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COLD CHAIN LOGISTICS PACKAGING, COLD STORAGE & LAND TRANSPORT BY ROAD & RAIL Introduction Thank you,

the organizers, for arranging this Conference that is providing for both information and a frank and valuable exchanges of views and understandings on Cold Chain requirements and implications for South Australian exports. The over-all aim is to ensure South Australian product is delivered to the end-user in excellent, fresh condition, so enhancing our reputation as quality producers and suppliers. There is no point in growing a product, then spending time and money in setting up a sales and distribution chain and gaining sales only to lose it all through failing to ensure fresh product to the end user in a timely fashion. Indeed, this principle applies equally to all marketing. All individual parties to the transaction contribute to the success of the whole venture, and no-where is this more so than in the case of goods requiring a controlled environment all parties to the Cold Chain transaction must act in partnership! The use of responsible service providers and data loggers should be considered the norm, and provide a form of cargo superintending and quality control to ensure the whole operation meets quality requirements and identifies any faults and weaknesses. The wise exporter will understand and keep a check on the whole movement, from harvest to the end user regardless of where the contract of sale ends or who else is responsible, to ensure the sale and their reputation is not endangered by others.

Matters of General Importance Quality Management systems - Quality Accreditation in practice Ensure products to be packed together are compatible In an ideal situation, a container should bed loaded with only one type of product. If products must be loaded together the following matters must be considered: o Temperature o Chilling rates o Production/sensitivity of: ! ethylene ! Odours, off-flavours production/sensitivity o Product life having regard to all the circumstances Pulp testing at all major points in the Cold Chain Refrigerated trucks and reefer containers are not designed to pull cargo temperatures down essentially they maintain cargo temperature Use of data loggers throughout the Cold Chain Minimise ALL transit times, especially non-cold chain delays at holding points, including: o Packing center o Carriers depot o Container packing depot o Container terminal

The main steps Identify your requirements, plan and act appropriately Know and understand the Cold Chain system Packaging for the whole transaction Sea and Air freight services and ports Identify transaction and its requirements know your shipment! Have regard to other parties facilities and ability to comply with your requirements Instruct other parties so they can act appropriately Ensure the plan is carried out

Now lets consider these points in detail: Know and understand the Cold Chain system Thats why youre here today. But it must not stop here. Discuss, learn, read all you can get on Cold Chain and then assess your business and apply the Cold Chain principles to it. o Produce is a living, breathing commodity. Once separated from its plant it continues to live on its own resources and produces energy in the form of heat and gives off carbon dioxide. This leads to: ! Ripening ! Weight loss ! Softening ! Colour and texture changes ! Physical degradation, including bruising ! Attack by rots and moulds All these affect desirability and marketability. The Cold Chain is employed to slow down these natural events and extend life. Produce is cooled not frozen to slow down its metabolic rate. Similar to the effects on animals, this reduces the: ! respiration rate and consequently the production of carbon dioxide and other by-products ! living on its own resources ! production of heat It is important to have regard to the rate of chilling and storage as these vary for all produce too rapid cooling and/or the incorrect storage rate can damage produce. Cooling systems Cooling systems vary considerably depending upon the reason employed and the desired effect. From the simplest to the more elaborate and expensive they include: ! Shade trees, awnings, roofed shelters ! Sprinklers on the roof of a building ! Insulation in the building ! Air conditioning evaporative; refrigerated ! Water sprays or baths for suitable product ! Refrigerated cool room In deciding what combination of cooling systems is appropriate, consider: ! Product type and perishability ! Sensitivity to immersion in water ! Potential for water loss from the product ! Desired storage temperature ! Type of packaging Generally, the lesser time spent in ambient temperatures following harvesting the better. Produce should be provided with shade and move as soon as possible to grading and packing sheds and refrigerated cool rooms.

Other sources of information include: o South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI) 08 8303 9400 ! http://www.sardi.sa.gov.au/hort/coolchai/coolindx.htm o Dept of Primary Industries and Resources SA (PIRSA) o South Australian Air Freight Export Council Inc (SAAFEC) o South Australian Freight Council for Sea Cargo Inc (SAFCSC) o Australian United Fresh Transport Advisory Committee Ltd 07 4635 6845 ! Code of Practice for the Road Transport of Fresh Produce 2000 o Refrigerated Warehouse & Transport Association 08 8343 3202 ! The Australian Cold Chain Guidelines 1999 for the handling, storage and transport of frozen foods, ice cream and chilled foods for retail sale and in food service outlets

Packaging for the whole transaction Packing is not just to provide product protection and ease of storage and transport. Matters to be considered at all levels from harvest to the end user include: o Ventilation to allow: ! Cooling ! Product respiration o Protect product from: ! Bruising, deforming, crushing liners, bags, trays, wraps ! Mould, pest, disease impregnated liners, coatings, waxes, modified atmospheres o Protection during transport to end user: ! Physical - movement and over-stowage ! Ambient temperature and humidity changes ! Storage and transport cooling methods eg: road, air transport o Identification ! Product description, brand, origin ! Shipment, transaction details o Point of sale marketing ! Package design, marking Sea and Air freight services It is fundamental that you can get your product to the end user before you set about marketing it. In a basic sense, product can be moved from Adelaide by sea and air to most destinations. Some destinations, however, require transshipment, and some do not have very good infrastructure to handle the shipment when it arrives. Matters to consider include: o Timeliness and availability of service o Sufficient available space o Sufficient suitable containers/equipment o No transshipment, or minimum and efficient transshipment o Shortest total transit time o Destination infrastructure acceptable o Acceptable freight cost include ALL charges Identify the transaction and its requirements know your shipment! o The commodity o Packaging and handling requirements o Assess risks and potential losses if those requirements are not met in full or in part o Seasonal conditions and the effect they will play temperature, humidity, etc o Overseas shipping requirements, availability, bookings o Distances to container packing depot, port, etc o Transport and container packing requirements o Special requirements (eg: ethelyne/odour/taste production/sensitivity, in-transit sterilization, AQIS, etc) o Contact of Sale requirements o Banking requirements (Letter of Credit) o Documentation requirements o Timing Have regard to other parties facilities and ability to comply with your requirements o Cold Chain facilities o Timely operations o Suitable vehicles o Cold store o Sealed loading dock with direct access to cold room o Fruit fly free approval o Container packing operations o Operating hours o Linkages and liaison with other parties (AQIS, Shipping Companies, etc) o Documentation preparation o Quality management systems

Instruct other parties so they can act appropriately: o Commodity o How packed o Carriage temperature (including chilling/cooling requirements) o Special requirements o Ship booking details o Container requirements o Contact of Sale requirements o Banking requirements (Letter of Credit) o Documentation requirements o Timing

Carry out the plan The Exporter - from harvest to packing into cartons includes: o Picking o Transport to packing center o Sorting, grading, packing Transport from packing center to container packing depot o Pickup by carrier OR delivery to carrier o Transport to container packing depot Select your carrier with care and then instruct them as to how you want your product handled, especially as to minimum carrier storage times (both at origin and at destination) and to the vehicle type. We have encountered instances of carriers and/or drivers loading trucks and then holding in their Depot (country/city) without refrigeration. This has lead to goods being delivered to Container Packing Depots at un-acceptably high temperatures resulting in loss of quality and consequent rejection. In a recent instance we received goods held by the carrier in their depot o for 2 days with a pulp temperature on delivery to us in excess of 25 C In selecting a suitable carrier you should have regard to the limitations of various different truck combinations: Truck Type Maximum Travel Time at 10-12 C Open Tray Top Tautliner - double tarped load - unrefrigerated - refrigerated - unrefrigerated - refrigerated 1 hour 3 hours 6 hours
o

0-2 C not rec. not rec. 3 hours

< -18 C not rec. not rec. not rec.

Insulated Van

3 hours 1 hour not rec. Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited

Reefer Container - no power 3 hours 1 hour not rec. - powered by generator, etc Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Standard tautliner vehicles normally only hold temperature to about 15 C below ambient (eg: o o ambient temperature 40 C, tautliner safe operating temperature 25 C). Whilst this may be sufficient for short haul it should not be considered safe for long haul. We have had fruit arrive o on standard tautliners with a pulp temperature of 25 C. Both exporters and carriers should pre-alert the container packing depot of the estimated time of arrival trucks, especially if they to arrive outside normal operating hours (eg: 2.00 am).
o

Container Packing Depot Select your Container Packing Depot with care and then instruct them as to how you want your product handled o o o Fruit fly free destinations require AQIS accredited Fruit Fly Free loading facilities Ensure full instructions have been received from exporter to allow proper planning Receival ! There should be minimum waiting times for Cool Chain products. Subject to prior advice about arrival times, our Container Packing Depot will receive such product 24 hours per day, 7 days per week ! The product should be immediately pulp tested and details recorded ! Any data loggers that have accompanied the load should be recovered and the record details ! The condition of pallets, cartons, and product must be checked and recorded. ! Any anomalies must be immediately reported to exporter. Storage If pulp testing shows the product to have the correct temperature, depending upon the ambient temperature it may be either: ! Packed immediately into containers; or ! Placed in cold storage at the correct temperature to allow: # Temperature stabilisation # AQIS inspection if required # Fruit-fly free # In-transit cold sterilization requirements # Waiting for packing into container Container preparation Checks to be carried out include: ! Container physically sound ! Container has been pre-tripped and calibrated by qualified refrigeration personnel within approved period (30 days) ! Container is clean and free from odours, pests & contaminants ! Drain-holes clear ! Temperature recorder operational, with chart in place and details entered (container no., vessel, produce type, set temperature ! Set temperature is as required ! Vent setting is as required Note: container not normally pre-cooled because of condensation implications when goods packed (ice on evaporator coils, loss of efficiency) o Container packing Fruit fly: requires AQIS accredited Fruit Fly Free loading facilities Plan the stowage Use the correct container. If product is changed, check with shipping company for approval If delay in loading of more than 20 minutes, close container doors unless using sealed, refrigerated loading dock with direct access to cold room ! Pulp test and record ! Check pallets, cartons, and goods to ensure no damage before or during packing ! Pallets must be ISO/EURO size to suit container ! No mixed commodity loads unless specifically arranged if so, ensure commodities are compatible ! Data loggers placed inside container about 4 m from door (60 day continuous) ! Stow the load to allow air from the container refrigeration unit to flow over all internal surfaces floor, walls and ceiling do NOT load above Load Line. This will maintain longterm temperature uniformity ! Ensure container packing provides for tight stow of cargo to prevent movement and possible damage ! Ensure load security and stabilization by bracing, strapping, etc do not block airflow
! ! ! !

Preparation of documents ! Preparation of required documents including ! Export Receival Advices ! ECNs ! Notice of Intention to Export, Phyto-Sanitary Certificate to AQIS

Storage of containers awaiting delivery to Container Terminal Containers to be placed on power to maintain appropriate product temperature

Transport from container packing depot to container terminal o Pickup by carrier ! Vehicles normally have no power to maintain container refrigeration containers hold temperature for about 8 12 hours ! Close container vents during road transport to avoid the intake of vehicle exhausts containing ethylene Storage at rail-head if container to be exported via another port (eg: Melbourne) ! Containers to be placed on power to maintain appropriate product temperature Rail to container terminal ! Ideally, containers should best travel on powered rail wagons. If no such wagons are available, containers move on standard rolling stock having regard to the following indication of maximum time off power: Reefer Container - Maximum time off power Product Maximum ambient temperature 10 C 0C 5C 10 C
o o o o

20 C

30 C

40 C

40 hours 20 hours 14 hours 8 hours 60 hours 25 hours 16 hours 10 hours 70 hours 40 hours 20 hours 12 hours

Container terminal o Receival ! Check temperature and vent settings as shown on the ERA ! May be subject to pulp-test o Storage ! Containers to be placed on power to maintain appropriate product temperature ! Qualified refrigeration personnel to check set temperatures and vent settings Loading on-board ship

Phyto-Sanitary Certificates are required by the vast majority of destination countries. The few exceptions include: o Maldives o Hong Kong o Singapore o Some EU destinations

MUECKE GROUP OF COMPANIES o Container & General Transport o Container Park with Full Cold Chain facilities ! 24 hour, 7 day, cold chain operations ! Cold Store sealed loading doors with direct access to cold store ! Reefer Container facilities ! Container packing Fruit Fly free Fully AQIS approved o Documentation, Forwarding & Shipping o Quality Management systems