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ROASTING

The term roasting generally refers to the cooking of prime quality foods in an oven, by dry convected heat. But as we shall see later in this section there are many ways of cooking which are referred to as Roasting each with their own characteristics. It is essential that foods selected for this prime method of cookery are of prime quality. Prime quality butchers joints, young poultry, good quality game (furred or feathered) and first class vegetables. The heat transference for roasting will vary according to the method being used. We will concentrate here on the most common method of oven roasting. Roasting may combine three methods of heat transfer: Conduction, convection and radiation The hot air inside the oven cavity is CONVECTED (assisted by a fan), when it comes into contact with the surface, heat is CONDUCTED through the food. Rays of heat from the heat source are also absorbed so that cooking by RADIATION also occurs to a limited extent. The temperature range will depend upon the method employed, the type of commodity and the equipment used. The internal temperature of meat will vary from 60 degree C to 80 degree C depending upon the type of meat and the degree of cooking required. Meat thermometers or probes can be used to record exact internal temperatures. Many chefs however rely on experience only.

FOOD COMMODITIES FOR ROASTING:

FOOD COMMODITY Chicken Duckling

DEGREE OF COOKING Well Done Well Done

MENU EXAMPLE Roast Stuffed Chicken Roast Duckling with orange Salad Roast Guinea Fowl Roast Loin of Pork with Sage and onion stuffing and apple sauce Pommes Chateau

Guinea Fowl Loin of Pork

Well Done Well Done

Potatoes

Well Done

IMPORTANT POINTS:

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Suitable for prime quality meat, poultry, game and vegetables. No liquid added. No cover used. Baste frequently. Meat must be rested after cooking and before jointing or carving.

METHODS OF ROASTING:

TRADITIONAL: Roasting by traditional methods is carried out in a conventional oven, either powered by gas or electricity. Roasting by this method depends upon convected heat and although it has been in use for many years does have some disadvantages, e.g. uneven heat distribution.

MODERN: Modern forced air convection ovens as they are powered by gas or electricity. They have the advantage of built-in fans, which circulate the hot air inside the oven cavity. It is therefore possible to stack trays in the oven at different levels and for all the goods to be cooked evenly. The hot air that is forced to circulate inside the oven is almost equal in temperature throughout, which as previously stated is not true of a conventional oven.

ALTERNATIVES: There are also lesser-known ways of roasting: Spit roasting, rotisserie, tandoor etc., ACCOMPANIMENTS: The traditional accompaniments to roasted meats are: 1) Roast gravy: Jus roti, made from the natural juices from the joint with the addition of the appropriate types of brown stock. 2) Picked Bunches: Pluches of watercress. Other suitable accompaniments may be served with specific joints.

Source: Foundation stage OCLD: Module F101 A