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DCSR Project

Slyom csaba Gr. 1542 R.I.e.

Contents
1. PROJECT SPECIFICATIONS ............................................................................. 2 2. SELECTING THE APPROPRIATE CONCEPT .................................................... 3 3. QUALITY ASSURANCE ...................................................................................... 6 4. DESIGNING THE PROTOTYPE ........................................................................ 10 5. CALCULATING THE NECESSARY NEGATIVE PRESSURE AND THE REQUIRED FORCE ................................................................................................. 14 6. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ........................................................................... 15 7. BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................ 15

1. PROJECT SPECIFICATIONS
The goal of this project was to develop a gripper prototype for the manipulation of tomatoes of the following dimension- and weight-range:

Weight 50 - 500 [g] Volume: 110 - 550 [cm3]

To accomplish this, the following are to be followed: The prototypes concept: developing three variants up to the level of kinematic chains Ranking the requirements of the client using the AHP method Selecting the appropriate variant based on a systematic algorithm, called PUGH Designing the resulting prototypes kinematic chain to the level of individual components Planning the products performance Formulating technical and economic objectives Qualitative analysis of the prototype Identifying vectors of innovation using the TRIZ method Functional analysis Planning of required functions Detailed design of the concept Analysis of modules Designing and elaborating the prototype to the level of individual components Necessary calculations for the gripping force and the required negative pressure Analysis of modules for defection possibilities Detailed assembly draft

2. SELECTING THE APPROPRIATE CONCEPT


The three preliminary concepts: 1. 3-finger electric gripper 2. 3-finger hydraulic gripper 3. Gripper using vacuum The first step is to rank the requirements of the client using the AHP method. Said method will show us which of the 16 requirements are the most important, so it can be decided which of these require more attention. After this ranking is done, the PUGH method is used to deretmine which concept will fulfill these criteria best. AHP:

Fig. 2-1. 3-finger gripper using DC servomotors and ball screws as linear actuators

Fig. 2-2. 3-finger hydraulic gripper

PUGH:

After applying the PUGH method it is clear that the 3 rd concept the one using vacuum pumps is the optimal one for the current application. This concept uses a single suction cup of sufficient diameter and applicable negative pressure to pick and move all products within the given range. The electric and hydraulic concepts cannot provide an effective approach of the problem at hand, due to the limited ability to pick objects from dense clusters. In such cases these have no room to enter with the fingers and grab the product without damaging the others, while also having to deal with the possibility of trying to pick several objects at once. The transport equipment that would be necessary to ensure a safe and adequate contact would actually be more complex and expensive that the grippers themselves. The suction caps eliminate this problem by approaching the object from above, not having to deal with the problem of dense clusters, only with the assurance of adequate contact for the necessary pressure to be created. Functions that are needed: Basic functions: o Picking the product o Manipulating the product o Releasing the product Auxiliary functions: o Protection of the manipulated product o Holding current position in case of emergency stop o Assuring stability in motion

3. QUALITY ASSURANCE
At this step, first QFT phase I is applied to plan the clients needs together with the technical performance characteristics. The main objective is to find the optimization areas and potential conflicts regarding optimization.

To solve the negative correlations resulting from the above optimization approaches, we apply the TRIZ method to find vectors of innovation to relieve the conflicts. Nr. 1 Characteristics in conflict Payload Mass Parameters conform TRIZ Weight of the moving object Stability of the object Invention vectors 1 19 35 39 19: replacing continuous motion with intermittent motion 35 10 21 35: changing physical properties of the system 28 10 1 39 10: preemptive planning Specific solutions Using intermittent motion instead of continuous.

Payload Moment of inertia

Force(intensity ) Stability of the object

Using highstrength, low-weight materials

Payload Size

Volume of moving object Stability of the object

Contact with the product must be made in the most convenient location, using vision guidance and conveyor tracking technologies

As a second step QFD phase II is applied to realize the planning of gripper functions. This method will show the importance of every function relative to the technical characteristics, in order to know which functions are most important in designing the prototype.

Next the QFT phase III is applied to analyze the necessary modules to see the connections between the each module and the individual functions of the gripper. The results are the importance values for each module.

4. DESIGNING THE PROTOTYPE


Before starting to design the prototype, some parameters need to be considered: the products should be fresh, with consistent compressive resistance to be manipulated. The forms of the products can vary in large ranges as long as they have a sufficient contact area for the suction cups as such this method can be used primarily for tomatoes with shapes close to spherical, or having a round profile (the oval, elongated variant can pose a challenge, because it doesnt have a suitable contact surface). All the components used in the prototype were selected from Anver Corp. to ensure seamless integration and ease of maintenance. The only exception is the support element which links and holds the components and is interfaced with the robots flange. The chosen concept uses a single 18.3 mm double-bellow suction cup (Part No. B2.5-18-SIT) made of food-grade translucent silicone (material designation SIT) capable of handling 620 grams at approx. 0.8 bar negative pressure. The doublebellow structure allows adequate contact with non-regular surfaces, like those of various tomato types inside the given range. The parallel robots suitable for the application at hand, like ABBs IRB 340 or the Adept Quattro usually come equipped with integrated vacuum pumps capable of creating a maximum of approx. 0.9 bar negative pressure, meaning that the payload requirements can be easily met. If the robot chosen does not have a vacuum pump and the associated sensory equipment, these can be acquired from Anver, specifically the JV series mini vacuum generators (having 0.84-0.87 bar capacity) and JVSF fitting modules (able to accommodate any M5 10/32-port vacuum sensor) can provide the necessary capabilities. The suction cup is attached to a suspension assembly (Part. No. SLSA-110NR), via a barbed-fitting (Part No. BM5), to ensure a smooth and soft touch, consistent pressure (through adequate contact) leading to increased precision, less maintenance (inadequate contact can lead to the deterioration of the suction cups) and reduced risks of damaging the product.

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The components: Suction cup B2.5-18-SIT

Barbed-fitting BM5

SLSA-1 series vacuum cup suspension assembly SLSA-110NR

Tube fitting for the suspension assembly PTC1-5/32S

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Polyurethane tube PC-T532

SIT material SIT is excellent for high heat or food packaging. Soft and pliable, meets FDA Title 21 and German spec. BGVV (BGA) Part XV for contaminant-free load handling. Contains no dyes that can leach out when handling baked goods, drugs, glassware, hot products from molds, etc. Our new formulation minimizes almost completely the yellowing with age which used to occur with clear silicone in the past. The support element with the interface flange:

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The above figure shows the exploded assembly of the chosen equipment, with the only major difference being the elimination of the suspension bracket, since the lower part of the support is designed to hold the suspension rod and provide structural stability.

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5. CALCULATING THE NECESSARY NEGATIVE PRESSURE AND THE REQUIRED FORCE

Where: o F the necessary force o m the mass to be manipulated o k safety factor, =2 as per Anver recommendation for vertical lifting In our case: [ ] [ ]

Where: o A effective contact surface o a 0.8 (only 80% of the contact area is taken into consideration, as per Anver recommendation) o n number of suction cups, =1 o d diameter of the suction cup, =18.2 [mm] In our case: [ ] [ ]

To calculate the necessary negative pressure we use the following equation:

In our case: [ ] [ ] [ ]

This value is almost half of the maximum capacity of both the Anver mini pumps and the built-in pumps of some parallel robots, meaning lifting and maintaining stability should not be a problem.

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6. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS


Finite element analysis of the support structure under a load of 20 [N], double the calculated value for safety reasons. We can note that the rectangular shape of the support pillars poses some risks by introducing rounded corners these can be effectively eliminated, by removing the areas of minimum resistance.

7. BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Suport de curs la disciplina Robotizarea fabricatiei I si II de Dr. Ing. Bogdan MOCAN 2. Anver catalogs at www.anver.com

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