Such legal ttLa,1on' oilo<, For example. t...wttn .he Indi"iduah
luthoriRd to aa,e norm, and ,he indi.idual. luthofilCd
'0 apply .hem as b,,,ween I..'.!olive <>t'g'ln, and judAa or admin-
i"n,;ve o<gam; but 1110 bttween .he judges and ""mini'trolliv",
organo on the on. hand, and th. ,ubj"",. obligoted and .",ill"" by
,he norm' "",ated by 'he 1'1"1",,,,, orgam; and allO !>t,,,,,,"" 'he
individHI' authori.cd 10 cauu the <orrei," acto ."d ti,e indio
vidual' against whom Ihe condre a<l> OTt directed.
Tnd'.'""al ju,i,pnJ<lcncc diKinguiJII.. p'i....t. and
po.blio: lopl ttlations and >en 'he dif(ettllCe in tha' 'he one "a
.ellliort betweoen eq""b and che otltn a relallon between a IUpeT_
lor and an inferior (between m ... and .uhje<l). Tradilional t""'"r
e-ridencly hu <he dilferen irt mind that in one UK !he .([:lIion
u .... bnWttR <he ...bjen 01: art obligation and <he ....bjen of a
corraponding 'ish.. and in tM oIiteT cue bnWftft an individual
rocreate ... apply a lepl norm and an indiyidual obli-
pled ... entitled by 'his norm. If dot indiriduals authorized ,..
nQ"'''' apply kpl normn: Ieplly obIipled CO <:lleIriM: tbti..
function and thu. lie allO lepl subje<:u (in <he tr.o<li'innal
........)-which. howev<:r rteN nOC be che UK and ftC'W io ,Ilt caoe
for legillalOn------lhen, ,Ilt rela,iQn.s betw",," lhese indiyiduals and
'he individual. oblipcM ... en'itlttf by the norm created .".
applied by 'he former, ICe indeed al'" ",la,lon' bet......" legallUb-
jecu; however, 'hese relatlonl lie, p.im...ily, rel.,io,," between "'i>-
jecu 01: oblig."io,,_be,,"....n, th.. is, .ubjecu of 'he ..i"" tn
",ea'e or apply legal norml and .ubjecu of 'he obligalion, enab.
Iilhed by ,h..., norm.; and. second..iIY"re ,hey rel.clOnl between
'he .ubj"'.. of 'he obligation '0 a ....... or apply log.! normnd
'he IUbjec.. of .he tigh.. eo,ablillled by chDe nornu; and 'hese
ngh.. are oot rellex.. of lbox obligation. (t""l II, ,I.. <>hi,.
ga,ion, of the OTga", In erealO or apply 'he legal norn,,), but
reftexe> of the obligations e"ablished by ,he'" nonn,. Besjd...
in thi, case we cannot ,peale. of a relation between ,uperion
and inferiol"$, bec.""" the norm<reating or applying individ.
u.ls (as subjecu of the obliV"ion to create or apply legal nonm)
are on the same let'e! as the mbject> of the obligations or righ",
e..ablir.hed by these norm. This i. panicularly true for relation.
in to th. 'radition.1 formulation_.he "ate ..
thubject 01 a l<'g.l traJt.la<:tion. for ex.mple a, buyer or ..,11...., i.
confronted by private individual_if the oct 01 one 01 the Iwo
panner, iJ .mibnted to the sw. as a "juristic penon:' Oniy in
the ex.rei", of a legal pow.r. tha' is, in ,be creation or application
01 norm. could indi,idu.h be colUidered a.< .uperior to tho.. wbo
are obligated or en,itled by the nOmJ' croated or .pplied by the
othen. However, "superior"'o .ho", obligated onti.led by the
nOtm. aro m.rely th. obligation'e>tabli,hing and rightestablish.
ing norm" not the norm-c",ating or -applying individual" becau",
the", ,hem..,lve. aro .ubject to the 1eg:>1 order, namely to du'
norm. authori,ing their funCtion.. It i, to be noted th.. by pre.
",ming individuals '" "inferior" to the norm. of the legal order,
and .h. norms", "superior" to the individuah. we employ a figure
of speech which m.rely .xpr...... ,h.. the norms of th. legal order
comnullld, au,horiZ<. or JX>Silh'ely permit the behovior of indio
vidu.h_that ,he norm. of the l.gal order h,,'e the beh.>vior of
individual. '" ,hei. conlOnt>. If the figure 01 .pch is taken liter
ally. a relation bet"'een th. l<'gal order and individnal """'" '0
exist. who.. behavior is de'ermined by ,h. nOnn' of ,he legal
ord.r. However, no ",lation can .xist between a nonn and the
httman behavior ,hat i. i" content, breau", lh. norm and itt con
tents lorm an indiviSible unit.
From the point 01 view of cognition directed to,"".rd the law_
that is, towaro legal norms--reb,;orts betw'en individual ...e not
at i"ue, but only r.btion. betwe"" legal norm. (cr.ated or ap-
plied by Individual.) or be'we"" facts determined by the legal
norm" among which buman behavior repr"""" only one .pecial
ca.., albei. a very important on. For th, COnten' of legal nonn. i.
not individnal., btlt th.ir behavior; il i. not human beingo, but a
cenain httman behavior and no, only this behavior but al", other
I""" in connection with human behavior. Th;, i, recognized in
U"M'",! uOI,ol>J ''1' .0 ""u"" 'w.. "1' U! UO!,ol>J I"s,r jH'Ind.. 0
'I P""'!P'! ""!"'O ''I' W0'l'" lonp!A!pu! p;>,cll!rqo ''1' puo
,n. 0' .,."lOd I"s,( ''1' 'I'P" P'l<>AU! tOnp!A'PU! ''I' UO"
01>1 ''1' "''1'0 ''1' "" PA>l 'w.. ''1' " uOII,ulp.lOOJ pu. PU"'l'lIO
'q' uo UOI'O")p.1OqUS P"O tlO""U!P-IOJ>d,,. o=.\t'>II >J""'ll!P ''1'
"0 "". '''01'"1''"' 1"s,1 ,,",,!,d puo "lNnd """""'1 >J"'''ll!P ''1'
, ...J '" ,nil ..uo,q, rOUOl"plU,,(q "" ....,d.. '0 p>,.uS!t>p ""P"I"
1"8>1 I"J)d'(, ''II '! II 'uO[",u" ''II ,oJ '''O!I'PUO' "p.oo IVbI
'II' ill P>,"uJl!"P ''''"j 0"" """"""1 "01'01'" ''l' '! '!'1l.. (U!I'P
,ql) p>1J!p 'J """'u,, 'Il' 1I"11'" .IO)A"4><1 ''1' puo
(un)"" '41) ""MOd IVb] '"4' JO "P"x, '4' tI! "'!<Un:> '"'l'
JOfAOq><l ''II U"""><l trol'.r"''l' lnq '''.'''"''04 'UO,,"1
.;u '!l(J.. 'IOnp!A!pU! p>,cll! Iqo ''1' PU" J,.\too l"s,r ''1' '1'f'" p>'<>A
UI ,"np'A[p"! '4' """><J "lx,,""P ""f'"I"-' ,,,s,1 """" '"'1' UJ
uo!lcllHqo "'I p.[OIA '"4 0'1." l"np!AlpU! "1' ,,"!cll" P;>>:>"!P ><I
0' 'w,ou rti:l",lIo iq IDJ P'P!AO'" '"ol'Ju... JO uo!,n>:>"" ''1' lIl1!
"pID [[Uou r"lIp!A!PlI! uo unOJ 0 "q lIu!n,,! 01 'JOp>xud
o 'UO!''''' r"8>r" "'I 0' ""'00 r"s,1 ''1' .,UllOlll U!'"
-=" u, 'A"4><1 0, p:llcll![II0 '! r"npf'!pu! ""II"'U" m04'" p.l""''''
I""P"'PU! U" '" "'AUOJ "1"0 {8i>r''l' >s"" U) ',u""w '!'l' :1"0'"
'II' JO ""u"" 1""!U4"'" "!I'''''''' ''fl UI l'lll!' " JO """" "1' "! "!X'
s>op-sl"lIPIA!PlI! 0"" JO JO!"oq><l P>U!UJJ"'p-,,,or ''fl u""><1
'''Il:lio, >JOW 'JO--1I"np!"!p"! 0"" ""\1><1 uo,,"!""' lol!>( V
..,"x' 'IIl1!, ""IF" lIl1!puod""oJ ''I' pu-. ,(Inp 1"s,1 " u"""
uOP'p' ou ''''J'''IIl.. 'P"1I91nJ "'l "''''I mo'l'"
rHO",,,, l"np!"!plI! ''1' JO 'lI!od""I' ''1' UIO.lj uo 'no!,cliH'IO
rcli'r ''1' 'IUO '! ''I1I1' ''Il.. ..nonlJ.l>dn, "'moo:>q '411"
JO ,dOluo, ''1'-'"1''' ''1' 10 uopollHqo '41 'I'!'" 1""!"IOP!
'! 'uO ''1' 10 11111!J ""U', '11' "1"0'" J>'I1O UJ '-"'U""W lI!mJ>J
ul 10'9 ''1' pJ"."OI ',''''l><l 01 p"ollnqo " ,"np["tp,,) "'1'0 'J'I'
'''1' lUll xp lI"!'I'OU .1.. '''UU"UJ p>lcll!lqo '4' u, w''I 1""."",
'''"4''''1 Pluoll' ""P ApO<PlllOl '"'I' "'I ,(PO'PWOil
'ql "U""><I puo :uop',,", 'II' ]oJ "O!'!PUO' 0 '! '1')'1.1',
.lO!A"'I>q JO '" ID!"Oq>q P"1cl![lqo 'Il' lIl1!]""
A'l P>"I.!-OI">P "llU'PIlJUi ,," "'0' 1U.l!>t "1' "noJ
.", Oil '! .u.mou'4d IU"""I""' ,(1108>1 'IU>J'JI!P 0.", 11>'''''>q
IIOP"I" ... '11'!X' ''''!llJP' \08>, Ou ,.., '!II' U! 'rx!",d 'J,.,
.>l0H x.u" "! pur uo".lI!lqo 11>,"',
-""I 110""1" .....u,,!'"p] rcll>1., jO UO,,!U9'1' '41 U! ,,,8>p 'woo
....Y> '-0 .endS>' 'u.n, a,,-'-
na .UTI<: .....u:T OJ' LAW '67
"""n funcliOlline U ill> orpn 0( the stne aod the obIip<ed
individual Foo- u.. lopl pow 0( the indiridual eD'itlfd lO brine
an action.:opinst indi,-idual <..... jot. 0( his capaci,y lO par-
licipone in the era....... 0( the individual ......... which orden a
-u- "I"insl: oblipcloa-violating individual. II ,he fUDC-
tioa of the 0>Un is auribu,fd lO ....'" aod [f, thedo<e. the
$i,....tioa is inte<poeted u tdatioa bnwem oM .... in iu capacity
u lopl authority and the ddendan....b;.am lO this authority.
wbich IJICUIJ U a rda""" of "'per. and ...bordi...""". 'htn-u
pointedou._the flitloCtioro of tht plainLiI c.JD be in the
ame .....y. Aluibu,ion of the legal fuoctton lO ,h. lopl commu
ni" oll,rely exprnses ,he Wt this uDetion is de'ermined by
the lepl order. The of .uperordinati"" and .ubordi...-
t;on 'ha'. according 10 tnditional theory. exist. hcrc bttween the
.... ,. (reprCTItcd hy tht Iun) and the ddend.Jlt, .110 exists
between the plaintiff .nd 'ht deendonr. Thi. reladon o super.
nd .ubomi"'''ion is mer.ly ,lit ....per.nd subordination ex;"ing
beI....n the legal ord.r .nd th. individual, w"- bcha.ior it
l"t'gUlateo-b.ncc nothina; b,n a ligun'i"" nprcalon for tht bet
Utal the behavior of the individuau fonns the tonten' of the legal
ItOnDJ. The authority in this figure of is the
nborilyof ,he IepJ <>rdft" which, crn<ed and applial XDllI11ing
to ito "'"' prtapU by ocrtllill individ...l.. obIip1et and enti'les
othet iDdi..idua1s. If the 10'" is prnm<ed '"' ...perordinatcd 10 the
individual. this -.tly .....nt WI iadiridualo '" c.pns of the
... create 2nd apply __wMch the bdtarior of othet
indirid.,'" IIwI whid!. *J>OCikally. obIig:... Olbtt" indi..idualo 10
behav. in. cctQin ....y. If aprascd without the U$t of lhc spatial
fiaure of speech: this 1Mt.ly menu tho, "'.lopl Iltdtr OOmnina
be" by which lopl .-nu are crn<ed tho.' connta a ettUin
human b<ohavioo: OJ condilion ...ith CttUin conei... lICU al conse-
A Itpl rclati"" of a *J>OCial kind exi... whcr. ,h. obligation of
on. individual towa<d anothtr il conne<;tm. hy the l.w, ..-;th the
oblig.tion "f I.u.... toward the ormCT. Thi' i' 10, for .....
in a contr'Ct of laic the obliga,ion t<> deliver certain goods
\a 'ied to th. obligalion '0 p.o.y th. purch.. pric. Thcn a legol
:lation ""iota belw..n the norm th., obligat.. Ih. bu,..,. and the
nonn Utat obligat'" ... or, corr..,tly. bt,,,-ecn the la...
d.t.m,ined heha"iar of lh. On' and lh. law-d.,.rmined boha,'ior
01 lhe olh..,..
Paran.ling lh. tI,co'l' that lhe right is a legally pTOtoc'cd inler_
e". i. the tllCO'l' that lhe legal "Iatinn i. an actual relalionship of
a sexual. oconomi<:, Of political nalUre, exilling independenlly of
the legal ottl..,. in "",ial te.nty, and meuly regulated but not
constimwl by the legal order. Howe.'er. ju '" the ",hjeetive
right is not .n inler"" prolected by leg.1 no,,",. but lhe prutec_
,ion tha, consi", in ,he.. legal nom", in the ",me way i. lhe legal
.el.tion not an aetual relalion existing in "",ial reality, only re&ll'
lated by legal non"" but a relation primarily co""hutw hy legal
nonn._ The Ieg"dl rel ..ion of matrimony. for eumple. i. nOt a
cr.>mpl"" of sexual and onomic relation, between tWO individual.
of different""" me,ely .h.ped into a .pec.ific form by bw. Wilhout
law the", ,imply i. no .uch lhing as "m.trimony." Mdtrimouj'" a
legal ,elation i. a legal inllilntion, ,hal is to say, a compln of legal
obligation. and right.> in Ih
'pc<:ific.ally lhnical ",,",e thi.
mc:uu, a complex of legal nonn. Th. relalion, lh., CO"""," '"
here .te rel.tio", bo'ween legal norm. or reladom hetween ac"
determined by legal norm>. For a c"Snilion ditceted 'oword lawaI
a system of norml, no other legal relalionl exiM. But aho fTOm ,h.
poin, of ,-iew of a cognition dirted toward actual teality it mtUt
he admitted that by bw_and this me:uu by the idea that men have
of a legal order p...... ppo:!ed to be valid-actn.1 r.lation, botween
individuah o<n be crealed, which. without .uch an idea a' a mo-
ti"e of behavior, did not .nd could no, exi .. ,
33, TirE LEGAL SUBJECT; TItE p D . $ O . ~
,,) The Legol Subied
Accotding to traditional theory legal ",bj= Uhe who i, the ,,,b
joel of a legal ohligation or of righl. If by "right" (RerecM;_
gung) i, Unde"'oOO not the mere reOn rigbt. bnt lhe legal power
to ...-er' (hj' laking. legal aclion) the fulfillment of a leg.1 obli.
gation. lbat i. ,he legal power to p;U(icipate in lhe cte.tion of a
judicial decision w",tituting an individual norm by which ,he
nution of a "oclion a' It'action 'gain" the nonfulfillmenl of
an obligation i. ordered: and if one ",hI into con.id""ation th.,
,he ."hjcc' of a legal power torre.te Ot apply legal norm, i, by nO
mean. always designaled as a .ubjea, lhen it i. <;<Invenient to
coniine concept 01 "legal .ubjen" to the .ubj..:t of a legal obli
gation and to diffeTentia" !>ttwun concept of "mbj":l of a
legal obligation" fr<:>m th.t of ".ubj..:t of a legal power." To the
extent that in traditional legal Ihe fun<.tion of <Te.ting
and applying legal nonn. i. attributed to legal community,
concept ".ubjecl of legal powcr" and 'he concept "legal organ"
It i. to be noted th>! bj' ,tatenlCnt th.t "an indio
vidual i' subject 01 a legal obligOlion or h a leg.l obligation"
i. only meanl that a beh.vior of thi, indi"idual i, 'he cou
tent of a ohligation .nd th.t hy 'he
that "an individual i. mbj""t of a or "an individ
ual hoa a legal pow"'," i' onlj' meant lhat. to Ihe
order, leg.1 norm' ore created or applied by certain act; of this in
dividual, or that 'cl' 01 thi' individual participa'e in the
<re.tion or application of norllt. As before, a
cognition dirtttffi toward legal ltonos is concerned not with
individuals 1'''' se, bot with legally action. which
lorm the 01 thel.g.l norms, When we say: "An individ
u:>J,.s a legal organ, e",a'" or la,,", an individual. as l<'gal
,ubj""', oheys or law;' 'hen this language
merely expr...... the function.l difference between the two diff.r
ent of legally human beba>'ior. The
<;<Incept> of "Ieg.l .ubjec" .nd "legal org.n" H nol ....,y
concept> for the dco<rip'ion of a legal order. They are m=ly aux-
iliary concept> lh. concept 01 r.lfex right-facilitate ,h.
dcocription. use i. permi..ible only if one iwarc of thi.
lh.ir nature. To aw.k.n thi. aw.rene" i. 'he task. of 'he Pu,e
Theory of Law. IIlh. Pure Theory .mploY;! ,h.,., il ;"
done only in the SCn", here dcocribcd.
Ju"," tr.dition.l ,heory "'ight" ahead 01 "obligation:'
so i' regards the leg.l ,ubj""l primarily .. a .ubjea 01 righ" and
only ",conduily., a ",bj""t of legal ohliga,ion. In German legal
lheory, which distingui,h.. !>ttween law and right .. belw",n
ohj""tiv. law and subjen;>'e law. the con""pl of "legal ,ubj""t"-
in Germ.n Rcchl.."lJjekt (literally: ,ubjec' 01 Law}-is eJosdy
.... _. "''' "PI f<naI=l"!<J''' oot "",ohknc p,,'kul..ly thaI
tho Vlolotift who <X<rt '"" kpl ".,..... .. "'" ",,111 """Po."
-C!. pp. '.\0'"
",nn""IM with the <OTI<O<'p' of ,ub;/;vc, (.ubjective law).
The concept 01 Ruhwubiekl ." the or 'holder"
(nilgu) of ,ubjekt;v.., Recht (.ubject;,-. law, i.e>, a right) i.
only anoUler veninn of ,h. con""p' of ...ubjecti'... I>w which is
O'IemioJly formed with t<g'ud to 'h" concept 01 property right.
Just a. in the concept of .uf>julill<!J Ruht 50 in 'he concep' of
Ruht>i"bidl the ide. prtdominato, of an entity dilkrent from.
and indcp"ndent of, the posith'. legal order_the idu of ,h. exil,
ence of a IrgaJ .ubjt which i. to be found. 50 10 .pcak, in the
individual and in <OTufo corpor.t. bodie' whom lhe positive I.w
must rognjzt aubjte.. of ctttain Tigh.. in order 1o pr...rve it'
ch.r.u;ter a, true law. This view impli.. 311 antagoni'm bctween
,h. I>w "" an nbjecti'"eJy valid urn..... a 'j"tem of binding norm,
(the law) and 'he .ubjective law (tbe right) '"
by a .ubjttt, and thintagonism implies a logical collt",dlctlon.
Thi. oolltradiction manif",u it.clf rmm dearly when the e...,nee
of being a legol ,ubject i' eonside"d to be freedom, whCTe.. the
e_nee of the objecti"e law i' co"'idcred to be I.. binding Inl'<e.
"'en ito c<>eTci"e cbaracter, which i. evidemJy the 0ppo;!itc "f frC<':.
d"m, Thus. e,g. G. r. PUdll' ""YO' "The basic <or",ept of I,ll' J,
r"edom.... The abman roncept 01 freedom u: """,ibility of
..,lI.determinatinn. Man I, >ubjttt of law [Rechl""bidt,
leg.l .ubject] becau", he h'" tha' p""'ibili,y of 'dl-detennination,
'ha' me,n, 'hat he h'" a [free) will" (CUTru. tkT I",/it"/;",,,o, 1o,h
ed., ,813, I, 4. 5, 6).
The fietitiou.n... of rhi.definition 01 the c""ecpt 01 the lubject
of law i' apparent. Becau.. if one can talk at all about ..U
determln"lon "f the individual in his cap,,,,;ty a legal subject,
namely in lhe realm of oo-callcd priyatc law (with Tespee' 10 'he
lawcre"ing function of a legal contract), then legal .lelf-deteTmi.
n..ion. th.. i. autonomy. i' pre",nt only in a very limited ..n...
FOT nobody can create righu ror him",II, beeau.. the right of the
"ne presuppooes the obliga,ion of 'he other, and .uch legal Tela
tion can only be eOlabH,bed in 'he field of pri"ate law,
according 10 the legal order by an agreemem of tWO individual.,
And even then only if 'he legal order oonfelTed upon 'he agre..
ment a law'creating lunnion. Therefore tbe legal dClCTmin"ion
ultimately originates in the objective law and not in 'he legal .ub-
'7 '
j.. sul>ordl"",ed to it. Con<tquendy there i. no full ""jf.
de'amination .ven in private law.
Th. Idoological funeli"" of thi. ""If<ontradietory eone"l"ion of
the logal !Ubjeel "" ,he hold", of righ.. is ...ily ",en: Th. function
i. '0 m.intllin the idra ,hat the ."i"ene<: of the Irg:i1lubjcet .. the
holder of a right--4Jld ,hi. mram holder of a property right_i.
In a category thot tr:llUC<:IId. th. objn:tivr law, namely ,hr po.i.i".
law mad. by man attd hence changeable by man: in ",hrr wonb.
to maintllin the id.. th.t property i. an im,i'u,i"" protceted by.
barrirr irnurmountllble by the I.gal order. The concept of. legal
.ubjcet who, .. the hold.. of a oubjceliv. right, i. ind.pend.nt of
,h. posith.law, bet:om.. aU the more important if ,he legal ord...
lha, guannteeoth. irn,itution of private property i...cognized a.
changeabl. and for""... changing, created by human wHl and not
by thc .....""1 will of God or by 'L"ure---e<ped.lly wh.n the cr..
tlon of the log.l ord.. is acrompluhed by a democratic procedure.
The id.. of a legallubj<'Ct independelll of th. I.w, ,hal i. ,he k1..
of a hold... of a "",bjce';"e" law which i. not I...., perhaps "".n
more, "law" ,h.n ,he "ohjre';".," that i., the poai,i"" law. is
deaigned to pro,,,,,, ,he im,ilUtion of private property from being
reocinded by the legal oro",. I. i. ,,"sy to und...und why the
ideology of legal subj.... ivity ..,.,h to .....bliah a link wi,h the
ethical "due of individu.l f,<'Cdom and of an aUlonomou. pet-
"",allty. if property i. alway. included in thil freedom. An ord",
tha, rdu,.. to recogni.. man as a free peraonali" in thll ""'''''.
that iI, an otder that dtl<'l not gnann"''' th. lubseetiv. right of
property. i. rrj<'C,ed by ,hi. idwlogy as not being a legal otd.. a,
b) Th. Ph.,.,iC41 PtNOn
Traditional th.ory i, identifying ,h. conp' of "l"gal ,ubjce,"
with that of "I""oon.' Th" dtfini,ion of "person:' according to
traditional ,heory, i" th" hum.n being as a ,ubject of righu.nd
oblig:"ionl. Sinc", how"""r. not only a human being but abo
oth...n,i,i"" .uch a, corporation" municipaliti....nd IIat.... ar"
p,esented as penon., a penon i, defined .. th" hold.. of righ..
and obliga'ionl, whr,..,by" a holder not only a human being can
'71 TIl. srATIC OF lAW
funcUoa. bu, abo U- o<hn' ...U,W:::s. ",""",pl 01 a
0( 'ishu and obIipriono plays a da:ioi.'e role in the uadition.al
.n.o.r duli"ll with 1M crlaUpl 0( -I"PI penon." If doe hoIckr 0(
rithtl and obIi1pliom ill a human being. tndiliarD.I lNor}'..,..w
0( a if i. is OIW' of thr orho:r entirioes ir..,..w of
a -juriotic penoo:L" '\'bndlr 1M ph)"JiocaI penon is j"':Lap<*d II a
"na,u... penon '0 !he juristic II In pu.. I penon
..... "real" bur only o:onr.Il'\IoCIed by juru.pnodenc.e. EffOfU
hem made, ro be SUTe. 10 Jlro''e tho. CIeTT jurisric penom are
"K'II," Bu. these effutu are (".ile benwe analp" show. ,ha, 'i'''''
the oo-called p/l}'Sia.I p"nor> is 10 ani6c..1 co.uuuo;.ion 0( jutU-
ptudence-rlu.. even lbe <:ailed ph)..ic:ol penon i..... ually only a
If iu the ca>e o[ tbe juri5Lie p"non righ" Ind ubligllio", con be
"held" by oumething 'hit il "0' I human be(ng, Ilo.n also (n th.
ea.. o[ 'be oo-caJled pll)'Sieal p".son tha, which holdl the r(ghl'
and obliption, (and which ,he jud"ic penon mull hue 'n com-
mon wilh ,h. physical p"'I(Nl, .inc. bolh ate "pen<>IU" a. "hoId-
righ.. and obliga.io"l) "'nnOl: be the human bei"i- who it.
the in qucsUon. bu. IIOOOtthing ..hid> ,he human being
and <Ioe "j"ri.. have in o;ommoo.
I. if; said. too. thor .toe human being lou """",,",,Ii.y:' that the
lqal onkr in...,... TJWI with no< _il,. all
lI><!l. S1a"a ate T>Ol they have .... lqaI
Traditional tbrory <loa ..... daly that and ....uman
:ott t...... dil'"""", CllDpU. thou'" i, uorns lha. ouoniinl
to IllOdoem Ia.., II dil.<in&uiihed roaDCim. 1ttw. all mm an: penons
or ha"" legal p",lOllaIi,,.. What, now, does the Rtl.nDm. of tndi-
,ional theory n .hat the lepl ordrr in'''''', ,toe h"man being.
or a JPUUP of hu n beingo. ..'it!t the qualit,. of lqpl penorIoIli.,
_wi,h the qualit,. 01' beine a "pe"",,"? It meant thai the lepl
orrler impoot:l obligationl upon, or rightS to. buT1llO
heinlJl' that i., that .he lepl order .....ka human behavior .becon
.m. of oblig:ttion. and righll. "To be I perron" or ".0 b.... a leg.l
perron.lity" i. idemical w(tb h.ving legal obligalions .nd ."bje<:
.ive righ,., The perron a holder of obligatio... and righu i, not
IOlne.hing .h., is dill'".n. from Lb. oblig:t.ion, .nd righu, ...
whooe holder ,he penon i, pr....n'M_j ...' II a tre.: ...hich 4",id to
ha,'. I .runk. bt-ancbeI, lUId bl.--... i. DOl a .ubltance dileren.
{rom twnk, and blOlaOm., but merely 'he totality of
,h"", element!. The ph)"i",,1 or juri.. ic per..,n who "ha'" oh1lga-
tioM 31Id righ a' th.ir hold.,.. is th... ohHgatiOTl' and righlS----1l
of leg.l obligations and rights wbooe totality i> ""pr"""d
figumti,'.ly in the concrpt of "person," "P.,...,n" i> merdy tb.
penonification of this totality.
If e.pecially the fac" Ole an.lyzed which are p,....,ted in tradi-
tion.1 theory a' "rightnd obligatio,," of. juristic penon." .nd if
the word "right" i. used in i" .pecific, 'echnk.l ..me <:>I the word
(m....ning a legal p,,,..'e. or competence to be exercised by bring.
ing .n action .gaiost ",mebody), then we find that the.. righ"
.nd obligation. like th"", 01 a phy.ical per",n. ha"e
hum.n behavior., ,heir conten'. and are in thi> ..",e-,,,,d only
in thi...n..-righ" and ohligations of hum.n beings. Only by
human heh.vior Can' right be exercised or an obligation he ful
filled or "iol.ted, Thrrrlore i, cannot be the relation '0 a human
heing which i! the element ,hat diff....ntiate. the physic.1 or
n.tural penon (TOm the or .ni!ici.l pOT"'''. Therefore.
too, ,he ....called ph)"ical per"'n annot_in contradistinuion to
th. juri!tic penon_be defined a. """ething a qualified
hum.n being. qualified. that i. by holding rights .nd obligation.
Such a delinition i. to be rejected jUst .. the definitiotl of the con
c.p' of rIgh,., "a leg.lly protec,ed im.....'." Ju" a. ,he righ' i.
not a (Iegall)' prot<'eted) in..rest but the legal protection of.n in
tere". 10 i, the phy.ical person not ,he human being who has
right< and obligatio",. but a ,ot.lity of rights and obligation.
which h.ve th. bch"'ior of. hum.n being its content and thu.
fonn unity. Thi. unity i! .100 exprcSKd in the concept of the
lcgal lubject ,,'hieh tradition.l theory identifies with ,hat of ,he
juri,,;. penon. That th. human being i, leg>l .ubject (.ubteet
of right.< and obligation.) mn. nothing el... a' ha' bttn emph.
ized. but th., human beh."ior i. th. cont.nt of legal oblig.,i"",
and lcgal righu-no,hing .1.. ,han ,ha, a human being i penon
Or hM J"""'On.lity. Wh.. we have in both ...._in that of the
phy.ical and in tha' of the juristic perKln-i,lcgal obliga,io,," aod
lcgal rIghu that h."e human behavior a, their content and con,t;
tute. unity. A legal petson i, the uni,y of a complex ollcgal obU
gation. .nd leg.l rights. Since ,h... obliga,ion, .nd righto are
stituted hy legal norm. (more correctly: at< these lcgal nonns).
'he PToblcm of "I"'non" i. ill the lau anal)"';. 'he problem of 'he
unity of a complex of nonm. The qu"'ion II: what <XIJUtitut..
thi. unity in 'he One co", and in the other?
The unity of obligalion> and rigb" (that is, the unity 01 'be
nom.. thor coneen> u. here) which. i. p,..,,,,mM., ... plll'sic.]
<omi." in the rac, ,hat it i' the behavior of one ond th.
",me human being "'hich the comem of 'hese oblig;>'
tion. and righ.-that it i. the behavior of the same human being
which i, determined by these legal norms. The oo-<allcd phpi<al
penon. then, is not a human being, but the persl>nifitd unity of
the legal norm. lhal obligate or authorize one and the same
human king. It i. no< a natural reali,y but. Icgal construction.
erralM by tbe 'den"" ollaw-an auxiliary =pt in 'he pro",,,!.>-
tion of log.dly 'denn' !.oct. In <hil ..,,'" a phy'icai I""son i
c) The Juri,l;c Pe"on (Corporation)
The <Melle<: of the so-called juri.!lic pUkill, jm'...J'O'cd hy tndi_
'ional jutuprud<nce to the physical penon, i. lIU'" deady illu.>-
trated by an analJ''<u of tbe typical case of mch a juristic pe""',
Damelyof the corporation. Jt i. u,,,ally defined a." community of
individuah upon which the lcpl order imp""" obligation. and
be>tow. righ" lIoe to be regarded'" the obligation. alld rights of
,he individual> who form the corporation ... its member>. Prcei>ely
Lceau", thtot ()bligations and right> concern ill Klme way the in_
teres" 01 the individualo who form the corp"""ti()n, and >tin are
not...-a. traditional theory a"umeo-their obligation. and rights.
are thtot iutupreted ... obligatiOn> and right> of the corporation.
and hence the lauer i. concei"ed a<. penon.
The Jegal relatiom of a juristic peroon ate dacribed a, 10110"-"
It i' said, for example, thaI a corporation rentS" home or buy> a
piece 01 land. The right to usc 'he hou.. (i,e., to exclude non_
memben of the curpot3tion from ito use). 'he ownenhip of the
land (i.... 'he right to diopooe about it and to exclude lIonmem_
be'" from di.po:sing abou' it). i. a right of the eotporation, not of
its members. If thi, right i. violated, th<'ll i' i. the corpora,ion, no'
the individual member, wbich has to <'IltU an action for trial; the
compensation for 'be damage cauoed by the violation of law_,he
T>U' ST..TIC ""neT 00- lAW 175
.... 0( IDCIDt'J coI1eaa1 lhroug:b ciyil o<1KUtion---aows inlO
..... 0( corpora,...... .- inlO IIloot 0( iDdi'id....1 moubn'J.
Tbr obliptioo 10 pay _m0( """ 10 dot -.-.er of
boux. dot pu<eIw.iDs price 10 dot odIeJ of dot pica of \and, arc
dot obliplioDs of dot_....."'Uco, DOt IIloot of bn's; for if
tbt obliptioo is DOl fulfilled, th:a. io, if lbt corpono commill a
del.,!. bw ...it of dot ""'- owner or !be odl .. is _ dO-
r"".... apinM: dot -:mOm, b... ap..... dot corponUon; and lbe
ciril u"",..ioo is dirWd no< it"o dot J'IOP"ny of <he meuobm,
blllo( lhe COI'J'O"'tion. ",=ar" aan in which. if I"" UOCU of lh"
corp<>nlion do nOi civil """""tion may alto be direclcd
in.o IIw: propeTty of mCll'bcra. ,hat is, aan in which th" li.bil
ily lor th" ""Iiet" nor. limilf/d.o 11w::we1l of Ihe Gorpo....'ion, bllt
in whiGh Ih" ... tOO are for the ddiGt wl,h thcir own
asse". Uo.... i, il pre<:iJely call: of Ihe Ilmi,ed.liabili" of
corpora,ion ....hiGh secn" Il' reromm"nd conc"ption of 1
1'1"11""""'"li'y of corporation.
In 'M description of ,he 1<'1"1 rebtOom of a Gorpo..,,,ion as "
jurisoic 1""""', ,wo dilf(1'ft\' 'ypn of ....,"ion. a,.., made: 1M .....,...
ion th:a, the corpora.ion. as an Xling p"nOIt. pcrformt TtIin
XII, c:spe.:iUly kpl xu: tlDl <he COlpoeni"" pttfoomt II lcpl
rnnoxtion, IUC.h II -..:1....... of a -.tnet" WI it tIIin" an
_ion:opinst body. Wt i. fullilli a 1cp1 obliptiOll, 01 thai i.
by ill bcba. viobta a lrpl obliption, i.e.. -=>ill a delict.
AM. ooowndly. 1M-......... th:a, 1M ''''1''00;<1''''' is the Illbjra of
lrp1 obIipu.:- arld 1"1"1 rip... bKawe the lcpl on:Ift imP'*"
obIipcions arld baIoorI "Illl on i .. Thr &no ............ dncribo
al..,.,.. dot bcba.,ior of a indi'lidu..al throup whom 1M
lqa.l penon ""II.
It ...be xtion 01 ,..,I",inmml &om _ion by lin indi..id",,1
th:a, .. in'..."..".... II ""tion 01 rricoinm<'rl' of 00Tp0I'
alion_"auribu'cd" to.M corponti"". ",,, buman ""ing thlouKh
whorn ,h.. '''>rp''''''ion :act. a. a juris.ic ptnon. ond w1K>oc "".
havior i, attribu,ed to Ih" colpor;l'ion. i, caIlrd th.. "organ" 0(
corpo""ion. Th" problem of corporation 11 an acting pt1".
ton i, di"ulSe<l) of th" rommuni,y "'Pn; it
il probl= of attributing '0 th" communi,y the funaion p"'"
fo,.,ucd by an individual. Appli<:d to th" juri.. ic p"'-' of cor
ptn"ll'ion. tlw: probl.... i, ,hil: Undn ..hiclt condi,ion, ca.n
01. a h"..,..,. bri,. be 'nlnp,...... "" the bthlo...... of ...
_ponotion--oJ:l jtlM: "'UriboJ,N to tbewopontion} Which are
tbe corditions UJ>dor wbid> :0 human bring pertonao ... refr.tino
from perlonaing a cnuin actioa u. his cat-i", :00 an COP" of the
Ooody toIl.rItCd with this probl_ it tbe probI....
of the CCHpun..... :00 tbe ""bjt 01. obliptioDs and richu. Sina
obliptions and ri&hu can 0111, ....e hWDan bdla,.... at tlKir CU>-
lm" 1MItpi order QJl impolC obliptions and conln riJblS only
ufIO" human beiDp. "T'hio IULemtIIl LIr.>. a ...... pooation 'I tbe lOb-
jea: of obliptioru and ri&hu. <klaiba the obIip.,,,,,. and tigh..
of eldini ., human bcillJl, which. how........ au in""P"fl<d .. obli-
ga.Ooou and r,ghlJ of the junKie f""'IO"_ttrib",<d.o ,he juristic
penon. ,h., Ulunlplion of traditional theo" ,luI ,h.
oblip,ions and rights or ,h. juri.uk pn1OT1 ar., not (or n(lt at \h.,
POle 'ime) the oblis:",,,,,. and righu of huma" J>.eingt-<l "pltY'i.
(al in Ih. '<rmi"alogy of traditional ,h."ry_i, uIll"nA
d) The }IIMi., P...on A' ... Adi", Subj1
If lWO or mo.-e iodi.id.wl wish to pursue joinlly KiC2l., onomi<,
poli,ial, rdigioul, hum;miwi1n, ... Olhtt Purpooel within 11K
sphercofnlidi'Tof ... IP,iooIaIlepl order, thty r......... rommuoi<y
by tulxn.iQq thrir coop<nu.-e bdJa..-ior, .....will( 10 the lopl
or'Ckr. 10. lpCCial ordtt ilia. npb.... this behI\ior and
11l... -..b1ioha tboo .....,muni'y. not <oop...arion of <he lndlrid...
aU of tboo CDmmuo;ty directed tow;ord IN mtli........ of the coon-
mun;'y PUrp<R an be orpniud acnmiiog to 1M princip\o, of
of !abo<. In Ibis e>'en, <he community is a cuopoution.
ror, a CO'l"dtion it defined as .... "orguJilCd" community. ,h>t i..
a rommunity consti,ul<'d by " nnnna,i"" oro..... " ...... ,..",'. pre-
....ibing ,hi, e",...in functionl a'e 10 be ",,=i-..l by individual.
called in a way d.. ennined by 'he "a'.. 'e for ,hi. pUrp<JOe--in
oth... word., a nonnative Ol"der in,,;tuting 0'1!"nl who work ac
cording to the principle of divi.ion of labor." The "a'ute con"i.
tuting the <OTporat;On il by" legal t",n",clion det...mine<!
by ,he na,ional legal ord.... Leaving ",ide imernational law. the
THe IT..,,,, ASPccr OF ....w
......" .." of" wrpontiollfcpl'eoenlS" P""ialltgal 10 be dis.
,iDpbbtd &om lhc ....,iona! order, ...h.i<.h .io " IOUI
"1M ....UI." <qUia,.. lhc bdYv;"" of indiri,hlSls who an lhc
to tl>t <.otpooa'.
1M<.ot'ponlioo.. "Thaot arc .....u of spctdl -in( merely that"
ccnai.. bcfto;ri".- "'- thew iI by a I"'"iallcpl
order..... hu -.. aid. thac individual, do not bd""ll to the
corpontion with the IOUl,ty "'- their ""istcnt:", but o.dy with the
""t'onund omissions oocrmincd by the ........". Only an "",ion or
a ."lraining dctcnnincd by 'h" JUtUt" can be a'tributed to lhc
corpora'ion. For the attribu,ion of an act DI: h...... n behavior to
llIe COTpor.uion merely upressco ,h" rela,ion of Ihil act '0 ,he
nonnlli..., order tha' ,h" cummuuity-,he omer which
i, personified by ,hi, a'lribulion. Therefor< any behavior dete,
",int<! by a nonnllive order "'ay be atlr,bUlrd to .he communi,y
...... hlisht<! by ,hI! omer: any normal,ve omtr rqul>,ing tile bt-
havior of " number DI: ind,viduall (including one ,h", does not
establish orpm funaioning according to !be principle of divliion
of labot) ""'y bc pcnonificd. dncribcd all an ac:ting pn1OII: and
,htrcforc a"y ''usembn'" of ...m a communi" ...., be looted
upon .... its -orpn.- But oinu in tommO<I tuaF of b"I""F ...1,
.tw. fuDCtiono arc aurlbu.cd .0 !be mmmunirr which arc ptr-
formed ID !be p<inclpk of diriDon ttl bbor by lhc an
thoriud individual.. and ...1, thoee iDdioiduals who pcTfonD
<hac functions are U 0IpJ>S. It.Cldon: ..... can distil>-
KUish between !be and Ihc ttl" co,pooa.ion.
"is ID be "",cd that the ""P'" cl a <.otpooation. acoonlinz to !be
.....n,,,. ""'r perform noI ty functiom web as changing the
sta,u'e. bringing an ani loo:tg;ng an appeal. conduo;,ing legal
''''lUOOion., bu, alto ... h", funetiuIU dependinll on the purpose DI:
the 'o<pma,ion. If th..., funaions are a"r,bllted '0 ,he corpora-
,ion, if Ihecorporat'on li dncrlbcd a.an .ctin/( 1""'""",, if it i.aid
,h.. ,h. corporalion ......... although only a human being d....,,
mined by .he "a... te perform, In 3Ct detennincd hy ,he .......e.
,hen one u..,. ,n thi. anthropomorphic me"'phoc a fiction of the
ume "" that in ,he Illribu,jon olleg:ol "15 of a ..... ,,,tory rep-
reoen",tivc 10 ,he reprelC1\,ed it>clividual who l""h ,he capacity to
ace. The misinterpreta,ion of Ihe anthropontorpltic """"phil<

"jur;";ic peroou" a. a real emily, a. a lind of ,upennan or organ.
i.ml, i. the unpermi.<oiblc hypo'Ill';",,;on of a thinking aid or
auxiliary wncop' con"ruclM by jUTi,prudence mc.dy for the
purp<<: of simplifying ""d illustrating: the de""ip,;on of a rom.
plex legal .i,o.tlnn. S""h hj]",.... 'i...,ion not m....dy reouh. in ob-
seuring: .he f""ts that are 10 tJ<, described, hut also in the croat ion of
aham pmblem. whose 5Olution juri.prudenc. vainly attemp".
Such .ham problem. playa p"Tticularly fateful role when it i, the
...,. that ;. hypo;totiU:d as a juri.tic p<non, and when, lhen. the
qurs,ion i, nise<! of the ,."I.,ium.hip of ,hi, .""lily 10 the law, as to
"its" Jaw. Thi, will b<' dilCu""<Ilator."
e) The ]uriJlic Pam" AJ a Subject 0/
Obligoljons and Right.
Thi. metaphOT i. used nol only to docribe the corporation as an
.({iug penon. but also a. a .ubi"'" of obligatio,," and righu; by
"righ,," traditional theory not only m""n' right> in the thnical
",n", of the word, ,ha' i., legal power, but also po<iti'e penni..ion.
These ohligatio", and right> of the corpornti"" are partly thO'e "',
tabli,hed by ,he national legal order, partly thost e'tabli,hed on
the ha,i, of an authorilation (by 'he national legal ordor) by ,he
"a,ute of the corporation, TI,e former are extornal, the latter in
rnol "bliga,ion, and righ" of the c"rporation, The ... tu,e, how-
ever, can also "ipulate obliga'ion, and right> ,,' the memhen
which are not intorpreted .. ,hooe of tho corpora,ion, not a"
tributed '0 the c"rporation, A corpora,i"n', obligation '" p"y
taxes or a corporation', right to conduct legal tran03Ctio", or the
right to a",," by an .clion the of an obligation toward
the corporation or a corporation', right to participate in a political
election or a corporation" righ' to ""erei,e a certain trade----<lH
these are external obligation, and righ... A corporation', obliga_
,ion to diot,ihute among it> members or a corporation',
righ, to collect membenhip fe<o--these are internal obligations
and right.. The corre!ponding righ" tu recei>'e a ili.", of the
profit> and the curre,ponding obligation to pay a membership Ire,
howe,..,., are described .. rights and obligation, of the members,
not of the corporation. For the quo"ion of ,he nature uI the cor-
ponotioa .. a jurUlic ....IJ tboK obI'p,i",,* and rigbto ue
rdro"". which arc inlCl"prnm 10 lit Iboot of <be <OIP<UUon.
We ......, oaid lha.. all obHp.ioas and ri&hll have 1M bcharior 01
hu_ being>,.. theU .....tmL If lbe natiooallcpl ordct ;"'1"*'"
ob/ip'Qn or bcolows .ipqlh.a,,...., 10 be of <be
COipaalion; and it _ opcU ollbe obligations and lithll of the
Wipooation ,""" Q.n ... Ir be obIiptionJ thai PC fulfilled, and
..hIS that are uoorciJcd. by .... bdl.a.vior 01 human brin&s w....
Ions 10 !.he corpo"lI;on. And it thnc: obIip....... and rip" an:
lltributed '0 the WipiAiUion. Ibm lMse ind;Vi<!lW', in th<ir tole
as 0fjpIU of the <.oq>Or.Itioo. mull. fullill (or viobtc) .1Ie oblqp
.ion> or .......dse <he right$. Thnd",-c the n:l.ion.:llleg:al OTOO. in
obligation. or bntowinll Tigb.. upon a corponl;on, de-
te11IIin... only the mater;.] clemen. of the behior 1M' consti
lU'''' the ."men' of the obllg.lion or right. and I...e/. .he d.'...
mina.ion of the p<Toonal "Iemen., th.. iI, of the indi.'id,..l who is
to lulfill .he obliption or .....m:ise ,h. right, to the lIU'n'.; 10
,,,,,,........, the Ri"ionahip bt,.....,,, the ......tional ltVl ord.... and
the obligated or juri...ic 1""""'" is the relationship '*
IWttfl .w<> ltgal onIcn, I.(JtlII and parti.oI one. T'htnby me
III&lU>n in ..bicb tM natlon.l 1lW'1 ont..-_ opnk in .1mnI 01
rndi,ionaI ,..-minolofn'--obliga... or .u</><Jl"ius a """"".ioo as
juriRic pn1O<>. dilrtn ITom tM m>nt"Ott in ..hich <he .....iomJ
kpl ord... obIip.'..... authoriles a human brint: IS , phroiea!
pntOD. III <he bit.. ClIlC 'M na'iorLal lqpl order k<.mDi.... eli-
rtlr _ only tfxo .....lCrilIl. b.1l .bo 1M ptnao:t.>I 01 <he
bdYrio.- <ha. OlIrtKi,u,n <he o;oa<m. 01 u.. obliga,ion or npL
In ClIlC 01 in......l obliga'>ons ..... rigblS of ,he WOponlion,!he
....'U'f dfI_iIIn bodI,hf rna.frial md J>f""D>1 flmlmu oIlhf
bdYYior thai COWIilUtn <he CClttmt ol ,he obIiK;otion lit" npL In-
wrnal obIip'>ons'''' ...Mn ,hf ItllnUf rr-ribn .....
.....vior '0 ..h""" <>pp<>li'f ,hf na,ional ont.. I ...d,n, An<
.ion. Internal rights llipul.lIl"" ...h.n 'he '1.1IUlf nl.:lbli""..
obligalion. of lhe membel'l ",h""" lulfillment an be asserted,
Icccmling to thf na,ionlllepi ord.., by an aelion fn,.red by an
individual. determined by ,h. IUlUl., in hi. Clll"'clty ao ot'lI"" 0/
'h. oorponlion.
Of the iuriJlic pe"on
III the pr=d.ing di",u..iOll it ha. been ....umM that the legal
DId....tabHoh.. an obligatiall to kha,'c in a ""rtain way iI it
male. the oppooh. behavior. a. ,h. heMvinc of a bUllla" l>eing,
,he e<>ndition of a "'n<;';o". The bella"ior which i. the cOIldhioD
of lhe ...nction i. delic" ,h. oaru;tion i& the Ct>Il.Iequcncc of the de.
liel. Subj"", of an "bligation, therefore, i. ti,. individual who, by
hi> own behavior. can bring about or: 'oid the ...uct..ion-can wm.
rnit the delict or rdrain from CQrruni"ing it; the potential delin-
quent. H lhi> =p' of legal ohlig..;on is aettptcd, then an indio
vidual may be .. <apable 01 l>eing obligato<! (vn-pf/;ch.
/lIng'fiihig) only il be i. ",pable of committing. ddi<;, (d<likl.
The situation with which we atc confront! wben ,h. legal
order oOl..,hli,II an obligation inlerprctnl '0 be an obligation
of a corpontion a. a jUTUti<; penon is ,hi>: <Ire l.g",u order
determines bellavior and a'taChes ..nclion '0 its op!",,"i,e, but
leaves tbe de"rmin..i"" of the indi.idual through whose bella,"
inr the "fiCtion i. brought abou, or avoided to the ,ta'ute of a cor-
poration; and prescribe> the ..nction in .uch a way tha, it un be
interpreted a. being direcred not againll tbis individual, but
again" the corporation, which mea,," that ,he liability for the non-
fulfillment at Ihe obligatinn (tbe .uffering of ,he evil ,h.t the ",ne-
tion represent.) i. to the corpora,ion. We will dilCws
lat.". the basis of ,hi. a'tribution; for the moment we may merely
"ate that the obligation_without ,he of the fiction of attrihu_
tion_i. the obligation of the individual who, by hi> behavior,
<:an fulfill or viol ..e the obligation, hut that for the nonfulfillment
of the obligation an other indi.idual or indi.idual. are Hable .dth
their penon or property. The ,tatute, in determining the individ_
ual whose behavior <;an fulfill or violate the obligation (by en_
abling. which in the broader sense means authorizing. ,hi. individ-
ual.:md only thi, one. 10 beha'-e in thi. way). abo determines, in_
directly, hi> behavior. Therefore the behavior by ""bieb the individ-
ual fulfill. or violate, the oblij}ttion, :md <I,ere/ore the fulfilled
or violated obligation. can be merred to the 'latute, tllat i. the
nonnative partial order constituting ,he corporation.
" ,
TIW i. 'he .i,ua,ion when ,h. obligation is .",ihuIM to 'he
corpo....'ion .... juristic pen.,n (is im...-pr..<d to he 'he .ubject of
the obligati<"') and the individual who actually fulfill. or violal<"
the obligation i. considered 10 be an organ of <he CO.po....tiOll.
With the aid of this fie,;,iou. attribution 'he juri"ic penon i. rep-
, ...ntod as having- ,h. capacity of being obligated and of commit.
ting a delict.
The problem of the corporation', capa':;;,} of being obligated
and ,he much di.l<uMCd ""d closely linkrd problem 01 it> poeity
of committing a ddi" are ptobl<ms 01 .milm'ion; and attribu.
tion i. a mem,l o!",ntion which may. but need not he, ptt.
form<d; fOf the fac.. um be ue'CTi!>ed without ,he aid of <hi< "'ttl
la1 operation, which in any co'" inyol,,," a fiction, particularly
when a delict is allributed to a COTp011ltiOll. A delie! i. an a<:t oI
human behavior and thereiOTe can only he commiLted by a de6_
nite human being. In fuet, as Jingui...ic u..ge .how:<, the attrihu_
tion of a hUlIl3.n behavior, determined by the ltgal order, to a
community com,itoted by thi' ....m. order. i. not carried out with
con,i"ency because it i' nut alwaj" carried out a<;co,ding to the
"'''''' (,iINion. The attribOlion of human behaviot can be Ear-
,caching 01 .emkted. If only a ,puifirally functioning individual
i>-rtgarded a, an "org.n" of the community;" if it i' ."'med. IUT_
ther, that hi> beh.viot i' not att,ibulab!e to the (Ulnmunitj' whett
the beh.viot i. not autho.ilCd by the normative ot<:Ie'; and if,
finally, it i. as",mcd that the st"U'e 01 corporation authotiu:s its
org',"' only to fulfill, not to "iolate the oblig>tion' "Labli,hed by
the national legal order_nd, =o,ding to the national legal
ot<:Ier, only ....n .uthome the fulfillment, not the violation, of
obligation>-then the co'pontion i. nOt capable 01 committing a
delict. But oin(e nothing ...nds in the way of attributing to the
corporation the fulfillment of the obligation which the organ i,
authoti,cd by the ""tOle to fulfill, the corporation may be re
g",ded a. the SUbject of an obligation which it can fulfill but nO!
viOI",e; in thi' limited sen,e, then, can tbe corporation be de
scribed a. having the capacity of being ohlig:"ed without having
the capacity of committing a delkt. It may be objc<:tcd th., thi, i'
incompatible with the concept o{ legal obligation as rtevo1opcd in
these page', ""co,ding to which only he i' capable 01 being obli_
---"-crp:p:-", L
gated who i. ""pable oi oommiuing a delict; but <his objec,ion i.
irtcle.an, btt>u,," ac'ually (without the fic'itiou. attribmion) no,
,he cor?",..;"", but only IMl individuol i. logally obligated and
GilpabJe 01 b<:ing oblig<lltd, ",II"", !>th....iot <..tn fulli.ll or violale
th" obligation. t"rom tbe fact lhal in Ihe lonne, ...'" 1h. individ
ual is regard..! .. an organ of ,be e<r<J'Oution (i.e., that hi> l><--
i. attributed to ,he corpora,ion) d"". n,,' follow
to regard him ,hul in ,h. buu Such amibm;on i. al""y.
only pouiblc, Dcvcr o....ry. In fae'. hOl."cver, lb" corporation i,
rogarded .. <apo.blc of wmmitting a deli<:!; in common usage of
language we amibut. to the corpora,ion the nonr"Hillmen! 01
cor... in oblig>o,iom stipnl"t"" by ,he naLion.llegal ord.... It j. &aid,
for .""mple, the corporation ... a juri,'ic peTion failed '0 pay' tax
and thereby committed a puni>habl. or ,bat corpon-
tion lail<d to I"'y rent for a rent<d hotUC or the purchase price for
a bough, picee of land thus commitring delict. All ,hi.
mean. that th= delic" ."ributed to the corporation: the cor-
poration i> regard<d .. the delinquent and may tbtrdore .t.o be
regarded .. the .ubject of the obligation< Bnt if not only
,be ful6Jlme", of an oblig.,ion. but at.o iu i. a"ribut!
to a corporati"", then one b" to recognize... an organ of the COT'
pora';on, individual authorized by the .ta'ute to fulfill tbose
oblig.tion., even if he .Cts outside this authorization in tbe nor
rower ..mt-if he does no' fulfill ,be obligation imposed upon the
corporation. but it by bi. bebavior. Tbi. i. entirely lea.i-
ble if one Tc<;ogni.... ,hat the attribution of buman to a
corporation merely expr..... th., this i. somebow deltr-
mined in 1101"te constituting the corporatinn; if one r""'K'
ni.... th., "to ""ribute behavinr of. certain individual to the
corporation" only me"'" "rerring thi, to the " .. A.
has beett ,ho."" in pree<ding cxplmation the behavior by which
an obligatinn 01 the cO<pOr.ttion i, violat<d, and which. according
to ,he n.tionallegol order. i, the condition of. ",netion. i., indi
ttetly. detcnnin<d by ,ulUte 01 the torpor..ion in50far as the
individual r. determin<d by the "'lUlte who by bi. beb3\'ior can
fulftH or violate the obligation. If, for example, the ,"'tute J>Te
",ribe, that corporation', ",xe' ougbt to be paid by <;enain
organ rrom tbe corporation" t"amry, then thi, organ .Inne can
viobte the corporation'. obligation to ""y tax..; and thus, thi,
.nne ....ncr OF LAW
!>thavior that ,'iolated the obligation 01 the <orpor>!;on dir<:<:tly
determined by tbe national legal mder, i. also dClC'mlined. indio
reedy. by tM .tatUte.
J!. delict i. not attributed to a corporation, this ;. SO becau..
the "atute ...hieh authmi... the !>thavior (like a contraCt which
obligates 0 party to a legally prohibited !>thavior) i. void or
voidable a=rding to the national legal order. But this nud not
necessarily be .... It i. l'O"'ible tltat. according to a n>!ionol legal
order, a .tatUte i. "alid although it authori,.. an organ <0 a be
h.vim prohihited by the nation.llegal order. J( the organ i. au
thmi<ed or e,'Cn obligated the ".tllte to a !>thavior prohihited
the na.ional legal order. then ...'C arc confronted with the 01
ready discuMCd uiuation" that a cortain !>th.vior and ,,150 i15
oppo:!itc arc made the condition lor .... the
behavim by ...hieh the orpn fulfill. the obligation imposed upon
him by the '''lUte a, the condition of a sanction dir<:<:,ed .gain"
the corporation, and the behavior which the organ violat.. the
obligation impu>cd upon him by the 'tatute a' " condition of a
sanction dir<:<:ted again" the organ." The .ituation may be de
scribed in two role, of law which do not logically rotltradlet each
other. But from the point of view of legal politics ouch a ,ituation
i, moot unde,irable. In order to .void it the nat'onal leg.l order
can uipulatc that d'e ...tUtory authorizatinn and, panicularly, the
.tatUtory obligation to a behavior contrary to the national legal
ot<kr, i. to be regarded a. invalid. that i5, void or voidable. Il the
legal order doc. not do thi" then the dellet cotnmitted by the
organ ill .greement with the ""tute can be attributed to the cor
pora,ion e"co if the attrihution i. limited to a behavior .uthori<ed
by the ".tUte. Actu.>lly norm. of the .tatute of. corporation are
nOt alwaY' to !>t regarded ... "oid or voidable if they authori..,
illegal behavior. For ex""'ple, the .hareholder, meeting of a ,toCk
could decide on the ba.i, of the opioi"" of iu legal ad
viser not to pay a certain tal< .lId to gi"e the organ of the corpor:a'
tion otde... H thereupon the tal< i, not paid, .nd if,
further, the fi....1 authmity In an admini"tati", tax procedure
directed again" tire decides th., nonpayment i, a delict
and, con""luemly, the company i, ordered to pay the tax ond
s_ i"",,*' ttoo p"""" In t.,....._, ...., d. I<lb,
fin., if, fin.llly, cncution i, calTie<! directly into the I'ropttty
of ,h. company 1Iau", of lad of p.}ment, 'hen tho iBogal he-
h,,'ior of ,h. organ i mibuted to the corporation; and it i. not
assumed that the ill<gal behavior took place oulside of the .tatu
tory a"thOTization; it i, no' ...umed that .he individual who be-
haved in that way did no' 'let a. an organ of the corpm.tion, and il
i. not a"umed that the "."ute wbieh Iud authorized 'he J:><,havior
(especially the individual nom> which had au,hori..d or obligated
the OT!l"n to tefu,", payment), wa. innl;d.
1 Ill' attribution tn 'he community of. ddict committed by an
organ or ffiffll"" of 'he community is made dependent 00 'h, d.
lkt having "'en authorized by the n,mte constituting ,he <"rn'
munity, then ,be an.we. to the question whether auribution to
the community iJ possible d,,,,,nd. on the inlerprelat;on of the
.totu",. Thi, qu..tion nuy '"<>tne up in judging political aim..
commiued by memben or o<gan. of a political "'Pnization. Even
if the ,tatute of this organiZ3.tion a 'p""ifie daU.le that au
,hor;'.. the commitment of the crime to be judged, it still may be
"",,umed tltat the <;rime w.... committed in aceord.ltC<' Wilh the
,totu", if the OTgan or member of the organil3tion in committing
the crime acted according to th<'-while nOt 'p""ifically marked.
hut_tacitly understood aim! of the organiZ3.tion.
B..id.., the auribution to the corporation of SUtutorily 'u'
thori'ed illegal behavior COn .110 ,.ke phoe on the \>a.i. of an in
,.lid .t.tute. Since this optiOllal mental operation i, legally
belevan" even a .totute th.t i' illegal from the viewpoint of the
legal ordet may serve "'heme of inlerp'."tion. This i' the case
if crime. committed by OTgan. of membc... of political organiza.
tion' which arc active on the ba,i. of .sc<ret ...tute' .uthorizing
their "'PllO or memben to commit ,uch crime. ate atttibuted to
the.. organiZ3.tion. and if. conse<]ucmiy. the "'Poil3tioorc de
dared '0 he ,ubvcnive and "imin.!....
1 the ques,ion 01 who i. ,h. "",bj""" of an obligation tltat I,
de",rihed a, on obligation 01 the corporat'on I, to be .llOwered
"Th. " n.. 01 'b' tntnn"kInol Tn""..I... ,,' p"rt '" "" .. Uo<I
London ,.". 'b' p""""t1"" ..... Pun''''"",,' 01 ,I>< M.jot w" Crim' ',
01 "" A,;" "J" 1ft Artlcl< j' -A, ,I>< ,n.1 01 .nl ""mho'
.nl '" ",",n;",100 ,I>< T,'....n.' ""I do4>.. "",_I"" ..ith ,n,
.ct o! whiCh th< I.d''''''.'' ""I "",vict<d) tha' 'b< p-oup .. __,..<Jon of
"bl<b 'ho ''''''rid..,..... _ <rim'''' _n'........
TH& n-...TIC .uncr 01' ....w ,85
witbou.t u.. aid 01. auributioo. tbnl "e can only cocuidn at ...1>-
jccl 01. the obIipli...- we han dooc--the iDdi>idual who.
brhio bch.>vior.canul6.ll 00" ,iobte theobliption, ia other ..........
1M <ompnc::ut orpn of .... mo-pontiao.. If we considn that the
financial. obligations (whidt arc the ODCS usually C1tlOU,n"') att '"
be f"lfilled fror:q the propeny which is intcrptcd as that of the
COI'pOration. nol fror:q that of the lJlP". aod if_we .mil _ La
lCT-lhe prnpntyof the 03tpor.ation may be C"C'lidned at the col-
1li"C ptopeny of the members of the corporatioD. then the obi;'
...ion of lhe OXlfJ"'Ti'li"" ....y be coruldcn:d u belnl the >Ilulive
obl;"'tiOll 01 .... mcmbcnol. thuoq,or.nion. This mnru: The"'"
l;p'ion in q"eI,i"" GIl be a'tributed '0 the mcmbcn 01. the corpo-
ra,ion jun a. well ... '0 'he juri"ic pnsoo of the corporation. But
for ,ho d<s<rip'ion of the preKnt ... of fact.! ""i'hcr the one nor
the oil'" a..rih",ion i. ncedctl.
1u" as 'he ohlilati"" a"ribu'"" to 'he corpo....tion i. not to 1>c:
fulGUctI from tnc: proper'Y of 'he wrporatioo organ, but Ir"'" tho
proper'y interpre'ed as the P'''l''''"ty 01 the corporali"", to in case
of nOlllulfilimem of u.. obI ....ioa the ..".:tiono prcocribcd by the
national legal Older, ,nc: civil cucution. is 1>01 di.ected in,o the:
propo:ny of thoc "'PI> bu' into the p.-opnLy auribu,'" to the CUI
pantioD. A<x:oniinlto this auribution we may opca): 01. a .."",ion
directed .i.... the Uhpooa,ion aod tbndoo-e 01 a liability 0( the
C1ClI poo,...... lor tbc _I"lfillmn" 01 the oblip."" which an io
diridual daip'''' by ,be IUlI,te OUKht to fulfill u. his (2pad'y ...
an "'l"" of the C1ClI "",ation.
Lidili" of I1u p.riJlk t--'
If tbc <"'PD"',iun'.....~ i l y to commit a delict is ..woo.... this
d_ n()IlDC'aIt 'he nclwion of the J>DNlbili'J of the corpor.alion.
liabiH,y: only the liabilit,. in this cur. is nol one lor the <01 pan-
tion', 0..0 delict. tha' is, for 0 del"" .."ibu,ed '0 'he corpontion,
bu, for IOOlco<>e elJC'. dollc', nomoly tha' committed by ,he indi
,Wual d..igna,cd by the ."'lUte to Fulfill the obliga,ion. Uable for
'he delict i' the individual agal"'l whom Ihe coercive let. condi.
tioned by the deliet. i. directctl. If the ..nction comiltl in 'he
coercive deprivation of property. Ihon the indi,idu.l who h.... 'he
right 10 di.pooc of the proporty.nd again" whom th coercive x.
i.ditt.... is liable with hii pe",,,,; and the illdividu.1 ".1>0 is 'he
.ubjec, of ,igb.. ",hlch com,i,,,,. ,be propeny i, liable with
Lb. p<0pttty ime> which the uu,ioll i. to> be dire<ttd. In ca..- 01
a corpor."ion. an organ of ,he cOTpoution i. competent <0 dispose
of the property. If a civil execution into ,hi. prop<"y 'ak..
place .. a ..action to tbe nonfulfillment of an obligation
by the national l<gal ordor upon tbe corporation, ,he" ,be coer
cive act i. directtd again" ,he o'gan who. th.,..,fore. i. 1i,!>I. only
wilh hi. p<J'SQn for the nonfuUillmem <>f the obliga,ion: wh.,,-...,
if ,he corporation i. <<garded .. the .ubject of ,hi. P'0p"rty. one
can ..y thot it i. the corpo""i"" which i. liable wiLh ito propeTty.
Actually. it I. ,he torpoR,;"n which is .<gardtd as the subject of
,hi> p,opt"y. thaI is, in common language. thigh.. that conSli-
lute ,hi. p'<>p<ny arc attributed ", the <o,porn'ion. Howeve-r, at
"... ,II....igb.. un also be intcrprettd u joint or c"ll<'C-
tive rights of the cOTporation', member. tbat i., they (an be at
tributed to the m<'IIlIN:n .. collectiye rights. Thi...t any .....te. i
mOTe reali"ic i"'.'f'T....tion ,han on. which constructs a fictitious
person as the hold... of th"", righ.... It is, then, JX>5'ibl. to ..y tha,
'he members of ,h. corpontion .re luble with their collective
property fOT the nonfulfillment of.n obligation imposed upon the
corporation by the national legal OTder, Wh.n .....peal of the
corporation', liability for the llonfulfillment of its obligation con-
"ituted by civil executiOll, we mean by this the following .itu._
tion: an organ compete", to di.pose over the p,operty into which
the elyil ""ecutinn i. to k directed i. liable with hi. penon. and
the corporation or the membcts of the corporalion are li.ble wilh
the propert) which may IN: interpreted '0 IN: the propert)' of the
corporation OT the collecli"e propert)' of the corporation membero,
When "'e .peak of lhe liability of the corp0r3,jon, lhm ...e ...
ltibule 10 the corpor3lion the .uffeting of the evil lh'l comi", in
the forcible deprivation of f'Topctty imerpre,ed 10 be the f'Topetty
of the corporation or .he cOllccli"e f'Topetty of the memhero. If
,he fulfillment of the obligOlion ,tipolaled by the national legal
order hal heen made, hy ,he .tatute, the con'elll of lhe obligation
of a d.finile organ. lhen this individual liabilily of the organ i,
added 10 the liabil ily of the cOTporation,
If lhe corpol"31ion i. looked upon a, the SUbjecl of property
rights, then ,he concept of the co!"J'OT'l'ion'. liability f01' delicu
which are the condition for ci,;1 into the f'Tupcrty
p=ts no difficulti..., A difficulty arl"". howeyer. when ,he qu....
T"E rrATIC uucr OP LAW
lion i, ",i..,.f a corporation can be liable fOT delic.. which
a" condition of other ..nctioJU, .uch as imprisonment or evrn
penalty, and if the delicti committed by indio
viduals who have bttn authorized by a public or oe<ret .tatute. To
impose imprioonment or the death penalty upon a corft'ltion
indeed ",enu an abouT<! notion. nUt ,hi. i. no longer paradoxical if
we con.id.... that it i, not ab.urd to ..y th.. a i, in!ficted upon
a corporation. whereby we oay nothing than that civil execu
tion;, dirttted inlo the eorporation. property. which. rc.lilti<;ally
interpreted. i. merely '"<Illtttive property of the memben.
Hen"" the expr""ion corporation is!>ting puni.hed for a de-
lict" merely that the mem!>t,.. a.. colltt.ively liable fOT the
A nationalleg.l order may dcvi ..e from the principle of in
di<'idu.lliability, a principle u.ually adherM to in criminal law. It
may stipulate: "If an individual in hi, capa<:ity a member or
organ of an organization commits a oime, then not only thi. indio
,idual hut all memben or particularly prominent organs of thb
organization ought to he puni"'M hy imprioonment or death:'
That means, the l<gal order may ..labH.h collective Iiabilit}". Then
it i. by no mean. ablUrd to regard thi. collective hability of
membe,.. '" a punWlmem to be executed agai"'t the organiza
tion, than to the civil execution dirttted into the prop-
erty of corpontion .. king dirttrcd again" the corporation. and
to oay, in C3'" of a fine. that the juri"ic penon h.. bttn puni,hed.
Hut. if a criminal .. to stipulate .uch colltt.ive liability a.
outlinM here. then the .ulfering of impri"",ment or death pen.
alty by lhe affected individu.l> would probably not be attributed
to organi,ation-Ianguagc would ref".. in thi< eaM: to give
exp"".ion to a mental opention of.ttribution."
Rights Of the ;uriJlic person
If a tigbt in technical ,en"" that i" a po",er. ittributed to
a <orpo,,"ion to ;uscn. by "king an .ction. the nonfulfillment of an
obligation. then thb PO"'''' is \0 be by an organ deoig-
""tM by the .tatute. The ,ubject of thi< right i. the orgall. To
""'"" I. ' ......" .....1 ",lotiono il ;. ..!d, .. , '""t!.. of 000.... 'h"
......... """'''''' , .." apt"" ,.h" "'''. "<hough n rom! ><to ..hido
"""'''u'' ,"um""",. coptu,......,., dl,t<d ,.11, ...t I<>dMdno"
............ of the "'''... ,h" the 1'" of ,_ ..'to I, ,"rihut<d lO the
........._ .. the iutllti< _ of ,"". a. 5.,b ,nd d.
-,t' "-,. ';;!I P HI ." "!
'.',.: "i:'E-" -H""l-l..
.. .. -.. -- . ,,2, 8. "lI"
'c..c;w ,.r;..!c .
1O ..... ... -
'I . I.
--.1, t' ... ' """-"I.
\"i 0',
"il'o; :':0.,-,
.. - I(;l 4i:! _
a: [&'6 if _'" ii - 10.;.. l"
H_l! . l{
te [l]-4joi -S"f;': i ='all 8-! f;-iii g
i e;" l [g ;:8 c,g "
E1"g 0] Il i,a.E.if '12 ; if-ii" ..
HHiglJ i

.. _lii.:r - i.EIi - '"n .. if .... to.
.. 1 . 5
:!.;:g;] lE.i!' ig. '!: 9 6" iri.tti
, i:'"og.>!.-";! II''' i ;, ":,,.
_. :"'-'"'' :r _ .Ii
g,;1 -i'J r;; !t s lO gi.
......nc .....CT OF ...... ,1Ig
and righu a:>d thooe which. according to uadilion..l theory. :are
DOt a"ribu.... to .... COtPJIa.ion. n.r lalt unliu the former
..rt DOt colloct.in obIip'J,ow and ripu 01. """ben, bu, ..rt
i""Mdoaal obIiptioao aM rip... in <:orItDK to collecti.... ooc:t;
and the liabili" ft:w .... _f"llilllDC1lt of obliptiow ..t
tributed by tndi.;r..1 thoeoolto the ..... p<A to colltiw Iia
bility of the .......ben.. Thq ...... I..blt with ir coIltin prop.
It is pouiblt-bt.lt DOt muooary-that ly such .. rolltaive
liabili.y of .... """"ben rOO" the DOafullillmm. of the obliptiom
a"riOOtcd to <orpor.lIioo is aubli>hod. Ao has btffi ...cu
tiool<d, to this liability may added ,he individ,w
liability of "'l"n who i. oblipted by ..... lU'e '0 f"lfill
obliga.ion irnpoo<d upon corpo....tion by the n.."",.1 lopl
and liabilily of Lhe corporation need lIot I>c: limil'" to
the properly of Lhe If property of the cor-
ponLioll (the <oll,i,', property of i. nOt
'0 rtpair the damage cauted by ,he nonfulfillment of ,he obtiga.
tionl attribut'" ", the eorporation, individual li.bility of the
IIlcml>c:n (i... liability with their indi.;,J,w propmr) mllf I>c:
Ilipula.m. Tb........ dill"erm COiPJI ...iono willi li...
it... aM with unlimited liabili.,.
n.r ..",iOOtion. ", the ""' .......tion. of oblip'Oons to be fuI
fillftl by .... orpn or .he<..ponotioln and of rights", be uomtd by
.... 1ICtiart t>.kat bran '*1"" or ......... p<A.tiua, io or the AI.... type
....... at<n1>utioo to lIl. indiridllOlladirll "'pad.,. to .... or obli
ptlolu to be fulfilled by'M lU'U'OI"f rlT'p"c>cnlllin IIWI. or rip..
10 be.....ned by a<riott taken by .....IT'p"-......in. A dilcra:>ce
Qistl ,*,1, 00 br as ill .... ..".."..,. (2It' .... obIiptiom lIl.d tights
art Il1ribllted to .. mrporatioo. ((Jnttived of ..... juristic penon, in
,he lau... etSt It> a human bcinJ. Orgall or corponotion
"repr.-..." 1M juriJtic penon of w'"",.I.ion. If il i. r<:Wg-
IIIud Wt the obi igatior...nd f;ghto ill qw:uion can be amibuttd
to the mcmben a, collective obligation. and righ... th.en ,he OIgan
of 'he wrpor.uion can bI: looked upon ... the .. ..ntati.. of .he
co.pontion membl:... au,hori,ed by the "otute, The of
is togal ,,,,nlolcti,,n by which this rcb,ion,hip be-
tWttIl wrpor.ttc 0'1"" Ind the .. is el\3btilohed. The
mucf>.<liJCuum q..... ion althe betw...n being an 0'1""
and brill'" reprat'nlliti... i quation al aufib..ti,*,. Beina: rtp-
nu: ITATIC .....1tCT ......
.-..... as wd.l .. beinlan 0Ip.n is the ,<SuI. of awibll'ioa;."
lDd.iyiduai is a rq>tnm i if l>io acu an: auributed to U>Olhcr
iadi.id.w. wd be ill aD if his acu are auribulCd 10 a .....
ponUga. <hot ... rdal.td to the Wl.i.,. at a .-mat.i., ordu. per-
_iHd by <his atnibutiool.
I) Tiu jUriJlK Pn>o...4> .... A""ilNryt Ctmu/H <>I
urJ sm.u
Aocord1ng 10 the prcadina anal'.... <he jllriAic penon. If, well ..
the I<>Ol!Icd pbyoicll penon. arc COWllUC'iotu of lopl Kiene...
ju."u.e penon ;. neither:o IOClaJ reality nor, 1I U lIOnlC.imn
UlUml'd, ... O<>.U... of the law. II it;" ...id thll, the legal
'lOWllegal porsonali., on a" ;ndi.idual" it m....ety m..na that 'he
legal order maul .b. ;ndi.idual'. behavior ,I>< comen< 0{ obliga-
liom and Legal ocimce ,hi. unity of oblip,ion.
Ind ria;h.. by the ,neeI" of "phy.ic.oJ puoon;' diffc,m. hom ,n.
concept of a human king. This conttpI of P"roi<:aJ ptnon .....y be
uloW" an aW<.i1iarr ampt in the dcsaiption of Law. IMlI ;, r>ccd
noc be be<::oux the li,ua,ion ernted by the legal onkr mar.lto be
lktcribul ..-ithou. thc aid of this "ODttplion. If it is aid that the
Iqal onkr br:slOWl jll....;,; ponooWi., upon a Wip(u,iorI. this
........ (I) that 1M lqal order lCipuI.lus oblipoions aIld ns''''
rrhic:b bo."" as lheir CIlIIIlml <be bellavW01 hllDW> beings who are
orp.no .,.. """"ben 01 ... coopon.Uoa .000000,"ted by Ka'UlC and
(Il that thisamplD,cd ... of facto ...., CUlVUlimu,., ilea..... rd-
ativd, &imply. be deoaibcd with aid of a pcnonific:alioo> 0(
OUlu", lha' CCIIlSlitu,.. Ulipmatioo- Rut this penoniJic:a-
'ioo> aDd iu rcsul" auxiliary mtlttP'" 0( juriKit ptnOD, a",
a prodUCI. 0( lcpl";,....,. dncrihinc Ibt law, not 01 law ilWlf. This
,e-jllt ,roe n= l"""gII nuy II.., '"is conctpr. as
any crealtd by ltpl We ....,... II",ady aid WI any
nonnative <mitt KgUla'ing be....vior of individual, On be per-
..",i6cd; any Ihus "'l"lllcd behlv;nr and oblig>,ionl 10 be
ful611ed by ,hil behavior Or righ" to be user,ed nllY be
to uni" of "'il ol-they may be attribu'ed '0 ,he thul <on
llru<,ed juris,i< penon. If we diningu;"h, u is oometim.. d""e,
betwn 1!SOC""io,,, "'at do Ind lhoot ,h.. do not have juri<tk
f><'TIOnali,y, ..e do 00 beau.., a narrower CUlCept of jurillic pIOI'l
" '
is uled, one in which we '1'..1: of a jur"tk m only II the levi
ord.... contain. provision" for in.tance, that the memb"n
are liable only (or primarily) with their coll"".iY' property. But
thi, naITQw..- <;onap' of juri"ic penon II aho a cOn!'fUction of
logal ;eiener. an auxiliary concept which may but ne..! not b.,
ustd in describing the law. The law cr.ate. obligatjOJU and cigh"
which have hum.n behavior II their conmlt-tbe law does nOi
cre". pcnon. Just a' fUr><,i"". of the I.w tIlllot not he .ttributed
to the science of law. function. of the seimce of I.w must not be
.ltributed '0 lhe law.
g) The Abolition of the D""lilm of RighI Ob/igalic"
According to traditional juri.pruden"" the legal .ubj<'Ct-the phys-
ic.tl or juri.tic p<nan_whh "hi," right.< and obligation. rd.... to
the law in iu ,ubjective It .hQuld he not"'" that the coneept
of "right," pre"'nt.d by trnditional (e<pecially German) juri.,
prudence, a. "Jaw in a .ubjoctiv. ",n",," i. only a .pecial ca", 01
this concept whieh compr.hend. also tho concept of "obligation,"
The 1.1w in thi! subjoctive ..n.. and the 1.1w in the obj..:tive .....'"
(i.e., the logal ord.r os a or oom,,). are di"ingui!h.d a,
two diff.r.." .ph.,-e. Th. Pu" Throty or uw eliminate. this
dualilm by dhsolving the conc.pt or "penon" a. th. per-.onifica.
tion or a compl"" of legal norm.. by reducing ohligation and .ul>.
jocti"e law (in th. tochnical sense) to tho legal norm which at
tach a sanction to a CtttAin wh.vior and mak", the ""ocution of
the sanction dependent on 'n action directed at thi. exocuti",,:
that m....n" by reducing ,he """.lIed law in the .ubjoctiv...nse.,.
the 1.1w in the objoctive sense. By doing so, tho Pu" Theory .limi-
nat", that .ubjoctivi"ic approacb to law iu whose ",!'Vice i, the
c.oncept or law in the .ubj..:tive ......--th. looking upon the law
only from the point or view of party inter..', that i. from the
point of view of what it m.an' to the individual. whother it ..-rv
hi. inter.." or ,h".,.n. him with an evil. Thi. i. tho .pecific.p-
proach of Roman juri.prudence which, ....,nd.lly the result or
practicing juti",. wa. taken over with tho recoption or
Rom.n uw. The approach of the Pure Theory, in coottaot. i. 01>.
joctivi"k .nd univenaJi"ic. fim. at tho totality of l.w in its
obj.ive validity and ",.ks to """coh'. each individual phenome-
non in it' 'j,.tema,;" comCXI with all .,.h"..-,o conceive in each
pan of the I,ll' the function of lhe tOlall.w. In ,hi. >to", ,h. P"...,
Th"",y i truly mpoic Jeg;ol ,heoTy. But if the I'll,." Throry con
the law as an "organism," it d"... not mean by 'hi' IIOme
.upr ..,mp;r;cal emity (. conception behind which
mu.lly hide some f'O"tul.,,,,). but cxclmi"dy
thi" 'he law i< an order, and therefore all legal problem. rnD", be
set and 1I01ved a. o:m:Ier problem. In thi. way l<gal thtoTy be<om..
an exact "Tu<tura! of po:l;,i.'c law. FTce of all cthi<;al.
f'<'litiClil value judgment>.
Tm: FOIl. Till: VALIDlTY .,.
.. N.,.....T'y. 0Iwt:J.: THI BM'" Nouo.
d) The <>f tlte &aT<h lor Ih.
Re",on for Yalidity
f ,he as "- nonnath-e order i. con",,;vod as l 'j'ltcm of DOrms
.h.. r<gUt...". ,h. b<ha,'in. of men, 1M question .rilto: What
<:on>li,uteo the unity of. multitude of nomu--why does "- na;"
110m> belong 10 a ccruin ood"d And thil 'lueMion i. do.ely lied to
quat;on: Wby'" nom> valid. ,,ha. is the Tnten 01" ;11 valid

A norm nftninglO ,he bth.>riot of a lou " bftn...
mans that i. is bindins---tho. LII individual gtl< 10 behave in the
= dnnmined br l.Iw .......... " bas poin,ed oul in an
earlin..,..""'l thai the quetiool wby a if; nJid, why an indio
rid-w ouP' 10 """n', ill aoeouin -1. an.- b< lllUWttfd by
_ftUiniDg:l bet. that is, by a ,""t ... is; th.IlI
tbe tnoon for ,be validity 01. a nonD cannot be a Ext. FI'OIIl the
dfCtllllil<lDCC thal ....,C1hina: is Qnnat follow that oomethiDlf
....ght 10 br; and ,b... ougltt." bf" <:ann(X be .be ,noon
w. oomtthing OJ. for lhe nJidi,y of. norm un only
be 1M Iidity of anOlher nonn. A norm which reprntnll,hc rca-
son for the ",lid'" of anothu nonn i. .poktn of a. a
high.... norm in rd.,ion '0 a low.... nOrm. hI""", IU jf Ont could
gi.'t a. a ",aMn ror ,he ....Iidi'y or. noro, ,ht drcunlllanco ,hat it
was t.labli.htd by an au'hority. human or di,in.; for txamplt.
1M .1.I1tnltlll; Tht ",ason for Iht validi'y of ,ht Ton Command
mmlJ u ,hal God Jthovah ilWod ,htm m :'>Ioom Sin.i"; or;
"Mtn ought to 10"" thoir tIItmi.... '-"uot J...... Son of God,
i..uod thi, C<llllIlJand in hi. ScrolOll on the Mount." But in both
ca<c. the reuon for ,h. ,.lidily il not tha, God or hi> iOn issued a
certain llmm at a certai" ,iroe in a cer...in pi""" but 1M tacitly
pte>upJ'O'Cd norm that one ought to ol><y 'he wrumand. of God
<)r hi, $<m. To be <cue: 1" the syllogism whox major p,.mile i. the
oughl"tatement .......ling the validity o( ,h. higher norm: "O"e
ought to obey COO", commandl," and whose conclu1.ion is "'.
Iluglnnat.ment .....rting ,h. validi,)' of ,he lower no,m:
"On. ought I O O ~ God'. Ten Commandmeuts," ,h........'ion th.t
God had i..ued the Ten Commandment>, all '"i>-nat.ment," ... ,h.
minor pttmi.le. is an ....nti.llink. The Major premi.. and lh. mi-
nor prem;", are both condition> of ,he <ondU1.ion. BUl ollly the rna
jor premi..,. which Uan oughl-.ta,emem, is ,he <ondillo per qlUlm
in rela,ion to the conch..ion, which i, also an "ught-'Lucmo",; ,hot
i., tlle nonn wha<e validity i. atated in tlle rnoj<>r pr=i.It: i. the
reason for the validity of tlle norm whooe validity ia .tated in .he
condu.tion. lne ,,.tatement functioning OJ minor prem;", i. only
.he <o"d'-li" ,i"e q= no" in rela.ion to .he condu.ion; thi.
melUU: the fact whose exi,nce i. a...,ned in the minor premise i.
nm ,he rCaJOn for the validity of the norm wha<e validity i.
a....,.ted in ,he condu.ion.
The norm whooe validity itated in the ""'jor premise COne
ought to oLey God', ""mmands") i. included in the .upposition
that the nornu, whose reason for validity i. in question, origi"a,e
from an authority, thal is, /tom somebody c<>mpent to create
valid nom,,; this nonn bestowa upon ,he notm<ru,ing person.l.
ity the '"autllOOty"' to create nonn. The mere facl that somebody
commanda somethiog i. no reason to regard the command a. a
"valid"' nonn, a norm binding the individual a' whom it i. di
rected. Only a competent authority can create ,.lid nonn.; and
auch competcnce can only be ba.ed on a no,m that au,ho,i,es the
i.."ing of nonn. The authority authorized 10 i"ue notms is .ub.
jcet to ,hat norm in the .. me mannIT a. the individuala are ,ubject
10 the nOrm. i..ued by the authority.
The nonn which repre<ent> the reason for the validity of an
ocher norm i. called, a. we have said, the '"higher" norm. But the
search for ,he reason of a notm's validity cannot go on indefinitely
like tlle ",arch for the Cause 01 an elfect. It mlU' end with a norm
"'hieh, a. the lase and highest. i. pres"pposed. It must be pTe,up
T 1 l ~ DYN....IC .."'U"r OF UW
poud, becau"" it Cannot be "posited," that i, to oay: created, by an
authority "'ho"" competence would hne to Teot on a "ill higher
uorm, Thi, fipal norm', validity cannot be derived from a higher
norm. tl.. TCo.IOn for its Yalidity cannot be que"ioned. Such a PTe-
.upposed h4\:h." norm i, rderred 10 in thi, book .. ba,ie noTIU."
All nOlTIl' whose validity can be tmeed back to on. and ,h. same
ba,ic POlTIl constitute. 'y"em of nonn., norm.ti.. order, Th.
ba,ie norm i, the Common source fot tbe ,...lidity 01 all norm. that
belong to the ..me or<ler-it i, their common re ."n of Y.lidi,y.
Th. foe' th.t a ceruin nmm belongs to. certAin mder i, baled on
the ein:;um'tancelhol its 10" r""",,, of validi,y i, ,he ha,ic norm of
thio order. It i, the bOlic nonn that com,hut.. the unity in the
multitude of norm, by rep=nting the TelUOP for the v.lidity of
ali pon", that belong to thi.or<ler.
b) The Stntie and the Dynamic PrincipIa
Aeoordiog to the nature of the TCo.IOn for the validity two type' of
norm 'y"em, may be di"ingui.hed: 0 .tatic and a d)'Jlamic tl'P'"
The oorm' of the or<ler of the fim type.", .,.lid on tbe ..rength
of their cnntent: btta",e their validity can be traced hack to a
norm under ,,'hose content the eont",t of the nOlTIl' io quc"ion
can be ,ub<umed a. the particular under the gen.raL Thus, for
ex.mpl., the v.lidity of the norm. "do not lie," "do no' gi.'e
fal.. t."imnny," "do fulfill a promi.lc:' can be dOTived from
norm th.t prrocribe, to be truthful. From the nonn to 10.. on.',
neighbor 00. can dOTi... ,he norm not to harm one', fellow man,
not 10 d.mage him physically or morally, to h.lp him in need,
and_particul.rly_not 10 kill him. Perhaps one might ,educe the
nonm of truthfuln... and 10". lor one'. fellow man In a "ill
higher norm, ,uch a, to be in hannony with ,he uni"",.,e. On this
nonn 0 whole moral order may be founded. Since oil norm. 01 an
or<ler of this type ar. alRody contained in the cont",t of the pre-
supposed norm, they can be deduced from it by w.y of a logical
ope"'tion, namely. conclusion from ,he gene",l 10 the partku!>r.
This nOTtn, pr..upposed as the ba.k porm, .uppli.. both the ,t>..
oon for ,be val idity and lhe <olllent of Ih. norm' doducod from i,
in a logicai operation. A .y'''cm of nonn', whme ....son for validity
-cr. p, So
and con'en' II deduced from a norm p,..uppose<! a. a ba.ic nDTttl,
i. 3 JllUic norm JYJum. The principle 3CC<lrding to which ,h.
validity of the nonn. of ,hi)"'em i. foundod i. a ".tic principle.
However, the norm from whose coment other nornu an de'
duced in ,he dcscr,briI f,..hinD can M ""garded a. ba,ic norm only
if in content i, ...umet! to be dir<c,ly evident. In fact. the ..a",n
for 'he validity and the coment of norm. of a moral 'j"tem.f<' Ire-
qumtly traced back to a nOTm con.idend u, be dirtly A
norm i. "directly evident" meam ,hat it j. immanent in, or
eman,,'.,. from. ''''''''In, The con""p' of dirttlly evident norm
p","Upp""'" the concept of practical reason. ,hat io, " norm
ettating ,,,"'On; but ,hi, concept i, unten.ble, as will be ,hown,
bec3use the function of i. knowing and not willing.
where the croation of nornu i< an act of will. Therefore there
em be no .uch thing< a. nOTm, which are valid only in virtue 01
<heir dir:l1y evident COntent. If a nnrm pT<:,<:Tihing a definite hu
man beb.vior i.....,,<:<1 to b<: dir:tly evident. it i. done because it
i. believed th., it i. creat<:<l by the ",'ill of God OT another "'l'"hu
man .uthOTity or b=use it W31Cre.,<:<I by cus,om .nd therefor<:-
like every'hing cm'umary-regard.d a' sell-evid.m. It i. ,It.n,
norm cre"ed by an act 01 will. lu v.lidi'y can, in ,he 1....n,ly.i .
be based only on , p'<:>lIppooed 1I0Tm which pre",ribe. that one
ough, to beha"e a<:<Ol"ding '0 the command, of the norm-<:r<:a,ing
.u,hmi'y OT a<:<ording to the nOTm, cTe"cd hy .mtom. Thi, nOTm
C'1I 'upply only ,he TO""'" for .lte validity, not tho content of ,he
norm, bo.sed on ft. These nOTm, constitute a dyn.mic of
nOTm.. The p.inciple a=ding '0 which tho ,.lidity 01 'he norm.
of this .}","'" i. founded, i, a dpumic principle.
The dynamic typc i. char.u:te.i.ed by thi!: tho pr..uppooed
ha<ic nOTm cont.ino no<hing bm ,he de'ermin.tion of a nOl"m-
cTOa,ing I.ct, ,he .uthorization 01 nOTm... ting au,hOTity or
(which amoun" '0 ,he ..me) a rule ,h....ipulate. how tho gen_
em] .nd individu.l norm. of the mder based on the haJic nonn
ough' to be <reat<:<l. FOl" example: A f.ther oroff< hi. child '0 go
to o<hoo1. The child .now.,.., Why? The Teply m.y he: Ika"..e
,he father '" oroercd .nd the child ought to obey ,h. father. If ,he
child continu.. '0 .,\;" Why ought 1'0 obey ,he father, tho an....e.
may be: Recall" God h comm.nd<d "Ohoy Your Paren"," .nd
one ollgh, to obey the comm.nd. of God. II the child now ..u
ntll OYl<ANIC u:r OJ' LAW '9'1
why .... ought to <>bey the coon nds Dl Cod, ilia, is, if W child
'l"ntionJ w Yalidi,y Dl this -..... Ibm doe .......n is lhI., this
'1u<st.i0ll C1IlOO< be aobd. <ha, the nonn c:annot be ql'Cltioned-
the rnJCIOI for w vafidily cI the nona Dl......... be ..,..."" the
nona has to be p o n u ~ ~ C1ltJ,""" cI "'" nona that KUttd
il-thc child ougho: '0 ao to ~ be dniYftl ffOlD the
basic oorm. FM "'" buic nonlI iI limited to a"o-izc _
CTQ,ing ."lhori'y, it i rule accordi"ll to which the IOtInIII Df this
system 0\Igt., to be cr..tfd. ~ nlidi..,. Dl 1M nonn .hat wmti.
,,,,ed lhe IUninll PO;nl Df ,he '1"ItSIi<ln" no< dniYftllrom ill con
..nt; i. eant>ot be deduced {fOIII thP ball< Donn by a ",ieal opmt-
tion. "h...o bc c..aled by an x, of the fa'h..., and it i, ...lid (if
we formula .. thi, w:ording to 'Tldi,ion) becaulP it w;lS '<l erl
"'; or, formula,<d more co"pc,ly: beeauw: a buic norm u pr..
IUPf'Cd '0 bc ... lid which .",hori",. ,hi, w.y of ac"ing non",.
A norm bclongs '0 an order foundPd OIl luch a N.ic: norm, bc
cauw: it wu crCllPd in a fuhion de,ermin<d by .he ba.k norm_
.nd nIX becaUile i. has. ruin con"nl. The ba.k nOfnl "'Wli",
only the rnJCIOI {or ,he ...1idi'y, bu, not ., ,he ..~ .ime the
con.n" 01 the norm. oonlli,u,inll the oyucm. The,r ollrnnn can
only be determined by ,he XII by which the .uo-i..,. .u,horized
by the buic nOI'D>. aod tbp thori.... in tum .... ,horilPd by tltis
."dtoo""y. <reate 1M politi ft(JI"lIlI 01 <his"1"CtIL AIlotha cum-
ple: In .1Ocia1 communi'y,. ,nbc. it iI " ...om"" ,lut. man who
manics'lIizi P"'" <main _nOto her fa<her M ..."de. If the
II'""""" lOb why lop ouch' to do thio. the .......... ii: bcc:a..... in this
coo:nm.........,. ouch. P"JIt"'D' 1Ia. always bttn made. d... is. bcouoe
lhen: iI. CDSlOIlI> 'o ....t. Ihi. p>rmmt and bcc:aUIP i. is ....mcd
10 be Idf-ni<!crtt ,hlt.he iDdividllll member of the nihe otlght to
bcNve ...n o<hc'r mnnboen CUl'ODtIrily do. This it lhe balic
"""" 01 the nonnative onkr tlut con"i,u'" the community. It
...ablith.. <;Ullom ... norm-cruti"l1 bel. The t_ex.mpla ill ......
,n.. ,he d)'namic: Iy!'" of a norm "1"-em.
The Itatic: and dynamic principIa may bc rombined in ,he Arne
'l"'em if ,he pr,,"uppoac<! b..ic norm. according '0 the dyll.,nic
principle. merely authori.a. normue..ing >uthorilynd if thil
a"thori" (or one >"tho,i.led b, it in tum) nIX only atlbH.ho
nOn'" by ,,'!tieh 0'""," ",,",,-<:tea.ti,,& authorities arr dPlepted. bu,
>100 n""",, in ,,-hi<;b t ~ ",bjPos >... commanded to """....'e. =.
nil'; OYNAmC .....PCT 0 .. LAw
,ain behavior and from which norm, Can bc deduced, ..
from ,he general to Ill' p"rtiCDlu. The Ten Commandment.> not
only .sunli,h p;o.'en" ., norm-<:t.,ing authorili .. hu' .1", .tipu-
late ge"eral nOnm from wh...., comen< special nonn. may be log;.
ally deducro without '"'Iuicing norm-n...ing .ct.uch as, fot
example, Thou ,hit not n,.k< unlo thee. any graven im.ge, cle. A
wealth 01 sped.l moral nor"" may logically he doduem from the
rouunand '0 1m'" on.."emy. In gh-ing 3 ,"'" fOT ,he val idlly of
the norm. deduced (fOm .ueh command. of God or Ch,;", ,h.
Slatic principle i. applied; in giving a '''''IOn for the validity of
Cod", command. through the ba,;c nonn: "One ought to obey
God'. command." and for the validity of Chri,t', command.
through ,h. basi<: norm: "One ought to ob<y Chri,,', corom.nds,"
the dynamic principle i, applied.
Th lor the Of 0 Legal
The norm .yotem that pre5Ct1,. it..,lf .. a legal order ha.
a dynamkcharact<:r. A legal norm i. no, valid because it h... a eer.
tain COlltont, that i., beeau", ito conten, i. logically deducihle from
pre.upposed h,,,ic n<>ITO, but because il i, created in a certain
way_uhima.. ly in a way d"'"Tluined by a p,"",upp"'cd b"ie
norm. For lhi, reason alone doe> lhe legal norm belong to lhe
legal order whose nom" are created according 10 lhi, !>ask norm,
Therefore any kind of conlont mighlbe law. Ther. i. no human
behavior which, OJ .uch, i, excluded fTOTn being the content of
leg.l norm. The validity of a legal norm may no' be d.nied for
being (in i" cont<:n'j in conftiet ""i'h that of mother norm "hich
dOC$ not belong to the leg.1 oro.r wh""" ho..ic norm i. the reason
for the validi,y of the norm in question, The ba.ic norm of a legal
ord... i. nO!. a material norm which, because i"coment i. regarded
as immediately self-evident, i. prcsuppoocd .. the high... norm
and from which norm. for hum.n behavior are deduced.
The norms of a legal order must be created by a specific proc....
They ore po1ited, th.. i., positiv., norm., .l.m.nts of a p"'ith'e
ord.... If by ,he constitution of a legal community i. undcntood
the n<>ITO or norm. lhal determine how (that is, by whot organ>
and by whal procedure-through legi.lation or c"stom) lhe gen.
e... 1norm, of lhe legal oroer that constitute the community are to
nu: nv....... oc ,",,0;1" OF lAW '9'9
atao.td. ohm the buic.-... is <hilt """" whidt it prcoupp<*d
wllm the """"- ohroup wb.idl the r;:oooti.Ut"'" 11M <:<>me into
or the (:OI>K.i'ut>on-ae:"iD& act tomdowty pertanned
by wu.in ItUllWl is objettively as a DOI1D-
aatia( fan; if. in the IaUtt alot. !he individual or the _bIy
of individ.w. wboo (1"Qled the comtiuuiot> on which the lqaI
order .ew. are looked upoa as nonn-<n:tting alltJ>or;.ia In. LIll
.......,. the bouie nonD dftenninn lbe basic faa 01 law an...... and
.....y in this ,npect delnilted as the wct>U.ution in a Iogial
ImK of lhe wo<d (wltidt will ""pl.oined I.......) in
don to tIw: wruti,uOoo in the maning of low. Tbc bouic:
norm is the prClupp<loled ...ar,ing !,<,int ol a procedure: the procc-
duro of potitiv( law crealion. I, i. i..elf nOC a nonn crealed by (u..
tom or by ,he act of a lepl orpn; il i, not a pooi,ive but a pre<u?"
pooed norm 00 for ... the COnllilUtion-cllabli.hing .uth.,,-ilY i.
looked uporl ... the highell .u'hori,y .nd can .herefo,e not be =
gorded .. authorized by ,he norm 01 a highe, authori'y,
If ,"" '1uCllion .. to the rca"'" for the ""lidity of a -rUin I"pi
norm i. ohm .he .."........ (an only """iot in .he reduction
'0 the baoic nonn of .hil legal om that is, in ,he aooenion tit...
the """" wa. crr...ed_in ,he Iur. i' 7-= rding to ,he bouic:
norm. in the following pllCi we wou.ld like to oonlidct only a
natioaallcgal om..... <hilt is, alcpl oroer in iq ""Ildi.,. to a
opcci6c 1pKC. the llt>Ulled ......itO<'y 01 the ....te. and which is tt-
pdtd U ..... tha, is, u DOt oubordina.ed to ""y h;per
lcpl onIer. We aIWl discwt the problem 01 l.hc Ylllidi,y cl l.hc
I>OmlI cl a ....tiona! lepl order. a' &,.. without coruidning "" in
,omutionallcg::rl ord.... lupcro<di....'ed to Or included in iL
The '1u,........ of ,he._ for l.hc v;r]idi'y of a legal nomI be-
longing .0 a lpcc:i6c n,lIional legal ord.... ","y arioc on the occaoion
of a (o....d'e ac'; for eumple. when one individ....l dq>rivn an
o,h... of hi, life by ""nginr, and now the '1un,ion i. a.ktd why
thi. aet i. Icgal. namely ,he execution of a puniuunenl. and not
murder. Thi...t can be imerp,..,'cd .. being legal only if it ......
p'cteribcd by an indi.idual legal norm, namely an ... ,hat
"ough,' '0 be performed. by norm that pru,nu i,,,,lf a judi.
ci.l Md.ion. Thi...i... 'he que"iono: Ond... wh., "",di.ionl ..
ouch an inlerpreta,ion p*ible. why il a judic:ial decision pre,,"'
in tlti. c;uc,. ,.-hy is lite individual norm ctnrtd ,he...by a legal
""'1II boelooging lO a valid 1fF'1 order aod thcftfon ....pI lO boo
applitd1 'l"bor .......-er it.: &ca.... <hit. individU31 DOmI wn
in applriat; a criminal law lhal coalliliu a gcnon.l DOnIIloCItOr'ding
W which (undtt coodilion/; pn>n>l in .,..., _.oed) <hot
cIetth penal.,. 0UJh. ID boo inllioftl. If _ ad for l.bc lUIOIl fo< the
nlidi.yof <hiocrimWal 1Iw........ Iht .....wer is: l.bccrimWal 11_ is
Qlid btta..... i... cralai by lhe lqisla,Utt. and 1M lqida,,,...,,
iii .urn, it. aulhoriud by 1M alIiOIi."tian lO .....mo1
noniIL If aok fuf the re...... of ""Udi,y of rbc co...,i,,,,ion,
"'''' is. lor the i"CDOn of the nJidily of rbc nortw rqulalina:
crca.ion of rbc general nomu. ... may. perhaps.. dilCO'W an older
collloli'UliOll; that meailllhe ''lliidity of lhe ai"ing OOIll.liluli"" u
ju>tified by Ih. Iacl lhal i, ..'a, crealed according 10 Ihe rules of an
tarli.. c"""itutiOll by way of a com,i'u,ional amendmenl. In ,!Ii,
way"" .vent....lly '" a hi>torkally lim "on"i,u,iol\ 'ha'
"""not hav" be.n <re.,e<! in "'i. "'ay and "'h""" ''lllidi,y. Ih...
fOf', ""llllot be tra<ed back to a pooiti,'e norm <reate<! by a 1cg>1
au'!>ori,y: ... imuad. a' a ",..ilm"'" that valid in
a revolu,ionary ....y. 'ha' is. dlhcr by biQCh of a former CONI;,u-
'ion or for a 'n-ritory ....., 10000CTly w... noe rbc spMK of nliclit,
of a consti,ulion aod of a IUtional lqal ortkr baoed on i,. II
CO",idC'T n>erd, Iht IUlional lqaI ordeT. not imemational 11_.
and if .. for l.bc moon of.he validi.,. of l.bc historieolly lim
consIl'u,ion, ....... l.bc CUI only boo (II w..............1Ik Cod
... ....,u..,j <Iw validit, of .h" consIiw.ion--<ho: asoumpcion
lhal il .. a bind... "'" m CII.... boo It"OMPfI'<>J" if .. w;r. te. in
'.-rpm (.) lhe aeu perfoom.ed xcordlng.o i rbc cr ion ...
applica.ion of nJid genoml \<pI 1lOI1iIS: d 1_) rbc acn ptt.
formed iii application of thfle Fef31 ilarms ... th.. cr.....ion or
application of valid individ....1 l.-gal norms. the rnoon lor
th.. ,'>lid;.,. of a norm can ""I, boo anothn- norm, th.. prefUppt>li.
'ion ....... b<o a norm: not pooiled (i.e.. created) by _ legal au
'hori'Y. bm a p....upp<:>$ed norm. that i. a nomt pr...nPf'O"'tl if
.he meaning of 'he conltitmion<rcadng f".,tl ond the
lubjtive m"aning of the llonn<reating fac.....,ablilhed accord.
ing to the con,,;.u';on are ;'lterp,..tet! .. Ih.ir objtiv. meaning,
Sin<e it il the !wi< nonn of a lfg"1 order (th.. i., all order pre-
Ktibins >etci..., xu). th...ri:or. 'hi! norm. nam..ly ba'k
norm of the legal order <oncernod. muK be formulated u follows:
nU' DYNUUC .urr.cr OF ....W
Com:i,-.. .....gh. <0 be perfonned under <he condi,ion. and in
tile mum<'T which tile h.iw:Jrical1y li... eoruti'U,...., and ,h.. norm.
em,td acmrdjng <0 it. prncribe.. (Ln lbon: One ought <0 behaft
U tlv axutituUoo preoa;ba.j 1M......... of a lopl cmkr, whole
com..... n:a><lD for 'hri, 'l'llidity is this buic uonn a... Me a com-
pitt of valid nonDIlW>tIin& eoordina,tdly oido: by oido:, btu form
a hift-ardoicaJ. SU1>Cl.u... 01 "'per. aod subordina'" ....,....... This
Itnocl.u... 01 the Iqpl onl.... will bediocussed IaleT.
I) TIr" &Ii" N"".. '" T'.l'I.lc""d""la/./"Ki",1 P'I!,uppo.it;"..
To undentand the na,u'e of the buic nonn il mUl< be up' in
mind thO! it ,den direc,ly to a .pi!ic ",m,i'D,ion, lIC,ually ella);>.
Ii.hed by Gu"om o' "attllOry creation, by ond large efff<:live, and
;ndlr=ly '0 the """",Ive o.de, o-co"d according to Ihi. Gon"itu-
lion Ind by and 1>,8" .ffe<:tive: ,h. b..ic norm th....by furni,h..
lhe re:uon for the validity of lhil Corntilution.nd of the coercive
t>r<IeT created in aoo>rdIn ... i,h il... The basic nann, t"","dore, is
not the product of frtt in....n'ion. I, i. DOt prnuppooed hi,nrily
;n me that tMre is a choice bet...een dilferenl buic oonn.
wben the meIIlio, of a conl<i.uUoo-crn,ing act and the
... onttd aa:on:Iin( '0 Illis COftl;(itutiun an in,erpt...td u thril
objeni"" IDnoin(. Onl, if this buic rtfomi.., '0 a 'f'ilic
oooutilUUoo. is preouppooed, thaI it, 1, if;, is po....ppooed that
00<' ouF>' '" bcha.... aooordi...- '" this sp<rik
then an the ...b;.nive -.0;113 of a alOlllilulion<rn,inc act aod
of tile ... <=I,ed ao:ording '" this conuiruUoo be intnpreotd II
their objeni..., -;n;. ,ha, is, II objuti""/y ."Iid lopl IIOnDI.
and tile rela,ioruJIipo nublishcd by thole norms I, reb.
In ptUuppotin, tho: bIoic norm rrlomi"ll <0 a .pedfie conllilD-
tion, the con''''''' ofllli. Conl<i'DI;on and of ,he nl,i.....l legal
order elu,ed arcordin, to it i. i"el.....nt_i' rna, be a ju,. 01" un
jUlt order: it mayor moy nOl goanot."" a rel.ti,-" condl,lon of
peace within th.. <:ammunity eslabli.hed by it, Th.. prelupposilion
01 .he ba'ic norm d""" nOl Ippro',e .ny valu. tnn...nding pooi.
ti,.., law.
.... op<OoI <U< 0( "'" 10 d_ t>...-: d, PI" ",I, I< 10 ...
lmobr os only the p".....ppooilioa of the basic nonn maka it
J-lible .0 in<ttptn the oubjeuiw: -inz of ..... consU'lIlioa.
creatitlj;;.:oct (and of the .... cotablWKd xconIing 10 ..... _ ...i'll.
don) ... u..:;T -in&. Wt is,. "" object;w:l, nlid 1q:ol
""""" the basic DOf1D "" rrprnm<ed by tM of Law ...., be
cbancIerUcd "" 1M tnnoemdmtal-qical modilioa of .his iD....
pnt>....... if il is 10 we by analasr a <o"""PC of K:an,',
q>dumo!asr. Ran,ltI4 MH_ is i. """",,bk 10 in.erpIU wi<hou. a
mnaph)'Siat1 hypoth..... u.. facu pnnind by 011' KrUet, ;" the
1.1.." of .....lIre formub<ed by "".u",llCi<f>c.,r fn .he ume ...,.
ohe Th...., of I..a... MHow i. it to in",rpre<
without rt't;tJu..... 10 Jut!>o<i.;.., like God or M.ure, .he
.ubj.;ve meaning 01 ......ain be.. lI.I a ,)'ItC'Ul of objec.ively valid
Ieg:>J nOTm, in .ule. of b .../" The er>i .. an
........ of ,he Theory of Law it: "By pr.."pposlng ,he ba.ie
nOrm th. one ought .0 behave u the con...;tu,ion prQCtibcs, .Ita.
i., ougho in J=n1.na with ,ubjtlve mnning
of 'M comtitutior><t"elo.i"ll OIC. of will-iIICCOftling .0 procrip-
.iON of allthori,y ernning the """"i,uoion.M The f"nc'ion of
,hif blloic norm is 10 found <he nlidi,y of a pooili..., Iepl
order, WI is,. 10 imnpret the m""nias oflh.e 3(U of
human Mingo br which lhe ......... of an d(eai..., conei..., onIer
are ..",,<ed. :as thd. ob;tiw meaning. ..,..., round.a.ion of the
valid;.,. of a pooili"" _ W, is,. ....., """b1i.bed by :an KI of ...ill
and preocribing a cnuln belon;", is <b< .eoult of J 'l'Josistic
pm:..ta.... In this 1J1l.,pm. d.......;0. pumioe is ..... uomion
abou. J ...,...., "'Prded at nlid, """OIdi", 10 which
one ougb. 10 obey the commanda of a ccnain penon. that is, ....
ough' '0 bMan M'CO!ding '0 lbe ntbject.in meaning of ,f>eoe com
mand.; the minor premix;. .......ion of the fact , ....t .hi. ptT.
son h.urom......ndnI to be.....'e in a cenain ...,; and conclu.ion
is ,he a......i"" of the validi., of the norm: , ..... .....gh. 10 M-
have in ,hi. p,artkttla...." Thu. ,he norm whole validi.,. it S1a.ed
in the major pfCmi.., l"8itimi>.. the 'ubjeaive meaning 01 'he
command, who,", ""iOlence ls a..,ned in .he minor prrmi..,. as ,he
comm.nd', objcc.i.e meaning. For vu.mpl.: One ough. '0 obey
Cod', ."",m.nd.. God h.. commanded .0 obey .he eotnmand. of
,he p,arenlS. Hcnu, one OI'8h. to oher ohe command. ollhe p,ar
",IS. Tb". the Rlbjcc:.il'C meaning of the Jet by which J r..b....
r>t" DyN....'" .<SPEer OF ....W
<;OIDIDands a C<TWo behavior of hi> ""n i. Icgitimi>ed as iu obj"".
,hoe meaning. tha, i.. as a binding norm.
The norm who>e v:o!idity i. in ,he major premi", i. a
basic nonn if ito obj...-t.ive v:o!idhy il nOi ques'ioned. It i. no' que>-
,iuned il it< validity <:aJlJlO' be based on a .yJlogi"u;
And i, canno' be "" baocd, it the .tate",e", of tlIe lac' ,h.. ,hi.
nonn w.. e'tabliolted by an individual'.:ret of will ;, no, J"O"'ible
as tlIe minor premil<: of a ,yllngi.m. Thi. il the <:3.. when the per.
Kill wb.. commands one ougb' to obey acwrding to ,be norm
now in que,,;oD. il regarded a, a bighes, authori'y. for .....mple.
God. Then ,he norm prescribing '0 obey the comman<h of thi,
per..,n ha. to be placed a, ,he 'op ot 'he .y1JogUm as i" major
premi", without i, being p<>Mible tha' the norm itself i, .ta,o<1 in
,he form of a condu.ion of a further l}lJogi.m. Thil means: 'he
nOTm i. p,esuppoUd a, a !>a.;., norm.
For ,hi. rea"",. 'he nonn: "One ough, ", obey ,he commands 01
God'" i. a b,,,ic nonn on which the validi,y of the norm: "One
ough' to ohey ,he command, of one', pa,en"';' i. boscd. A theolog-
ical ethic. ,ha' regard. God as the highnt nortn-creating au,hority
cannot .tate tha' ""mobody el.. ha. ordered '0 obey ,he comm""d.
of God-beea.... ,hi. would bove '0 I>c: an authori,y higher rhan
God. And if ,he norm: "One ought to ol>c:y the command. of
God" were preoumed '0 be posited by God, it could no, be ,he rca
oon for the validity of God-created norms, became i, would it",lf
he a God-created nonn. Not can ,heological ethics in i"elf create
.lI<:h a norm (that i., commond to obey the comm.nd. of God)
because a. cognition i, C2tlIlOt be a norm-cre>ting authority.
Theufou, ,h. notm: "One ought to obey the commanm of God;'
... the ba.i<; nonn. cannot be ,he subjecti'"e me.ning 01 an acl of
will; it can only be ,he meaning 01 an .ct of ,hinking. Th>t
means: Theological ethics can only ,tate: "The command 01 the
paren... ha. the cbaracter of an objectively binding nOrm if we pre-
.uppose in our ,hinting ,he norm: 'One ought to obey ,he com
mand. of God' (who ha, commanded to ohey ,be command. of ,he
paren");' n
Sin"" a posi,ivi,,;" ..irn"" 01 law regards ,he creator of 'he hi,
l'HI: OVN.... 'C ""PiCT OF lAW
<orically Iinl COlI!I.hu,ion .. ,he high.., legal authority and the,..
10'" GulIlot maintain LnaL the nonn to obey the command. of the
creator or Lhe constitu,ion iI Ihe .ubjective meaning or ,he ac, of
will 01 an high.. than the ,na'", of the con"ituUon_
ouch .. God', or nature'_ 'h"efore, the ",ie""" o/law cannot
base the "alidity or this norm on a .yllogiil;" pr<Xedure. A positiv.
ink ",ienee of lawcon only .tate ,ha, Lhil nonn iI p"'.uppooed a. a
ba.ic nonn in the loundation or the objeni"e validity or Lhe legal
norm., and therefore p"'.uppo<ed in Lhe interpretation 0/ an
elIec,ive coercive order .. a 'y"Cill of obje<,iveJy valid legal norm.,
Since thi> ba.ic norm cannot be Lhe meaning of an act 01 will; and
.ince Lhi. norm (raLher; the .taLemem aoou' i,) i. logically indiJ.
pcnsable for Lhe 10undaLion of the objective validity of positi ...
legal norm. it can be ,he mtaniug uf an acL of thinking:
Lhe ",ienee 01 law can .tate no more than: the ,ubjec'ive meaning
of Lhe acts by which legal nonn. ate created can be int"preu,d ..
their objce.i,'e meaning only il we pre.uppou: in our juristic
thinking .he norm: "One uugh' to obey the presciptiom of Lhe
hi>w.icaHy Ii .... con"iLution,"
The .cicnce ollawdoeo not prescribe tllat One ought to obey the
command. of ,he ctcatur of the constitution. The ",ienee of Jaw
r"",aim .. merely cognitive dicipline eV"" in it> epistemologicol
'Lltemen, ,hat the buic nonn is ,he condi,ion under which Lhe
.uhjective meanIng of the constitution<reating act, and the .ul>-
jcetive meaning of ,he "'ts performed In accord.nce wiLh the con
..itution. af< interpreted ...heir objecti"e me.ning, a, valid
non"" even if the meaning of .hese act> i, 50 interpreted hy the
legal ocience i\>eIL"
By offering thi, theory of the basic nonn, the Pure Theory uf
Law doeo not in.ugum" a new meLhod of legal cogni,ion, It
merell' makes conscion, whaL most legal scientim do. at ltast un
.Th< q_'.'" "Wbo p,,",up_ Ih< Iwl< .....r " .,....."" bl "'" P.I<
1'b<o>}' .. roIw.., 11>< bul< """" " p_w-<\ br ..h"",.. In<<rpm. "'"
..bjtlve ol the ""","o<lon..,oati"l "",'M ol 'be >eU .... too ,_.
I.. 'n ,be """"'o'io<>. .. tbe ""jt1.., .....1o( of ,.... "'I>, ,hot .. ""i"".-dy
n'id '"',__ ..,." '.Ia'f"'"'''''' 10, rom'''ve '"""'on, not, ru""..., '" 'be v1U.
SID ,be Kka of , ...1' , <on ooIr d_Ibc __ 'M "ot """,Ibc
'.1<b'ns, bon" ".not " .'" [ """......."y ..p"- ""ob' .p'."
tM , ..... "'" thc book ""'" ;, .1", p"",ppoood b, ,bc oci<n '" .... rw.. lol
,In "" 0'6"''''''''' R"M, Th<x
<Ioub" <Ii,.,....... bl 'be d'otln<' ...., p<n<nd ,. <b< Ia." be'-.-n """"OJ
mol f"<'o""""'" """",
e<mJciowIy. whnt thty tbr mcuioncd bctt nOC at
a .....lly det<Troincd, but imtcad illt...-ptff lheir oubjocth... man-
i,,;\1 objectively \'J.Iid nOt"lll6, dut is. at a .... ltpl ordooo".
without a-ing tM .."lidi,y of thi< onkr uport a
1>OI1Il. thu is. upon a nomt nuo<ted by .... authori,y oupt'rior '" thr
Iq:alluu-;ty; in otbtr......u. wlom lhq <XInSidcr u IIw ad...
si\ldy politi.... IIw. Tbt cbeory of tM b;u;c I>OI1Il is ",.nly tbr K-
... 1, of:llt analysis of tbt pnxodu.... wtLicb a pooitiYialc Kime. of
llw hat IhOlj"Slpplild.
) U,1!;<;8/ U"ily of I.<g8/ O,dn; Co""i,, &/ Ntn",.
Sin", tho ba;i<: norm i. th. t.:uon for the validity of all norm. \)<.
IMging '0 th. ",m. legol ord.r, tb. basic norm ron"ilU'" lh.
,,"ily of tbe muhiplicily 01 d, notm. Thi. unity i .,.pr....d
1110 by tho loct ,h., a ll'pl ord moy b< d"""ibed in rut.. of law
thll d
l>ut contndict each <>th T
be .ure, it i, uoo."il1>l. that
logol O<8"n. may ....at< conAiaing norms----thot 'hey per!<lm. actl
...tulIe ...bjectivc mcaning it an and which ""'y be in con-
ftiet with <2ch if ,heir ...bjcai.......... ning i, intcrp<c'td
"' ,hoit objeai., ni"'. Sucb I """lliet of nonn. i. pr if
one norm p!"<'ICribos a lenain b..h...ior. and IDOIhtr norm ......
cribos aI><lIhn bdsarior in<ompa'ibf. with tbr lira. F.... Cll:lItIlpl
if one """" p<atI"i.... Wt adol.....,. oughr III .... "".. ished, and
I<IOlI>n """" thl. i. ougb, not III b< ""nithcd; or il .... nonn
Jl""'Cfi.... W. Ihcf. OUJbt III .... puntshcd by dath, and IllOtb<r
by impr;""......<- II d<:_ratM
12flicr." is not a lagical oon,radiction in the ict ....... of tbr
wonl, ." though i. i. u'<>ally Slid thaI tho two nclml.
uodict" b ......... For logical principia, ..p<t:tally the principl.
of the <>lClwion 01 conlradktiono., u. appliable to asoen""" tluf
12n be tru. or fal..; if I logkIl conlradiction exi... bet........ two
I...nion. only ,h. on. or th. <>thn ....nion cOn !.Ie "".; if on.
i. tn,. th. OlhCT mUlt b< lois. Rut I nOrm i. neilh.. tru. nOf fll...
but .i,h", ."Iid or in..lid. Ho....vOT. lh.....nion d<'Cribing
normative OttlOT by Slying 'Mt I certain norm i. valid :according
10 thll ordC1" can be 'ru. or rll ..; and particulorly JO lhe rule ol
b ... dfiCribingl logol onl ... bYNJing tha" aaording to WI ord
"""",ive 1<1 ought to or 'lUgh! no, l<I b< p",f",-mro under
cen";,, condition... ThtldoTc.logical principles in general. and th"
Principle of the Exc1u.ioll 01 Contradiction. in ponien]a" are
applicable to rule. of law de'CTihing legal norm.< and therdor. in
directly abo 10 [<gal nonn. Hence it;. by no mean. absurd to ....y
,h., ''''0 legal norm. "coo,.-.din" ..eh o,h",. And ,herelore only
one "I tb. tWO can be rq;arded .. objectively valid. To $.i.f ,ha, a
ought to be and at 'h" ...me time ought not '0 be i. jmt a. mean
ingl... as to say that a i1 and "th. "me 'ime 'hat it i. not. A con-
Ak' of norms i, JDOl as meaoing)... as" logical contradktion.
Ru, ,ince the cognition of law. liJ:. any cognition, 1,,10 I" un-
d.""md ito .ubject a. " meaningful whole and to d.-.:,ibe it in
nonc<>ll1t3dictory ....t<m""tlI. it ....rts from the ... ump'ion thaI
conflict. of nornu within the no'mative orde, which it 'he
of thi, cognition can and mn be ooh-ed by intetpretation. Since
the "TUctU"" of the legal order i. a hi=rehy of highet and lowet
nonm, whetehy rhe highet norm determines the cre.,ion of the
lowet one, 'he problem of norm conllie," within the ",me legal
ordet prelent< itself in two fonno, depending on whethet the <.on-
f1iet i. betw..n two norm. of the ..m. I.vel or b<otween a higher
and olowetnonn.
To begin with, we .hall <on,id" con/lic" b<otween nonn. of the
....m. I.vel. If ",. have a confliet b<otwe<:n g.n=l nonm, Cte3led by
the "me organ at different times, 'hen the volidity of the later
ltonll .upcncJe. the validity 01 the .arli.., contradictory, on. ac.
cording to the principle lex po.ur;or deroglll prjori. Since the
notm-c,.ating organ-the ling or thc p"li3.ment_i. normally au_
thmi'ed to rrreo<:rib<o changeable and therefore aboli'hable nm"",
the principle lex po.ter;or derogat priori may be rrresumed to be
jnduded in the authori,ation. Th. p'inciple aloo applies if the
conflicting nonm are rrr=ibM by two diffetent organ.; for "".
ample. if the comtitution authori'es the king and the porliament
(0 regulate the ;arne 'nhject hy genct:J.l norm., or if legi.laW" and
c"",om arc both Cltablithed .. I_w<'feating fae... How.ver, th.
conflicting nonn. may have been preocribed .imultaneou.ly, by
the ;arne act and by tbe ...me organ, '" th.t the mentioned rrrinci.
pIe i. nOt applicahle, for example if contradictory dan... are con
tained in the ;arne .tatute, .uch as: ""uhety U p"ni.hable and
adultery i' not puni.hable: or: .vetyhody who cornmiued <er-
''1 "! 1"'11 poll!nb,. puo ,.moo 'uo pouw'puoo
'1 uo...xI !'>'in,,,,, uo '0'1' ''1 It'", 'ow 1! "'., ul
'0'1 puo 'ou '! '! !Uq ',nb]u'l""' l-.b{ '10nbopou! 100W
o'! ']\j' "JI1' "'I ....'1'0 ''1' JO no)'!""P''I' 'I.It"'!x 01 "!lO'I'
-no ''I'lJllO' '110 ''I' JO no,,!,,"p ''1' SIlIA!S ln0'l11'" ,,"" 'Ill,," ''1'
'p"op 0' ".mo:> 0....' "!.l0'l,nOl'lS!1U "'01 V ,u.llJo 'ua....Jj!p ''1 PO'o
u''''I ""0'1 O\llJOU 0...., ''I' JI 'IHln,!,,"'" "uo"pap "no, 0"'1
,x '1,n, "lUJOU lonp!AlPU! 0"', """""'1 "lX' Oilo 'WI "!IIuo, V
'WJOu "!""'1 ''1' ''l po'!W!,!RaI
Jlupq JO '1'1""'.' '! JiU)u..w ,.,!,,,"[qn' _'I'" 'U>$:IJd n ", ou
:SU)u"w "'!,,,"[qo ,. pa,:ud....,"! "'l """ l"'ll lIu.;ud '! lIU!""w
'A)lJ>(qO. OU U''1' '(J''I'O 'I'" 'II!'" 'lq[lOOWOOU! ruo[ld!JJS:ud
.10 '\,,0'" l""l'u"'uOU 'U!""IO' "1"1"" XJ! '.[dwxn .lOJ) no" SU!
,uo'w OU JO ('II11"l" U! papunndoJd .uo.'I' 0JO aldnn,x, JOI 'nop
-u.>. uO JO S"!U..W''I' n 'I,n.) SUIUW 'U:U'JI!p. ''''I .," "'II
n 'asu,," 'A!'OWJOU '!'l' "! InJ2!u!u..w "'l "nlu,,' "0'" u!o,
.....,. U! 'A0'l"'l 0' "ISno 'I"np!A!p"! 'mjl ""!,,'[qn, ''I'
-lIu)u....'" 0 "'1"'1' ,;ro uo "ndn 'luO lnq '" .u",,,, nodn "'.IOu
PH'" 0 JO SU!"...,,,, ''1,J>[qo,'P "'o'''''! 10U.:IOp UUOU ,IO"'l ''lL
'WJOI1 ')''''l ''I' 01 lIul\,,"""O pa,!sod" uaaq '.'1 "0 :>11' 'ISn0'l'l.
'lu,.,Jd '! W.lOU Ixllal PH"" 'l"A!".[qO ou :lIU!uw 'A!,:>:>(qO fl!
,. p>1",d..t>11l1 ... un lI,,!u..w 'A!,:>:>!qn. """I'" UO '" ". ou "'01
""'1' put uopo"", W.IOlI 10 ",. ""llInm..", ".uq n.'1' .,... :""1
,SD!lItaw SU!'Il>llIOS "" " JOl.I,!RaI "'P u''1' '.]q]nod "! UO!''''
...,dJ>IU) JO\jlO ''1' JOU auO "'[' ....'I'!.u JI .....'I"!und "'l 0' lqSno
'U1Jn0J JO ,1I0 ''11 ....ol"'l .uouad JO DOl,d."". ''ll 'Ill'" '''11
"p " pall!"'WO' "'" 0'1'" 'poq'JOA:'I .. ".I.. 1] :.. pa'l'!und
"'l 0' 'OU l'1Sno u"noJ JO :>lit ''1' "'0[>'1 ,UQS..L;><f "uP pa'l'!
-und ... 0' lqSno ''''I'P U!",,,., X,,!mm<n 0'1'" 'poq.u'AII" :,""
'jlll SUI'I"""!>""'"! "'\' '>OJ' JON ,:pa'l"!und "'l 0, 'ou l'1Sno ''1
.10 paqnund ... 0' l\jSno m'ln!", ,,!WWO, 0Ij'" 'H.. :""It :..P"'1"
-nnd "'l 01 'OD ''1Sno puo ]1{S!und ... 01 .u",[npv.. :Ii.,
,ou .>op 'jnJ SUI'l)n.'p-.... '''''110 ''11 JO SUll!U]![
... 01 poolu>pUn "'l ux, nuou '110 ''1' D''1' '.uOl'!pt-I'U01 '[l'""
'[UO """ .w,ou 0"', ''ll "ldwox> "U'I;'" '']1 U) so 'JI ro :,Spn(
''I' 'S-. 'u.ll.to ''l'''1 "!0Ij' X011,,"[qn. "'l 0, POOl<
'J>jlUn "'l un norou 0"'1 ''I' ''''l1'3 :"1'" l:>JUno"lfl JO UO!,nl'"
''I' roJ "'!'II!'1!l'SOd Su,,,,01\oJ "'l' 'j'loq.!und 'OU 'R ,j.
10 .. Ul'1>OI '''''ll ""I JO ruouad I"'" 'j'loqOltmd 'I "!l'P mOl
"'V'1 .0 .J;T.IJn' "'I<V","," :flU
ought 10 be puni,hed acrotding to the one nDIm and no' punimed
ac<:ording to 'he other; or it may be ,h" 0'" COurt may find for
<he plaintiff claimed and another court may di,mi.. the ""ion,
whkh mean. that according ", the oue nonn civil ,,,,,<u,ion ought
to be directed imo the property of the defendant, but ""cording ,()
,he o,h... nOTm that civil ""ecmion ought not to be dirttted. The
conDie! i. who<'d by giving ,he exeauj,-c organ the choke between
the two dec;,iom. If civil encution i, carried out as p'eocribed by
,he one norm, then the other norm urnai". permanently ;"eff",,
ti,'. and thado'. lose> iu v.1idily: if ;. not <arrltd OOt,
it i. ,he other way around. Thi, inlerprelJtion ,. advancoNl acroro-
ing to ,he basic nonn. For ,h. buk norm pTeocribe" "Force ought
to be exerted under ,he conditiom .nd in ,h. manner pTOocribcd
by the by and large effective COn5tilUlion and by ,1" hj' and
elf.nive gen",al .nd .If<e'ive indh'idua\ norm, cre.,<d according
to tho constituti""." Ef[<eti,..n<$' i, "ipul.,<d a, condition for
tho nlidity by th. ba,ic norm. [f a conflict i, pr...", ""ithin ,h.
sam. COurt d.d,ion (for "".mple il tho judge i. in.."e). then the
act iimply meaning["" and therdor. no o!>j.ctively ".lid [<gal
norm .xi In this ""ay ,he ba,ic norm mak.. it pos.ib[. to in,er
pre' the rn ial .ubmitl<d to l<gal cogni,ion at a meaningful
""ho[e, ""hieh rn"" to d.",ribe it in [ogically noncontradictory
No conflie, i. possib[e be,,,,,n a high.. nonn and. [ow",
nonn, that i. I><tW<el1 on. "ann which detennin ,he cre.,ion of
ano,h... nonn and ,hi, other norm, b<Cau" the low norm ha,
,h. rea",n for ito ,.. fidi'y in tho higb.r norm, I a low.. norm i,
regard<d "al id. it mlllt be r<gard<d a. being "al id acroniing to "
high.r nonn. How this i. do"e will I>< dioculM<! in ,h. descrip,ion
of the hi<rarchy of ,h. l<'g.l ord",."
1) ugilimory and EBet:rivme..
The func,ion of ,h. ba,ic norm becom.. particularly .pparent if
,he com,itu,ion i. no, ch.ng<d by constitution,l mean' hut by
r""'olution; wh.n ,h. ""i".nce-,ha, i., ,he v.lidity-of the enlire
l<'g.l ord.. directly bated on tho COMdtution. i, in question.
It wa, laid earli... that. nann', .ph.... of validity, partkul.rly
iu .....ponl sphere of ....' be lim;""; tht .....nni.. and
end of iu .-a!idity mar be by IM.-m ludf or by a
nona ,,,,,,la.'inc u.. Cft:Ition of lhe low<:r ....... 1"bf """'"
01 a IcpI OIrlkr arc ....Iid ....,il ,bUr n1idity is atteI.
ins 10 1M ,...la of thi. kpl onkr. Br ill -.. crn.ion
and application, tht ltpI or*' oktnmincs 1M bqj".. inS Ind mel
of tht r.o.Iidity of tM I....' .....-mL Wrium consti,u,iom ......n,
con,.i" tpttial rula """""""" tht method b, .,hieh.hqr an be
,""nged. The prin<:iplt ,Ju". nonn of. ordn it "lid un,il
it. validit, is .rnninall'd in.""f de,nmincd by thi.legaJ 0Idrr or
rcpbco:d by ,he lidi" nann of lhi. ont.., is caUt<! ,h.
principle of legitimacy.
Thi. prinodplc i ppliable '0 ... n.'i.,....1 Itgal order with on.
Important limi ...,;"" only' Jl don not apply in c'..e of. rcvolu_
.ion. A rem!n,;"n in ,he broader ..,n", of the word (,h,' indud..
... coup i. evcry not l"8'ilimot. change of ,hi. cons,i,,,-
ion or iu rrplacement by an other cocu,itu,i"". }"t'1)nl ,h, poln, of
vicw of legal .oenc.. it I, irrcle....n' wh.-tMr ,hil change of the
lq:al """"ion "". bttn brought .bout by the applQtion of lora:
apin.. the kgi.inwHe I"'nnmen. or by the melDben of .lul p'
emmert. the""dva. ...heth.... by a mH& """'...." " of the populo..
,ion 01" by a Jma111JO"P of ind"'id..m. Dtrioin it only tha. the
...lid RIfIIl;tuUoa hat beat chan,pd 01" ...paced in a manne DOt
by me ......ci.u.ion ...Iid unt;1 then. Utually a """' ...
.... aboliohcs only the old consci.u';"'" and tttUin poIi'icoIly im-
pon<ul' "",tut<:S. A part of the Itll.utel <rGud under the old
cunu.u,;"'" !'<"IDai" ...tid the ...yinz goes; bu. mit OPJ'Ol'"
';001 does DOt lit. If tMw: ..a,u,es are to be regarded .. beit'll ""lid
und.... the DeW rnnoci.u'ion, then thit is mIT beooue.hey
Iuve beat ';olida..... ""pleMly OT taeiuy by ,he new con"itu,ion.
We are con[ron.od he.e root wi." a creation of new law bu. wit"
lhe: m:cption of nonn. of one legal ord.... by ."oth....; IHch :II Ihe
'e<ep,ion of the Roman Law by the Gennan Law. Out .uch'e<q>-
lion tOO i. law etCalion, becoouoe ,he diTC<:. 'UlOlt rOT .he ""tidi.y
0/ the leg.1 no.tIntahn OVer by .he n..........OhHlon .,. ntlbli.hed
COllJlitu,ion can only be the new COllltitut;on. The content of
th.,. norms ",maim unchangod, but the .nJOIl for their val idity,
In fac. me ..uon r.... Ihe Yllidity of the en,i", legal ord..... h..
bcm changed. N the new com.;'",;on becomes ...lId. 10 ';m..l
uncou>ly chaflget the buic nona, tho. is, the p'.... ppooi.u. 1oC-
cOldi"( to whidl ne inonpr(Vd .. nDnII-auLiIl( and ...""..
appl.,.u.g be" the be. and the fac" eoub-
IUhat aa;ordrng ... the c:onsti"......... Suppooe the old comti.utiorJ
bad the cbano;tn of an ablolu.e -..:hy and the ""' CD< <Ji a
parliammoary do""",IoC,. n.... .1>< balic ........ DO Iongn" .<'ado:
"C......,;,.., acts ""Sbl to 1>< arri<d .... t undtJ the <ORditiont and ;n
the mann<r .. do.ermin! lor the old. DO 1ong<r ""lid. ooruLi'u-
,iooo'o:. and h...u hy the and indimual.-.ns crn.od and
appli<d br Lbe ooruLi.u,iQn.ally 1Unclionins mon.atch Ind .he
"'1"nl del<g>'od br him; inlleod, 1M haole norm .odo: "Q:lerci""
.." oughl'" be CltTinI .... t under the condi.ionI and in the man-
nn" de'...... inod by ,k new conl,i,",ion,"' and hence by ,he gen.
.....1 and norm. cr'lt<d and appli-.l by ,he parlilm.n.
,'",cording'D th.. con""u';on and by the org.nl <klq:..-.l
in 'h.... nonnL Tho n.... bu;c nonn dO<'< no. m.li.e i, pc>!libJe-
lik. 'he old one-,o 'eg.rd a <....;n ....1 al ,h!.>sol",.
mo..arch. hut make> ;, poIIibl. '0 reg.ard a popularly oleet<d p"'li.o-
m"lIas a legal auU-i,y. Aordiug to the buic nonn ofa nl'ionaI
lopl onkr. Lb. gmttlllllen" which nt:>... gt'.......l Ind in-
.... 1 .......... bas"" on an <lICCl''''' COItlli'utiorJ is Lb. lqiti-
mo.'. pemmen' of tlte lUI
n... <bang< of the baP< nona lollows the chongt' of the fxu
tha.' are in,crprctcd as nca'ma: and apply'''( nlid kpIl1O<mL
Tile hat.io: IJ(InD refen 0011 to a <0ItJt.i......... which iI loClually
...h1ilohcd bt IqiIllLi"e loCI. or antom. and is deem A OD."ti-
IUliooo'o is ... if the nomoi created in lonnily ilb ilar.
lor and large applied and obcr<d. As th. old tomtilution
lofa its eftti and lbe ""' one bu beeo,,>( dl"mi"", the
XU thollppear itlt the ...bjli"" _ing01 crea.ing or appl\'
ing legal norml an' no longer br preouppooing .be old
ba$ic norm, bul by p..... ppooing the new 0.... The ,ta,u,a wued
und"" tlte old conlli,u'!on and not tall.= are no long.......
prd<d as ....Iid. Ind .he organ. luthoriltd br tit. old <on"it""""
no long<:r a. <ompeten'. If 'he revolu,;on i. no, "'.....f,,1 Ihore
would be no rea"m to replace 'he old norm by I new One,
Then, ,he would not be II procedure cre.,ing
new Law, bU'--aording to 'he old colllLi,Ulion and tbe criminal
tl .. baled on il and as ""lid_.......ld be ,nlerp'et<d ..
b.i&b tttUOOl. Tbt principle htre is Lbe principle of dEtc-
li.-mca. The principle ollqi.ill>XJ is limited by u.. principk of

t) V.Ji4i" a4I
This onnh tlw nnpba""'" conneaioD. (10
importatJ. lor a theory of pclIIi,i'-e .....) 1>0:....""" <he nlidi'7 aDd
tho! dQ:lin:nna 0( law. Tho: concct cktermi"",ioa of this rda
tiombip is one of 11K mOlt important and.u the ...me ,i_ mOlt
dilliclill problClDI of a pclIIitiviltic IqaI theo<y. I. is only prcial
cax of the rd:ujombip belwtfll,hc "ough." of the nonn and
the "i," of ' ..nl ..,.Ii,y. !leg,1lSt; thc act by which. pOIlitivc legal
norm i, cr ted. too, is an "il-fac," (German: SeillllQIUch) just
II ,hffcelh'en .... of ,he lerl nOrm, A po<i.ivi"k leg.1 ,11=, i.
beN by the ta&k 1<> find .he OOrrecl middle ,<wi 'wo u
which both are IInt.noble. The one <:Xlreme is the th..is
.ha. thtte is no colllleaion be,,,,een validily u """.thilll that
oughllO be and ell""",iv"'lN'" tomething that il; lha. 1M ... Iidi.y
of .he law i. en,'",l, independent of its dca;"....,.. Tbe 0tM
ntTft!>e is the thtsil that validi.,. aDd dfcctiftDal an: idC'D'ical.
An id<:aJ.isUc lheory oIb...mdo to l.hc fin. "",DUon of this pn:>t>.
Ie..... a rulistic th...., to l.hc: ICCO<Id. The 6nl is ..-rong lor i. is
undmi.b/.t !.hal a lq;al onkr in ill a ....in:ty. aDd an indi<ridual
kpl norm _ -U. _ thdr nljd.i.,. -.rbnl. m..., ca>l' to boo dlOC-
Ii.,,; and tlw a rdalion aha brcwua the ....Atof tbc kpl non:n
and the uof pllyUa1 ruli'J alJo inoofar aslhe pooiti", Ifpl_
to boo valid, muse booemuftl b1 an an which csiw in.boo nalilJof
boo;.... &be """"'" oolu,ioo u _g booa...., it is "juallJ un-
dfniable that thott all' manJ 0_ as has been Ibown 1>cftIIl' .._
in wh;m l<pl norms all' ,tg:trdrd as '';IUd although m..., all' not,
or not yet. declive. The oolution propo>rd by tbe PUTe Tt>cory of
Law i. thi" ]uot .. the nOrm (according to which lQrne,hing
ouhl '0 be) .. ,h, meaning of an act i, not identical with the ac,
(which actually uj, in the Ame way i, 'he validity of a 1'8"1 nOrm
not identical with ill efftcdv.ncu; the .ffec,i,,,,n... of a le8"1 order
al a whole and ,he .Il'tc';ven.... of a lingle legal nOrm all'_jun as
t'" l\OIl'Il<tudng act-th. condition lor the validi'y; cllcctivell<'ll
WQ. PI' ...... 1ft
1-- , g,.-., -!i "r' , "'" .,-j1''' - '.] 1i!' E" =
1. E"'! :t =g'!. 11 e I i r- a: ;; g !' =: 5: &: s. &. I i ..

,.-i"-'1 "'g' ,:
,-"!= "1" .',r.-.a "'1-' , ,
-3'M.Jt;'l l;Il," t.i l" _M ;;.... Ii ,.
0 __ , " , ,"'-1 ,<. ., p. ,
"f"," E' HHi ,
"M' - al'f- ., (J:, ,.. .j1:l lO'
... Hi ',f :lgfg;rI>il'-:s.!I glC
s:h ..'i ,
Mii "s" $l ... l';

'ill ,.i!';i::'<",.: 5
.. s !'
;",. :l;; a.. a.: f rl: S l".g. :<. n _ i ;- ii:lo a. 6' ; !f l;:
.. &i: L; 6' t 11
"'-'1. 1,,_ i'-'-'-,s,
-.:;o":ll '" -l!: '; _ , If "to -.,.:ll

J l

T"E "v""M,e ;.s"<.<;T O ~ LAW
exceptionally no' elfe<.Tive in 'ingle case,. As meruiono:d in an
oth.. <:onn,ion, the possibility of an .ntagoni,m be'ween 'hat
which i' pro:s<ribed by a norm'" something that ought to be and
W., which aClually happens must exist; a nOTm, pteIC,ibing that
iOmething ouglll to n." which, .. one ~ n o w , n.,loreh.nd mW' hap-
J"'tl anpvay according '0 law of nature, i' me.ningl ...........uch
norm wonld not be reg.rded as valid. On the othee I...nd, norm
i' not regattled '" valid which i' never obeyed oe applied. In fact, a
legal norm may I".., it< validily by nev.. being .pplied or obeyed-
by ",""alled deJUellllk. Desuetudo may be described a. negative
C,,>lom, and i" ....mial function i' to abolish the validily of an
exi,'ing norm. 1 Cu'tom is a I'''''-creating I.ct at all, then e"en lhe
validity of ,,.tutory law can be aboli,hed 1>y customary law. If
elfe<liveneq in lhe developed ..n.. is We <:ondition fur We valid
ity no. only of .he legal order a. a whole bUI also of a single legal
norm, then the I.w-creatlng function of Cu>lom c.nnot be ex-
cluded hy ".,u'ory law, at Ie." not '" fae .. the negative function
of desueludo is conmed.
The <leICribed rel.,ion belween val idity and efftiv""..' refers
to general leg.l norm'. Bu. also individual legal norm' (judicial
<Ii.ion" .dminiltrative dreaj tha' proscribe an individual
coercive .ct lose their validity if the)' are permanently unexeculo:d
and therefo.e ineffeai"e, ,.. h.. n.,en .hown in dte discu"ion 01 a
wnllict n.,twun two legal deci'iom."
Effecti'.ne" i. a condi.ion for the validity-hut it i. not ,..lid
ity. Thi. mUst be Slreued beeau.., time and again 'he ellott h'"
been made to identify "alidity with effeeti,en...; and .uch identi
ficuion is tempting bee.u,", it Ittltli to simplify lhe .heoretical
.itu'lion. Still, the efforl i' doomed .0 failure, not only n.,cause
even a pardy inellecti"e legal otd.... or legal norm may n., ...gattled
a. v.lid.nd an absolulely effective norm which cannot be vi".
Ia'ed '" invalid hecau,", not being regarded a, a nOTm 01 all: but
pa..iculatly lor thi. rea."n' ][ 'he v,1idi,y, ,h.. I,. the 'pecifie
exi.lence of lhe law, i' collS,de,ed to be part of natural ....Iity. one
i. una hie to gr.up the 'pecific me.ning in which the law add......
i""lf to reality and ,he..hy juxu!","", itself to reality. which can
be in confOTmity or in conflict with the law only if re,lity i.
no. identical Wilh ,he validity of the law. Ju" a' il i. impos.ible in
-Cl. p. 001-
d.",rmininll validity to ;gn",.., i" ula.;"n to rnJity, iO it U lik...
wise impossible '" Kkntily ',didity and "3Iily. If we ""pla the
e<>n<cpt of realily (a. efloc.;vrnc.. of the legal ordet) by the .on
cept of power, ,hen tile problem of the relation between validity
and dftt,ivellc" of the legal order coin.id.. with the more
familiar prol>Jem of the rolatio",hip bet"'tnl law and power or
right and might. And th,,", the ""Iulion atumplcd be.. is merely
the .demi6cally exact formulation of the old truism th., righ'
cannot exist without might and yot is not idtn'ical ",'ith might.
Right (lhe Law), aewrding > Ihe theory he,.., developed, i. a n,..
tain order (or organization) 01 might.
h) The n..,;. Norm of Inle"'''lional lAw
We shall now abo t""'ider lhe imemaliorulilegal onle. in ",I.tion
10 na'ional ltgal ord.,,; and we ,hall ...um............ it i'
...umed_,h<l, inu:roadoml law i. valid fnr a .\ate only if iu
go,ernmont on tho b..i. of an eff<cd'e constitution hOI '<cog'
niztd intemationallaw; thon our awwer gi,en 10 fa. to 'ho quO$-
don OJ '0 why law i' valid, i. still the Jarue, <.be ..3.IOtt for <.be
validity of law i' a p.oouppooed balk norm referring to an eff<ctive
constitution. Fo' in thiJ=, intemat;onallaw i' only a part of the
nati""al legal order, ..gard.d a.llOvaoign-and tho ..a",n for ,h.
"alidityof the national l<gal ord<r i. the ba,;c norm ",forting to
the <!fecti"o m"itution. Tho ba'ic norm. as <.bo rea",,, for the
validity of <.b. constitution, is at ,h...m. time the reason for the
validity of intrrnationallaw, rowgnizod on tho basts of tho consti
Tho ,ituati"" i. ditforcnt. however. if intomational law is not
regarded "" p"rt of tho n.,ional legal ord.., but as a .(w<r.ign
l<gal o.der, supcrordinatod '0 all national l<gal orders. limiting
thorn in <.boir .ph..... of validity; if, in o<.ba word., ono docs not
assumo tho primacy of tho national l<gal orders, but 'ho primacy
of tho intomationallegal order." The latter docs. in fac,. contain
a norm ,h.t rcp""""'u the 'e>Jon for <.bo validity of the indi'idoal
nationallcgaJ orders. Therefore the rca"", for the validity of tho
individual national legal order an 1>0 found in positive intan.
'ionallaw. In that case, a positive notm is the rca""" for the valid
...._ of ,I>< "'..""',....., q.J onIc<,"
THr: DYNA."C O. uw
i,yof thi< l.gal ord..., not 1 mor.ly pr..uppos.ed norm. Th. norm
of intornational law that ,..,pteson" this ,..,ason for ,h. validity
wually i. Ileocribod by th. "at.m.nt tbat, according to gon.ral in-
t.rnation.1 law, a gov.rnmtDt which, indep"ndent of o,h.r gov
...nmento. eX"''' elfec'iv. control ov... the population of a c"'lain
territory", i. 'he legitimate g<lvemment; and that the populotion
th.. !ive' und....uch a gov...nmem in ,hi. territory constitut., a
'""at."' in ,h. m.aning of int","atio"allaw. regardl ... of wh.thor
,hi. g<lvorllmem exer", thi' rffectiv. control on the ba'i' of a pre-
viou.ly rxiititlg com,itution or of one ..tabl;'lI.d by revolution.
Tratulaled into l.gal langu.ge: A nonn of general international
lawauthoriz.. an indi.idual or a group of indi.iduals, on the b",i.
of an .1f<'C,iv. con"itlllion, to cr and apply a. a legitimate gov
ernment a normative roe",;". ord That norm. thus. legitimi...
thi< coercive ord.r for th. territory" of it< actual .ffecti'-.n... a. a
valid legal o'd.... and 'he community constituted by thi' coercive
ord.r a, a ",tat.'" in the ..n.. 01 international law_nganll... 01
whether the gm...nm.tIl cam. to pow... in a '"legitimate" way (in
th.......se of the previous constitution) or by revolution, A<;cord.
ing to ;mcm"woal law, ,hi. pow... i' to be regatdcd as legar
pow.... Thi. means ,hat int.rnational low legi,imi,.. a oucc...ful
revolution a,. law-croating procedure. If a posi,ive norm of inter-
n..ioool law i' recogniled a, the ro.",n for ,h. v.lidity of ana_
,ionallogal ord... ,h. probl=> of the basic norm i' ,hilted. because
th. reason lor the v.lidity of ,h. nation.l legal ord...., then, i, no
longer 1 nonn only pr..upposcd in juristic 'hinling bot " p"'itive
OOfIIl of imern.tion.l I.w; .nd 'hen the qu."ion a,i"" a, to the
reason for ,h. validi,y 01 the intcm..ionallcgal ord.r to which 'he
norm belongs on which the validity 01 the individual natioo.l
legal ord.r i, founded_the norm in which thi,l.gal ordcr find. its
dir<'Ct, although not i" ul'ima'e, ..">on for the validity. Thi, r.a
son of ,'alidity. then, <;an only be ,h. ba'ic norm of int...n.,ional
l.w. Which. th..elore, i, the indirect ro.>on for th. v.lidity of ,h.
national legal ord.... As a gonuin. "",,ic norm, i' i. a pmupposed
_not a nonn. It repr...n" 'he pr..upposition under
which gen.ral ;ntema,ional law i' rogarded ., th. set of obj",,
tively v.lid nonn. that ,..,gul.", lhe mutual behaviot 01 "at..,
Th... nOfIIl' ate created by "mom. con,tiru,ed br actual be-
havior 01 the "stat..." that is, 01 th_ individual' who ae, a,
gov<mmcnu .ording '0 nadonal legal otdtn. Th.... norm. are
inlorpre,e<! .,legal nCITm' binding lh" ,tat.., be<:au", a ba!ic nOrm
i, pT<'Uppo.w. whieh .".bl;ili.. custom .moog "ates a, a I.",.
creating act. Th" ba>k nOrm run< a. followo: "State>-th., is, ,he
RO"tlnm"nl' of lh" ot'll...-in ,h.ir mUlu.1 rda,ioru ough, to be-
b..,. in .uch a w.y"; or: "Coercion of .t"e agai"" .... t. ought to
be exercised undor <he <;oodirion. and in ,he manner, ,hat ron
form. with ,h. Custom constituted by ,h" aetual behavior of ,h"
"at:'" Thi. i. lh. "com,iIUlion" of intc"la,ional law in a
lTOo",ondental.logiul ",,,,e."
One of ,h" norm. of in'em.,ional law created by custom au
thoriz.. ,h" ,tat.. to regulate ,h.i, mutual ladom by IT'''Y. Th"
rea",n for tho validity of ,h. legal nom" of intanati<mal I.w cre"
attd by n'c.,y i. this cus'om<re.,ed norm, It is usually formula,.d
in the .ent""",,: [Hula Junl urvanda.
The prelluppole<l basic nann of intern.tional law, which ins,i.
lUlelI custOIll co"'titn..d by the 'lat", a, I."'-er.ating fact.x-
pr.""s a principle that is the basic p,,,,nppooition of.lI customary
I.",: the individual ough' to beh.ve in such. m"""er a. the others
u'ually beh"'e (believing that they ought to beh",'e that w.y).
applird to the mutual behavior of st..es, that is. ,he behavior of
the individuals quaHfird by ,he national legal ord.... '" govern
ment orga",,"
No .ffirmati"" 01 a ,'alue transcending positive law i, inherent
in the basic norm 01 internation.l law. no, .ven of ,he value 01
peace guar:IIl,d by the general intefllation.l!a", cr.ated by ,ns-
tom .nd ,he p.rticular intern.tion.1 law created by tr.aty. Inter
nation.lla'" and_if it> prima<y i. assumrd_the subordioated na
tional legal orden are no' volid "b.cau.... and "imobr as" they
reali,e the value ,h.. comisii in pea",,: lhO')' m3j' realize thi, value
il and so far", they 're v.lid; .nd they are valid if. basic nonn i,
pr..uppoocd thai irutitut.. ,n,tom among "at..... I."'-aea,ing
fac' regardl.... of ,be <.onten' of the nonn. ,hu. created. If ,he rea
son for the v3lidity of n3tiooallegal order. i. lound in a norm of
~ C 1 ....do
~ The a-r, held by _.y ......."(.... "on< ,; "'" by ..p d ~ ,bot tho
........ fO'" , 0 o 10 <II< booio .. '''' ;0",' 10.. I. ", "" ni....
1>>_ It em "" in..'01 ",,'y with <I>< .I<l <>l tile t!cti"" tho' ,t>< <not...
....b1iob<d by <II< rondDd ot _.... ;,.. toci' ",,,,,.
OY><.....IC .urECT Of' ...... 111
i"lttna,iona.llaw, lauer .. uD<kntood as a lepl onkr ....
perioo 10 l.bc former and Ibndo<r as tbt higbft< IOftfrian kpl
CO'tkt-. If l.bc .... if. tIK na'ioon\lopl ...or.-", ...
tbolal m",nd 10 as ..rip thrn <his M..,.,trrign,,... <an _Iy
_ tha' l.bc national IqpI O<dn> ;ur ....b<><dina<ed. o.d, 10 tbo
in<nmtiona.lloopl CO'tkt-
) TIw T.tory 01 I.t &Jic N_ ...., IU
r.eory 01 /10.,,,.&1. lJI,.
II ,he qu<Stion as 10 <Itt: '",100<I10< 'hr .-alid.i.y 01. potilive law, that
....hr ques.ion why lhr nor.... of an <l1",.i,'c <""",iYC onler ough'
.0 be appl ied and obcl'ed, ain" at an cthical-poli.ical ju.. il'tca.ioIl
of 'hi.> coc",;"c order. wbich ",can. at a finn "andard :teCurding '"
which a positi"c Irg:tl "rM. may be judged .. "j".....".1 .herdorc
a......Iid "u"jut".nd lherd"", invalid, then .hc balic noml
01. thc Purr Theory of Law doe. neither l'irld 'u<:h a ju..ification
nor JIICh t.>n<Iard. For potiti,c taw-a. poin.ed OU' "_i> jUtU
Gcd only by a """'" or norma'ive ordc-r with wlticlt posi.i"" I ..
a<:cIlI<ding to ill ron.fflto, mayor may not COlli"",,, Itct>tt be j ....
or unj..... The Iwi.: r>onn. potKmed by the: !'uK 1'hcory of La..
as l.bc COIII<I.itioot lor tbt objoecthc ...lidi.y of law. csublWlcs the
'-alidi,y 01 ery pooiti"" Ioopl Oftlcr. that io, 01 """1 cono:i...,
CO'tkt- <rca<ed. by:octo of Itu....... bciDp and by ..... Ia'l" dfcnin.
Aa;:unling to the Purc Tllcoey 01. La... as a IqpI tbc-
...,.. _ IqpI onkr <an be rcprdftl ,.. ..x lI'Olormiot&:
..ith iu basOc .........nd hence u not nlid. 'Jbto o;o.ll.... of a pooi-
.i.., lcpl ordct i> en,irely indcpn>tknl from i .. basOc.-on. For_
.hc point mu.. be IUCSM'd---only l.bc .-aIidi,y. DOt ,be con....t of.
levi tmlercan bedcri.-cd rom the baJic norm. EY"1 by and large
c,i"" <""",iYC order can be intnprcted .. an objc<".i""ly ...lid
norm..i,'c onler. The ...lidity of a poo.i'i,c lcpl order cannOf be
dcnied 1>au... of 'ltc ron..n, 01. III nOTIl... Thi. i. an .."",...1<I
mem of legal and it iI preei..ly in ito .hcory of 'hc
ba.;e ll<>Tm 'hat ,h. Pur. Theory of Law ah"w, ;1..1 a' a pooi.;yij.
'ic Icgal.hcory. Th. Pur. Tll.OTy dClCTibro ,h. pooi\iv. l.w at.n
objec.iYcly ...lid norm. I;'" order and .tat.. th.. 'hi! ill'."'rc...
int, io .,.....1>1. only undcr the mn<!ili"" 'hal Iwic norm io pre-

.upposed according to wh;"h the ,ubj,ive m ning of the law_
creating acts i. al", their obj,i,'" ",nnlog. The Pure Theory.
thereby characttti thi, interpretation a. pos.<ible, nO' n....'y,
and prne"t! the object;'" validity of positive Jaw only as
cOIlditional--namely conditiontd by 'be pTe.upposed ba.k nonn.
The lac. 'h'" tb. bwc norm of. positivcl<'g:ll ",de< may but need
nol be PrciUpJ'OSW mcam: ,he rcl.,'ant interhurn.n r.laliomhip:!
moy be, but n""d nO, be. imerp'"" ao "normative," thot is, a.
obligation.. authorization. ';gh....tc. com';tnte<! by ob}ectivcly
valid nOma l, means lurth....: th"')' can be ;""'preted without
.nch p,nupposi,ion (i.e., wilhom the haJlic norm) as p""..". ,d._
tions (i.e., ",l.,ion. betwn commanding and obeying or disobey.
ing human being.)-in oth"" wonl. they no be intcrproted
oociologically. no' juristically." ba'lc nOnn.... mown,"
a norm pl,,"upJ>O'<'d in the foundation of of po,ltlve
law, i.< only tunooendent;o]logical condition of thi'
lntetptotallon, it dotS not p<"rform an ethlcal'pol itical but only an
epiStemological fnnclion."
A con,isle,,' theory of natural law dHfers from a positivistic
theory of law in lhat the naturallaw IheoT)' "",1:.0 the re.son (0'
the validity o( I.w In a nat"rall.w, different from positive
law, and he""" in" ordtt with whiCh the law,
",cording 10 I" 01 lt13y n", conform, >0 that the
positive law. i( nol In conformily with natural law, mml I>e 1<"-
In nrlkr I"'blia.1ioou I -' .........p.. lor I... ""', tho I"""'Ppool"'"
'" .... boo!<.-.. I, bo' __,.,., An hl.. do<> mo.
th< bui< ....... y"", ""..pO< ....id_lnl' Tb< hi.. <motio<Wly ..jto ....
I,,, _ .. O<d<r. h< "'*'" to ,II< I.w; II< won... _ ..,oiiy htt '" >-
<K com..",;" ......"ud ..itl.uu""""';" ...!<T. A..t<II.... 10. poIl,"'"
"'i'oo.. I>..,d .... ",toin wiob. Tho In"",,,''';,,,,. do<> ...
_"PI""<' ,,",I, _m, ... ,-''''.1 ."i,,",,,. E'''''n ...."h;". II 1>< ..",
p''''..... '" "". oould d<o<rib< poolli.. "W ... 'l"'''" '" nil<! ....,..., w".om
N.iOI '0 'PI'tO" '" 'hi' ,,"w, ....y ..."".,., In ..hi<h ,.. "piw.... kpi Ok<
i. d<ocr;h<d ... opkm '" .."... """""""'I ....;p,...... u,.<>ri..,...... "'''''',
iu"""!dl_." wrl".. .,. l.,i'" who poIl'l<olly ..p...... '" 'hlo kpl onk.
-Th",_. 'ho -.no< '" .................. _. <10<, ..... 0' 'DI"lti......
I< _i.......-y .twl<_. A_I"C to iho dotlri.. of ""'Pi'"'"
"W I, ..ild _Iy If ;, .. "'''1'"'"'' .,. .... lndlYld",,1< 'ubi' to it, wht.;h
"""no; it , .... indi.I<I",,'....... 'N' """ 0'" to boh-.Ii.... ,,, .... """'"
'" ,,,, pooltt.. "w. Thl< ><>in"..... " ;, ..ld. """'''y to'" p"".nd " 'hI<
""',,,. bo p<oml, It i' ...un><d. fu:LI'ioulIy, ... ",,;, Tho ......,.,. '"
""'P;iioo. O>nOdoL>uy Of """""""""I,. p""'_ .... _, of indi.Jd..,libm,
....".<Io,..i"",-, 'ho<". ,,,, ..... th>.t 'he i",,;"".., ouShl '0 do only who<
... w..," to do. Thlo io botl< n<>nII 0< 'hl, tb<oty. 'n.. dill",... lntWttn i'
.nd ,he ''-1 of ,he ""'.. 01. pooltt.. i<H'l ...1<,." "ugh, by the Po"
Th<o<y '" Low, 10_..
gan!rd ... i,,'-alid. The<oIo,.." according 10 a 'rue 'htory <>f na,unl
law, nOt any by and large elftive c""",ive orde< may ~ inr
pret<d,.. obj,i.'ely valid normative orde<. The pcmibili,y of a
conllict ~ t w ~ n natural law and posi'ive law includ.. 'he f'O'Sibil.
ity of ""lfolroing .uch a """rei"e ord" .. invalid. Only 10 Ih. ex
'''''I that 'he conton' of pooiti.,. Jaw mayor may not conform with
natural law and may ther.for. nOC only ~ jolt but allO unjust and
,herel"... invalid--.-<>nly l<> that ",nt can natural law lfiVe ,..
ethical'p<>li'ical ."'ndard and therefore .. a pooIible ethical'p<>liti""l
j""i6"",ion of positi'" la"'. Thi. i' pred",ly th......nti.l fUnClion
of natural law. If a legal theory that presem. it",lf .. natural.law
doctrine formul.l.. Ih. norm or norm..h-e order which function
.. Ihe ,..,alOrt [or the validity of positive law in mch a way that a
conlliel between the """",lied natural law and positi.. law i. ex-
c1udrd (for .xampl. by '''e<ting that n"ure command. to obey
every positive legal oroer. regarole.. olth. kind of behavior thi.
ord.. demand.). th.n .uch a legal 'heory div.... i<>elf of in char
""te< a theory of natural law, 'ha' i. a Ihtory of imtie._ It
Ihereby aba.ndom the function.....mial to natural low. a' an
ethical-political "tlue '!andan! and thefefore .. a p<>..ible juoti.
li<:ation of posilive law.
According to a positivistic theory of law the validity of positive
law""'" on a ba..ic nonn. which i. not a posi'ive hu' pr",up-
poo<tI nonn, h.nce nOt a norm of the p<>'iti'" law wh"'e ,'alidity i.
founded on the b,...ie nonn, and according to ,h. o",urallaw doc-
trine, 'he validity of pooitive raw likewi.. ""I> on a nOrm thot 1>
not a nonn of positiv.!aw and [unclion.... value ".ndard of thi.
law. In Ihi. fact one might $e/: cerrain limi'ation imp<>scd up<>n
'he prindple of legal positivi.tm and one migh, de<cribe the differ
ence be'ween 0 posi,iv;"ic thtory of law and a thtory of natural
law a. relativ. rather than obooluto. But the diff..ence betwn
the lwo i. large enough to CllClud. the view (which ignor.. ,hi.
difference) that 'he "",it;v;"ic ,heory of a ba'ic nonn. a. ad
vancni by the Pu... Theory of Law. i Ihtory <>f n.tural bw.
/) The BlUic NOTfT. of Nalur.l Law
Since the Pure Thtory olLaw, "",itivi"ic legal Ihtory. by it<
doctrine of the ba..ic nonn of "",itiv. law d"" not provid. a
standard for ju"ice or inju<tice 01 positi... law and th."!o,, d"'"

TH DYNAMIC .un.cr or ......
DOt provide i.. ..micalpoli.icaI jus<i6c,,,ion, it '- fttqumoly bftn
cri,;"izod '"" unu.<ilbcty. Wh.>. ;. mud> oought is criterion by
which ....i.i'.., Law IWlJ boo judpd u j .... or unjuM-_ ol.n:
juslified as juK. TIle mlunlla... theoor an f"""i<k such cri-
terion ...Iy if the norms of the ",",ur:a! b.... poamtod br luI
Il<l<mO tho. <num bchovior I. jutt-ha...,
the .bool"", ,,",idi'Tlher daim 10 haft; !hi> mana: il they ""'.
c1uoU thc validi.y 01 nortnI which pr<:OCribt the <>ppOloi.c bt-h...ior
as j ...... He"'".';."., 11K hi.c",., of the un]\ theorl' ohowI tNl
,hi> i. not the <20<, "'toO<l ill 1M urn.to hcoor undm.akes to
(\(,..,.",in.. tbt CQII''''' of the nonm tlu in ",,,......
(may M d<'ducod from natu.e) i. """ Clught in the s/larpn' """.
11':"1'. The rq>rcscnt:lli ... of ,hu th....,. ha,'. not proclaimtd 0 ...
Damn! law but .ewT"l ""I'}' nalur.l law. conflicting Wilh
each o'h..... Thi, is p"rtkularly lTUe fOT thc f"ndamen,al quatiom
of proper'Y and fonn 01 government. Acton:ling to one "awn!-
la... ,hto,.,. only individual proptny. :te<<><diog '0 looth., only
coll",,'iv. pmp<Tly; ,,",,",ior 10 one only dcmOCTaCy, >Ot'tIing to
.r>oth.". ",,11 aulOC."nC"f a.e """uol: th>.l ;o. jwt.' Any p"'il;ye
law ,Iu, wilh the Ntunl bw of on<: Ih""'1' and lhefe.
judgnl cooBict with the ....uol low of the Oth....
heo<'y and d'dd.." .. io judp<l ....nj....: Na.unl.bw."-1 as i.
xtuall'y .... and I. annat he dtnl........ di ......I-,-..
br 'rum p>riding the m..moa *",p<'Uod cl it.
Simibrl1, the _",;on <Ju......unl-bw thftwy,...... an.1>-
oolu,e a........ '" the qUOllion .. '" the """"'" f.... lhe ....Iidity of
...., low. io ilD ilhu;on. Such a theory IftI the t'UlM1 for the
...Iidlty of low ;n the natu...' \.ow. lhal is, in an 0flIer
atabliol>ed br nature" authority ...ndillll: .he
hu....n legUb'",. In thil _ unl bw, 100. i. that
I.. po.ili.... b...-pmi,ed. however by a human bu. br. super
hu"'on ,,ill. T"",. n,"'ollaw lhffll"l' an astel1_l.hQUgh it
annot f"'O"e .. a !ac'-lh" nl'''''' command> ,Iu, men ough, '0
behove in , e......in ....1. RUl I;nce, fae' e.nn'" be .he for
'he .-.Hdhy of" norm. 50 'hereFore, logk.lly correct not",.,II.,,
lheory cannot d.... y 'hOI' pmlth. I.w. confomlinJl: wllh n.tu,.,!
law. c'n he imerpre,nI at nHd only if ,h. IlOml ;1 p.a"w-l
'hOI "1": One ough, '0 obey 'he command' of .uu"...: Thi, i
he "'"it norm of no,,,... 1 Tt>e na.unlbw ,heory. ' ..... nn
give only a conditional an,wer to the q.....tion ao to ,be real()Jllor
the voJidi,y 01 pooiti.e law. II the na'urallaw lheory ....r"': "The
norm th.. one ought to obey the command. of n>lure i...ll
evident," the theory or.... Thi.> a",""ion i.> unull3ble. No< only in
general becau.e th",e can be no .df..,vident non", of human be
havior; but abo in particular, beeaule thi.> norm, much 1"" th.n
any other. can be said to be ..U..,vident. From the point of view of
science, n.tnre i. a '1",em of causally determined elemenu, Nature
h no ",ill .nd th",efore cannot en'ct nOrtll. Norm. can be
a.. umed .. intm.nem in n.tnte only if the will 01 God i....ume<!
to be manifested in natu,e. To "'y .hat God in nature ., a mani.
festation of hi, will comm.nd, men 10 beb"e in eer... in way, i. a
metaphy.ical as>ump,ion, which canno' be accepted by ..ience in
general and by legal ..ience in porticular, because .lCienti6c cogni.
,ion cannot have .. its objecl' fact which i. aosumed '0 e"i" be
yond all posoible
4\ The Comlitul,,,,,
The peculiarity of the law that it "gul.t'" iu own c"a,ion, h..
been pointed out before in Ihese ThiJ c.n be done by a
norm detormining merely the procedure by which another norm
i. to be cre.ted. But it can be done al ... by a norm detormining. 1<1
a ceruin ""tent, the content of ,he nDnn to be cre.ted. Since, be
cause olthe dynamic charaet... ollaw, a norm i, volid bec2use, and
10 the extem that, it h.d been create<! in a certain w'y. tha, iI, in a
w.y detennined by another nOnll, therelore tha, other norm i. the
immediate r.,.,.,n lor the validity 01 the new norm. The ula,ion
.hip be,wn ,he nOrtll that ugula",. ,he cr..,ion of .nother
norm and the norm created in conformi,y ",-i,h the former C'n be
metaphorically presen,ed .. a relation,hip 01 ,uper and .ubordin.
tion. The norm which regul",'" ,he creation of another norm is
the higher, the norm cre.ted in conformity ,.,-hh th. former i.
the lower one, The legal onleT i. nOt. '1"'cm of coordinated
non", of equal level. but a hierarchy of different level, of le-
gal norm. lu unity i, brought about by the connection ,hat re-
.ul .. from the hct that the validity 01 norm, c..ated according
to another nann, ,es" on ,h., oth norm, who,,", aea'ion in <urn,
i, d.",nninrd by it third one. Thi' is" regrc..ion 'ha' ultimately
end> up in the ptt.uppo<ed bo.,ic nonn, Thl. b;uic norm, there.
foro, i. the highest rea>on fur 'he validity of th" norm" one created
ill (onfonnity wilh anoth",. thus fonning" l<gal l"d<r in iu hier
archical structure,
Considering. to l>tgin with, only a national ltga\ order. the con-
.titution '.p,..,."nu me high.., ,cHI of po;<i'i'" Jaw, "Con"i,",
tion" i. lInd.mood here in iu material ",me, 'ha' is, we undot
"and by cun.ui,u';on 'he po>itive nann or nor"" which regulate
'he e...,a,;"n of gco...l legal nonIl!. Th, con"i,u';"n may be ere.
.,cd by <,,"om "r by a 'j>'ific K' "",formed by one or ...,,,,,raJ
individual . 'ha' is, by a 1<gUla,i acL 1n the latter c;uc it is
alwaY' formulated in a document and hence called a "writte""
c<>""i'u,i"", in wn<radi"inction to the "unwritten" consti'ution
brough' about by cu.tom, Tbe m.terial constitution may com;"t
pardy of norm, uf wrille" and partly of unwritten I.w, The un
written norms of the constitution may I><' codified; and if 'hi.
codifiClition I, the work o! a I.,...reating organ and thorelot<'
acquit<'. binding forre, it becomes a ""ine" constitution.
The constitution in the material "n'e must be distingui.hed
from the constitution in 'he formal . e n ~ , n.mely a document
called "constitution." which. a. written constitution, m.y con,.in
not only norm. regulating the creation of general norm' (,ha, i',
legidatioo), but .1"" norms concerning other politically impor.
tant ,ubjects; and. beside<. "'galation. according to which the
norm, contained in thiJ document may be aboli,hed or amended
_nO/; like ordinary ,lamIC. but by a .pecial procedure and under
more rigorou, condition'. The....gul.tions ,epr..."t the COlUti
tutional form. and the docuJnent to whose content ,he.. regula.
tion. refer, repre..nts the constitution in a fotmal lense, which m.y
include any d..i,ed conlOn!. The purpose of the regulatio", which
",nd.,. mo", di!focult the .bolltion or .mendment of the con"n,
of 'he constitution in a formal .."'" i. primariiy to .tabili", the
normo de.ignated h.,.e as "'material con"itution" .nd which are
the positive_legai b,..i. of the entire na'ionallegal order.
In. mOOCTU legal order. ,he creation (regulated by the material
constitution) of general legal norm, has the e h a ~ t ... of legi.b.
<ion, The constitutional regulation of legisl.tion determines the
TIn, DYNAM'C .... OP .....w
orgoJU authori.ed to croate gener.I1 legal notm>-.tatm.. and
ordinan<:es. I[ the COUTto .hould be r<garded a. authoriRd to
cu.tomary law aiSCI. ,hey noun be authori'.ed by the cOJUtitution to
do ICI in the .. me way .. they mmt he amhorized to apply "alUte.
In other word" the comti'ution lIlu" in"itUle a, a l,,",'<roa,ing
ran the cu.tom <:onstituted by .he beh.vio. of 'he indio
vidu.ls .ubjcct to the mtional legal order-the .uhjcc..... If the
application of cuotDmary law by com" i. comid..ed to h. 1"8:'';'
mate although 'he written constitution cont.i", no ouch amhod
"'tion. th.., the .uthori""tion cannot be con.ide,..,,) to proceed
from .n unwritt<n cU<lom<reated conotitution" but rou.. IJe
presupposed. in the .. me way .ha. it mmt be p'e>uppoocd that the
wrinen constitution h tbe charaw:r of an binding
norm if the .... tu,e> .nd ordin.nc.. i"ued in aocordance with i
... regarded .. binding legal norm.. Then Ihe b"'ie norm (tbe
c""stitution in the tran"'<ndem.llogical ""noe) insti,u"," nOt
""ly the act of the lcg,.lalor. bm .ISCI custom law<rc.,ing bc...
Th. connitu,ion of .bta,e. a. a wt;"cn constitmi"". can ap-
pear in the .pedfic form of a con"itution. that il, in norm< that
roay not be aboli.hed or amended a. ordinary Itatut.. hut only
und.. mo.. rigorou. condi,ion.. Buhi. need not be on. It i. not
on if there i' no written con"itution, if the constitution i' c..a,ed
by ,,,stom and i. not: codified; then, even norm, which have the
cbara<;ter of. material constitution may be abolWted or amended
by .imple ltatut.. or by cm.ornary law.
It i. f'OO'ihle tbat the organ .pccifical1y and (onnally ,ulhori<ed
to cr...,ehoH'h. or amend ''''u'e. haring Ih. character of. enn
"itution i. different (rom thc 0'San amhori.ed to cr....., .bo1ioh.
or arn<nd ordinary .tatme.. For examplehe fanner funCtion
be rendered by an organ different from .hel.,... orgon in comf><>"
.ition and electoral ptoccd.ure.uch a. a constituent national
....mbly. Bm umany hoth function..... performed by the same
The con"itutlon regula.ing .he cre.tion of general norm.
(."'tu.eo) may .100 determine the content of future ".tut..: pooi
tive entu.itution. do this frequently by pr...:rihing or excluding
certain contenta. Tbe (OTIllCl ca.c reprfiCn" u,ually only. prom.
Iso of Ram... to b<': created, not an obligation to create .uch
p. "II.
,tatuto" becau"" for logal.tochnicol ' ...lOm ,he nODcreation of
'tatu,e. with a .cttain content cannot .,,;Iy he connectod with a
"""lion. The exclusion of ,Um,.. wiLb certain contents, howevcr,
can IN, .ff"",ro .....i., bj" .. <:<>nstitutioo. The ",,,,,log of fundo.
memal righ" and frredom. which tl'pically con"i,u'.... pari of
modem COl1.!'ilUlloll.<. j, ...."'ially an attempt to pr,,'m, such
lUlUt... Th. attempt i. e/fective if the cuuion of .ncb a ""me
(for example, .. law ,h.., viola'", freedom of come;e""" or equal.
ity) i. placffi under ,he ""rsonal =po",iLili'j' of cCTtain
parlicipa,ing in iu creation. mch., the chid of ,tate or a mini.ter.
or il ,he p<mibili,y of com.uing and aboli,hing .nch ....'u is
pTovided; all ,hi, under the prauppo.ition that the oro!"..y
".tul. doa no, have ,he power to .OOli,h or ""'end tatute hav
ing 01 comtitution it d..ermin..
ordinary ..alUte', and ,hal ,hi, statutc can I><
abolished or amcnded only rigorous .. ,uch
.. majority, incrco<cd quorum, and Thi.
,ha, cotlSlill"ion preocrib.. far i" abolition or a
from and diff",ult ,han thc
provided {or ordinary Icgi,btion; that thore b..ide. the
fon" <.>1 ordinary .UtulC... 'pe<;i/ic lorm of statute.< having the
01. constitution.
b) Legi.lal;on and CUllom
N.xt down in hi'T>TChy, .ft<r thc corntitution. th.
nOfm' e"ated by or custom. Thc corutitll,io,,"
01 modern 'pe<;i.l organ.' .uthori<ed to
thc nnrm, to I>< .pplied by thc courts .nd .dmini.
trati"c organ', The level of creoting thc constitution i, followed hy
I....d of creating ordin,,)' .tatute. which, in tUrn, i. 10110",.<1
by of judicial and administrative p-.-ocedllr... However,
thcrc need not I>< three It i, I"""iblc that co,,"ti.
tution d"", not 'pecial legi.lati,'c organ, hut directly au.
thori,.. collrts and admininrative organ. to thmuclvc.
norm. they con.ider expedient or jll" to I>< applied in Concretc
co>c. We .h.1l dio<;u.. meh i",tanc.. lat"'. Far pre>cnt we .hall
only con.ider the normal ,itu.,ion; a legal ord.r which ;n.. i,,,, .. a
'p<:<ia11'1l'islad\" organ.
THIt Dy........C .....>:cr OF ....W u,
"Ibc "",ure of the Iqio4Un: orpn isone of Lbc _ .... port.oJl'
boondctnmining W oo-aJlcd lono> of SO""cm",mt. If UIC orpn
is ""'&k individual. a bn-tdiw-y """""'reh or a dictllOf who
a<'1Wrcd his powu by a .cYDIutioa. we ipCU of autDCnocy; if i. is
aD aooc:m.bly of the cD.;"e popuLo,;"" or a parli.lmcn. tkc.ed tor
the peopIc. of df:DKloa<y. Only in a daa>ocn.tiII: LrfUb.ioa arc reg-
ubu.- required m,,, dncrmiM w lqislauvc proadure. which
IICre J:DCam.: panicipa.ion in die popular asocmbly or in the clec-
.ion oflhc ..... lbO' r...mboerof i.. m....bc.... 'M p....,ccdings
to fWI rnolu.ioos. All Lbnc .qub'ions arc pan of 1M .... 'erial
""""huIi"", evcn if Ihey do '10( in all c;I appear in Itt< form
of II <"""im.ion bu. 1I ordinary ,u If. in additiOtl to <he
ordinary ltgisL..i"" orgall. a c<><llti,u ' tional a....mbly .xiot"
and if in a con,,;,ulional .talu,e Cleated by Ihi. laueT organ (for ex
ample. in '.'u'e lh., .",e"dt <he ltgi,)a,i,e pro<cdu,e). ,h.
ordinary I.gi.lalive organ i. aUlhorizcd 10 enuI an .Icetoral .....
uhen .he 1"".1 of <he "'''''ecul con"i'u,ion;' again .pHt ill .wo
emcnl lcgal nOT crealed by lcgUIaoion are wnodoUfJy
pool.ed oonn.. Tbc tlllO. CORO'ilUlC 1<&iWo.ioo lie norm-
cr......ing aclS, .h," i.. wir ",bjcet."'" meaning is an Tbc
conu.i.utioa ckva.ts Ibis ",bj...i.... mnniDg '" a.. objectiye ......
C$Ulbiishing "'" bcr of lqUIation as a bW<fali"l bet.. Bul the
oomti.utioa lIlay aloo aoablioh cultOal as low<at.iroa bet.. This
bcr is, ditc"ed cui , char:tctcrirftl. tor tbc cimt.......1ICC
............ bclaagina: 10 Icgal communily bcha"" "tIdcr tbc
J;WICciK"m.. rva in tbc IllllC way; <hal mis bcbayior \ilks plac.
for II sullicicntly Ionll .ime; alO<l tlu. in the individual. whole xII
con"i.ute doc clUtom Lb. collec'i"" will ariots .ha. one ou.. to
bc!lay. in <Ju ..,.y. Thm thc ",bjectiYe mcaning oI'M bell .ha.
con";,u,e "'" euot"'" i. aD """,b."_he mcaninll WI one ough.
to behaye an::ording 10 Cullom. How""...., the ",bjcc.iye meaning
of lh. fac. of cu''''''' ""'1 be itllerpre.ed aI objcc.ivcly ""lid legal
nonn only if the ,hu. fact i. i""<lIltcd by th. COltI,i",.
lion a. nonn-crcaling.
Tnditional science of law ","umel tha. opin;" nUt.uil4lU i. an
nfCnlul com!""'.... of lhe lacll of CU'lOm. Thal io lOIy thal lh.
acll which conni'ute .he ewwm mull tal. plac. in .he belief w,
0. pp., ..... .,t
they "",hI'" tau plo. 8uI Lh" opinion prauppc.ct an iDdiYid.
ual collective act of will wboot ...bjt.ivc !Man;.. is 'ha' CICIe
ouch- 10 bch'm, KCOnii.. to CustOaL If c........'Y 1>.., liu outu-
IOrJ law, is paoiti..., low, thm tbtnI: ",uot be au iadi't'idu.al 00" col
Iect;'., act of will wb,oo( ...bjcain _ning it 1M Ho.oll..
is inlDJl<w:d .. oOjca.inly nlid <lOI1II. as CUSlOGloI'T law.
A! <t:lted eul..... nw......,. l.Iw ....y be appliftl by ,hot 1Iw-
appl)'ina orpnl only illhey an be rq:mIcd as &1Iu-izccl \hereto.
if <his aulboriaation .. not confnTCd by the WWlitll.ioo in tht
poIi,;ve-ltpl "'..... (tha. is' if CUStoDl .. no< imti,uted by the coo-
Mi.u.>oa in the pooi.i....lopl as a Jaw<reo,iRl 1.00:.). 1.1.." i.
mUK bc preouppoocd 'hat cU'lOm as a law<ttuing fact i' already
in"i'"'M in the lwic norm a. the "cormitu.ion" in .he
'nnoccndcmal.I"ll;cal sen",. Thi. m",: a ba.ic nOll" mil be
prc'upposed which i"",,", nol only ,h. fac. of ,he OUlion of.
consti'u,ion, but also the fact of a qualified <""om a. law...:ruling

Thil i .., also if tbe cO''''''''';on of the lrg:al communi., i. no<
crea'<:<! by a lcgWativ. act bu. by CUllOm. and if the law-applyi"ll
otplU are wmid..... &II,t-i.<cd 10 apply CWtOllW'}' law, Thlt
oi.IOa.;';'" anno< be inltTpt'e.nt '0 D>UJt <ha. euHOnl is imt.i""nt
as a Iaw<ttaUog act by tlu: twtOCa<uoted. <ha. is. pooi.i_ltpl,
coouti.u.ioo. This would be a ptt;tit> prireripii. For if <ht poNli_
Itpl a>nstiw,loo. <lw is. a norm w. rtpIaus <ht era'''''' 01
Jtrttf2I ......... can be anted tor cwoom. tltta il m.... a1rady be
po_ppooed W, cw<oo>t It a Ia..-...:rtating bet. Thil
<ion can only be <ht bMit """"'. tlw is. <ht con>Li....ion in <ht
tnntcmdmLll-Iogicallmlt. Tbm u.. nrlit:NDtfllionod facl is
pl'CItfIt. <hal tht baric norm don t>OI. met" dinotoly '0 a
.ion in the pooiUe'-kpl lCIUe and ODly indirectly to the 1"g..J
ordtf aubli>bed in ac:eonl.ulCe wi<h th.>, corulil... ion. bu. tJiru'l-J
to <he ltpl Old.... crn<td by CUllom. Thi. i, pu.io:ulady ,rue with
,,"pect 10 .h" baoie norm of gen....l imem.a.i""al la..., whoot
nOm.. or" cre.ted by im"mallonal cUltom .nd .pplied b,. lh. or
pn. of 'he individu.l .1lI ...,
SII.utory law and cuJlOt1Ulry l.w cancel =h other according to
.h" principle of the lu fJoI.trior. How.v..... a ron"i.mion.ll.... in
.he formal ...... may not be aboliohcd by.n onlin.,..,. ....""t-<lCJlr
"cr. p. ODL
q:oiD by 3 oocutituoiona. law; bu...........'1' \:ow don ha'," 3
CUla1iD& dea in ",tatJo.. to a lonJW wmti...uonal taw, and
in rdatioot to. lomuol lIl$titutianal taw !hal aprraJr 0<-
dllCla do( app1ia.WIa 01 CUM........, la....
The ........lo... CU1I(IIII. it lIw-arating faa is 'l't I by an-
od>tr 'tint according to which thil bet has Do bar
only dbn.torJ charxte1"; thaI. .. SaYigny tau aid. NO_ it
'M hodge. and not th( ori:gin. 01 ... law.N Thio lIK'fdy "".
prexo'Mth--r adnnd by th( c.rmm lIistorial School .....
La.. II tWthn Cttt'M by l'l1i....tion nor by cwlOm but only by.""
Popular Spin. (VoJ.ll,eoJ,): ,ha. titll.... method ",..ely .teenai,..
the n:iSlcnee of taw that had ....lid ""'0. The same
.hough. i dvanctd by a French ooeiologic>l '''eoI1' with the dil_
,......... th>t h'''' the Ja... i' nOC cTnlt<! by ""1",,.111 bill by solid-
or;11 sodol. (Leon Duguil' L'tol, I, droil objec/i! <11010; po,;'
ti"", 1!J01, pp. 80 If,. 616).
According to both IheoriQ, the law, only ue....
tain"" (not created) by ]OS'll.,;OI1 or maom, all claim valMlity
bta....,. and 10 far ... it it the l't'pI'O<luction of. prc-ni.ing I....
Doth Ihcmies uc """,ely ,..rianu of the ""tun'.b.. doctrine,
wboK d liml (of on<: law cru,m .". 'UTe and one cn:a."J bJ
man) it , tul in the d-wilm 01 <11K 13 produced by yt>lk.q..w
." 1O/iUri1i _We and .... Ia.... n:produad cw..
tonL What has been Did apin.. ,he ........,.I.Ia.... docnine is applic.
able 10 !hex o:wo theotiet. Ftoa'I the point 01 \iew oIa pooiu>Utic
theory 01 Ia.... ....bich (UO nritbn" _me the ""iM.mce 01 an
imat;ina..,. IlOr 01 an o:qualJy imagi.....,. 0<>-
riole, the <omt.i....ive. tha. is, the blf-c<a'inKo func.1cn 01 cuo.
10m in. indubitable" ..... oIlqii1alion..
The quction 01 whnher a bW-<:mlung cu_ it presen' may
he d""'i<kd only by ,'''' law...pplJ'Rtl otgan. This facl w,.. oca
,ionally 'IP: bou' of 'he doctrine 'bat a rule uprming the cw..
"""'IT1 heh.ovior of mttl becomes a legal""",, only by rognition
on 'he part of a low C<luil which appli" 'hi' rule; and ,ha, th.......
fore ,h. norm. of .,,"o"'ary law ue Cfcat.d by the la.. coum. YOI.
the ..elo'ion of the lo...applying organ (especially ,he 10.. court)
...... 1"1 .... ..-do> pooio' oIdo' _ EMM
"' <L' PYlooIrido Karl _ ......,. Ir_ho ....,
,oward (u>tOmAry law U no dilfe,ent from that toward 'tatlllory
1.w. For an organ who h.. to apply. n<>rm crealM by cu""'"
"",erl.in, 'he fact of (u>lorn (<hat is. doidco 'he que.tion whetheT
nOrm he i. about <0 apply was actually ,rcat..! by way of en..
lorn) prtti,ely in ,he same manner ao an organ who h:u to apply a
ooom crealM by ."....... iTU ,h. faCt of legislation (that
i., d""id.. ,he quell;oD wheth a norm h. ibout to apply was
neated by ""ar of legi,lation). Thi. b"er ques,ion may <a,ieT
to amw...., and <II"", organ. may ,h.",,(o,.., be I",. con.<:ioul oJ it
than of the qu..';OII ",hetheT a nOTm h:od been <ro"M by (""om,
if the ,l;i.tu, h.... boten published in an oIIici.l gazo"e.
Yel. the law_applying organ'. func,ion. namely '0 ."",,,.in the
e:<.i"encc of DOnn to be applied (Ih., i. ilJ con"i'u,i"n.l crea-
lion). i, ,he same in both in'tone",. And in both in"aru:elI doe
gene....] Irgal norm ex,,,. ae3ted before the l,w'.1pplying act. To
be tru., the .scer... inment of the f.ct by the bw""pplying mg,n
ha. con"itutive character. a, w. mall have occa,iotl to di",u" in
d.... il; but tbi. co",titutive a",.ttainn,.nt h... r"m3;'" !orr.
The fact i, consider.d to be exi"ent f,om the tim. a!<.Ttained by
th.law.applying organ, not fmm the tim. 01 the a"'alOinm."t."
The validity of c""omary law within the lrgal community i,
limited in",far a, the applka,ion of the general cmtom<u3ted
norm. to COllcr.t. c.... m.y take place only through .t3tutory
la"-that i. to lOy through deci.io", repre..nting individual
nonn' .nacted by ac", of ,,-ill 01 law.applying organ e,ped.Hy
courU. The differene. betw."" the l.w<rea,ing fUllCtion of a 1"".
i.l.,i,'e organ and th. )aw<,.ating function of a court comi't' in
that nmm, c'e3tet\ by the fo,mer havc-nonnally-a gener.l. the
norm. crealed by thc latter. nmmally, an individual charactcr."
A politically import3nt difference between ''''tutory I"," and
customary 13w i, the fact <flO' the fonnor i, created by a rclati"cly
centrali.ed, the latter by r.lativ.ly decent"li=:! proccduTe.
Statut.. are <T.ated by ,ped.l organ> who atppointed fm thi,
purpo.. and who function according to the prineiple of divi,ion 01
I.!>or. The nonn. of custom"y law. On ,h. o'her hand, are created
by the beh.vior of the individual. who aTe .ubject to the I'gal
ord.r. In the former, the nonn-C<""ng authority and tlte nann.
"cr. p, 'w.
-Cl.! N.
I>Y>;AMtC ASPI:CT OP .....w u,
,ubjected individual> are not iden.ic.l; in the l.tter th")' ore, at
least to JOme degree. To ""mider the fact of a law<reating custom
.. being exincnt, it is nm necessary for.n individualo obligated or
entitled by the cmtom<reated norm, to p.rticipate in the crea'10n
0/ the custom; ir i' ,umcient .hat the ,we-.whelrning majority do,
th", it i' P'J"ihle th.t individuals are bound by. custom<reated
norm in who,e cre..iOTl they did not take part. Tbi' i' particularly
true i" a norm of customary law tb.. had become valid JOme .ime
'go, For thi' reaJOn it i' incor""t to interpret customal)' law", "a
t.cit ""ntraet," a, i, JOmetim". done, e'peci.lIy wi.h r..pec' to in
ternational c",tom.l)' law,
c) SI4lUle 4nd Ordin4nce
The le...,1 of lhe creation of general legal "orm>-regulated by 'he
""mli'"tion-," the form.,ion of the "a.ionalleg.l onJer i' ,,'u
.111' di"ided into tWOOI more level . At this point we mention only
.be distinction betwnn st>tu"'S and ordinanc..; it i. important
".pecially when the ""n"itutiOTl confe-., the crea.ion of general
norm, (statuta) in principle upon a popularly electro ["',Hament,
hu' permi'" the detailed elaboration of ,he sta'utebrough gen.
e-..l "orm' which are i.."ed by admini"""ive orgam, or au
thori,.. the gove-.nment. ;IlStead 01 the parliamen', '0 i.."e all
nett....'y 01 ..,rtain general norm, In the event 01 excep'ion.l
circumstallC"., The general norm. i"ned by an .dmini>trative
.utlmri.y are called "onJinan..,." and may either elaborate or reo
place ....",... The latter are called onHnan..,. wi.h "at",ory
effect. The-.e exi.... therefore, a .peciftc ,tatu.0l)' form. just a.
there ""i,u a ,pecific con"i'u.lon.1 form. We .pe.1:. of law in the
10rm.1 ",ooe in contradist'nc'ion '0 law in 'he m..e-.lal ",n... The
latter d""ign""" .ny genenllegal norm; .he forme-. eilher a
eral legal ""rm in the lorm of. 'ta.ute. th.t i,. a senenl leg.l
norm adop'ed b)- parli.mennd publi.hed In a cettain w.y a'
de'ennined by mos. cUrt,dtu,ion,; <:>r othe-....i,. an\, COntrn' ap.
I"'''ring in .hi, form. Therefore. the 10rm "I.w in the forma]
......... i' ambiguous. Unambiguo", i' merely ,he concept of , ..to
tory form in which may apl"'aT not only the gene-..l norm1, b",
0100 uthe-. contents. including those who>e '''biec,lve I,
no' even a norm, Tn this Cate"'e ore dealing with. leg-dill' itrele
vont cOD[ent of a statute. W. have discu>&ed thi. in a diffeTen' con
<f) Malma! and Form.1 lAw
The gcnera.llrgal nornu c'eOlod by aC" aiming at the creation of
law (.tatul.. and ordinanc..), and the gentrall<'gal norm. created
by cn.tom, Ofe to be appliod by the organ. cOIn?,,"n' to ""e",i-",
this fun<;tion--<onr.. and wmini>lrath'e authorities. Th.... law
applying organ. have to be designat.d by the l<'gal order, that is: it
mult be determinod under which condition. a certain individu.l
function. as a judge or adminimative orgon. fktideo, ,h. proc..
dUTe has to be d.,.rmin.d in which hi. function_the appliC>lion
01 gen..-.l 1<'g31 no'mo-i. to be .x.rdocd. Th. gentral no,m,
which .ttach.. to an abstractly determinod fac,an ablt"'ctly d.'.r
minod con""lu.nc., need. individu.liza,ion in otdtt to be applied
in a Concr.,., ca..,. It mn", be a""".tainod whethtt in concreto a
fac, i. 1".""" which ,he gen.....l norm h.. d.terminod in ab
.t<aclo; and for thi< conc'. 0-'" a conett'e coerciv. acl mu.t be
ord"n,d and then .xecut<:d....... I50 determinod ;n .b'trocto hy the
gene",1 norm. Therelor. the applicalion of gtne",l norm '0 a
cone,."te c"'" con.i... in the creation of an individual no,m_in the
"indi,'idualllation" or "concretization" 01 a gentt.1 norm. Con",
quemly the lunction 01 the gene...1 norm to be appliod m.y al50
con.i" in de,.,rmining th. content of the individual norm to be
crC3t<:d by .n :tet of the jndiclal or .dmini"...tive .utho,ity.
Hmce th. gene.,1 nonn, to be appli<:d by judicial or admini"....
,iv. orgaOJ have a double function: (1) detttminatio
01 the",
organo and of the procedure to be obscrvtd by them: ('J d.ter.
mination of ,h. content of [h. individual nor"" 1(> be c'eattd in
Ih. judicial 0' admini.trative pmctdme.
Th..., two functiuno corr..pond with the two catcgc>ri.. of 1 ~ 1
norm. u.nally di"inguiohtd: Ihe norm. of fonn.] l.w and the
nonno 01 material law. Formal law i, the generol norm, regulating
'he org.niution and proctdu'e of ,he cour" and adminiotr;ttiv.
authoriti.., nam.ly ,h. civil, criminal. and admini""";"e pto-
""odingo. Mat.rial law i. th. general norm, th.t dc,...mine th.
conten" 01 judicial and admini"...tiv. act!, and whfch a"" ,.".
"ria DyN"M'C ....PE(:1" OP ....W
forrtd to .. civil law, criminal law, and admini"rati.. law, al
,hough ,h. nonus lha, regulate lh. procedures of ili. law cou,,"
and admini.trativ. agencies are ci..il law, criminal law and admin
i":ra,i.. law nO 1.... Abo, about ilie nornu to be
.pplied by th.... organ. on. usually think& of the mllt",ial civil
law, criminal law, and admini"ratiye law only, althoogh material
civil, criminal, and adminutraliye la"" cannot be applied without
.imul ...neou,ly applying formal (proctdutal) law. Mat.r;al and
lonnal law itJstpatably connecttd wilh each other. Only in
th.ir organic combinalion do they constitute law 1M, regulate' its
own c.... 'ion and application. Each rule of law that compl.t.ly de-
scribe. thi> law must eon...in the formal .. well the materi.l .1.
m.n... A rul. of law d.scribing a "om, of criminal law lOU" be
formulated_much .implified .... n at tMt-app",,,irnately a. fol
low., "If an individual has committed a cfime d.. in a
general lego.! nonn, thon an organ designated in a general l"!ral
norm (a law court) ought tu ord.r a sanction. determined in the
fonn", leg-al nonn in a procedure d.tefmintd in a gen.ral legal
norm." We >hall "'" later that a still m"," complicated formula.
lion i. nec.....ry, nalody, "Il an organ. whost nomination i> de
tennined by a general legal norm, has ;ucertaintd, in a pracedu,"
determined by a general l.gal nonn. that fact. afe pr...nt '0
which a g.ne....1 legal norm .,tach.. a "'rlain 53nction, then
Ihi. org;>n ought to order a sancdon detrrmintd in Ihe earlier
men,ioned leg:sl n"nn. in a procedure d.termin.d by g.nrnl
leg.1 no:rm." Thio formulation of the rule "f law. ,hen, .how5----1lnd
therein li.. the eo.sential func,ion '" Ihe rul. of law describing the
I.w_he .yst.ma'ic conn..:,i"n betwren the SCK3.11ed formal and
the SCK3.11ed material law (that i., be,ween ,h. d.termin.,ion of
the delict and the ..nction on ,he one hand and ,he dctennination
of lhe law-applying organ and hi, procedure on th. other).
The r.la,ion be,ween the gene....llrgal nonus and their applica
,ion by judicial Or admini>ttativ. organs i.....nlially the same.,
that r"i"ing between the Hllli,itntion and ,he cre.tioo of grnr....l
legal no:rnu d.t.nnined by it. The creation of gmerallegal nonn.
i. an application of the constitntion in the same ..-ay that the
application of the gm....1 legal norm' by judicial o:r admin;"'.
,i..e organ. i, the of individual legal normS. Ju" .. the
grnerallegal norm. created by legi.lation or cu.tom are lonnal1y,
and ptthaps aloo matcrially, rletCTmin..J by ,h. "<>TOl' of ,h. ron_
"it"tlon (that is. by norms 01 a highCT le,-d) in ,h" "'me way
,h. illdi.id"al norm. c.eated by judicial or admilli",..,h'. 0<,>-
materially a' well a' lom1ally----<le,ennined by general norm. of
.tatutory or <u'LOmary law (that iI, nom", of higher le,'d). !Iu'
the rela,;on be,w" the formal and the mata..l dement i. diffCI'
ent in ,he twO instances. The con"i'u,ion (in the material st"..
<>, the word) u."any only de,em,ines ti,,, organ< .n<! ,be proce-
dure o1lrgi.Ja,ion and leav,", the detCTminalion of the content of
the .t."" ... LO ,he legisl";,,, orga",. The con"itntlon detennina
only (and dl;ti"cly only in " ntgativc """) the
ron"'"" of the .tatuto. to be <rea,ed, by excluding .....taln con
As lat law crtatinn by ,,,"om, the con"i'nt;on tan dolcga'e
only ,he procedure charac,cri>.cd .. 'cu",om." Thc consti'u,ion
canno, exclude a certain content af the leg.1 nonns created b}' cu..
tom, hc<;au"" the constitution a form.l, written con
"itutiOll-...<an be changed by legal normS croated by Cu",om. The
geoenl legal norms created in acwt<lance wi,h ,he conSlimtia",
hawev. not only detormine the otg'"' by Which, and the proce_
dure. in which, they are to be applied, but also-albeit in va,iou.
dcgrec>-the C""tom of the individual norm. th.t reptc..,n, the ju_
dici.l ded.iom and .dmioiot"'tive dec...,e. In criminal law ,he
p'ed<tctmina,iotl of ,he cuntent of judicial deci.io", usu.lly goe.
very far, -00 that thedi",re,ion of the criminal wUtt in creating the
ittdividuallcgal norm rep,..,..,med by its deci.ion i. 'elati,'ely lim_
ited. In admini",..,ive law the di'Cretion i. u.ually ex,.",ive. In
o,her wonil: The con"i'u,ion h predominantly tbe charnete. of
fo'mall.w. where... ,!Ie iromediatdy ittferio. level of law cre.,ion
ha. the cbaraClet botb of fonn.1 and material law.
e) Th. Soute.. of lAO!
Legi.la,ion and cmtom arc often referred to", tbe two ""'u""""
of "Iaw"---meaning by law only the general norm, of national law.
DUllhe individual norm. are al-oo "I.w," ju" a. much part. of the
legal order as 'he genCTal norm. on which 'heir creation i. based.
And if imemalion.l law i. con.idered, ,hen "nly cu",om and
treaty, nat legisla,ion, can be con.idered to be ,he ""'urcc" of thiJ
Source of law i. a figuTe of .peh. which ha. mOTe than one
m.aning, h can mean only lh. m.thod. ju" menlioned. but
all metho'h of law creation, or ","'ery higher nOTm in ,..,lalion to a
lower norm whme eT...ion it regul"... Therdot<. by "soute<: of
law" may aloo "" m.anl,h. ,..,.",n for lh. validity of. law. panic_
ul'Tly the ul'imate r..."". the ha.ie norm of a leg.l order. Actu_
.lly. how....er. only the po>iti r"'n for ,h. validity 01 legal
norm. that i., the high.r po>iti legal norm 'ha' Tegulat.. ito cTea-
tion. is called "source:' fn ,hi. "'noe. 'he comti'ution i. ,h. >ouTee
of 'he generttllegal norms c,..,ated by legillation or cunom; a gen
enl legal norm is the ",uree of the judicial decision (i.., of ,h.
indi ... idual norm) hy which the g.ncnl nOTlO i. 'pplied; but the
jndicial decision i''''lf may"" Tegarded .. the SOnrce of 'he obliga_
'ion OT Tight of ti,. con..nding parti.. eatablished by the decision.
Or a' the !DUrcc of 'he a"thorintiot' of the organ who has '0
""ecnte this deci,iOTt. A<;cordlng to a pool,i,-i"ic theo'y of law. the
""UIT.c of law em only"" law.
The ""p'=ion. llOwer, I. 'loed alllO in a nonjurinic ..n"" il
thereby all conception. arc designa'.d which actually influent'C
the law-c,..,ating or law.applying function, .uch a' motal and polit-
ical principles. legal th.ori.., expert vi.ws. Th.", SOurc" mu!t be
dilling'li.hed from lIOut'CCI in the s.n.. of a po;titivittic l.w th,oTy,
Th. difference betw.en th.m i' thi!' the la".r arc legally binding.
whe,..,.. the former are not, unl.u a pooitive legal norm delegates
th.m ao legal SOUTC". that i,. makes them mandatol'}'. In that ""...
how.vcr. they ."um. the charact.r of. higher legal norm. which
d..ermin.. the crcation of a lowe' legal norm. Thmbiguity of
the term .."'urce 01 law" mak., it rather un.uit>ble fo' scientific
di..u"ion. It "em' pref.",hle to ..place ,hi, figuT. of 'peh by a
term which unambiguomlj' describe' the l.gal phenomenon one
haoln mind.
f) Appli,,'llion, 4nd Ob,,,,,,,nu of lAw
At h.u been said, 'ho legal ord.r i' 'y"em of g.noral and individ
ual OOTm' conn<:<ted in such way that the cr.ation of e.ch norm
of ,hi, ,,,,'em I' determined by another and ultimat.ly hy the buic
norm, A norm il p"rt of a legal oro.. only bccau,"" it had been
c..ated according to the provision of another norm of thi, ord<-r-,
THE O""'''''''C ASPttT OF LAw
ThiJ ,c!VelSion lead. e'-cntually 101m, l'u,upp""d basi<; norm,
whicb i. not (l'Q,od aco::m:Iing 10 the p",i,ion 01 another norm.
Spcal:.ing not only <>{ the legal order, hut aho of a 1<g>.1 community
(C<><l"'tu'ed by lha, order). we can 53.y ,h.. a IrgoJ norm ;. part of
a a'Tt.in leg-II order if it WaJ "",.,ed by an organ of lhat commu_
nity and, ,hordore. by the community. But the individual who
<rcalro a norm io an mg.o of the l<gal community bee.n.. and in.
",far a. MJ function i. dettrmincd by a norm of the legal orde,
that cQlUti,u'es the community and an themo I>< .tttihuttd to
,he community," The "ttTibulion of the law.;;r<:.\ing function '0
the legal co1mnunity i. ba5Cd cxdu,ivc1y on the 1"S"1 nornl ,hat
determine. this functio". JwI .. the lrgal comtnuni,y con,i,t> only
in the l<g>.l order. in ,he I3me ""r the ..menee ..ying lb.t a norm
i. part <>f .. legal ordor 1xcIu.. il i. hy an o<g:ln of ,he legal
only mean. ,h., a nmm i. pan of lhe legal onkr be-
nu.. il i. ae<:on:Iing '0 plOvi.ion of a norm of lhi. legal
mdor and, ul,imalely, according 10 the ha.!it norm of lhi. legal
order. The ..aliulion of lhi. i. imponanl especially if a national
legod order i. in ques,ion and therdore ,he legal communily i. the
'!ale-i, ;., importan, for the umle,..tanding of the mual ,"""rlion
that il i. lhe .,.'e that crealeslhe l.w.
A norm ,h.t delermine. lhe cr",ion of anothor norm i. applied
by the creation of Ihal other norm. Applica,ion of law i. al the
.,me time crealion of law. Th..., 'wO not in absolute
oppo.idon 10 each othor .....umrtl hy tradiliooal throry. II i. nOl
quite corrt to di..ingui,h betwem law"",..ting .nd law-appl}'ing
'Cts. Becau...parl lrom the bmdorline GaS<o-the p,..upp("ition
oIlhe bic nmm and the execution of ,he coercive a-be'ween
which the leg.1 pme'" taltea place. every legal act i. at 'he ..me
lime the application ola higher nmm and lhe creation of. lower
norm. II the national legal order i. con.idered wi,hou' regard 10.
higher inlen>ationallegal order, ,hen the b..it norm in faci deter-
mines the creation of the con"itution withoul heing i"dl the ap-
plication 01 higher nonn, But lhe comlilUlion i. cre..ed in
applic..ion of the b..it norm. In application of the conotitution
the genoral lep! norm. are created by legi,lation trr and
in application of the.. gener.lllegal norm. the individual norm. of
judicial deci.ion< and .dmlni"r.ltive decr... are Only

t.g,;;'ii'E. i'll 8.' II 9.,1

.. I
.a .. 'iia. .... i,oll .. .. -i ...... Iii"
! f II i
_., <11. 1"'1." 1'1-'" ".
! r .. .. i
'!, I" f! p , " I,' i i 6
,et"L l'!,lr!!.
I .. U"".' , .... (.1. !'-i<'
S" e al r".s-
... >l_..... ....... , '. ... 51 dO-
Q, W'Q,. '" ..... g;;-"sEl .W'i!lliil ...
.. .. . i ' .... II.!,
.. J- '-.il"" ....
'.""-=','. , !:i Q; =.::"2. ",. c . 6 fa gill all -o:! IT II Q;
lliir i"rli lr 'i.li i.l.!,!!
TilE 'WNAMIC ASP(.Cr 0." ....w
cliff".", def:l'ees. Bm 'hi> determinali"" must "n'tt he 10 wuk
that the.<t in qu."io" cannot be considered .. an act of law oJ>"
plic.,ion, and it can n<VeT go'" far ,h.t the act am no loogtt be
comidcred a. an act 01 law trea'ion. Ev<n if-.:u in ,h. c.'" of a
judicial d"";,;",, ached on ,h. b<lsi' of '''''ute-nol only 'he
organ and the I'tuCedurc are de'enni"ed, but .1"" the content 01
'he dttision 'hat i. to be rendered. ,hi, niH docs no< rep,..,,,,m
merely law application but .Iso 1.w CTc3,ion. The qu...ion whe'h
or an act has ,he character (If law neation or Jaw application de
pcnili on the deg"". to which the function of the act-rendering
organ is prcdotormined by ,he legal order. But 'he,"" .,.., ael&
k'hich ..., only law application, nOt I.,,' creation. Th... >r. the
acts, mentioned before, by which the <(>eTCi,,", authOTized by
tl" legal n<>Tnll, "0 exttuted. And theTe i. an aL' of po,i,ive law
cre.,ion. which i, not 'he .pplica'ion of. positi"e leg.tl norm, 'he
en'ctment of 'he hi"ori<:aUy first con>ti'ution....hich I.kes pIa<:<:
in application of 'he presupposed. nn' po,i,ively created. b...i<:
Th' creation and application of I.... mu>! be distinguished from
'h, ob",....ancc. of I..... Law i' oh>e....ed by th.t beh.vior '0
whme opposite ittached Ihe coerd"e ac, of the u.nc,ion. It i,
'hat beh.vior. primarily, lhal avoid! the ..nction; i' is 'h' fulfill
men, of 'h, leg.l obligation eonstitute<f by 'he ..nc.ion. ere.,ioo.
pplicalion. and 'he ob"..... nce of law are "log"l func'ion," in th,
wid... sen", of Ihe term. MaiUng u'" of a posi,i,-e permission m.y
also be d..ign.wl .. 'h, obo.".v.nce of law_ In the narrow", sp"-
<ilic sen", of ,h, teon, only l.w creation and law applica,ion .re
called legal funCtion,.
g) J",.,diell'on
The cOOJlil"ti"" eh4'4el"" of the j"dk;,,/ d"iJi4n
Traditional juri.prudencc. " .. I.w applica'ion primarily. if nO,
"""lusi'-ely, in the decisions of civil and erio'ioalla... courtS. These
COUTt., in fact. when deciding a litig.tion or imposing. puni,h.
menl upon. criminal u",olty apply gene",1 legal norm, er,.ted
by l,gi,lalion or e"'lnm. Bu' l.w is .1", applied, a. has been said,
when gencratlegal nonns are created, when decrees are i""ed by
.dmini"... ,ive oJEi<:ial., and (as will be di""uosed lat.".) when leg.i
-,. '['I' pUO 0, 'j "'., ",>J>UO, U! p"[(dd.
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_!=d P"q 001'"= ;>0<1'1 01 ''1' ("'P"!lIY"H '""P :u.w
-"":) Uj) ..P""., AI'''''W lOu '.Ill"," 'p"W".... ""Wl""'OO '[
,. J:>1='q' >'O'''"I''P AI"'W ''''''1 'OU'>Up U01'1"P l"PlPll! V
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llUjl.[ww<n '.UO,","" P"'U"U'" "0 ohm
Uop""x, "! .. '1""""'''[ PO"Oj'[PUCO ooro A'w 11 qllnoqll' '>11"
,ool'!pu",""n P""'pro Allollon '[ 'p"oq "''1'0 ''1' "0
"W!' U!"''''' 0 Ulql['" p""'pu.. lOU '! '!'1' '0'1' ""!'
-lpDO, 00 .lIDO "O["U"" ''1' "'f"" pur 'lIP,,!"!d ''1' 01 ,""UO.,110j
_<I U!"U" ""P"'l 0, gJ""'U'" UllOJ Il"P 'q.L
'>I1'''''['!PUOJ 1"'''']110 Auo",n '1 UO[''''''' ''I' ",uuoJ ''II
U[ ;UO['l"P 10U["'["" pur H"P' ....!"" U['u,""
o ,,""... '['1' Ul -'''O!'1''P r"p!pn! JO ,uOj,,,,,nJ l"['u"",,, ''1'
, .. "'1'-'0 '1'1' p". =q.L 'O/JOJI'qo ul uuuu (""u,iI
''1' Aq P"Q.!l""..d "'01""'