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Computers today are an integral part of society.

Everyday, people come face to face with technological changes, as a computer user, be it in your professional or personal life, it is very likely that you should be ready to face these changes. But before one can face these changes, you need to have a basic understanding how computers work. What is a Computer? A computer is an Electronic Data Processing System (EDPS). It is an electronic device operating under control of instructions stored in its memory, accepts data (input), processes data arithmetically and logically (process), produces results of processing (output) and stores these results for future use (storage). Basic Computer Operations Computers perform four (4) basic components. These are: Input an operation that allows data to be entered into the computer for processing Process an operation which arithmetic and logic operations are performed Output an operation that displays processed data Storage an operation that stores data for future use Basic Computer Characteristics Electronic all computers are powered by electricity, which makes them, as a matter of fact, a product of the 20th century. It only understands the on/off signal represented by 1s and 0s. Programmable all computers are able to follow a set of instructions, called programs, from which a user may derive the specific information he wants. Processing Capability all computers are able to process data that is, useful information can be gleaned after the computer has performed the necessary operational instruction on the raw data it is fed. These operations are measured in milliseconds, microseconds, nanoseconds, and picoseconds (one thousandth, one millionth, one billionth, and one trillionth of a second respectively). Storage Capability all computers are able to store data intended for later use. Computer systems have total and instant recall of data an almost unlimited capacity to store these data. A typical computers system will have trillions of characters and millions of images stored and available for instant recall. High-end PCs have immediate access to two or three billion characters of data and thousands of images. Retrieval Capability all computers are able to regain stored programs and data. Elements/Components of a Computer System Hardware refers to the physical equipment or components of a computer system. It contains the components designed to perform one or more functions such as: input, processing, output, and storage. Software refers the procedures or steps that make the computer work. It is a set of computer

programs or procedures concerned with the operation of data processing system. Peopleware refers to technically trained, skilled and support staff that deliver and implement the functions of the computer system. They play an important role in delivering effective and efficient of the hardware and software system. Dataware refers to the logical collection of information gathered from many different databases that supports business analysis activities and decision making tasks. Data are the individual facts like first name, price, quantity ordered, etc. It includes text, numbers, sounds, images, and videos that are still unprocessed. These are the facts or records that we input into the computer and then once pressed may yield information desired. Connectivity refers to a programs or devices ability to link with other programs and devices. For example, a program that can import data from a wide variety of other programs and can export data in many different formats is said to have good connectivity. - usually means an internet connection which may come in many forms such as the telephone line, through wireless connection, or through cable Computer Capabilities Perform Logical Operations A computer can perform simple comparisons and make decisions by choosing between two or more possible of actions. It can logically manipulate letters, numbers, sentences, mathematical expressions, and other symbols which people have given meaning. This simple computer ability can help in solving complex problems using a combination decisions (logical operations: =,>,<,<>). Provide Information with Lighting Speed A computer can perform a vast number of arithmetic operations addition, subtraction, division, multiplication, and even extract square roots in microseconds. With that, it can save tremendous amounts of time for a person to spend more time in doing other creative things Store and Retrieve Information A computer can store information in a mass storage device. It can also recall information in microseconds or even in nanoseconds. Process data Accurately A computer can perform hundreds of thousands of arithmetic operations very second and can run errorless in days. Perform Self-Checking A computer can check its own work by a method called parity checking. It involves the examination of each characteristics code to know whether BITS (Binary digits 0 or 1) have been accidentally added or lost. Computer Limitations Program Dependent A computer cannot perform what is needed unless a person feeds it with the correct sequence of instructions.

Power Dependent Data fed into a computer have no meaning to the machine. A computer has no feeling; it cannot respond to human emotions it relies on the meaning fed into it by users. Cannot Give the Desired Results by Itself A computer cannot arrive at a conclusion given a particular problem and correct the set of data by itself. It needs mans thinking ability in order to perform the necessary operations, and come up with the desired results. A programmer should plan the solution to any given problem. Cannot Correct Errors A computer is not capable of choosing the correct instruction and executing them. It can only warn the programmer that an error has been committed in the program. This machine can detect clerical errors or those that were committed due to wrong typing but it cannot change them in as much as it cannot tell a wrong sequence of instructions. It does only what is instructed to do regardless of what it means. Classification by Purpose General Purpose Computers These computers have the ability to perform several applications. They can store different programs and perform variety operations Special Purpose Computers As the name implies, these are computers, which are able perform specific tasks. The instruction are built in the machine. Having only one task at hand, they can perform them more quickly and efficiently than general-purpose computers. However, these machines are not flexible and cannot perform any other operations except for what it has been made to do. Classification by Performance Analog Computers The term analog from the word analogous, which means similar. Analog computers measure physical quantities that are continuously variable. That is why they give only approximate results. This type of computer is used for scientific, engineering, and process control purposes. Examples: old taxi fare meter, automobile speedometer, gasoline pump, Richter scale, and other scientific devices, which output the result in the form of graph. Digital Computers From the term itself, digital computers are machines that specialize in counting. It accepts information and changes it into a binary digit (1 and 0). Because of its specialization in accurate computations, this type of computer is widely used in both business and scientific purposes. Hybrid Computers Hybrid computers are a special purpose machine, which combines the measuring capabilities of the analog computers and the logical and control capabilities of digital computers. It can work out special types of problems in science and various areas of engineering efficiently and economically. Some applications are space vehicle simulations, and solving different equations for chemical reactors.

Categories of Computers Supercomputers Most powerful computers in terms of processing, extremely fast that can perform hundreds of millions instructions per second Relatively rare because of their size and cost of operation and are typically used by large organizations such as universities, and very large businesses Uses full control of system and minimal user intervention Used in problems requiring complex calculations, product testing, in the development of space technology, nuclear weapon development, accurate weather forecasting and aircraft design. Cost tens of millions of dollars and consumes enough electricity to power dozens of homes. Often housed in protective rooms with special cooling systems, power protection, and other security features. Not flexible they cannot provide a variety of user services; they need smaller machine to handle minor programs or smaller volume of operations. Mainframe Computers The largest type of computer in common use. It is capable of storing large quantities of information and serving over one hundred terminals (terminals of PCs connected to them) at a fast operating speed. It can operate a network, which is an interconnection of computers with local or remote terminals. They are considered as general-purpose computers that operate in banks, government departments, insurance companies, but they are also used as e-commerce servers, handling transactions over the Internet, or even electrical circuit design and structural analysis. It requires a special environment that is both cold and dry.

Minicomputers/Mid-range Computers Refer to computers that are more powerful and capable than personal computers but less powerful and capable than mainframe computers. Computer power is sometimes measured in terms of millions-of instructions-per-second MIPS. Also known as small mainframe computers which can be used to handle tasks that large computers cannot perform ecumenically. It is used more and more often as network servers and Internet servers, for the reason that it can handle a large number of high-speed input/output devices. Considered smaller than a mainframe, which is capable of serving few terminals. It has a rich set of instructions, and can use more than one programming language. It performs many of the processes of a mainframe and is cheaper (cost anywhere between $18,000 to $500,000 and are ideal for many organizations and companies that cannot afford or do not need a maintain system), but is slower. Microcomputers

Computers with microprocessors as its central processing unit and they occupy a small amount of space compared to mainframe and minicomputers. Many microcomputers ( when equipped with a keyboard and screen for input and output) are also personal computers. Commonly known as personal computers of PCs, which often denotes microcomputers that are either IBM-PCs or other compatible microcomputers. The term can also refer to personal computers made by other manufacturers, such as Apple. The smallest type of computer, which is designed for a single user, it is capable of handling sales analysis, inventory, billing and payroll. It performs a complete computing system, less powerful in speed and computing power than a minicomputer. Desktop models the most common type of personal computer Notebook computers also called laptop computers used by people who need portable computing power outside the office or away from home. Handheld personal computers (H/PCs) the smallest computing device. They lack the power of a desktop or notebook PC, but they offer specialized features for users who need only limited functions and small size. (Ex. Cell phones that provide organizers, e-mail access, and other features.) Game Console Mobile computing device designed for single-player or multiplayer video games. Standard game consoles use a handheld controller as an input device; a television or monitor screen as an output device; and hard disks, CDs, DVDs and /or memory cards for storage. Two popular models are Microsofts Xbox 360 and Sonys PlayStation. Embedded Computers Special-purpose computer that functions as a component in a larger product, they usually are small and have limited hardware. Perform various functions depending on the requirements of the product in which they reside. A variety of everyday products contain embedded computers: Consumer Electronics Home Automation Devices and Appliances Automobiles Process Controllers and Robotics Computer Devices and Office Machines

The history of computers and computing is of special significance to use, because many of its most important events have occurred within our lifetime. Historians divide the history of the modern computer into generations beginning with the introduction of the UNIVAC 1, the first commercially viable computer, in 1951. But the quest for a mechanical servant one that could free people from the more boring aspects of thinking is centuries old.

Exercise #1. Complete the Date in the Table that signifies the generation of computers
Date late What 4th Cuneiform Description Sumerians devised the first true written language and

the

millennium BC , about 10,000 to Petroglyths 12,000 years ago Input technologies paper and pens the fourth The first true millennium BCE alphabet before 1387 AD The Abacus the early century 17th Logarithms First Mechanical Computer

the first real information system. Pictures or sketches that visually resemble that which is depicted. The Egyptians wrote on the papyrus plant.

in 1642

Pascaline

around 1672 and Stepped Reckoner completed in 1694 first demonstrated Jacquards Loom in 1801

in 1820 and Arithmometer manufactured from 1851 to 1915 in 1821 Babbages Difference Engine and the Analytical Engine Telegraph

In the 19th century

Augusta Ada The First King, Countess of Computer Lovelace (10 Programmer December 1815 27 November

Phoenicians created symbols that expressed single syllables and consonants. The Abacus is probably considered the original mechanical counting device. John Napier invents logs that allow multiplication and division to be reduced to addition and subtraction. Wilhelm Shickard invents the first mechanical computer, it can work with six digits, and carries digits across columns. It works, but never makes it beyond the prototype stage. A French mathematician and philosopher invented and built a mechanical adding machine called Pascaline in 1642. Gottfried Leibniz invented a machine called stepped reckoner that could multiply 5 digit and 12 digit numbers yielding up to 16 digit number. The idea of using punched cards or paper tapes was initiated by a French man with the name of Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1780. He developed an automatic weaving loom that operated from instructions punched into cards or paper tapes. Became the first mass-programmed developed by Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar. This device performed the same type of computations as Leibniz Steppes Reckoner, but was more reliable. Charles Babbage, an English mathematical developed the general idea of a mechanical digital computer and actually tried to construct a machine which he called the analytical engine. It was designed to do complex calculations according to a sequence of instructions. Samuel F. Morse conceived of his version of an electro magnetic telegraph in 1832 and constructed an experimental version in 1835. He did not construct a truly practical system until 1844, when he built a line from Baltimore to Washington. The first program was written by Ada Augusta Lovelace.

1852) 1876

Alexander Graham Bell his first working telephone and transmitted his new famous quotation. His telephone was introduced on large scale at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition in 1877. Dorr Felt devises the Comptometer, a key driven adding and subtracting calculator. 1887 Felts Comptograph containing a builrin printer is introduced. the 1890 Holleriths A statistician from Buffalo, New York, completed the Tabulating first electro-mechanical system for recording, Machine compiling, and tabulating digital data. The device was used to compile data from the 1890 census in less than 2 months compared to the more than 7 years it took to compile data from the previous census by hand. from January 19, The Millionaire The first efficient four-function calculator is invented 1955, to June 8, by Otto Shweiger, a Swiss engineer. 1960 1897 Radio Guglielmo Marconi discovered that electrical waves travel through space and can produce an effect far from the point at which they originated. the late 17th Vacuum Tubes Developed by Lee De Forest. This was important century because it provided an electrically controlled switch, a necessity for digital electronic computers.. Punched card technology improved with the addition From the 1920s The EAM Era of more punched-card devices and more sophisticated throughout the capabilities. The electromechanical accounting mid-1950s machine (EAM) family of punched-card devices included the card punch, verifier, reproducer, summary punch, interpreter, sorter, collator, and accounting machine. Z3 The first Programmable Computer. A computer is programmable because it is capable /of following instructions. The Z3 was he first computer designed mto solve complex engineering equations, rather that basic arithmetic problems. The First During the years 1935 through 1938, Dr. Atanasoff Computer, The began to think about a machine that could reduce the ABC time it took for him and his physic students to make long, complicated mathematical calculations. The Harvard University professor Howard Aiken Electromechanical completed the first electromechanical computer, The

Telephone

Mark 1 Computer Mark 1, in 1944 under the sponsor of IBM. The electronic Dr. John Mauchly collaborated with J. Presper Ecken ENIAC Computer Jr. at the University of Pennsylvania to develop a machine that would compute trajectory tables for the U. S. Army. The UNIVAC 1 The first generation of computers (1951-1959), and the first characterized by the use of vacuum tubes, developed Generation of by Mauchly and Eckert for the Remington-Rand Computers Corp. The IBM 650 IBMs first entry into the commercial computer market was the IBM 701 in 1853. However, the IBM 650, introduced in 1954, is probably the reason why IBM enjoy such a healthy share of todays computer market. The Honeywell The invention of the transistor signaled the start of 400 and the the second generation of computers (1959-1964). second generation Transistorized computers were more powerful, more reliable, less expensive, and cooler to operate that of computers their vacuum tube predecessor. Amazing Grace Dubbed Amazing Grace by her many admires, Dr. Murray Hopper Grace Hopper was widely respected as the driving force behind COBOL, the most popular programming language, and a champion of standardized programming languages that are hardware independent. The PDP-8 In 1963 Digital Equipment Corp. introduced the PDPMinicomputer 8. It is generally considered the first successful minicomputer. The IBM System Computers built around integrated circuits 360 and The Third characterized the third generation. Generation of Computers BASIC (Beginners Thomas Kurtz and John Kemeny of Dartmouth All Purpose College developed BASIC as a computer language to Symbolic help teach people how to program. Instruction Code) INTEL was founded by Robert Noyce ARPANET is set Later becomes the INTERNET up. Integrated Circuits 1971 was the year large-scale integration of circuitry and the Fourth was introduced. Generation of Computers

The UNIX The C programming language is developed at AT&T Operating System Bell Labs by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritche. The UNIX operating system, also written at Bell Labs is rewritten using C. This later makes UNIX one of the most portable operating system. THE FOURTH Intel Corporation designed the first tiny computer on GENERATION achip, it was called a microprocessors. It is an COMPUTERS integrated circuit built in a tiny piece if silicon. It contains thousands of or even millions of transistors which are interconnected via superfine traces of aluminum. Bill gates and Paul Allen developed a BASIC Microsoft programming language for the first commercially available microcomputer, the MITS Altair. After the successful completion of the project, the two formed Microsoft Corporation, now the largest and most influential software company in the world. Apple Computers Founded by Jobs and Steve Wozniak. Their aim was to build simple yet powerful computer that the average person could unpacked, plug-in, and begin using immediately. The Apple II Two young computer enthusiasts, Steven Jobs and Steve Wozniak collaborated to create and build their Apple II, the first personal computer to come in a plastic case and include color graphics, the Apple II was an impressive machine. WORDSTAR The first minicomputer word processor, WordStar is released. This program later developed into Word perfect. In 1981, IBM tossed its hat into the personal computer ring with its announcement of the IBM Personal Computer, or IBM PC. Mitchell Kapor is one of the major forces behind the microcomputer boom in the 1980s. he founded Lotus Development Company, now one of the largest application software companies in the world. In 1984 Apple Computer introduced the Macintosh desktop computer with a very friendly graphical user interface. Graphical user interfaces (GUIs) began to change the complexion of the software industry. Microsoft introduced Windows, a GUI for IBM-PC compatible computers in 1985; however, Windows did not enjoy widespread acceptance until 1990 with the release of Windows 3.0

The IBM PC

Mitchell Kapor Designs Lotus 1-23 The Macintosh and Graphical User Interfaces

Microsoft Windows

The Amiga introduced the world to multimedia. Intel386tm It featured 275 000 transistors-more than 100times as Microprocessor many as the original 4004. It was the 32-bit chip and was multi tasking, meaning it could run multiple programs at the same time. Intel486tm DX The 486tm processor generation really meant you go CPU from a command-level computer into point-and-click Microprocessor computing. The Intel 486tm processor was the first to offer a built-in math coprocessor, which speeds up computing because it offloads complex math functions from the central processor. Windows 3 Was launched. It was still 16-bit, but the user interface was completely revamped to mimic the look and feel of IBM,s as yet unreleased OS/2 with its 3D sculpted buttons. Pentium Processor The Pentium Processors allowed computers to more easily incorporate real world data such as speed, sound, handwriting and photographic images. Apple announced the PowerMac family the first Macs to be based on the PowerPC chip, an extremely fast processor co-developed with IBM and Motorola. The PowerPC processor allowed Macs to compete with, and in many cases beat, the speed of Intels newer processors. Windows 95 After the eighteen months of pre-released hype, Microsoft finally released Windows95 on August 24th 1995. The associated marketing campaign was nothing short of amazing. It was a massive global multimedia marketing hype-fest including TV, radio, newspapers, magazines, billboards, and just about everything else. Pentium II The 7.5 million transistor Pentium II processor Processor incorporates Intel MMXtm technology, which is design specifically to process video, audio and graphics data efficiently. It was introduce in innovative Single Edge Contact (S.E.C.) Cartridge that also Incorporated a high-speed cache memory chip. With this chip, PC users can capture, edit and share digital photos with friends and families via the Internet. Pentium III The Pentium III processors features 70 new Processor instructions Internet Streaming SIMD extensions that dramatically enhance the performance of advanced imaging, 3-D streaming audio, video and speech recognition applications. It was design to significantly enhance Internet experiences, allowing

Pentium Processor

users to do such things as browse through realistic online museums and stores and download high quality video. The Processor incorporates 9.5 million transistors. IV Users of Pentium 4 processor-based PCs can create professional quality movies, deliver TV-liked video via the Internet; communicate with real-time video and voice; render 3D graphics in real time; quickly encode music for MP3 players; and simultaneously run several multimedia applications while connected to Internet. The processor debuted with 42 million transistors and circuit lines of 0.18 microns.

Components of Computer Input Devices Devices that accept data and instructions to determine how input information shall be processed in order for a computer to function well. The devices used to feed Data into the computer system are as follows: Keyboard one the first peripherals to be used with computer, a standard computer keyboard has about 100 keys; each send a different signal to the CPU Mouse a pointing device that lets the user control the position of a graphical pointer on the screen without the keyboard. Variants of the mouse are: Trackball like a mouse turned upside-down, it provides the same functionality of a mouse. Joystick commonly found on notebook computers built into the keyboard. Called a TrackPoint on IBM Systems

Others: Hand devices Pen also called a stylus to write on a special pad or directly on the screen. Touch-screen input is accepted directly through the monitor; useful for selecting menu options, but impossible to use for putting text or data in large quantities Game controller a special input device that accepts input for playing a game Optical devices Bar code reader reads bar codes and translates them into numbers and inputs the numbers into the computer system Image scanner converts printed images into digitized formats that can be stored and manipulated with the use of computer software Audiovisual devices

Microphone accepts auditory input using speech-recognition software; computers must have a sound card (converts analog sound signal to digital sound signals and vice versa) installed Pc video camera and digital camera digitizes full motion and still images which can be stored and edited on the computer or transmitted over a LAN or the Internet

Output Devices Devices that produce the result of processing or what is termed as processed information. The devices used to generate information from the computer system are as follows: Monitor an output device that shows the pictures, programs, and effects of the actions a user makes after inputting data into the computer. There are three (3) types of monitors available in the market today: 1. Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitor 2. Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) monitor 3. Plasma Display Panel (PDP) monitor PC Projector portable light projectors that connect to PC, which is rapidly replacing traditional slide projectors and overhead projection as a means for displaying presentation. Many PC projectors use digital light processing to project bright crisp images. A DLP projector uses a special microchip that contains tiny mirrors to produce images. Sound System: Sound card translates digital signals into analog signals that drive the speaker. Speakers Video controller Printer converts electrical signals into printed characters on paper, which enables users to output on paper work done with various programs. The output is often called hardcopy or printout. These are several types of printers available today. Dot Matrix Printer This is a printer that forms characters using row(s) of Pins of 9, 18 or 24 which impact the ribbon on top of the paper. This type of printer is also called pin printers. The more pins, the smoother-looking the characters. Ink-Jet Printer This sprays ink in to paper to form characters. It has a only cyan (blue), magenta (pink), yellow and black inks to create a print-out that appears to have thousands of colors. Laser Jet Printer a common type of printer that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics on a plain paper. As with digital photocopiers and Multifunction Printers (MFPs), laser printers employ a xerographic printing process but differ from analog photocopiers as it produces images by the direct scanning of a laser beam across the printers photoreceptor. Plotter sophisticated printers used to produce high-quality drawing such as blueprints, maps, and circuit diagrams. These printers are used in specialized fields such as engineering and drafting and usually are very costly.

Processor The heart of a computer system is the chip or the microprocessor, also called Central Processing Unit or CPU. The microprocessor is attached to a motherboard or system board that controls all of the elements that make up a computer system. Microprocessors come in a variety of flavors, such as the 386 series, 486 series, and Pentium. Chips are differentiated by such things as their clock speed, internal caching, the presence or absence of a math processor, bus size, and the capability for parallel processing. The clock speed of a chip is calculated in millions of beats or clock ticks per second (MHz) such as 486/33 (operating at 33MHz) or 486/66 (operating at 66MHz) and is representative of the relative speed at which data is retrieved and processed. Some newer chips are clock-double, that is, they can retrieve internal data at double the clock speed of that available for external data. The processor controls all the operations performed by all other units. This central processor performs calculations, makes data comparisons, and does logical decisions. It selects, interprets and controls the execution of instructions. The processor is made up of the following subcomponents Control Unit (CU) the central nervous system of the computer, which directs the sequence of operations by fetch and execute cycles, that is getting the instructions line and assigning them to their proper devices for execution-and command signals to other parts of the computer and to peripheral devices. CU is also called the supervisor because it maintains order and directs the operations of the entire computer. Arithmetic logic Unit (ALU) takes care of arithmetic operations and logical data comparisons and decisions. This unit also has the ability to test conditions during processing and take action accordingly. Memory where the computer programs and data are stored during processing. The capacity or size of a computer is given in terms of the combined sizes of its maintain memory (RAM) and the ROM. Memory capacity is measured in bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, terabytes. Memory refers to two types of computer storage:

Volatile temporary storage that needs to be constantly refreshed to be retain. Static permanent storage that is retained even after the computer is turned off. RAM or Random Access Memory is volatile memory that is erased when the power goes off. Program instructions and data held in RAM can be accessed and saved much more quickly than that held in permanent storage; therefore, files needed to run a program and data that is being process are held in RAM while they are use. The amount of RAM you need depends at least partly on the operating system you select as well as the type of programs you intend to run. Beyond operating demands, the amount of RAM required depends, on the applications to be run heavy graphics, real-time video, and such need more RAM to keep things from slowing to a crawl. Hard Drives were uncommon years before, but then later 20 MB hard drives started appearing. And as storage space continued to increase so did users need to store even more data. Nowadays, a 250MB hard drive is a rarity; most new computers are in the gigabyte range. A hard drive or HARD DISK or FIXED DISK, so called because the drive and disk are an integrated unit, may be installed in the computer case or it may be an external unit. The hard disk is actually a set of disks mounted on a shaft with sufficient space between them to accommodate a read/write head, which is the unit that reads from and writes to the rapidly spinning disks. A 500MB drive costs less today than that 20 MB drive cost 20 years ago. In all fairness, improved graphics and color has to share part of the blame a simple line drawing can take up 2 KB of space, about the same as a 2 page letter; in color, it may take 200 KB, and a few seconds of real time video can rack up over a megabyte. Auxiliary Storage A medium where information can be stored and retrieved in case of future need, since data stored in the computers main memory is lost when there is an absence of electricity. Magnetic Storage Device floppy disk (low density- 720 kb, high density 1.44 MB) hard disk (20 80 GB) flash disk (64 MB 1 GB) tape Optical Storage Device cd rom (compact disk read only memory 640 mb) dvd (digital video disk 17 gb) Systems Software managers the fundamental operations of the computer such as loading programs and data into memory, executing programs, saving data to disk, displaying information on the monitor and transmitting data to peripheral devices. Operating system control basic input and output devices, allocates system resources, manages storage spaces, maintains security and detects equipment failures. Disk Operating System (MS-DOS) Provides the basic software that coordinates the computers hardware components and a set of programs that lets you perform the many computer system tasks you need to do C:> C refers to the drive while > is a prompt, a signal that the computer is prompting the user to do something. At this point the user must type a command, a name that invokes a specific DOS program.

Microsoft Windows (Windows) Uses Graphical Unit Interface (GUI), which are on-screen menus and icons that make it user-friendly. UNIX Developed at AT & Ts Bell Laboratories during the 1960s, it is not known to be userfriendly, especially to small children, but it is important to know because it has survived several incarnations to become the heart of the Internet Device drivers helps computer communicate with other peripheral devices. Utilities takes over some operating system responsibilities for allocating hardware resources. Programming languages used by programmers to write computer program Application Software contains program code designed to solve a particular job or problem. Types: Custom software specifically tailored programs made by computer programmers to fit the needs of an organization. Packaged/commercial software literally packaged into a container and marketed commercially via diskettes or CD-ROMs. Classification: Document production software Desktop publishing Web authoring E-mail editors Spreadsheet software Database management software Graphics and presentation software Multimedia authoring software Systems Analyst formulates program specifications and design Programmer develops programs prescribed by a system analyst or user Operator operates the computer for a multimedia of tasks Encoders enters or types data into computer Database Administrator manages, database, data integrity and security Network Administrator controls access across a network and monitor activities in the network What is Microsoft Windows? Microsoft Window is an operating system that provides Graphical Unit Interface (GUI) that displays graphics in addition to text when it communicates with the user. This eases the way users communicate and control objects on screen. GUIs make it easy for users to learn the installed application software transfer data between applications, and manage data created while using the application. Microsoft Windows comes in different versions, from Window 3Windows 98. Windows ME, Window NT, Window XP, and Windows 2000. Microsoft Windows has the ability to open more than one application at a time and display each application as a window, hence the term Windows.

User Interface A user interface is a combination of hardware and software that allows the user to communicate with and control the computer. It provides a means of interaction between the user and the computer. Among its function are: Controls the computer Requests information from the computer Responds to messages displayed by the computer Among the hardware associated with the user interface are the monitor, keyboard, and mouse. Using the Monitor Monitor the most commonly used output device, it serves as the screen display. A monitors resolution and color quality setting can be adjusted to suite the needs to the user. Using the Keyboard Keyboard the most commonly used input device. Below are some keyboard shortcuts used in Windows while the rest of the keyboard shortcuts will be introduced as the lessons progress. Action Accessing the STRAT menu Switching between applications Restarting the computer Closing an application Selecting an object Keystroke CTRL + ESC ALT + TAB

CTRL + ALT + DEL ALT + F4 ALT + underscored letter of the object Moving to the next object TAB Moving to the previous SHIFT + TAB Object Keyboard is divided into four parts. Functional keys includes keys F1 through F2; provides an easy way to give certain commands to a computer, defined by the software being used. Main keys includes the familiar keys found on a typewriter as well as some special command keys such as ESC, TAB, CAPS, Lock, Shift, Ctrl, Alt, Backspace and enter keys; defined by the software being used. Numeric keys serves one of two purposes depending on the status of the Num Lock key if Num Lock is active keys can used to enter numeric data and mathematical symbols, otherwise, keys can be used to move the cursor and perform other functions. Additional keys includes the arrow keys, Insert, delete, Home, End, Page Up, Page Down, Print Screen Scroll Lock, and Pause keys. Keyboard the skills in using the computer keyboard using good and correct techniques to use the computer efficiently. It takes a lot of self discipline, practice and patience to do well in keyboarding. These techniques are:

Memorize the letters by not looking at your hands while typing. Feel flat on the floor, hips touching the back of the chair, back straight and sitting up tall. Fingers curved arms close to the body, wrist straight and not touching the keyboard. Strikes keys with proper fingers and then returns fingers to home row keys (ASDF for the left and JKL: for the right fingers). Use the right thumb to hit Spacebar. Use the right pinky finger to hit Enter key. Hold the left Shift with left pinky finger. Hold right Shift key with right pinky finger. Punctuation marks marks that are used as signals to the reader. In speaking, it is used to indicate when to pause, stop, or change the tone of voice. In writing, it is used to emphasize, and clarity what the author means. Here are some familiar punctuation marks: Name Period Semi-colon Comma Hyphen . ; , Symbol Location Main lower right Numeric: lower right Main: lower right Main: lower right Main: upper right Numeric: upper right Main: middle right Main: middle right Rules / Uses Put a space after typing Put a space after typing Put a space after typing Used to divide words when word wrapping is not used Shift+ Semi-colon Use the right pinky finger to hit this key Rules / Uses Put a space after typing Put a space after typing Put a space after typing Used to divide words when word wrapping is not used Shift+ Semi-colon Use the right pinky finger to hit this key

Colon : Apostrophe / Single Quote Name Quotation At Slash Backlash Symbol @ / \

Location Main: middle right Main: upper left Main: lower right Numeric: upper left Main: upper right

Tilde Asterick Parenthesis Ampersand Less than Greater than Equal to

~ * () & < > =

Main: upper left Main: upper middle Numeric: upper right Main: upper right Main: upper middle Main: lower right Main: lower right Main: upper right

Upper and lower case keys keys with upper and lower case characters which are used with the Shift key:

Using the Mouse Mouse pointing device used to move a cursor or mouse pointer on the screen. It is also used to make various such as drawing, editing texts, and graphics, opening and closing files, and giving other commands. Action Description Point Move the mouse across the screen until the mouse pointer rests on the object or item you want to choose. Click Press and release the left mouse button Double click Press and release the left mouse button twice in rapid succession. Triple click Press and release the left mouse button three times in rapid succession Right click Press and release the right mouse button. Drag and drop Point an object. Press hold down the left button while moving the mouse to a different location. Release the left mouse button to drop the object. Mouse Pointer an interactive object on the screen that matches the movement of the mouse and is used to interact with the objects on the screen. Shape Meaning Normal object Link select Busy Area not available

Turning on the Computer The process of turning on the computer is called boot. There are two ways to boot the computer: warm boot and cold boot. While a warm boot is simply restarting the computer by pressing the RESET button or the CTRL + ALT + DEL keys, cold boot follows the steps below. Plug in the computer to an AVR, UPS or electrical outlet. Turn on the computers power switch and if necessary, turn on the monitor (Today, many computer systems are set up to turn the monitor on and off automatically). The computer will perform self-tests for its hardware components. Logging On to USLS Computer Laboratory Network

All computers in the laboratories are networked via Local Area Network (LAN). By network, this means that computers are connected to a file server where all data are kept. Access to network data is defined by the log on of a user, which means that a user must properly log on the network to gain access to the data here. Since data is stored in the file server and not on the local hard disk, users can move from one computer to the next, log on to the network and access the very same data he or she was using in the other computer. o Once the computer is turned on, the ENTER NETWORK PASSWORD dialog box will appear. o Enter your user name (the ID number serves as the user name). o Enter your password. o Enter the domain (the default domain is LAB.) o Click the OK button Note: If the desktop is already displayed, log off first and then log on again. Screen Layout Once the user is logged on the DESKTOP will appear Desktop picture Desktop the opening screen for Windows and is the place where work with the computer begins. Icons graphical representation or shortcuts for programs, files or documents found in the computer. Icons such as My Computer and Recycle Bin are generally always present. The Network Neighborhood icon will appear if the computer is connected to a network and depending on the setup of the computer, other icons may also appear. Taskbar generally located at the bottom of the screen but can be dragged to any edge of the desktop. To access its properties, right-click on the taskbar and select Properties. Property options include audio-hiding the taskbar, showing the clock, and others. Picture task bar Start button located on the left side of the taskbar. Clicking it or pressing CTRL + ESC displays the Start Menu, which consists of a list of commands and shortcuts that are used to start programs, open files, get help, find information, and change system setting. Some items on the Start Menu have a black right-facing arrow > that displays additional choices available when the mouse pointer is positioned above it. These secondary menus are called submenus. Launch toolbar located to the right of the start button, it contains shortcut icons to quickly open frequently used applications. Any application that is currently open on the computer is represented by a Window tabs the middle area of the taskbar. System tray located on the right side of the taskbar, it contains icons for controlling some of the system functions of the computer such as the clock, volume and task scheduler.

Desktop Objects Desktops objects include the Start button the Taskbar, icons, folders and files.

Pointing and Selecting Objects Position the mouse over the object unit a screen tip appears. A screen tip identifies the name of an object. Click to select. Selecting Multiple Objects For adjacent objects, press and hold down the SHIFT key while clicking on the objects. For nonadjacent objects, press and hold down the CTRL key while clicking on the objects. Arranging Desktop Objects Right-click on a blank area of the desktop Select Arrange icons from the drop-down menu. Choose desired arrangement. Moving Objects on the Desktop Right-click on a blank area of the desktop Select Arrange icons from the drop-down menu Remove check mark from Auto Arrange Rearranging Objects using Auto Arrange Right-click on a blank area of the desktop Select Arrange icons from the drop-down menu Activate check mark of Auto Arrange

Customizing Display Desktop display can be customized with a background, screen saver, and more. The Display Properties dialog box is displayed when right-clicking the desktop and choosing Properties from the drop-down menu. Background used to change the change the appearance of the desktop by applying wallpaper and patterns. Screen Saver used to set up screen animation and change monitor power settings. Appearance used to change the color scheme of all screen elements. Effects used to change the look of desktop icons. Web used to change the desktop by making it look like web. Settings used to change the settings of the monitor. Icons and Shortcuts An icon is a graphical representation of a program file or folder in your computer it allows you to quickly access these objects by double-clicking it with your mouse. A shortcut is a pointer to file folder or program, Double-clicking on the shortcut will bring you to the specified file of folder but deleting the shortcut will not delete the original file or folder. A small arrow superimposed on the lower left of the icon usually signifies shortcuts To create a shortcut, right-click on an icon and select Create Shortcut from the context menu.

TYPES OF COMPUTER USERS 1. HOME USER In an increasing number of homes, the computer is a basic necessity. Each family member or home user spends time on the computer for different reasons. These include budgeting and personal financial management, web access, communication and entertainment, Todays home has typically more than one or two desktop computers. Some users networks have multiple desktop computers throughout the house, often wireless. These small networks allow family members to share an internet connection and a printer. Home users have a variety of softwares. These softwares allow the users to create letters, homework, assignments and other personal finances, investments and family budgets. Other softwares assist in preparing taxes, keeping a house hold inventory and setting up maintenance schedules. 2. SMALL OFFICE / HOME OFFICE Computers assist small business and home office users in managing their resources effectively, Small Office / Home Office (SOHO) include any company with fewer than 50 employees, such as travel agencies and florists. SOHO users typically use a desktop computer, Many also use PDAs SOHO users use the internet- often wireless- to look up information such as address, directions, postal codes, fights and packages shipping rates or to make telephone calls. Nearly all SOHO users communicate through e-mail.

3. MOBILE USERS Today, business and schools are expanding to serve people across the and throughout the world. Thus, increasingly more employees and students are mobile users, who work on a computer while away from the main office or school. Some examples of users are sales representatives, real estate agents, insurance agents, meter readers, package delivery people, journalist, and students enrolled in the learning courses.

4. POWER USER Power user requires the capabilities of a powerful desktop computer called a workstation (Examples of power users are engineers, scientists, architects, desktop publishers, and graphically work with multimedia combining text, graphic, audio, and video in to one application. These users need computers with extremely fast processors because of the nature of their work. 5. LARGE BUSINESS USER

A large business user has hundreds or thousands of employees and customers that work across a region, a country or all over the world. Each employee who uses a computer in a large business is a large business user. Many large companies use the word enterprise computing, to refer to the huge network of computers that meet their diverse computing needs. The network facilities communications among employees in all locations. Users access the network through desktop computers, mobile computers, PDAs and smart phones. Large business and the computer network to process high volumes of transaction.