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REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Literature review serves as a source of information of what will be the research to be conducted. It serves as baseline data of the study. It shows update or overview of the study to be conducted. Literatures review can be obtained through newspaper, leaflets, through the web, books, etc. RELATED LITERATURE SKILLS PRACTICE Skills are the ability of an individual uses his knowledge effectively in doing something. Practice is an act of applying; to carry out; to work repeatedly to be proficient or to be professionally engaged (Merriam Webster, 1995). In the definition, it is said when combined the two words, that skills practice is ability or repeated act where someone uses his gained knowledge to be effective in doing something. Demonstration is a method to show an act or some action clearly (Merriam Webster, 1995). Demonstration is a method by which the learner is shown by the teacher how to perform particular skills. Return demonstration is the method by which the learner attempts to perform the skill with cues from the teacher as needed. These two methods require different abilities by both the teacher and the learner. Each is effective in teaching psychomotor skills. Both may enhance cognitive and affective learning. (Bastable, 2007)

According to Benners Stages of Clinical Competence, as a first year student nurse, you will be considered as a novice, developing your repertoire of clinical skills under direct supervision (Benner, 1984). As you progress through your course you will move to advanced beginner, aiming for competence. It is however very important that you always work within the limits of your competence and do not undertake any aspect of care that you are not qualified to carry out. Developing clinical skills is an exciting part of your nursing education. Individual skills help you to focus on practicing and link them together to provide holistic nursing care to your patients in any care setting. (MacDonald and Staniland, 2009) COMPETENCY "No letters after your name are ever going to be a total guarantee of competence any more than they are a guarantee against fraud. Improving competence involves continuing professional development ... That is the really crucial thing, not just passing an examination." - Colette Bowe "The differences between a competent person and an incompetent person are demonstrated in his environment (surroundings)." - L. Ron Hubbard

Competencies are groups of skills, behaviors, or knowledge that are identified as performance standards for a particular job. Competencies are applied to a particular job rather than an individual employee. They are typically validated by employees who are performing the competency at least an acceptable level. This level may also be called a "journeyman" level to distinguish between the entry

level and mastery level of a skill. In writing competencies, consider how each will be evaluated. There are two types of competencies which are knowledge or skill/behavior. A "knowledge competency" can be measured by an objective test or question. For example, to test the competency "Knowledge of the Performance Management Directive (34)," a supervisor could answer questions that determine his or her comprehension of the policy. (http://www.dhhs.state.nc.us/humanresources/workplan/competencies_definiti on.html) A Skill/Behavior must be demonstrated or observed. For example, for the competency related to "Giving an Employee Feedback," the observer might look for the use of the STAR tool, whether the supervisor was timely in giving feedback, enhanced the employees self esteem or considered the employees feelings in the conversation. (http://www.dhhs.state.nc.us/humanresources/workplan/competencies_definiti on.html) According to Dr. Scott Tilley Competency in Nursing: A Concept Analysis (The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing), competency is a topic of great interest to educators and administrators in practice disciplines, particularly health care disciplines such as nursing. This article focuses on the role of competency in nursing. Through a concept analysis process, various elements of competency were assessed. The defining attributes of competency are the

application of skills in all domains for the practice role, instruction that focuses on specific outcomes or competencies, allowance for increasing levels of competency, accountability of the learner, practice-based learning, selfassessment, and individualized learning experiences. The learning environment for competency assurance involves the learner in assessment and accountability, provides practice-based learning opportunities, and individualizes learning experiences. (http://www.jcenonline.com) Competency (also competemce) is the ability to perform tasks and duties to the standardexpected in employment. Competency standard is an industrydetermined specification of performance which sets out the skills, knowledge and attitudes required to operate effectively in employment. Unit of competency is a component of a competency standard. A unit of competency is a statement of a key function or role in a particular job or occupation. The competency standards for the advanced registered nurse, the registered nurse in general practice, and the enrolled nurse in general practice include cues for each of the units of competency and these are designed to assist with understanding the competency standard. The cues included with the competency standards should not be used as a check list although they are a very useful guide to assist with assessing competence ie is the standard being met or what is required to demonstrate that the required level of competency is being achieved? (Competency Standard for Nurse in General Practice, 2006)

Competency in nursing is essentially the attainment of a state where ones clinical knowledge and skills are recognised and developed so as to provide the maximum care to the patients. Not only does it requires the essential motivation on the nurses part, but also requires a professional as well as an academic endeavor in the nurse. This is aimed so that the nurse not only is able to provide adequate nursing care to her patients or clients, but continues to do so by improving her skills via various post graduation studies and professional development programs. (Competency Based Practice, 2006) The point to consider is that the competency of a nurse is judged not on the basis of his or her theoretical performance, but on the practical clinical one while caring for his or her patients. This would require that the nurse be able to handle a variety of clinical situations with ease, and be able make correct decisions in order to provide the most proper treatment for the patient. Competency naturally therefore has a very far reaching influence in the nursing as well as the health care systems. (Competency Based Practice, 2006) (www.directorys.uniquearticles.info) RELATED LEARNING EXPERIENCE Related Learning Experience

According to Prof. Romela Cruz (2008), Related Learning Experience (RLE) has an objective to: Serve competency in the promotion of health

Prevention of illness Carry out the therapeutic programs of the patients Give health guidance to patients in the hospital, in the home, and in the community

According to an advertisement Summer Student Professional Program (Internship/Externship), their summer work program to selected aspiring health practitioners will benefit to have an additional clinical experience in a supervised environment will enable students to increase their organizational skills, time management, clinical competence, and team participation through their exposure to the hospital- The Methodist Hospital (TMH). (http://www.methodisthealth.com) In the said advertisement, they were highlighting that supervised working environment to have clinical practice is one they would increase their competency because thy will be exposed to different areas of learning regarding health promotion. RELATED STUDIES According to the research entitled The Effects of Virtual Laboratory on the Competency Level of Third Year Nursing Students Taking Up RLE NCM 101 at Our Lady of Fatima University by Sobremisana, Palomo, Batadlan, APon, Dianela, Emeterio, Caceres and Fradejas (2008) resulted that the majority of the students believed that virtual laboratory is very important on the competency level of selected third year nursing students. Most of the respondents believed that the participants score higher on the related learning experience as obtained when presented with virtual laboratory. The presenting virtual laboratory. majority of the respondents revealed that they improved their performance in the hospital duty upon

They have concluded, on the said research, that upon the perception of the respondents of the effects of virtual laboratory brings a great part on the third year nursing students. Thus; it helps the studies in enhancing their cognitive skills performance through practicing inside Virtual Laboratory. The selected third year nursing students allow practicing real life station through the use of Virtual Laboratory that provides learning platform to the nursing students. Using the Virtual Laboratory by nursing students does give benefit on the patient when performing the procedure in the interactive clinical laboratory and does give benefit in the selected third year nursing students. In the research entitled Academic Factors Effecting the RLE Performance of the selected 4rth Year Nursing Students in Our Lady of Fatima University by Abubo, Enorme, Jaum, Mabeza, Rocero, Darwin,Salinas, Samson, Soliven, Tumolva, Villahermosa (2008), survey respondents were questioned: How academic factors affect the RLE performance of the 4th year nursing student during their Hospital duty hours? What are the results of their performance in their hospital duty hours? Is there a significant relationship between the academic factors and the RLE performance of the 4th year nursing student during their hospital duty hours? Is there a significance between the performance of the students who attended lecture before having their hospital duties and those who had their hospital duties before lecture? The researchers have concluded that out of the five academic factors, Personal Study Skill was the most common that greatly influence the RLE of the 4rth year nursing students. These academic factors affect the RLE performance of the 4rth yr nursing students during their hospital duty by utilizing the factors to improved knowledge and concepts about the hospital skills.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abubo,Enorme, Jaum, etc (2008), A Research Study on The Effects of Virtual Laboratory on the Competency Level of the 3rd Year Nursing Students Taking Up on RLE NCM 101 at Our Lady of Fatima Bastable, (2007) Benner, P. (1984) From Novice to Expert: Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice, Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley Cruz, R (2008), A Powerpoint Presentation entitled Identification and Prevention of The Most Common Diseases Acquired by Seleted Nursing Students of Our Lady of Fatima University During their Hospital Duties MacDonald and Staniland (2009), Clinical Skills: Essence of Caring Sobremisana, Palomo, etc. (2008), A Research Study on Academic Factors Affecting the RLE Performance of the Selected 4th Year Nursing Students Australian Nursing Foundation (2006), Competence Standards for Nurses in General Practice, John Thrift Publishing Merriam Webster (1995) http://www.dhhs.state.ne.us/humanresources/workplan/competencies_definiti on.htm www.answers.com www.jceonline.com www.directorys.uniquearticles.info www.sribd.com www.methodisthealth.com