Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 4

1)ans:- Information is considered to be processed data that influences choices, that is data have somehow been formatted, filtered

and summarized; and knowledge is, considered to be an understanding derived from information distinctions among data, information and knowledge may be derived from scientific terminology. The researcher collects data to test hypotheses: thus data refer to unprocessed and unanalysed numbers. When the data are analysed, scientists talk about the information contained in the data and the knowledge acquired from their analyes. The confusion often extends to the information systems context, and the three terms may be used interchangeably. 2)ans:- USES OF EXECUTIVE INFORMATION SYSTEM 1) EIS provide immediate and easy access to information reflecting the key success factors of the company and of its units. 2) User-reductive interfaces, such as color graphics and video, allow the EIS user to grasp trends at a glance. 3)EIS provide access to a variety of database , both internal and external through a uniform interface the fact that the system consult multiple databases should be transparent to the users. 4)Both current status and projection should be available from EIS. It is frequently desirable to investigate different projections; In particular , planned projections may be compared with the projections derived from actual results. 5) An EIS should allow easy tailoring to the preference of the particular user or group of users. 6) EIS should offer the capability to drill drown into the data: It should be possible to see increasingly detailed data behind the summaries. Executive information system are a superior tool for exercising the function of management. Thanks for these system ,many an executive has been able to widen his or span of management control-in other words, to expand the number of people reporting directly to him or to her.

3)ans:- Retrieving desired data from manual systems can be time consuming and expensive executives spend approximately six weeks a year on average looking for misplaced material. Secretaries may spend as much as 30% of their time looking for paper documents and approximately 20% of that time searching for misfiled items. Because paper files require large amount s of space managers may store the data on a different floor or even in a different bulding. The labour costs of retrieving even small amounts of information electronically unless the organization can create small and compact storage for its paper records. Electronic systems provide rapid and inexpensive access to information stored electronically in an organized fashion. The costs incurred are only those of using the computer equipment for a fraction of a second, particulary when retrival is part of ongoing processing . If can individual requests the retrival, it may require additional processing to translate the retrieval from a from understood by the person to a form understood by the computer. Then the information is stored in a different in place from where it is requested, the request must be transmitted electronically to where the data are stored, and the retrived data must be transmitted back. 4)ans:-CHALLENGES OF INFORMATION MANAGMENT First, they must deal with large quantities of information that may creat overload. Second, they may face insufficient or conflicting information. Third, they must find ways to enchance their personal productivity. Fourth, they must acquire and maintain the technical skills needed for effective personal information management. DEALING WITH QUANTITES OF INFORMATION The early fear that computers would so imrove a persons ability to process and manage information that a job holder would need only one third to onehalf the time to do his or her job has been dispelled.The reverse has occurred.often employees face an infoglut , an overload of information. FACING INSUFFICENT OR CONFLICTING INFORMATION

Although computers can make large quantities of information available to individuals, such information may not address their needs. Ramesh, ASM, of airtel, may wish to do some library research about competitors products. In spite of the large amount of information in the librarys electronic catalog, she may not be able to secure the prcis information she needs. ENHANCING PERSONAL PRODUCTIVITY Employees in any organization increasingly use information technology to improve their personal productivity. To ensure high productivity, employee must know how to use computers to facilitate, not hinder, their performance. MAINTAING TECHNICAL SKILLS Finally, using information techonology effectively requires continous updating of technical skills. Although many companies provide training to their employees, others do not. 5)ans:- The physical component of MIS comprise the computer and communications hardware, software, database, personnel, and procedures. COMPONENT HARDWARE DESCRIPTION Multiple computer systems: mainframes, minicomputers, personal computers. Computer system component are central processor, memory hierarchy, input and output device. Communication: local area networks, metropolitan area networks and wide area networks. System software and applications software Organized collections of data used by application software. Professional cadre of computer specialist; end users in certain aspects of their work.

SOFTWARE DATABASE

PERSONNEL

PROCEDURES

Specifications for the use and operation of computerized information system collected in user mauals, opertator manuals, operator manuals and similar d documents.

6)ans:- ETHICAL AND SOCIAL ISSUES WITH E-COMMERCE a) Internet can be used in illegal ways, as there are no laws related to its use.Many servers contains illegals , immoral, defamatory information(which cannot be legally communicated using facilities like tv, radio, etc) b)There is minimal or control over the internet. Limited banning of material in internet is not possible i.e. all-or-none ride. c)Free speech advocates say that screening of incoming material is the responsibility of the receiving d)There is no low against spamming i.e sending unsolicited mail. e)Massive flaming of large quantity of email to one address.