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By Group 3

Cell is smallest living unit which most of them are microscopic. Cell is the smallest structural and functional unit in live creature. Mean of structural unit that cell is the base arranger for live creature body As a functional unit mean that cell or live creature body arranger cell do a function or live procces activity.

Cells divided into two types, there are ....

>> Prokaryote
Is name for type of cell that do not have nuclear membrane. The chromosome at prokaryotes condensed in the center of the cell, called nucleoid. Prokaryote do not have some important organelles like mitochondria, chloroplast, and golgi apparatus. Instead, their function is taken by plasma membrane.

>> Eukaryote
Is name for type of cell that have nuclear membrane. The chromosome at eukaryotes is on the nucleolus which located inside nucleus. Nucleus have nuclear membrane/nuclear envelope which separated nucleus from cytoplasm. Nuclear membrane have nuclear pores which enable some enzymes to enter the nucleus.

Furthermore, eukaryote can reach ten times of prokaryote in size, and even one thousand times in volume.

Eukaryotic Cell Structure Animal Cell

1. Plasma Membrane
Plasma membrane is the outer of cell that act as separator between contents of the cell and the environment. Plasma membrane have some function : a. Control substance exchange between cytoplasm and environment. b. As receptor for hormone and other chemical substance whether from the environment or from inside the cell. c. cell. d. As protector for the contents so do not easily leave the Control substance that will enter/leave cytoplasm.

2. Cytoplasm
Cytoplasm is protoplasm that fill space between plasma membrane and nucleus. Cytoplasm is composed of cytosole, the dissolved parts of cytoplasm that fill in spaces of organelle.

3. Nucleus
Nucleus is the largest organelle. Nucleus is covered by nuclear envelope or karyote except in human red blood cell.Generally, every cell has one nucleus except on cells of particular organisms, such as paramecium and striated muscle. Nucleus is a very vital organelle because it controls all cell activities and contains genetic information, the DNA.

4. Nuclear Envelope (Nucleus membrane)

Nuclear envelope consists of two membrane layers that function as cover and protector of nucleus. The membrane is related directly to endoplasmic reticulum. In the membrane, there are pores which allow substance exchange between nucleic plasma and cytoplasm.

5. Nucleolus
Nucleolus contains a lot of DNA that functions as nucleic organisator. The main function of nucleolus is to synthesize RNA. So, nucleolus also plays role indirectly in protein synthesis. 6. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) ER is a complex membrane system arranged irregularly in the plasma of eukaryotic cell. ER membrane is covered by ribosome. ER distinguished into two, rough and smooth ER. the surface of rough ER is formed because it attached by ribosome.

7. Ribosome
Ribosome is composed of protein. It function as a site for protein synthesis of amino acid.

8. Golgi complex
Golgi complex is an organelle with flat sack shape concentrated on one of the nucleus side and often found in gland cell. It function : 1. To secrete protein, glycoprotein, carbohydrate, and lipid and also to transport lipid. 2. To form lysosome and active digestive enzyme.

9. Mitochondria
Mitochondria is a site for an aerobic respiration to occur. Mitochondria is covered by two membrane, inner membrane called cristae that necessary to extent mitochondria surface, and outer membrane.

10. Lysosome
Lysosome is an organelle with bubble shape containing various enzymes. The enzymes are formed by rough ER and then sent to Golgi complex. It plays role in molecule decomposition by endocytosis, ectocytosis, autophage, and autolysis.

11. Flagella

Flagella is a movement apparatus that mostly found in unicellular organism. Flagella not always present in cell.



Centriole is a pair of micro structure with tube shape that appear near nucleus. It function in controlling the movement of cell.



Microbody is a small organelle covered by one layer of membrane. The size is similar with lysosomes size. The example of microbody are Peroxisome and Glyoxysome.



Skeleton (cytoskeleton) is the cell skeleton that lies between nucleus and cell membrane of eukaryotic cell that function in cell movement and substance transportation. Cytoskeleton is composed of two elements: Microtubules Microfilament

Difference of Eukaryotics and Prokaryotics

- As you can see, in prokaryotic cell theres nucleoid in cytoplasm instead of nucleus in eukaryotic cell. And in eukaryote cell contain membrane-bound compartmets in which specific metabolic activities take place. This is the major and extreme difference which makes them really different with each other. - In fact, the size of eukaryote can reach ten times of prokaryote in size and one thousand times in volume.

- Eukaryote organisms include fungi, animals, and plants as well as some unicellular organisms. Prokaryote organisms generally an monocell organisms

- Prokaryotes lack of organelles, such as mitochondria, chloroplasts, and golgi apparatus. Instead, their function are taken by prokaryotic plasma membrane. - Eukaryotes have many organelles which do their own jobs. Prokaryotic cells have three region : o Appendages called flagella and pili (proteins attached to cell surface) o A cell envelope consisiting of a capsule, a cell wall, and a plasma membrane o Cytoplasmic region that contains the cell genome (DNA) and ribosomes and various sorts of inclusions.