Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 18

Idioms/Phrasal Verbs/Prepositions

Preposition

This is a word placed before a noun or a pronoun to show the relation of the
noun or pronoun with respect to anything else mentioned in the statement.

He was prohibited, not just from his father, but by virtue of his own
conscience, from using high-end products which did not fall within his
buying capacity.

In the above statement, the usage of from is incorrect.

He was prohibited, not just by his father, but by virtue of his own
conscience, from using high-end products which did not fall within his
buying capacity.

On the other hand,

The tennis players are prohibited from wearing any color except white for
matches held during the Wimbledon Open in London.

From is correctly used in the above sentence. Sometimes the same word can
take different prepositions depending on the context and meaning of the
expression. On writing a letter, a person corresponds with the other; when two
things serve similar functions in two different contexts, one thing corresponds
to the other.

Kinds of Prepositions

Simple Prepositions

At, By, For, From, in, of, off, on, out, through, till, to, up, with

Compound Prepositions

These are generally formed by prefixing a preposition to a noun, an adjective or


an adverb.

About, above, across, along, amidst, among, amongst, around before,


behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, inside, outside,
underneath, within, without
Phrase Prepositions

These are a group of words used with the force of a single preposition.

According to, amenable to, along with, away from


Because of, by dint of, by means of, by virtue of, by way of
Conforming to, for the sake of, in accordance with, in addition to
In case of, in comparison to, in compliance with, in course of, in front of
In lieu of, in order to, in place of, in spite of, instead of, in the event of
On account of, owing to, with a view to, with reference to, with regard to

He succeeded by dint of perseverance and hard work.


The chairman read the notice on behalf of all the shareholders.

Participial prepositions

These are present participles of verbs and are used absolutely without any
noun or pronoun being attached to them.

Barring, concerning, considering, during, notwithstanding, pending,


regarding, respecting, touching

Barring a few skirmishes, the country has been fairly peaceful after the
overthrow of the dictatorial regime.
Regarding the plan you have in mind, we shall be able to execute it soon
after the proposal is submitted.
Relations expressed by prepositions

Place

Went about the world


Ran across the road
Leaned against the tree
Stood behind the door
Lay upon the table
Put pen to paper

Time

After his breakfast


Arrived before me
On Monday
Throughout the year
Until tomorrow
Within a month
Ten minutes to twelve

Agency, Instrumentality

Sell goods at auction


Send parcel by post
Destroyed in fire
Heard through friend
Cut with a blade
Stunned by the windfall gain
Manner

Moving forward by inches

Fought with courage


Spoke with conviction
Worked with earnestness
Won with ease

Cause, Reason, Purpose

Labored for a good cause


Did it for good
Suffers from asthma
Shivers with fear
Took medicine for cold
Died of old age

Possession

The Palace of Queen Elizabeth


A man of means
Boy with red hair

Measure, standard, rate, value

Charges interest at nine per cent


Taller by two inches
One o’clock by the tower clock
Bought for a good price
Contrast, concession

Despite being a school drop-out, Carlton went on to establish and lead a


flourishing business.
His goodness of intent notwithstanding, he has often been misconstrued to
be led more by private interest than by philanthropy.
After all that he did for his team, the coach was not even given a befitting
farewell at the time of his retirement.

Inference, Motive, Source, Origin

His skill comes from practice.


This is a quotation from Milton.
From what I know of him, I am wary of trusting him.

Note: The same preposition depending on the way it is used, will have its place
under various heads.

Special prepositions

1. Than – This is usually a conjunction, but is sometimes used as a


preposition.

I can not pay more than fifty dollars for this equipment.

2. But – As a rule this is a conjunction. When used as a preposition, but


means ‘except’ or ‘with the exception of’.

What can he do but mortgage his property to pay off his loans.

I gave him all but one of my special stamp collections.

3. A – The article ‘a’ is sometimes used as a weakened form of the


preposition.

Her wages are hundred dollars a day.

I meet him once a week.


Words followed by prepositions

Certain nouns, verbs, adjectives and participles are followed by particular


prepositions. Though there is no one rule of the thumb to say that a particular
word will be followed by only one particular adjective, there are some
generalizations. As mentioned earlier, a particular word may be followed by
different prepositions depending on the context spoken of.

Nouns followed by prepositions

The following nouns usually take the preposition ‘for’ after them

Affection Ambition Anxiety

Apology Appetite Aptitude

Blame Candidate Capacity

Compassion Compensation Contempt

Craving Desire Fitness

Fondness Guarantee Leisure

Liking Match Motive

Need Opportunity Partiality

Passion Pity Predilection

Pretext Relish Remorse

Reputation Surety

The following nouns usually take the preposition ‘with’ after them

Acquaintance Alliance

Bargain Comparison

Conformity Enmity

Intimacy Relations
The following nouns take the preposition ‘of’ after them

Abhorrence Assurance

Charge Distrust

Doubt Experience

Failure Observance

Proof Result

Want

The following nouns take the preposition ‘to’ after them

Antipathy - Approach

Assent Attachment

Attention Concession

Disgrace Dislike

Encouragement Incentive

Indifference Invitation

The following sentences demonstrate the situations where the nouns are
followed by ‘to’

Access – This the only access to the mountain range.

Accession – After the death of the monarch, his eldest son was in line for
accession to the throne.

Allegiance – The allegiance of the people to particular brands is determined


more by the advertisements than the quality of the product.

Alternative – There is no alternative to diligence.


Antidote – The quickest antidote to vehicular pollution is to have stringent
emission norms.

Key – The key to the mystery lay with the protagonist in the story.

Limit – There is no limit to creativity in the field of film direction.

Menace – Increasing traffic is a menace to modern-day living.

Obedience – Obedience to orders is the foremost dictum in the armed forces.

Objection – Fervent objections to the camping trip led to its cancellation.

Opposition – Despite severe opposition to the employment policy, the


Government went ahead with it.

Reference – With reference to our last conversation, we are ready for an


agreement at this stage.

Repugnance – My repugnance to cigarette smoke often prevents many of my


friends to desist smoking in my presence.

Resemblance – My resemblance to my brother is often the cause of terrible


confusion.

Sequel – Scarlett, the sequel to Gone With the Wind, was not half as exciting.

Succession – In rapid succession to the previous policy, the company has


launched another consumer satisfaction campaign

Supplement – As a supplement to the regular academic activities, schools are


offering a variety of choices by way of co-curricular activities

Temptation – I had the temptation to indulge in some frivolous shopping.


The following nouns take the preposition ‘from’ after them

Abstinence Reprieve

Deliverance Descent

Digression Escape

Exemption Inference

Respite

Adjectives and participles followed by prepositions

The following adjectives and participle take the preposition ‘to’ after
them

Abhorrent Accessible Acceptable Accustomed

Addicted Adequate Adjacent Agreeable

Akin Alien Alive Amenable

Analogous Applicable Appropriate Beneficial

Callous Common Comparable Condemned

Conducive Congenial Contrary Creditable

Deaf Derogatory Detrimental Devoted

Disastrous Due Entitled Equal

Essential Exposed Faithful Foreign

Hostile Incidental Inclined Indifferent

Indebted Inimical Insensible Irrelevant


Hurtful Favourable Immaterial Impervious

Indigenous Liable Limited Lost

Loyal Material Natural Necessary

Obedient Obliged Offensive Opposite

Painful Partial Peculiar Pertinent

Pledged Preferable Prior Prone

Reduced Relevant Related Repugnant

Responsible Restricted Sacred Sensitive

Subject Suitable Tantamount True

The following adjectives and participle take the preposition ‘in’ after
them

Absorbed Abstemious Accomplished

Accurate Assiduous Backward

Bigoted Correct Defective

Deficient Experienced Diligent

Enveloped Fertile Foiled

Honest Implicated Interested

Involved Lax Proficient

Temperate Versed
The following adjectives and participle take the preposition ‘with’ after
them

Acquainted Afflicted Beset

Busy Compatible Complaint

Consistent Contemporary Contented

Contrasted Conversant Convulsed

Delighted Deluged Disgusted

Drenched Endowed Fatigued

Fired Gifted Infatuated

Infected Infested Intimate

Overcome Popular Replete

Satiated Satisfied Touched

The following adjectives and participle take the preposition ‘of’ after them

Accused Acquitted Afraid

Apprehensive Apprised Assured

Aware Bereft Bought

Cautious Certain Characteristic

Composed Confident Conscious

Convicted Convinced Covetous

Defrauded Deprived Desirous


Devoid Diffident Distrustful

Dull Easy Envious

Fearful Fond Greedy

Guilty Heedless Ignorant

Informed Innocent Irrespective

Negligent Proud Regardless

Sanguine Sensible Sick

Slow Subversive Sure

Suspicious Tolerant Vain

Void Weary Worthy

The following adjectives and participle take the preposition ‘for’ after
them

Anxious Celebrated Conspicuous

Customary Designed Destined

Eager Eligible Eminent

Fit Good Grateful

Notorious Penitent Prepared

Proper Qualified Ready

Sorry Sufficient Useful

Zealous
Verbs followed by prepositions

The following verbs take the preposition ‘to’ after them

Accede Adapt Adhere

Allot Allude Apologize

Appoint Ascribe Aspire

Assent Attain Attend

Attribute Belong Conduce

Conform Consent Contribute

Lead Listen Object

Occur Prefer Pretend

Refer Revert Stoop

Submit Succumb Surrender

Testify Yield

The following verbs take the preposition ‘from’ after them

Abstain Alight Debar

Derive Derogate Refrain

Detract Deviate Differ

Digress Dissent Elicit

Emerge Escape Exclude

Preserve Prevent Prohibit

Protect Recoil Recover


The following verbs take the preposition ‘with’ after them

Associate Bear Clash

Coincide Comply Condole

Cope Correspond Credit

Disagree Dispense Fill

Grapple Intrigue Meddle

Part Quarrel Remonstrate

Side Sympathize Trifle

The following verbs take the preposition ‘of’ after them

Acquit Beware

Boast Complain

Despair Die

Disapprove Dispose

Divest Dream

Heal Judge

Repent Taste
The following verbs take the preposition ‘for’ after them

Atone Canvass

Care Clamor

Feel Hope

Mourn Pine

Start Stipulate

Sue Wish

Yearn

The following verbs take the preposition ‘in’ after them

Acquiesce Dabble Delight

Employ Enlist Excel

Fall Glory Increase

Indulge Involve Persevere

Persist

The following verbs take the preposition ‘on’ after them

Comment Decide Deliberate

Depend Determine Dwell

Embark Encroach Enlarge

Impose Insist Intrude

Resolve Subsist Trample


Illustrative sentences to highlight ‘idiom errors’ spotted on SAT

1. I prefer light rock over jazz as far as my choice of music is concerned.

2. On account of his age he was disqualified for competing in the marathon.

3. The habits of the new professor are no different than his predecessor’s.

4. The students have to comply to the rules established by the institution.

5. Our interaction with the company’s staff provided insight about the
workers’ thought process.

6. We all agreed with the theme suggested by the party planners for
Melinda’s birthday party.

7. The voters were very angry at the presidential candidate’s apathy


towards a particular section of society.

8. Having left home for the first time in seventeen years, she felt truly
independent from her parents for the first time.

9. Once the children join a boarding school, they are entrusted with the
care of school authorities.

10. The cause of your anger does not make a very good cause of
complaint.

11. The philanthropist parted from his material wealth and gave away
all in charity.

12. The teacher was angry at the students for having turned up late for
her class.

13. He withdrew his entry in the contest at the last moment.

14. Easy access towards information has made it convenient for people
to increase their general awareness of people and places.

15. The coach was entrusted with the responsibility of training the
team for the entire season.
16. The power of tilting the case in favor of the accused rests on his
alibi now.

17. He has the reputation for being an able administrator.

18. I prevailed upon him to choose respect over money.

19. He was a victim to circumstance, though it would also be correct to


add that he fell prey to avarice.

20. Heavily impressed with the guest’s lecture, the teacher further
impressed upon us the value of discipline.

Answer Key

1. I prefer light rock to jazz as far as my choice of music is concerned.

2. On account of his age he was disqualified from competing in the


marathon.

3. The habits of the new professor are no different from his predecessor’s.

4. The students have to comply with the rules established by the


institution.

5. Our interaction with the company’s staff provided insight into the
workers’ thought process.

6. We all agreed to the theme suggested by the party planners for Melinda’s
birthday party.

7. The voters were very angry over the presidential candidate’s apathy
towards a particular section of society.

8. Having left home for the first time in seventeen years, she felt truly
independent of her parents for the first time.

9. Once the children join a boarding school, they are entrusted to the care
of school authorities.
10. The cause of your anger does not make a very good cause for
complaint.

11. The philanthropist parted with his material wealth and gave away
all in charity.

12. The teacher was angry at the students for having turned up late for
her class. (correct statement)

13. He withdrew his entry from the contest at the last moment.

14. Easy access to information has made it convenient for people to


increase their general awareness of people and places.

15. The coach was entrusted with the responsibility of training the
team for the entire season. (correct statement)

16. The power of tilting the case in favor of the accused rests with his
alibi now.

17. He has the reputation of being an able administrator.

18. I prevailed upon him to choose respect over money. (correct


statement)

19. He was a victim to circumstance, though it would also be correct to


add that he fell prey to avarice. (correct statement)

20. Heavily impressed with the guest’s lecture, the teacher further
impressed upon us the value of discipline. (correct statement)