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Contents

Design of Concrete Structures


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Introduction Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Sections


Rectangular Beams in Flexure


Doubly Reinforced Sections

Analysis & Design Equations

Bedilu Habte (Dr.-Ing. )


November 2007

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Example
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Introduction
If a beam cross section is limited because of architectural or other considerations, it may happen that concrete cannot develop the compression force required to resist the given bending moment. In this case, reinforcing steel bars are added in the compression zone, resulting in a socalled doubly reinforced beam, that is one with compression as well as tension reinforcement.
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Introduction

Fig. 1

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Doubly Reinforced sections

Introduction
It has been found that the inclusion of some compression steel has the following advantages: It will reduce the long-term deflections of members. It will set a minimum limit on bending loading It act as stirrup-support bars continuous through out the beam span.

Introduction
Another reason for placing reinforcement in the compression zone is that when beams span more than two supports (continuous construction), both positive and negative moments will exist as shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2
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Introduction
In Fig. 2, positive moments exist at A and C; therefore, the main tensile reinforcement would be placed in the bottom of the beam. At B, however, a negative moment exists and the bottom of the beam is in compression. The tensile reinforcement, therefore, must be placed near the top of the beam.

Analysis
The basic assumption for the analysis of doubly reinforced beams are similar to those for tensile reinforced beams. Condition I: Tension and Compression Steel are both at Yield Stress The steel will behave elastically up to the point where the strain exceeds the yield strain . As a limit f = f when the compression strain . Condition II: Compression Steel does not yield If < , f = Es.
yd s s yd yd s yd s s
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Doubly Reinforced sections

Analysis
If, in a doubly reinforced beam, the tensile steel ratio is equal to or less than b, the strength of the beam may be approximated within acceptable limits by disregarding the compression bars. The strength of such a beam will be controlled by tensile yielding, and the lever arm of the resisting moment will be little affected by the presence of compression bars.

Analysis
If the tensile steel ratio is larger than b, an elaborate analysis is required. In Fig. 3, a rectangular beam cross section is shown with compression steel placed at distance d from the compression face and with tensile steel As at the effective depth d. The total compression will now consist of two forces C1, the compression resisted by the concrete C2, the compression resisted by the steel
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Doubly Reinforced sections

Analysis

Analysis
For analysis, the total resisting moment of the beam will be assumed to consist of two parts or two internal couples: the part due to the resistance of the compressive concrete and tensile steel and the part due to the compressive steel and additional tensile steel. The total nominal capacity may be derived as the sum of the two internal couples, neglecting the concrete that is displaced by the compression steel.
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Fig. 3
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Analysis
The strength of the concrete-steel couple is given by: M = C * ( d 0.5a ) or M = As f * ( d 0.5a )
1 1 1 1 yd

Doubly Reinforced Sections


It is necessary to develop more generally applicable equations to account for the possibility that the compression reinforcement may not yield when the section fails in flexure. The development of these equations will be based ' on: <
s yd

The strength of the steel-steel couple is given by:


M 2 = As2 f yd (d d ' )

Moment Capacity of the section equals the sum:


M d = M1 + M 2

The location of the neutral axis depth is:


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x=

( As As ) f yd
'

Internal force equilibrium: T = C1 + C 2


As f yd = f cd a b + As f s
'
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0 .8 f cd b

'

Doubly Reinforced sections

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Doubly Reinforced Sections


x d ' ' f s = s E s = cu E s x x d = 700 x
' '

Example

Given The section and reinforcement shown in the figure below, with C25 concrete and fyk = 420 MPa Required Find the stress in the compression steel.
'

Which leads to,


x d ' As f yd = 0.8 f cd x b + As 700 x

Find the moment capacity of the beam.

(0.8 f cd b )x2 + 700As As f yd x 700As d ' = 0


' '
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