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# ANSYS

## Exercise II: Guideline for ANSYS

ThepurposeofthisshortguidelineistosuggestsomecommandsthatcanbeusedforgeneratingtheFE model in ANSYS. This guideline has not to be intended to drive step by step the reader through the realization of the model, but it lets the reader free to try and learnbydoing. Of course, the teaching assistants(TommasoDelperoandFrancescoPrevitali)areavailableforansweringquestions. Asageneralsuggestion,werecommendtousetheGraphicalUserInterfaceasafirstapproachtoanew command, especially while drawing the geometry. The geometry can then be saved as IGES and reimportedforthefollowingsteps(boundaryconditions,solutionandpostprocessing).

1. GEOMETRY
ThefirststepforbuildingtheFEmodelisthegenerationofthegeometryentitiesthatwillthenbeused forcreatingthemesh.Thegeometrydoesnothavetobeanaccuraterepresentationoftheactualshape ofthewing,butausefulintermediatestepforthegenerationoftheFEmesh. Forexample,ifyouplantomodelthestringerwithonedimensionalelements(beamswiththeproper section),thegeometryentitythatwillbeusedforcreatingthemeshistheline.Ontheotherhand,if youplantomodelthesamestringerwith2Delements(shells),youwillneedtodrawareas.Ifyouplan tomodelthesamestringerwith3Delements(bricks),youwillneedtodrawvolumes. Allthesedecisionshavetobetakenbeforestartingdrawingthegeometry. Apossibleapproach(nottheonlyone)forcreatingthenecessarygeometricalentitiesisthefollowing: CreatetheNACA2415rootprofile Copy,scaleandmovetherootprofileforgeneratingthetipprofile Createtheskinandthewebsofthesparsbyextrudingtherootprofile Createtheareasfortheribs

1.1. NACA 2415 profile The coordinates of the airfoil can be found online (e.g. http://www.ae.illinois.edu/m selig/ads/coord_database.html#N). The command k can be used to import the coordinates. Please notethattheycoordofthefirstandlastkeypointshavebeensetto0inordertoclosetheprofile.
k,1,1.0000,0 k,2,0.9500,0.0134 k,3,0.9000,0.0245 k,4,0.8000,0.0441 k,5,0.7000,0.0610 k,6,0.6000,0.0750 k,7,0.5000,0.0857 k,8,0.4000,0.0925 k,9,0.3000,0.0938 k,10,0.2500,0.0917 k,11,0.2000,0.0870 k,12,0.1500,0.0797 k,13,0.1000,0.0683 k,14,0.0750,0.0606 k,15,0.0500,0.0507 k,16,0.0250,0.0371 k,17,0.0125,0.0271 k,18,0.0000,0.0000 k,19,0.0125,-0.0206 k,20,0.0250,-0.0286 k,21,0.0500,-0.0384 k,22,0.0750,-0.0447 k,23,0.1000,-0.0490 k,24,0.1500,-0.0542 k,25,0.2000,-0.0566 k,26,0.2500,-0.0570 k,27,0.3000,-0.0562 k,28,0.4000,-0.0525 k,29,0.5000,-0.0467 k,30,0.6000,-0.0390 k,31,0.7000,-0.0305 k,32,0.8000,-0.0215 k,33,0.9000,-0.0117 k,34,0.9500,-0.0068 k,35,1.0000,-0

The airfoil coordinates are nondimensional. The command KPSCALE (Main Menu>Preprocessor>Modeling>Operate>Scale>Keypoint)canbeusedtoscaleittotherightdimensions. Onceyouhavescaledthekeypoints,theairfoilprofilecanbeobtainedwithasplineinterpolation.For betterresultswesuggesttodividetheprofileatleastintwolines:
ksel,s,,,1,18,1 BSPLIN,all, ksel,s,,,18,35,1 BSPLIN,all,

ThelinesforthewebsofthesparscanbecreatedwiththecommandLSTRatthewingrootandthen scaledandmovedtothetip.

The airfoil lines can be divided, at the intersection with the spars and stringers,withtheLSBLcommand(Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Divide > Line by Line).Suchadivisionofthelineswillbe usefulduringthemeshingprocedureto control the position of some nodes, sincenodeswillbecreatedattheinitial and end points of each line (the same applies also in the next steps for the edgesoftheareas). The result of this first section could be something similar to what is shown in Fig.1.

Figure1Linesdescribingtherootandthetipprofiles.

1.2. EXTRUSION The command ASKIN (Main Menu>Preprocessor>Modeling>Create> Areas>Arbitrary>By Skinning) generates anareaby"skinning"asurfacethrough guidinglines.Itcanbeusedforexample forcreatingthesurfacesoftheskinand the spars starting from the lines in the rootandtipprofiles. Theresultofthisextrusionprocedure could be something similar to what is showninFig.2. Please note that the command
Figure2Areasobtainedby"skinnning"

/PNUM (Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering) can be used to control

entitynumbering/coloringonplots.

1.3. BOOLEAN OPERATIONS Boolean operations can be used for subtractinggeometricalentitieslikevolume, areas and lines. We show here an example with areas and lines, but similar concepts applyalsotovolumes. Ribs can be created starting from 4 rectangles by subtracting the exceeding portionofthesurfaces. The command BLC5 (MainMenu > Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Areas> Rectangle>ByCentr&Cornr)canbeusedto
Figure3AreasafterBooleanoperations(theupperpartoftheskin hasbeenexcludedfromtheplot)

create one rectangle, that has to be copied with the command AGEN (MainMenu > Preprocessor>Modeling>Copy>Areas).

Oncetherectanglesaregenerated,wesuggesttofindatfirsttheintersectionbetweentheskinandthe ribswiththecommandAINP(MainMenu>Preprocessor>Modeling>Operate>Booleans>Intersect >Pairwise>Areas). Thiscommandwillgeneratelinesattheintersectionsoftheareas.Theselinescanbeusedfordividing the original areas with the command ASBL (Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans>Divide>AreabyLine). TheresultoftheseBooleanoperationscouldbesomethingsimilartowhatisshowninFig.3. 1.4. CREATE COMPONENTS When the geometry is complete, we suggest to use the component manager (Utility Menu>Select> ComponentManager)tocreate,selectanddisplaygroupofgeometricalentities(suchasthegroupof theribs,theoneofthesparandsoon).Thistoolcanbeveryusefulduringthemeshingandtheload introductionprocedures,sinceitallowsforaneasyselectionofthedesiredcomponents. 1.5. SAVE IGES Beforestartingwiththemeshingprocedure,werecommendtoexportthegeometryinanIGESfile. Commands: IGESOUT(UtilityMenu>File>Export) IGESIN(UtilityMenu>File>Import)

2. MESHING
Themeshingprocedurerequiressettingthepropermaterials,elementtypes,andsections(e.g.Lprofile ofabeam,orthicknessofashell).Thesecommandshavealreadybeendiscussedinthefirstexercise. However,wesuggestthecommandsAREVERSEandLREVERSEtochecktheorientationoftheareas andlines.Inthisexerciseforexampletheorientationoftheareasoftheskinisimportantfordefining thedirectionofapositivepressure.

3. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

4. SOLUTION
Alinearstaticandabucklinganalyseshavetobecarriedout.Weremindthestudentsthatthebuckling analysisrequiresthattheprestresseffectsofthestaticanalysisarepreviouslycalculatedandstored. ThiscanbedonebyusingthecommandPSTRES,ONduringthestaticanalysis. /SOL ANTYPE,STATIC PSTRES,ON SOLVE FINISH /SOL ANTYPE,BUCKLE BUCOPT,LANB,2,0,50 SOLVE

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