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ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF EGYPT

Edited by
F.

Ll.

GRIFFITH

FIFTEENTH MEMOIR

THE BOOK TOMBS


OF

EL AMAENA
PAKT IIL-THE TOMBS OF HUYA AND AHMES
BY

N.

DE

G.

DA VIES
the

With an Appendix on

Greek

Ginffiti by

SEYMOUR

DE

RICCI

FORTY PLATES.

LONDON
SOLD AT

The

offices OF THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND,


i!Y

37,

Great Russell Steeet, W.C.

AND Pierce Building, Coplky Square, Boston, Mass., U.S.A.


AND
B.

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;

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atljata.

New fort

A--^r:^ofi.u.nn OAJ.?..-

i^i

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book

is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

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text.

the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924020525360

THE EOCK TOMBS


OF

EL AMAENA

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF EGYPT


Edited by
F.

Ll.

GRIFFITH

FIFTEENTH MEMOIR

THE EOCK TOMBS


OP

EL AMAENA
PAET III.-THE TOMBS OF HUYA AND AHMES
BY

N.

DE G.

DAVIES
the

With an Appendix on

Greek Graffiti by

SEYMOUR

DE RICCI

FORTY PLATES

LONDON
SOLD AT

The offices OF
AND BY
B.

THE EGYPT EXPLOEATION FUND,


<fe

37,

Geeat Eussbll Street, W.O.

AND PiEECE Building, Copley Square, Boston, Mass., U.S.A.

KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TEUBNBR CO., Deyden House, 43, Gehraed Stjreet, Soho, W. QUARITCH, 15, Piccadilly, W. ASHER & Co., 13, Bedjoed Steeet, Covbnt Gakden, W.O. AND HENRY PROWDE, Amen Coenek, E.G.
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...

LONDON:
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DT

\i.3

EGYPT EXPLOEATION FUND


iPresiDent

SIE

JOHN EVANS,

K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., P.E.S., P.S.A.

Wicesipresi&ents

The Et. Hon. The Eabl op Ceomeb, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., K.C.S.I. (Egypt) General Lord Gebneell, G.C.B., G.C.M.G. The Hon. Ghas. L. Hutchinson (U.S.A.)

Sm

E. Maunde-Thompson, K.G.B., D.C.L.,

Prop. G. Maspbbo, D.O.L. (Eranoe) Prop. Ad. Ebman, Ph.D. (Germany)


JosiAH Mullens, Esq. (Australia)

LL.D.

The Eev. Pkof.

A.

H. Sayce, M.A., LL.D.

Iboii.

treasurers

H. A. Geuebee, Esq., P.S.A.

Gabdneb M. Lane, Esq.

(U.S.A.)

1bon. Secretaries
J. S.

Cotton, Esq., M.A.

Albert M. Lythgoe, Esq. (U.S.A.)

Members
T.

of

Committee

H. Batlis, Esq., M.A., K.C., V.D.

Mrs. McClurb.

C. P.
J.

MoBEELY Bell, Esq.

The Ebv. W. MacGeegoe, M.A.


C.

E. Carter, Esq. (U.S.A.)

McIlvaine, Esq. (U.S.A.)

SoMERS Clarke, Esq., P.S.A. W. E. Ceum, Esq., M.A. Louis Dyer, Esq., M.A. (U.S.A.) Arthue John Evans, Esq., M.A., D.
P.E.S.

The Mabquess of Northampton,


Prancis
P. G.
Litt.,

Wm.

Percival, Esq., M.A., P.S.A.

Hilton Price, Esq., Dir.S.A. Sib Hbebbet Thompson, Baet. Mes. Tirard.

Prop. Ernest A. Gabdneb, M.A.


P. Ll. Griffith, Esq., M.A., P.S.A. P. G. Kbnyon, Esq., M.A., Litt.D.

Prof. Alexandbb Macalistbe, M.D.

Emanuel M. Undbedown, Esq., K.C. John Waed, Esq., P.S.A. T. Hbebbet Waeeen, Esq., M.A. E. TowEY Whytb, Esq., M.A., P.S.A.

CONTENTS
List of the Plates

.....
of

PAGE
ix

Preface

xi
I.

Chapter

The Tomb of Huya.

A. Architectural Features
B. The Sculptured Scenes.
1.

The prayers

Huya

2.
3.

A Royal banquet
An
evening entertainment
the temple
tribute

4
7 7 9

4. 5.
6. 7.

A visit of Tyi to

The reception of the foreign


Huya's appointment to
office

12

Huya's duties and rewards


Akhenaten's link with the past
.

13
15

8.
9.

10.
11.

The funeral rites The funeral procession The burial furniture


.

16
17
17

C.

The Religious Texts

D.

Huya

....
.

17 19 19

Appendix A.

The

" Sun-shade " of Tyi

Chapter

II.

The Tomb of Ahmes.


26

A. Architectural Features
B. The Sculptured Scenes.
1.

The prayers

of

Ahmes
temple
at

27
27 29
31

2.
3.

Royal

visit to the

The Royal Family


.

home

C.

The Religious Texts

D.

Ahmes
The Greek
Graffiti.

32

Appendix B.
Index

(By Seymour de Ricci)

34 38

LIST OF PLATES
WITH EEFERENCES TO THE PAGES ON WHICH THEY ARE DESCRIBED

PLATE

LIST OF PLATES.
PLATE

XXXII. XXXIIa. XXXIII. XXXIV".

W.

wall.
,,

The King and Queen driving The same (restored) The palace
at

The Royal Family


Graffiti

meat

XXXV.
XXXVI. XXXVII.
XXXVIII.

*ToMB OF HuYA.
*
,,

Hall and doorway of shrine

Thickness of inner wall

*ToMB OF Ahmes.
*

XXXIX.

Door and E. thickness W. wall. The soldiery


''

Photographio plates.

PEEFAGE.
A WORK such
now
with
as that of

which the present volume forms an instalment can hardly be

satisfactorily
I

advanced without incurring many obligations.


gratefully acknowledge, and in the
first

The ready

assistance

which has been rendered

and foremost place express

my

thanks to the Com-

mittee of the Egypt Exploration


all

Fund

for enabling

me

not only to carry the enterprise so far

the thoroughness which I ventured to think such a publication demanded, but also to

look forward to a completion of the whole necropolis of El


privilege to serve a large

Amarna on

the same scale.

It is

body
I

of subscribers in a scientific project of this magnitude.


for permission
to

With

regard to details of the work,


a photograph in Part
II.

have to thank Professor SteindorfF


;

reproduce

(the

upper picture of Plate xxvi.)


department with which he
is

to

M. de

Ricci for contributing an

appendix to

this

volume
site at

in a

peculiarly qualified to deal

Maspero
credit

for

many

facilities

and suggestions, and


disposal.

to Professor Petrie for putting his

M. knowledge
;

to

and records of the


is

my

Mr. Griffith has been, as ever, an ideal Editor, and the

specially his if the translations

embodied in the work have kept pace with the

linguistic

advances of recent years.


I

have

also to

express

my

regret to the

memory

of Champollion for failing to notice that

some inaccuracies

in his great

work

are in fact due to another

hand than

his,

and to Signor

Barsanti for being ignorant of a paper, " Sulla scoperta della tomba del Faraone Amenoji IV."
contributed by him in 1894 to the Beale Accademia dei Lincei.

The

articles

of the late

M,

and Revue Archeologique, May, 1882, p. 279) should be added to the bibliography in Part I., as well as the new volume of the Institut Francais (dated 1903, but published in March, 1905), ^^ Monuments pour servir a V etude du
vi,, p.

Bouriant on the tomb of Rames at Qurneh {Becueil

53,

having been courteously adopted by M, Chassinat to avoid clashing with that of the present work.
culte d'Atonou en l^gypte"^ this title

I
this

do not

feel that

any apology

is

needed

for the general

method of reproduction employed

in

work.

At the

cost of

some unsightliness
critic

I feel

bound

to enable the student to distinguish as

clearly as possible between the extant picture and any restorations that
desirable.

may be considered has assured the public that I do not intend the irregularly broken lines of an injured scene to represent the exact state of the wall, it is necessary
But
as

a distinguished

for
is

me

to insist that this

is

what

have attempted,

to the best of
artist,

my

ability

conceiving that

it

my

duty to be everywhere the copyist and not the

or to give plain notice of the lapse.

N. DE Gaeis Davies.
^

Cited in this work as "

Le

Culte d'Atonou."

THE

EOCK TOMBS OF EL AMARNA,


PART
III.

CHAPTEE
THE TOMB OF HUYA
A. Aechitectueal Features.
Plates
i.,

I.

aspect, in strong contrast to its present filth-

XXV., xxxvi.
:

encrusted and ruinous state.

Previous copies are

The entrance

to the hall

from outside has no


is

Hay, MSS. 29,847, foil. 46, 47 (plans). L'HoTB, Papiers, iii. 275, 277, 278 (fragmentary)

framing, but the passage to the inner rooms


furnished with the usual inscribed portal.
cornice above the lintel
is

The
in

The Exterior. The situation of the tomb of Huya has been already described.^ It lies
immediately to the North of the tomb of the
later

painted with nine


green,
blue,

horizontal 'bands

(red,

blue,

order), the upright plumes being marked out by

Meryra ^

both tombs being very similar

black vertical

lines.

The pediment above


:

is

and plan and aligned roughly North and South. The tomb of Huya was probably excavated, or at least decorated, a year or two
in type
earlier than its neighbour.

decorated with bands of floral design


of
it is

a section

given on Plate xxv.

o.

The architraves

are not inscribed.

The fa9ade

is

now

The
doubt

floor of the hall is


it

very rough, but no

too

much worn to retain inscriptions. Inteeioe. The Hall. In the entrance way,

was originally covered with a pavement


the

of red plaster.

as in the hall within, the surface of the lower

The Columns.Two columns supported


ceiling

part of the wall has scaled away badly, completely


there.
as

through architraves of rock, and the

destroying the scenes and inscriptions

consequent division of the hall into a central


passage with side
aisles

The

hall is

of small dimensions

but

was emphasised by
Only one

originally designed

and executed
it

its

bright

giving to the centre section greater height and

colouring must have given

a very pleasing

a gable

roof of

very low pitch.

column now remains, and


(Plate xxxvi.)
;

this has lost its base

In Plate i. I have made considerable use of plans prepared by Mr. John Newberry in 1892. ' Part I., pp. 2, 7; Part II., p. 3. The tomb is No. 1 of of the present numeration, No. 7 of Lepsius,"No. 6 L'H6te, " Tomb A " of Hay.
'
*

the other has been destroyed

up

to the abacus.

The

relatively

low height of

the hall entailed a certain degree of squatness,


especially in the capital, but the omission of the
tablet

Part

II., p.

33.

from the shaft

is

some compensation
B

for

THE ROOK TOMBS OF EL AMARNA.


this.

In general the column closely resembles

the Double Treasury, and of


the house of the great royal

the

form used

in

the

adjoining

tomb

(II.

wife

(Tyi),

Huya,

maa-

xxviii.),

but the sheathing leaves of the calyx


This adornment of

kheru."

W/A
"[A reception
manner
of

m
C
C\.I

as well as those at the base are

the chisel.

marked with the capital by


is

B. (Hall).
of

offerings], all

sixteen overlapping sets of sheaths

things that are offered [in

effective/

the presence] of Ua-en-ra,

but so far from

realistic

that the sculptor was

m
;^ii

beloved like the Aten(?)

riiAA

undecided whether to allow science or art to


prevail.

milk
visions
for

(?)

and pro[burial?].

After having spread them round the

thy

whole
eight
stored

capital,

he cut them away again from the


stems, and then, repenting, re-

May
thy

thy

name
;

flourish [in]

PP

m
ti

chapel

may

[every
(?)].

central

generation]

call

[thee

'<^

them in plaster. Impartial time has now left them on one side and removed them on the other. The colour has disappeared but
;

May
name not be
abode

thy
lono

to seek in thine

gap
ends

....

on each stem a central


broad base, was

rib,

tapering from a paint


?)

[For the lio, of the] Superintendent of the royal


M_rp
I

shown

in

(brown to

harem and of the Double Treasury and Steward in the


house
of

represent the withered sheath

the queen-mother

ii?S

%\
IJJ
/Kl^

The Ceilings.The
on the
soffits

brilliant colours

which

once adorned the ceiling are partially retained


of the architraves.

and great royal wife Tyi, Huya, maakheru in peace."

The patterns
is

Only the name and


titles

of the central aisle

and of the entrance cannot


soffits

of
in

Huya
the

are legiff

be recovered.

That on the
xxv.

given in

ble

other two

-I

Plate XXV. A, and that on the ceiling of the

cases.

^:
is

East

aisle in Plate

e.^

The

ceiling of the

The Second Chambee.

inner shrine was decorated in the


in Plate

manner shown

This
no

provided

1^

xxv.

K.

with shallow architraves,

m
made
to serve

The design in tbe central aisle is divided in the middle by a column of incised hieroglyphs, and similar columns run down the centre of the
ceilings of the

but

columns.

the Bast end the

At mouth

of a burial shaft opens


is

in a ledge of rock,

which

thus

three

wall-thicknesses.

They

as a protecting parapet.

are scarcely legible, and I append transcripts

and translations of them with


A. (Entrance).

diffidence.

The well is almost empty, and about 36 feet deep. The chamber can be seen at the bottom opening out to the
West
but
;

"[A

reception af] offerings* of the

but

did not descend.

There

is

a ledge
;

King's giving
place of thine.

(?),

loaves, beer,

and provisions
(?)

at every
it

May

of rock left at the


it is

thy name

flourish

may

not

be to seek (?) in thine abode of eternity (?). "For the Aa of the Superintendent of the harem, of

West end of the room also rough and too narrow to contain a
(Plates
i.,

shaft.

The Shkine
doorway
'

xix.,

xxxvi.).The
is

to

the

terminal

The

idea

is

taken from the single-stemmed papyrus

chamber

seldom

column.
'^

Hay

partly colours his column, but the data

seem

decorated in this necropolis, perhaps for lack of time but here it is fully inscribed. The form
;

have been insecure. ' I hope to give coloured representations of the ceiling patterns of the necropolis in a subsequent volume. * For these two very similar inscriptions consult Plate
to XX. (B. thickness)

of the
ally

doorway

also is unusual,

met with

in

though occasionthe earlier tombs and it


;

befits the situation, for it is the

where the same phrases occur.

frequently given to the

same that main doorways

is

in

THE TOMT? OF HUYA.


private houses,^

Hence we may gather that the construction was usually in wood, though the arch of the characteristic upper part
suggests that the original type was in brick-

shrine were decorated with scenes and inscriptions.

The work was by no means


though perhaps better than
;

of the
its

first

quality,

present

work.

This

superstructure

seems

to

carry

condition induces one to suppose and while the minute workmanship of such a scene as that on
Plate xviii. showed what care and labour could
achieve, most of the smaller

out the idea of a panelled wall in two stages, each crowned with a cornice of uraei. In the lower wall there are two openings (in which

work

is

but rudely

executed.

The

scenes cover the walls to within


floor,

columns and

are

painted

here).

No doubt
left

the

a short distance from the

and where space


in

purpose of
light
filled

this fan-shaped lattice


air,

was to admit
open or

permitted they were


parallel blue

framed

borders

of

the panels being

and red

lines.

with fretwork designs.

The designs used


;

for

the

purpose are very varied


several

here they

The vacant space round the altar on the Bast wall has been utilized by Greek visitors for
scrawling graffiti on in
B, D, e).

include

derived

from

the

papyrus,

black ink (Plate xxv.


dealt with

cartouches, and columns.^

The jambs
rose-granite

are

decorated with blue hiero-

glyphs on a wine-coloured ground (representing


?)
;

but

they

have

been
is

much
made

mutilated in recent times.

The drum

to represent a bundle of reeds (blue with red

bands).

So weak a material can have been


lintel
it

used as a

only in very rude buildings^

and perhaps
close the

rather represents the rolled-up

by M. de Ricci on p. 34. Most prominent are two rude figures of Anubis, for which the two porticoes of the temple (see Plate x.) are made to serve as pedestals. One of them sits enthroned the other' stands. The latter is furnished with a shirt, and wears a hat or halo on his head, and boots upon his feet. What he holds in his hand is not clear.
The names are
;

mat which every campaigner in Egypt uses to doorway of his mud-brick hut.^ The shrine contains a sitting statue of the
deceased man, which with
its

B.
1.-

The Sculptured Scenes.


The Prayers of Huya.
Plates
ii., iii.

pedestal occupies

almost the
length.

entire

space in

both

height and

The
XXX vii.

Wall-Thicknesses.

xx.,

xxi.,

It is

much

mutilated and the face has

been entirely cut away.

previous copy is L'HoTB, Papiers, iii. 277.


:

The Sculptuee.
thicknesses
of the

The
three

three

portals,

the

It will

be convenient to deal at once with

cross-walls,

and the

the decorations

on the

six wall-spaces

afforded

whole wall-surface of the main

hall

and of the

by the passages through the


these places are occupied

cross- walls.

In

the northern necropolis (except in


'

II., vii., viii.)

by standing

figures

Cf. Plates xxvii., xxxiii.


;

Part

I.,

Plate xxxii. and

p.
I.,

39
p.

Part

II. p.
>.,

Wilkinson, Manners and Customs,

of the deceased in act

of prayer,

and by the
;

iii. 82; Peteib, Decorative Art, p. 95. such a door was found this year in the excavations of Deir el Bahri. These doors seem to be

356; L.

prayer
figure

itself set

out in vertical columns


if

the
to

fine

example

of

facing

outwards as

coming out

the true representatives of the decorated false doors of Old Kingdom tombs.
^

enjoy a sight of his divinity, the sun.

In this tomb, however, the figures in the


entrance
t.o

Compare the common design


in

of
false

the tv70

joined

the shrine, a space elsewhere


face

left

papyrus-heads

the panels

of

doors in

Old

undecorated,
attitude
is

inwards.

This exceptional

Kingdom
3

times.

Of. II. xxi.,

where a similar bundle


lintel.

is

seen below the

proper to the position, and well


the

cartouches on a

illustrates

Egyptian conceptions of

the

THE ROCK TOMBS OF EL AMAENA.


after-life
;

for

when

the spirit of the deceased

Above the head

of each

is

a table, on which an
is

which haunts the

mummy
roam,

in the
it

sepulchral

enormous array of loaves

stifily

displayed

chamber

feels free to

must escape by

round a cone or piled to that form.^


is

The

pile

the burial shaft in the middle chamber, and so

adorned with a fashionable

frill

near the top.

turns intuard to the shrine but outward to the

Huya's own name


doorway.

is

written large over the

open
dead.

air.

These

scenes

thus

indicate

the

middle chamber as the dwelling-place of the

The

texts will be dealt with

on pp.

17, 18.

The
cases

dress of

Huya

is

identical in the four

2.

Royal Banquet.
side.
:

where he comes forth to pray.

He
by a

wears
South Wall.
Bast
Plates
iv., v.

a long robe confined on the hips

sash,

Previous copies are

which has a decorative edging on the upper

hem and

is

fringed at both ends.^


realistic

Plate

iii.

Wilkinson, Manners and Customs, i. pp. 470, 476. L'HoTE, Papiers, xi. 12 (published in Am^lineau,
Sepultiire, pi. 100).

shows a more
front than
is

rendering of the knot in


the

Lepsius,

-D., iii.

100,

c, d."
ii.

usual;
the

looped end
instead
of

is

seen

Peissb, L'Art lEgyptien,

27.

pressed

against

body,

being

shown

in profile as in Plate xx.


is

The
fillet

As
figure

the absence hitherto of any mention or


of

toilet of

Huya

completed by sandals, a long wig, the


cone or cap
^

tail festal

which a
wrist.

tombs of
resident

keeps in

Queen Tyi from the walls of the El Amarna shows that she was not
in

place, four

rows of gold beads round the neck,

Akhetaten

at

the

time of their

and a gold bracelet on each

formation, the existence of this

tomb
its

of the

In the other two cases (Plate xx.), where

highest

official

of her household, and the special


is

Huya

is

not engaged in prayer, but entering

honour which

accorded to her in

scenes,

his private room,

he wears the gown tucked up


it.

indicate that late in

the reign of Akhenaten

and showing a tunic beneath


staff

He

she paid a state visit to the


carries a

new

capital,

and

and wears four


also

flat

gold bands on the

even suggest that she had come to take up her

right fore-arm,
(see

instead of the single bracelet

Plate xvii.).

He

seems to hold a

lotus in the other hand.

up an establishment there.'' But whether the visit of Tyi were longer or shorter, and whether Huya or the king had the
abode or
set

"We

may

also

conveniently deal here

with

greater voice

in

the choice

of subjects

for

the adjacent (South) wall of the shrine itself


(Plate xxi.).

the walls of the

tomb,

it

is

plain
it

that both
as of the

Here on either
as he
is

side of the door-

welcomed the event and regarded


highest importance.

way

is

a kneeling female figure,

who seems
private

To

to

the king this

open

salute

Huya
One

enters

avowal
apart-

of

the

his

queen-dowager's

ments.

" his

sister,
;

the lady
the

with the
of the

religious

sympathy revolution was an event

house, Un-her, maatkheru "


[wife],^ the

other " his Or a pile of loaves under a conical Capabt, Becueil de Monuments, I. xlii.
^ '

lady of the house, Tuy, maafJcheru."'^

cover.

Of.

Whence
"

'

Cf.

Part

I.,

pp. 10, 11.

The

fringe of the looped


II. xxxv., for

end
it

'

A House

the restoration of Plate iv. of Tyi " is mentioned on a sherd (Peteie,

of the sash is seen

on the Semites in
is

is

not a handkerchief as I suggested.


^
^

On

Plate

xii.

the cap

streaked with red at the top.

T. A., p. 33, and plate xxii.), and there is a rough cartouche of hers in a quarry from which perhaps the stone for this house was taken {ib. plate xlii.) The

Probably, since "sister"

sitting
*

woman.

is not determined by a Perhaps "his mother." Cf. PI. xxii.


ii.,

deduction drawn from

it

on

p.
is

High up

in the

same quarry

4 seems far too bold. the figure of a man

Of. L.

D. Text,

p. 141.

issuing from a door like that of Plate xix,

THE TOMB OF HUYA.


of the utmost political significance, and

Huya
be-

more such

jars are placed together, a strip of


is

could

not

but

rejoice

on

private

grounds

at the complete

harmony which reigned


his

tween
ject

his

sovereign and
visit to

mistress.

The

cast round them, method of steadyapparently as a decorative ing these unstable vessels. Akhenaten and.

blue or patterned cloth

importance of the
is

both king and sub-

Nefertiti

reflected

on every wall save one, where

Tyi

is

wear a simple head-dress, whereas crowned with the double plumes and
She
is

another event of public interest found record. As the pleasures of the table naturally form
the most prominent feature of the decoration
of the private

the horned disc.

entitled "

mother of a

King
(i.e.

(i.e.

Akhenaten) and great wife of a King


living for ever
his

tomb

at

all
life

times,

it

is

not

Amenhetep III.), Tyi, ever," ^ The sun extends


offering

and
all

rays

over

surprising that this side of

in the palace has

the participants, over their food, and over an

a place in the
family.

representations of the
it

royal
(Plate

which has been


of Tyi

set aside for himself.


sits

We

meet with

elsewhere

By

the side

"the daughter of

xxxiv. and IV, x.), and the idea of II. xxxii. was probably borrowed from the adjoining
wall here.

the (late) King, begotten and beloved by him,

Beketaten,"
hand.*
of
sit

who

receives food from her mother's


is

In addition, banqueting must have

Her presence here


their mother's chair.

balanced by that

played a large part in the welcome accorded to


the Queen-mother

two of her nieces who

also are privileged to

In the
sit

by Akhenaten. scene here the King and

by
;

The
is

elder

is

Merytis

Nefertiti

aten

the

other,

who
is

on high-backed chairs on the left-hand of

probably Nefer-neferu-aten.^
Tyi's

much smaller, Huya himself,


or

as

the picture, facing Tyi.^


is

By

the side of each


cloth

chamberlain,
receiving

personally
dishes,

serving his

a table

covered with

a green

and
sort.

mistress,

the

rather
of the

stacked

high with provisions of every

meats, from the corresponding


palace.

official

Yet the appetite of the royal pair would seem to justify even this enormous pile for while Akhenaten attacks with his teeth a broiled bone
;

'

The

irregular

arrangement

of the

hieroglyphs which

as long as his arm, Nerfertiti

makes

as direct

is

frequently seen in the Queen's

title
' '

gave

rise to the

an onslaught on a
size, as

fair-sized bird.

Proportional

untenable supposition that Tyi was


great queen "
*

royal mother of the

(i.e.

depicted by an Egyptian draughtsman,


is

of Nefertiti).
of

however,
clusions,

the weakest possible basis for conif

and

we

miss a refinement which


expect, neither must
of

it

would be settle by eye the measure


foolish

to

we

Beketaten only in the company of " born of Nefertiti from her description, make it certain that she was not the daughter of Nefertiti, and but little less than certain that she was the daughter of Tyi. That her father was
Tyi,

The appearance

and the absence

of the inevitable "

the

apparent

grossness.^

Those who malevolently destroyed

the faces of the royal figures here

may have
Drink

saved Tyi from a similar charge of gluttony,

Amenhetep III. is finally proved by the sceiie in Plate xviii. The difference of age between herself and her brother Akhenaten (twelve from twenty-eight, say) creates no difficulty, though she must have been born late in life to Amenhetep III. or even posthumously. Her father need
not have been responsible for the
History,
p. 39).

but her action appears more genteel.


also is

name
the

she bears here,

abundantly provided
set

for each person in

involving recognition of the cult of Aten.


ii.,

See Peteie,
earlier

large jars

on stands.

Wherever two or

pp. 203-4

(contrary to

T. A.,

head, in which Lepsius's artist, Georgi (followed by Prisse), makes the seat of the chair terminate,
'

The

lion's

in this

is

quite fictitious.

^ Of. the Egyptian ideas of festivity cited by Ekjian, Life in Ancient Egypt, p. 255.

The four daughters who are assigned to Nefertiti tomb are probably seen on the South as on the North wall, two on each side of the doorway (contrary to the statement in Part I., p. 42.) The food which was between their hands here was only painted and has
*

disappeared.

THE BOOK TOMBS OF EL AMAENA.


The sceues in the background of the hall are shown in the lower registers (Plate v.). Here we see the larder filled with jars of beer and
.wine, boxes of cakes, tables of meats, etc., from
\vhicli officials

performers, a harpist, two players on the lute,

and one on the


are

The other performers manifestly foreigners, both by dress and


lyre.^

instruments (compare
the

Plate

vii.)

for

though
differ

are supplying the waiters.

With

form of the lyre cannot be said to


in

the precaution habitual in the East, the viands are


tasted both

from that used


have
been
a

Egypt, the latter appears to


importation
in

by the palace

officials

(lower row)

foreign

New

and by Huya himself


before

after

them (upper row)


of Ua-en-ra,

Kingdom
origin
is

times. ^

This indication of an eastern


flounced dress.

they are placed on the royal tables.


is

supported by their
is

Huya
Lands

styled

"the
place
of the

favourite

The group unfortunately

sculptured in the

following
in

the

feet of the

Lord of the Two


he
loveth,

roughest possible Avay, so that neither dress nor


instruments have very definite outlines.
curious head-gear, whether
(black), or
it

every

that
royal

the

The
some-

Superintendent

harem, of the

be dressed hair

a cap with a

fillet

round

it,

what resembling the tarlush and handkerchief which are common in Egypt to-day, is most
nearly paralleled in representations of the Shasu

(Bedawin) and the Tursha (inhabitants of Asia

Minor

?).^

It

will

be remembered that the

earliest representation of the lyre

shows

it

in

the hands of Bedawin.

One
Treasury, and of the house of the Queen-mother

of the six performers bears a lute,

and

one other at least a lyre of six strings, but the


chief instrument
full
is

and great royal

Avife,

Tyi, the living one."

an immense standing lyre, the


It is in charge

Two

bands of performers on stringed instru-

height of a man.
in Plate
vii.,

of

two

ments are in attendance, the one native, the


other apparently foreign.
latter

men
Avith
is

one of whom, however,


It is

may

The presence of the


recorded on the West

only be steadying the instrument.

played

might be explained by the gathering of


is

both hands.

It

has an octave of strings and

foreign embassies which


wall,

naounted on an ornamental stand in the form of

and

may have
vii.

synchronized with, and


visit.

a vase.

The keyed frame

at the top

is

supported

afforded a partial reason for, Tyi's

But as

on tAvo rods shaped like spears, instead of on the


curved gazelle's heads
Both,
it

here and in Plate

they are placed on Tyi's

usual

with the,

lyre.

side over against the palace musicians, they are

may

be remai-ked, are designs natural

more likely to have come in her train.

to a desert people.

The court band, which we have already met with in IL xxxii, and shall see again in
Plates
vii.

Dado.

It

is

a peculiarity of this

tomb that

on the South, East, and West sides the very foot


of the wall
register,
is

and

xxxiii., consists of four female

occupied by a scene in a single


do, so far as can

which has nothing to

The

chief of these

will

be met with again.

The
^

shaven head
(see
^

may have been imposed on


T. A., pi. v.).

ofQcials of the

kitchen as well as on priests, for the sake of cleanliness

The group

is

perfect in L'Hote's copy.

See restora-

Peteie,

tion above.

The

inscription has been

removed

in

modern

times.
of

It is inserted in the

above restoration from a squeeze


ii.,

Lepsius (L. D. Text,

p. 139).

Eeman, Ancient Egypt, p. 253. Of. MuLLEB, Aden und Europa, pp. Nbwbeeby, Beni Hasan, i., xxxi.

380, 381.

THE TOMB OF HUYA.


be seen, with the scene above, or with the
of the deceased.
Its irrelevance is
life

whom

he loves, the Lady of the

Two Lands
so

marked on

[Nefertiti], living for ever

and ever."
(Plate vii.) are
it

the

South

wall

coloured border between

by the intervention of the it and the main scene.

The background
to

scenes

similar to those in Plate v. that

only remains

The supplementary scene on this wall shows the summer life of the peasants in the fields. Like the modern fellah, they have erected a little
shelter of straw or wattle

notice

the

six

flaming lamp-stands,
set

each

having two globular jars

by

it

on stands.

Evidently this was an evening cup, and the

under a tree,
etc.,

provided

lamps are
set

for illumination, the jars of

wine being
strangely

with the few utensils for baking,


all

which are

near them that the servants might see to

that they require.

The animals tethered


is is

replenish the cups.

As we

are

still

outside being

exposed to the attacks of wild


set in the vicinity
;

ignorant of the illuminants used by the Egyptians, this feature is

beasts, a spring-trap (?)

noteworthy.

The supple-

yet none the less watch

desirable,

and we

see

mentary scene below the framed picture has


perished almost to the last traces.

the

herdsman
jackal.

chasing

away a marauding

The women sit outside the hut beside the bushes winnowing the corn.
hyaena or
Further
afield others

of their number, accom-

4.

Visit of Tyi to the Temple.


Bast Wall.
Plates
viii.

panied by the family cow, are gleaning amongst Their men also are busy reaping, the stubble.
the lazy one of the number jesting with the
others or quaffing from the beer-jar.

to

xii.

Previous copies are

Hay, MSS. 29814, L'HoTB, Papiers,


Sepulture, pi.
cii.).
iii.,

fol.
xi.

42.

(published

in

Amiblineau's

Lepsius, D.,
3.

101, 102.
is

An Evening
West
:

Entertainment.

The purpose
South wall.
side.

of this scene

given in an

in-

Plates

vi., vii.

scription in front of the King, reading


" Conducting the great
to let her see her

A previous
Sepulture, pi.

copy
ci.).

is

L'HoTB, Papiers,

xi.

10 (published

by

Amelinbau,

Queen and Queen-mother,


(a

Tyi,

Sun-shade

temple or division of the

temple)."

We have
Plate
iv.

here a companion picture to that of


before,

It thus

forms part of the chronicle of the

visit

As

Akhenaten and

Nefertiti,

of

Tyi to Akhetaten, to which half the scenes of


is

with the two princesses Ankhes-en-pa-aten and

Huya's chapel

devoted.
:

Meket-aten

(?), sit

over against their guests, the

into three parts


ix.,

1.

The picture The main scene

divides
(Plates

Queen-dowager and her little daughter. The elders have been served with wine and are drinking it from goblets, which servants who wait with napkins are ready to replenish from

X.,
;

xi.)

2.

the usual by-incidents (Plate


(lowest- register,

xii.)

3.

an irrelevant appendix

Plate

viii.).

The

distinctive treatment of the

three parts here and elsewhere

may

help to fix

narrow jars (cf.

IL, xxxii).

Huya is present and


wand
are
of office
set
(?).

the responsibility for the choice of subject, in


this

directs the servants with his

and other tombs.

For the
in the

interests of the

Low

stands of eatables also

by the

King seem prominent

main

scene,

Huya's

chairs for the use of the children,

who appa1

Nefertiti is rently are not allowed the wine. of styled " The heiress, great of favour, lady

Eestored
is

from
a

L'Hote.
doubtful.

In

both

cases

the
of
o,

of

Lepsius

little

of grace, charming in loving-kindness, mistress South and North, the great wife of the king

(Papiers, xix.) the first

In a squeeze rather resembles ;

L'Hote and he

reads

and

-==-> respectively.

TEE ROCK TOMBS OP EL AMARNA.


OAvn in the

secondary registers, while in the


has been allowed a free hand.
the

p. 28).

The three

chariots

from

the

royal

dado the

artist

stables are not forgotten

by the

artist.

In Plate

xii.

King and

his

mother are

Huya's privilege, as occupier of the tomb, of

seen within the temple walls, proceeding to-

making himself prominent


been cleverly made use

in the sub-scene, has


of.

wards a great gateway, the folding-doors of


Avhich are

Apparently Tyi

thrown open to receive them.


leading

enaten

is

Tyi

affectionately

Akhby the

had come to

settle in

Akhetaten.

house had

been provided for her, a shrine erected for her


worship, and the 'personnel of her household
chosen.

hand, and his


Avith

little

sister

Beketaten follows
the

gift

for

the altar on behalf of each.


is

Huya had probably

little

to

do with

Two

nurses watch over her, and there

the provision of the shrine, but much, those

who

usual following of porters and attendants and of


officials,

know

the East will readily believe, with the


office in

military and

civil.

They
dress,

are preceded

appointments to

the house.

It is this

by Huya and an unnamed


the

official,

who

leads

apparently that he depicts here.

Dividing the

way

clad in

Egyptian

but with a

servants into eight classes or castes, and regard-

fillet

round

his bald

head and a curiously-plaited


leg.'^

ing the appointments to each as a magnification


of his

bandage, like our modern putties, on one

own

office,

he leads his underlings in

The buildings King and Queen


courts

of the temple to which are proceeding consist

the
of a

colonnaded court with a more intricate series of


or chambers beyond
it.

homage together in their various capacities, not unaware how much of the gratitude of the menials was paid to him
giving thanks and
personally.

Aten

shines

(So on the North wall

we

see

both upon the royal pair and on the building.

Huya's appointment combined with his enrol-

In the latter case the titulary runs, " The living


Aten,
&c., in the

ment

of workmen.)
is left

Sun-shade (or

'

Shade of Ra

')

Scarcely anything

to us of

five,

out of

of the Queen-mother and great


living one."

Queen
case,

[Tyi], the

the eight classes shown, but apparently in each

In the former

and everyis

Huya was

seen, leading with upraised

arms the
is

where else in the tomb, the seat of the Aten


described simply as
" the temple of

acclamations of the servants.


"

Each picture

" Akhetaten,"
in Akhetaten."

instead of
If this is

accompanied by an inscription of the form,

Aten

more than caprice, it implies that other shrines had now been erected in the capital and had
deprived the great temple of
its

The appointment of the Superintendent of " the royal harem, Huya Over each
group, or over
shout with

many
it

of them,

is

written the

monopoly.

which
ever.
"
!

acclaims
:

the

King or

The

discussion of the architectural plan of the


x., xi. will

Queen, " The ruler of the Aten


for

he shall exist
"
!

temple in Plates

be reserved for an

ever

and

He

promotes from the


risen
"
!

appendix

(p. 19).

youngest ranks

"

She who rises in beauty


" "

The

register below the

continuation of the train

main scene shows a The miliof ofiicials. by a


(v.

"

To him on whom Aten has


(his)

Aten
"
!

at

rising (?)

"
!

She who

is

the sup^

tary escort consists exclusively of officers and


standard-bearers, but they are marshalled

porter of the temple of Aten in Akhetaten

trumpeter,

who may have

the same rank

group but one reads, " The appointment of the Superintendent of the royal harem, Huya, and of (or

The

inscription in front of the last

It

may
I

apparel.

be a decoration, therefore not an article of know of nothing Egyptian akin to it, and it
;

savours of foreign (Cretan

?)

origin.
;

We
(cf.

see

Huya

else-

Or perhaps not a

cry, but a label, "

The

(guild of)

where

in charge of

such an
to

official

suggesting that Huya,


Plates
v., xv.).

porters of the temple," the guild supplying carriers both


to

like Tyi,

was a stranger

Akhetaten

Huya and

to the temple.

THE TOMB OP HUYA.


'

as

')

the

bearer of the standard


'

(?)

of the

the fishers are using both the drag-net and the


rod.

guild of saises of

Aten has
thus

risen

on him.'
group
the

The was

inscription

before the preceding


similar,

probably

associating

5,

The Reception of the Foreign Tribute.


wall.

standard-bearers of another guild with


in his good fortune.

Huya

West

Plates

xiii.,

xiv., xv., vii.

The men

of the last group

are identified

by

the inscription, "

Appointment
^

Hay, MSS. 29814, L'Hote, Papiers,


Sepulture,
pi. ciii.)
iii.
;

fol.
xi.

45, 46, 59. 7

(published in

Amelinbau,

of the porters of Huya, Superintendent of the

Lettres jScrites, p. 69.

Lepsius, D.,

1006. (palanquin and bearers).

royal

harem and

of the Treasuiy."
is is

If the ininter-

scription

over their heads preted to mean " She who


the .temple," their cry
is

correctly

This scene

is

unique in the necropolis, as an

the supporter of

illustration of

an historical event which

it also
:

a play

upon the word


to include

describes

and dates.

The

inscription records

by the

jovial porters,

who pretend

" Year 12, the second

month

of winter, 'the eighth day.

the great Queen as one of their profession.

Life to the Father, the double Euler,^ Ea-Aten,


life

who

gives

The
dition

scene at the bottom of this wall has


Its con-

apparently only a decorative motive.

The King of South and North and ever Nefer-kheperu-ra and the Queen Nefertiti, living for ever and ever, made a public appearance on the great
for ever
!

makes any exact description


left is

impossible,

palanquin of gold to receive the tribute

but

it

evidently represents waterside scenes. the familiar papyrus thicket, in-

On

the

habited by nesting birds, which are being dis-

turbed by gatherers of reeds and by fowlers

of Syria (Kharu) and Ethiopia (Kush), the West and the East (Syria and Ethiopia standing for the North and the South) all the countries collected at one time,* and the islands in the heart of the sea, bringing offerings to the King (when he was) on the great throne of Akhetaten for receiving the
;

imposts of every land, granting to them the breath of

life."

who have

spread their net in the pools hard by.

Further to the right what appears to be a river of which cattle are is seen, on the banks
grazing
;

The movement
palace
to

in the picture

is

from the

the great dais of


of

reception.

The
been

but probably

it

is

not water but a


is

pictures

the

palace

have

already

wall of netting into which

game

being driven

by

beaters.

By

the side of a pool or river,


thick, the

commented on (Part I., p. 23), but a few points suggested by this new representation may be
added here.

where the

trees

and bushes are

camp

of these hunters or

A hut of wattle is

herdsmen has been planted. set within a pale (?), and the
seems to indicate that

The lower

section,

near which a servant

is

sweeping, shows the facade of the palace, yet

very arbitrarily.
1.

pile of fruits (?) outside

the country affords sufficient sustenance. While the women are engaged about the camp, the

The two doors under the


loggia

loggia

window

are only put there for the sake of compactness.

men

are busy capturing the fish with which

The

should stand on the raised terrace,

the waters teem.

Two

canoes are afloat, and

and these doors, which are the doors to rooms on each side of the loggia, should be placed
accordingly.

The sloping

ascents

led

up

to

Beading
2

these doors, but at right angles to the facade,

Restoring |-g

^^j

^IM

from a photograph by

not, as here, sideways.

Petrie {Bacial Types, xiv. 612) which


injury.
It

was

prior to the
'

comprises this inscription and the two preceding groups, which are distinguished by him as Syrians and Ethiopians. I see no trace of anything foreign in
/\f^/fAf\

This

is

the literal meaning of the repeated sign of the

seated King, but really two different determinatives should

them.

L'Hote reads
is

ra

/VNAVNA

il

<=>

^M
I

and the photo-

have been used to distinguish the divine from the regal attributes of the god (see Part II., pi. iv. g, and p. 15).
*

graph

not clear enough

to give a final verdict

Beading

/^

with Lepsius

10

THE ROCK TOMBS OF EL AMAB.NA.


2.

The four columns


should
in

to right

and

left of

the

state procession

and possibly a long one in the


in

loggia

strictness

not be seen, but

open-air, fan

and shade- bearers are assiduous

instead

the two doors in a blank wall.


inside the

The

their attentions.

The elaborate palanquin has

four columns are


artist,

rooms/
side
xvii.),

but the

already been noticed.^

having taken over the common design


loggia,

of the

which had the


it
(cf.

doors

and

terrace set below


left to
3.

PI.

had space
put the
without
II.

show the interior of the Our artist, not being


nor at the side
(as in

side rooms.

able to

porch in front of the loggia without mingling of


lines,
II.

14)

confusion with the columns there (as in

41),

yet determined to put

it

somewhere, has calmly-

placed
wall
!

it

in front, of the gate in the enclosing

In face of this audacity one

may

well

cease to be dogmatic in the interpretation or

reconcilement of these architectural plans.


4.

The
of

smaller

rooms,
hall,

instead

of

being

ranged behind the great


sides
it,

are placed on both

the

intervening corridor being

duplicated in order to carry out the change.^

The sleepy eunuch, who


the corridor.^

is

as

much
is

a feature

of the house as its architecture,

to

be seen in

The
to impress

princesses are walking behind the chair,

As

it

was desirable

the foreign

embassies with Egypt's wealth and dignity, the

King and Queen are


reception
in

carried to the place of

by waiting-women and two nurses. Only the two elder are named possibly two more were inconspicuously shown. This artist,
followed
:

the

state palanquin of precious

unlike the rest, was a

little

contemptuous of the
tAvo babies

metal, borne on the shoulders of a dozen carriers.

royal nursery, and probably might have added,

The royal
public

pair

sit side

by

side,

not foregoing in
;

had he thought worth while, one or


to the four children ledges.

their

habitual
in

dalliance

for,

though
of a

whom

at

most he acknoAv-

Akhenaten
statue,

sits

the

irksome

stiffness

with fly-flap and crook


pass her

(?),

he permits
his
waist.*

Nefertiti to

arm round

The officials, shown by the


in the

servants,

and military who are

side of the king's chair (Plate

A-pparently this sign of intimate union,

which
to

XV.) are very similar to those seen

Egyptian statuary

affects,

was considered

companion picture

in the

lend dignity to the husband.


added

As

this

was a

The troops are entirely of tribe, armed with the curved


of these

and noticed tomb of Meryra." the same Bedawi (?)


staff.

A long file
In front of
official,

I. xviii.,

to the evidence of actual

houses in the
building

men

is

led

by

five

of their officers

ruined
*

city, is decisive.

The reader

will get a clearer idea of the

(upper row on the

left,

Plate xv.).

which was the original of these tantalizing plans by consulting the diagram on p. 30, and the plan and rbstoration in Beman, Life in Ancient Egypt, pp. 177-180.
^

them again are Huya and his fellow preceded by six soldiers. These belong

to

two

Cf. L. D.,

iii.

106 a

Peteib, T.A.,

pi. xi.

See accompanying restoration.

Part

II., pi. xxxvii.

and

p. 42.

"

Ibid.

THE TOMB OF HUYA.


corps, but it
line to the
is

11

impossible to give precise outcarry.

first

place of negro slaves in fetters,

dragged

weapons which they

forward singly or in couples (the


children following in the rear).
gifts follow (Plate xv.)
;

women and
hung with
of

additional detachment of this and a kindred tribe (who wear a short tunic and carry an axe, as in II. xl.) are also ranged on the

An

Less barbarous

three yokes
;

skins

and rings of gold

two

set-pieces

other side of the King (Plate xiv.) in the same


position of trust
;

metal-work representing typical south-country


vegetation
spices,
;

they are evidently mercena-

tusks, chairs (of ebony,

no doubt),

ries in the service of

Egypt.

priest in the

bags of gold-dust, monkeys, leopards and

same headgear precedes the palanquin, burning incense,^ and others of his countrymen go before and assist in the execution of a pantomimic dance (as in II. xxxviii.). This dance,
which I have
set

antelopes.

The Ethiopian slaves are balanced by a still greater number from Syria, drawn up in nine (?)
bands of four to six each, to await the King's
arrival.
officer

down elsewhere

to the hilarity

Each band
and a warder.

is

in charge of a military

of street-boys, seems regulated, and the per-

As there

is

no mention
it is

formers are rather to be regarded as professional

or sign of any military operations,

safest to

mummers.

The three royal

chariots are also in

conclude that they are slaves or hostages, representing or guaranteeing the prescribed tribute.

the procession, perhaps for show, perhaps for use on the return journey.

The picture

is

far

from showing a free bestowal


;

A
had

still

greater impression was likely to be


the gifts which the tributary nations

or interchange of gifts

for there are

no am-

made by
suzerain,

bassadors prominent, and both gifts and slaves


are

brought or sent to the court of their

brought

forward

by

native

Egyptians.

and which are being carried at the

Apparently then an expedition had been sent


out to gather in the tribute, not perhaps with-

head of the procession under guard of one of The tribute of the North is seen on the police.
one
side,

out conflict in every case, and the

officers

are

and

comprises two

chariots,^ four

here presenting to the King the tale of each


people's due,

sacks,
filled

and a number of the elaborate vases, probably with precious spices and unto execute, less for use than for purposes

whether in gold or human booty.


all

Most of the captives are males, and


handcuffs.*

are in

guents, which the goldsmiths of Syria were

In the topmost of the nine rows a

wont

few Retnu
too

women

are seen, and


also.

some perhaps

of display.

Other vases with covers and handles

in the lowest

rows

decorated with heads of animals are set on


stands for the King's inspection, together with
large open

rough to allow of

The figures are far any distinctive racial


is

marks.

some

bowls of simpler form, but

The royal procession

directed to a

little
is

perhaps with valuable contents, which are enclosed in a supporting framework.'

group of buildings, the largest of which


proached by a
sides.

an

open pavilion, raised on a platform and apflight of steps

The tribute of the South represents a very


different type of civilization.
'

on each of
its

its

four four

It consists in the

Twelve columns support


;

roof,

on each side
For a
121.
It is characteristic of the unpractical

and low
three

walls,

topped by uraei,

parallel to this design of the King's palanquin


Silsilis,

and the incense-bearer by Horemheb at


iii.

see L. D.,

connect the

columns at each corner.

Bast that the


i.,

chariots should be borne on men's shoulders instead of

Customs,

For these handcuffs see Wilkinson, Manners and i., p. 338, and Capaet, Becueil de Monuments,
xsxi.,

being dragged. ' Tbey are rudely cut or unfinished, besides being jured, so that it is hard to recover their shapes.

35, 36, 37.


^

in-

Its counterpart is seen in I.

and perhaps

in

II. xxxvii.

THE ROOK TOMBS OF EL AMARNA


Opposite the pavilion
is

a smaller platform with


is

one approach, on which a walled shrine

built,

containing an altar-table, heaped with offerings.^

Between the two platforms are two small


on the model of the great
court.

altars

The North wall is occupied by two scenes, the upper parts of which are almost identical and represent the bestowal of favours on Huya by the King. The written statement is very meagre
and the pictorial record much mutilated
in respect of different
it
is
;

altar in the temple-

but we

To

right and left are magazines for the

gather from the latter that the two rewards were


offices.

service

of these altars, and

the

depiction

of

In Plate xvi,

sacrificial

victims shoAvs that a religious cereIt

manifestly Huya's position as Superin-

mony

of

some magnitude was contemplated.


II., p. 6,

tendent of the Treasury of Queen Tyi ^ to which


attention
is

has been suggested in Part

that these

called.

buildings are to be identified with the

mounds
Lying a

The upper part of the scene


detail."

in both pictures

which Professor Petrie found at the head of the


great avenue leading to the tombs.^
little

resembles closely those already interpreted in

Akhenaten and Nefertiti are leaning


loggia of

this

way out of the town in would make -an effective


have
already seen

the level waste,


site

from the decorated

the

palace' to

for a great

present the collars of gold or otherwise honour


the favourite, and the two younger princesses,

public ceremonial.

We

Huya among
satisfied

the

attended by their nurses, regard the scene from


behind.

courtiers,

but he was not

with this

casual appearance.

He

claimed a space also

Huya

stands below in act of salutation, while

where he might be shown receiving the congratulations of his household and of his

a servant affixes to his dress one of the

new
The

harem

rewards or insignia of
royal gifts seem

office

(a

sash?).

on

his return

with new honours from the cere-

mony.^

That he had received such, or that he


tribute,
is

more scanty than usual, only a bracelet being clearly shown, though an unopened
coffer is seen below.

had had any part in securing the no means certain.*


There
still

by

Possibly, as the

appointment was to the Queen-mother's household, the

remain fragments of a decorative


this,

scene below
fields

depicting the labour of the

and having

King was only indicating his approval it registered. The scene is explained

(Plate

vii.).

On

the

extreme
is is

left

by the

note, "

Huya

is

appointed

Superinten-

peasant's booth or vine-trellis


tree

seen beside a perched.

on which a large bird


is

dent of the royal harem, Superintendent of the Treasury and Steward in the house of the Queenmother,"

woman

going out to labour in the


is

fields,

Huya's
:

grateful

eulogy

is

in

the

where a man
of oxen.

already ploughing with a yoke

prescribed form

Further on are goats, and, after a


(?) sail,

" Praises to thy ka,

Ua-en-ra, the good ruler

long gap, a vessel with a triangular

who

and
The three offices, and not the last only, must be taken to refer to Tyi's household. So we have seen Meryra II. holding the same offices in the establishment of Nefertiti about this time.

perhaps a house on the bank beyond,


6.

Huya's Appointment to Ophce.


North Wall.
"West side.
Plate xvi.

previous copy is L'HoTB, Papiers, iii. 276.


:

Part

I.,

Plate

vi.

(Eough sketch.)
left).

and pp. 20-22; Part

II.,

Plates

x.,

xxxiii.,
7

and pp.

16, 36, 44.

'

As

in Plate

xi.

(extreme

' ^

Petrie, T. A., Plate

xlii.

Only slight fragments remain (lowest row of Plate xv.).


*

of the familiar

groups

It will be noticed that the stairs to the doors on the platform turn inwards, but outwards in Plate xvii. This is good proof that in fact they were at right angles to the

fa9ade.
^

See page 19.

Emend

to

ra

THE TOMB OF HUYA.


makes
raisest

13

princes, the great Nile-god of the whole land, the


'

The framework

of this scene
last.

is

almost the
is

ka (or perhaps

sustenance

')

of all mankind.'
'

Thou

exact counterpart of the

The Queen

from the youngest ranks (Ut. from the recruits, from the recruits '). So long as Aten dawns thou shalt be
to everlasting," the

certainly Nefertiti, though her

name

is

erased

everlasting."

the two princesses here are the eldest of the four.

In the scene below

Huya

stands in a court

The elaborate decoration


is

of the balcony,

which
is

surrounded on three sides by store chambers,


superintending the weighing out and registration of valuables (a gold collar, several ewers

destroyed on the neighbouring wall,

here

well preserved, and consists of concentric semicircles of various colours

with three open lotus

and
with
if

basins, &c.).
II.

It

would be in accordance

flowers at the centre, differing therefore in detail

xxxvi. (perhaps an echo of these scenes),

from

I. vii.

and

totally

from

II.

xxxiv.

there were depicted here Huya's retirement

to his

own house

to congratulate himself

and
not

As the epithet " favourite of the Lord of the Two Lands " is here added to the titles of Huya,
and numerous tokens of favour are manifest,
This
it

receive

congratulations

on

his

good fortune.
is

But the
so,

adjacent wall suggests that this

appears that he grew in the king's good graces.


title

but that we see

Huya

in the treasury

where

was

probably
is

purely

honorary.

his duties centred,


triple office

and in the exercise of that which gave him the supreme place

Huya's neck here

laden with golden collars,

and both arms covered to the elbow with armbands, four or five on each.

in the Queen's household.

The building

(really
?) is

His blessing
time
:

is

four square with six chambers on each side

couched in different phrases


"

this

evidently built closely on the model of the

The good
it,s

ruler,

mighty

in establishing, shining as (?)

temple treasury shown in


court, with a

I.

xxxi.

As
all

there, so

the Aten, [abounding in wealth] and knowing

how
it

to

here a continuous portico runs

round the

bestow
(life,

the Aten pleaseth his heart

the

Pharaoh
is

column opposite each partition wall


is

life

prosperity, to see." *

and health

!),

the son

whom

my

and

in the middle of one side

seen the entrance

door shaded by a porch outside.

There

is

every

Below the main scene


servants,

are Huya's chariot

and

probability, therefore, that the building

was in

and below these again are a

series of

Akhetaten.

groups depicting the various crafts of Akhetaten


of the side-chambers are shown,
in full operation.
obliterated.

The contents
but the
those in

Unfortunately they are nearly


in

state of the walls only enables us to see

Amongst them, however, and


times,
is

that they are very varied, and


I.

somewhat resemble
one arm
This,

excellent preservation except for wilful mutilations in recent

xxxi.
is

It will be noticed that

a tiny picture which

of the balance of course,


is

longer than the other.

forms one of the finest pieces of work in the


necropolis
in

admissible even with a fixed beam,

(Plate xviii.).^

It is so

prominent
at once as

but the principle


steelyard.

may

be that of the shifting

this respect that it is revealed

a work of

love.

The

sculptor,

seizing

the

opportunity which the subject presented, has


7.

Huya's Duties and Rewards.


North Wall.
Bast
side.

Plate

xvii.
3

Previous copies are

Conjecturing

L'HoTB, Papiers,
Lepsius, D.,
iii.

iii.

276 reverse.
a.

(Eough

o
written at
( r-w-i

AAAAAA
fl

sketch.)

T^K
Li
I I

100

O
*

Ti
I I

first).

Cf. I. viii.

1 I

Emending
L. D.,

to

'

Beading,

/VWV\A
I

The plumes should not have been added.


Cf.
iii.

100 a; but the

artist,

Georgi,

was

For the

text see

I. viii.

most unhappy in his drawing

of the statue.

14

THE ROOK TOMBS OF EL AMARNA.


him
artist,

inserted a picture of a studio familiar to


for there
if

tasks
ized.

for the artist's

range was then

less special-

room for doubt that the not Auta himself, was one of his pupils.
is little

One

is

shaping a chair-leg with a light


is

And

adze; the other

further advanced and

is

en-

a very

human touch
his

betrays, I think, the master

gaged upon a head.^


lie
is

A coarse

and a

fine chisel
its

himself.

While no pupil would have refrained

on the block in front of him, and in

side

from attaching
in the studio,

name

to one of the sculptors

a carefully shaped groove, apparently meant

no one but the man himself would


twice over.

to hold a chisel
injury.

and keep

its

delicate

edge from

have written his name


second recurrence of the
actually

In the

With

these groups the sculpture of the

name we have perhaps


of
his

scenes seems to

have been

left to

less skilful

the

artist's

signature

work.

hands, for the

work becomes

so

rough that the

With
idea,

all

an Egyptian's subordination of fact to


than cramp his

action of the figures cannot be determined.

One

he has chosen to put a head twice too large


shoulders
rather

on

Auta's

portraiture.

Choosing a place where the stone


quality,

upon a wooden box, another upon stone vases, so that there is no evidence in Avhat material the statue would be wrought.
pupil seems engaged

was of good
the picture

he has worked with delicate

The

efiigy

of Beketaten

in

Auta's studio

touches, giving special evidence of his interest in

suggests that this wall also shows


service of the Queen-mother.

Huya
is

in the

by the care which he has spent on


is

This

confirmed

the sculptor's tools.

when we see him outside the studio, proceeding


a

The workshop

room with two


off

(?)'

columns
inner

on a work of inspection along with " the


of the great royal wife [Tyi ?]

....

supporting the ceiling and having a

little

and scribe of the

sanctum partitioned

for the master's use.


(lit.
'

house of recreation
ofiicial.

(?),

Nekhtau," and another

Here
fiers
sits
')

is

" the overseer of sculptors

vivi-

The

notice which

would have taught


is

of the great royal wife Tyi, Auta."


stool, palette in

He

us the significance of the scene

imfortunately

on a low

hand, busily en-

gaged in giving the


patroness.

last

touches in paint to a

much damaged. It appears to run " appointment of the workmen (?) of (by ?) the favourite
of the
dent,

statue of Beketaten, the daughter of his royal

She

is

represented as a young
(?)

girl,

Lord of the Two Lands, the Superinten&c., of the great royal wife Tyi, Huya."

and the pomegranate

which she holds

in her

The fragments which have survived show


us various workshops, where carpenters, jewellers (?), vase-decorators,

hand may

be meant as a symbol of nubility.

It is interesting to see that the artist,

though a

metal-workers and others


set out.

sculptor himself, depicts, not the actual statue,

are busy,

and their finished productions

but the idea in the artist's

mind

of the graceful

Ewers and basins, necklaces, pottery, chests and


a palm-leaf column are clear and there seems to

body of a

girl lightly

robed.

Obviously the
attired in

figure could not be at once

nude and
is little

be a metal statuette, but


mistaken.

may have been

quite

spreading robes

and there

doubt that

in fact the statue

was treated

as usual, the robe

It is certain that the court of

Akhetaten was
arts,

being gathered tightly round the body, so as to

home and

fostering
all

ground of the
if

and

it

show the form


the figure
indicated.
is,

as

much

as possible.

Small as

would not be at

surprising

Queen Tyi

also

dimples on the neck have been

was one of

their

most ardent patrons, and that

An

apprentice stands close to the master in


^

an attitude of closest attention. Another figure once stood behind Auta. Further away two
other young sculptors are engaged in modest

Possibly a

trial

piece only, but such heads were some-

times included in the burial equipment. Or it is one of those stone heads worked in the flat for inlay, numbers of which were found in the palace ruins.

THE TOMB OF HUTA.

15

we

see here the craftsmen connected with her

great

Queen and Queen-mother,

Tyi,

who

lives for

ever

establishment at

Akhetaten

whom
if

her steward

and ever."

directed and encouraged.

But

what we

see

The
the

illustration to this text

is is

furnished by
divided into

here

is

the initial organization of her residence

lintel.

The picture there


on the
;

in the city, her direct influence

must have been


It
is

two

halves, that

left

showing the house-

limited to the last years of the reign.


sign of

hold of Akhenaten

that on the right the house--

the

perfect

harmony

between

the

hold of his predecessor, Amenhetep III.

Dowager- Queen and her son that it is Akhenaten and Nefertiti who reward Huya for his
fidelity in the service of Tyi.

In the former scene Akhenaten and Nefertiti,

wearing the royal insignia,


couch.

sit

side

by

side

on a

The King puts


his

his

arm caressingly round

the shoulders of the Queen, while she rests her


8,

Akhektaten's Link with the Past,

arm upon

knee and turns her face with

North "Wall

The Portal.

Plates

xviii., xxi., xxvii.

vivacious gesture

up

to his.

By

the action of

fragments from squeezes of the right jamb are shown in L. D. Text, ii., p. 141.

Two

her hand she seems to include in her affections her four


daughters,

Each jamb
inner rooms
inscription

of the

doorway leading

front of the couch.


to

who are waving fans in The counter-picture shows


nems cap,

the

Amenhetep
his wife,

III. in the close-fitting

is

covered with four columns of


sitting in a chair, as if in the act of addressing

and a figure and prayer of Huya at


(Plate xxvii.

the foot.
p. 19.)

For the translation


usual
is

who

occupies a chair facing him, with

see

The
v).
;

lintel

is

occupied by two royal


formal
device

the princess Beketaten at her knee.

To both

groups instead of
(cf. II.

King and Queen the Aten


life

ofifers

the symbol of

the

The whole

much

impartially.

defaced by into repeat

Three female attendants are

crustations

and as the jambs seemed

added to balance the figures of the four princesses.


Tyi
is

styled in one of those panegyrics passed


into

the familiar salutation of the three worshipful

powers, the Aten, the King, and the Queen,


I was

on Queens
enters
^
:

which a touch of chivalry

much

inclined, like

my

predecessors, to

give

them no further
showed
that,

attention.

But

"

closer

The hereditary

princess,

great of

favour,

lady of

grace, charming in loving-kindness, filling the palace with

examination of the dirty and mutilated cartouches

though the
left

expected

her beauty. Mistress of South and North, the great wife of the King, whom he loves, the Lady of the Two Lands,
Tyi."

formula was found on the

hand, the powers

saluted on the right were Akhenaten, his father

The
the

description

of Beketaten,

"the King's
is

Amenhetep

III,,
:

and

his

mother Tyi.

The

daughter of his body, beloved by him,"


first

for

formula reads
ruler of the

time made fitting by the presence of

god and king' the living Ea, two horizons, rejoicing on the horizon in the name of the Brilliance which comes from the Aten, who giveth life for ever and ever, the King of South and
North, &o., Nefer-kheperu-ra Ua-en-ra, who gives life [replaced in the second and fourth columns by the personal designation of the King] the King of South and
;

" (Long) live the father

her royal father.

The separation of the Queen and her daughter


from the King, their uplifted hands, which seem
figures of the goddesses

even in
is

spelling,

Maat and Mut were abandoned and hence the prenomen of Amenhetep

North, lord of the

Two

Lands, Neb-maat-ra f and the

given in an unusual form, while his personal


all.

name
7
culte

could not be cited at


(written with the

Cf.

Peteie, T. A.,
in

pi. xxii.

maat feather

No.

4)

Le

Of.

Part

I.,

p. 8

Part

II., p. 15.

d'Atonou,
'

I. pi,

XV. (not so in pi xxxvii.).


identical laudation of
Nefertiti

It must be noticed that as the King became more and more sensitive to any mention of the discarded deities, the
2

Cf. the

almost

on

p. 7,

and Part

II., p. 14.

16

THE ROOK TOMBS OF EL AMARNA.


imply an unusual measure of reverence, and
to

to

be in vital unity,

political,

religious,

and

the occurrence of the

name of the son with and preceding those of his parents on the jamh, are
the only features which favour the idea that

dynastic, with the long line of the sons of

Ra

who had occupied


9.

his earthly throne.

King thus pourtrayed was a dead monarch upon whose throne his son had sat for a decade. But for this and the difficulty of reconciling
the

The Funeral
B. Wall.

Rites.

Shrine.

Plate xxii.

the situation with other records,


equipoise
of the

this

unique

From

this

scene,

so

common
faith

in

Egyptian

two royal households would have suggested a co-regency of the two Kings
even at this late date in Akhenaten's reign.

tombs, though unique in this necropolis,

we
no

may

gather that the

new

had
this

effected

change either in eschatological ideas or in burial


or

The picture

at

least

intensifies

known

customs

and

it

was no doubt

orthodoxy

suspected facts of history.

It

shows strongly in

in the matters with

which the people really

what full sympathy the conforming King and his nonconforming son were a sympathy which, while it admitted differences, must have been
:

concerned

themselves that

made them com-

paratively indifferent to the onslaught on their

pantheon.

based on an essential unity of thought and


policy.

This agreement had in

all

probability

taken practical shape in a co-regency, of which


these juxtaposed pictures

may

be the echo.

It

Here the last rites are being duly paid to the embalmed body of Huya, before its committal to the burial chamber at the bottom of the deep shaft. The mummy, swathed in wrappings,
as
festal cap, and furnished an Osiris with the beard of a god, is placed

illustrates besides the great influence over

both

crowned with the

father

and son which history has been disposed

to allow to Tyi.

long as his

Amenhetep was dead but so capable Queen survived his reign


;

erect to receive the last caresses of friends,

and Be'

submit to the ceremonial of the


hind the

priests.

could scarcely be said to be ended, and

it

may
to
all.

mummy
his wife
')

four

women make demonis

only be in a technical sense that

we have

strations of grief.

One

deny a co-regency

at

this

period after

mother of
other
is

wife (or Tuy, maatlcheru^ (?) "


(his)

"

the the

Finally the picture removes the last excuse for

probably the

sister seen

on the opposite
is

doubting that Beketaten was the youngest child

wall (Plate xxiii.), but her


illegible

name

even more

Amenhetep III. and Tyi, or numbering her among the daughters of Nefertiti. Her name
of
indicates the
least to the

here than there.

In front of the dead

man

is

an immense

pile of varied offerings

and

unabashed adherence of Tyi at


faith.

a slain ox or two, over which the officiating


priest pours a libation

new

But

neither these considerations nor Huya's

he recites

from a hes-vuse, the following prayer


:

Avhile

own

attachment to both households, which he


formal conjunction

desired equally to honour and to gratify, are a


sufficient explanation of the

" M.a,j there be made for thee a dy hetep seten of thy bread and the beer of thy house; may there be poured out for thee water from thy cistern ; may there

must regard it as a solemn denial by the King that in removing the capital of Egypt and making changes in its
of

names on the jambs.

We

be brought to thee [fruit] from thy trees may a recitamade for thee from (?) the written lore (?) " of Aten may food be deposited for thee on the altar for thy ka [every day(?)] may thy name be remembered/
;

tion be
;

religion

he had

broken

with
line of

the

past,

or
'

separated himself from the


continuity
in
his

Of. p.

4 above and Plate xxi.


to
to
/

Kings whose
^

not contested.

Amenhetep III. was Through that King he claimed


father

Emending Emending

<=^

(]

A/V\AM

^ O

''

^ ^
'=^

HTV

THE TOMB OP HUYA.


Superintendent
of the royal
!

17

harem and

of the Treasuries,

11.

The Burial Furniture.


Back Wall.
Plate xxiv.

Huya, maakheru

The power

of the dead

hand laying

its
is

claim

Shrine.

to every product of the family property

made
real
life,

The
bury
hibited

objects
in

vivid in these details

and there

is

much

the

which it was felt desirable to chamber with the dead are exspaces

pathos in this attachment to the earthly

on the wall
fully

on each side of

extending to a partiality for the familiar home-

the sitting statue of Huya.


is

On

the

left

hand
traces

made bread and home-brewed


another.

beer,

and the

a chariot

equipped with the


stool,

discrimination between one water supply and

attached to the pole, a

four coffers, two


is

"canopic"
priest

jars,

&c.
(?)

On
and

the right

a couch
it
;

numerous male mourners make the motion of pouring dust on their heads in token of sorrow. Several wear the shouldersash of the professional
registers below, sacrificial
(?)

Behind the

with a footstool

toilet vases

below

two

chairs also with footstools, staffs, sandals


sleds,

two shrines on
objects too

joint-stools,

and other

mourner.^

In the
wailing

much

defaced for recognition.

The

oxen are being driven

double provision seems designed for both

Huya

forward
groups.

and

the

crowds gather in

and

his wife.

The
:

inscriptions cannot be deciphered

The whole equipment


of a chariot

reveals a high standard

connectedly

" loud cries from the husbandmen,"

of comfort and even of luxury,

and the inclusion

however, seems to occur.

among

the chattels which


is

Huya

considered necessary to his well-being


10.

in itself

The Funeeal
West Wall.

Procession.
Plate
xxiii.

sufficient to

stamp him as one of the highest


time.

officials of his

Shrine.

On

this wall
its

we
to
it

see the funeral procession

making
carrying
offerings.

way

the

place of burial, and

C.

The Religious Texts.

with

the funeral furniture

and
1.

There are two tables set out with loaves and sealed jars, and eight caskets such as

The Longer Prayers.


B.
side.

1.

(Outer wall-thickness.
adoration of Ea-Aten,

Plate
life

ii.)^.

might hold the embalmed viscera or the

ushabti.

These are carried suspended from the ends of Stems of papyrus (shown in realistic yokes.
detail in Plate xxii.) are provided plentifully,

"An

who

gives

for

ever

[and ever.
in

Homage

to thee],

dawning

in the sky

and

shining in the morning on the horizon of heaven [coming


peace, the Lord of Peace]. The [entire] land assembles at thy rising, their hands [give praise] at thy dawning they prostrate themselves on the ground
;

and a frond
piled-up

of

palm
in

is

seen set between two


the

baskets

lowest

register.

Mourners, both male and female, follow the porters in large numbers, and in token of grief
carry one or both hands to the head, or cover Some of the rethe face with both palms.
lations

shinest on them. [They shout to the height of heaven; they receive] joy and gladness; they
rejoice

(when) thou

when they
all

see thy Majesty.

rays on

men.

They [go

forth

(?)

Thou sendest thy when thou reachest]

heaven, when thou hast taken the goodly road. " Thou settest me for ever in a place of favour, in

my

have had names attached to them, but " we can now only see that one was his sister
.
.

mansion of bliss. My spirit goes forth [to see] thy rays, I am called by my name to feed on its offerings. and
;

Kherpu

."

('0
'
iii.

The
277.

additions to the plate are from

duplicate text will be given in IV.

Boyal

Compare the sash of the mourning women Tomb (e CuUe d'Atonou, I. vii., ix.).

in the

from

this the connections in

L'Hote, Papiers, iii., and brackets are supplied. Bor


vii.

the opening sentences see also 11.

18

THE ROCK TOMBS OF BL AMARNA.


I enjoy the things

one Cometh at the summons.'


are offered.
[I
,

which

2.

The Shorter Prayers.


PI. xix.

and
milk

rfes-beer]
(?),''

consume shens and bat and pesen bread hot roast meat and cold water, wine and
is

Shrine Door.
1.

everything that

offered

[in the

sanctuary

(Left outer jamb.)

Aten in Akhetaten.J " For the ka of the favourite of the Lord of the Two Lands, the Superintendent of the harem and of the Treasury and Steward in the house of the great royal [wife Tyi, Huya, maakheru].
of the
2.

" [Praise to thy ka, Nefer-kheperu-ra


givest life]
,

Ua-en-ra, who
princes and
fills

the good

ruler,

who makes

the two
gifts

lands with his beauty.

Countless numbers of

are offered to thy ha, provisions

and food

at every

place;

my

lord

who

fostered me,

(W.

For the ha
side.

of the Superintendent, etc.,

Huya.

Plate
text

iii.)

For a
PI. xxix.

fuller

and translation

of .this prayer see

2.

(Eight outer jamb.)

and

p. 31.

" Praise to thy ha,

Lady

of the

Two

Lands,

who

makes the two lands bright with her beauty, the Queen3.

(Thickness of Inner Wall.

E.

side.

Plate xxxvii.)

A
Part

duplicate text in a better condition will be found in


IV., Plate
iv.,

mother and great Queen abundant in fat things.


pleasure and delight
(?)

Tyi,

mistress of provisions,

and the translation

is

therefore

they abound for the ka in a happy life, as provided with


every day
(?)

May

reserved for that volume.

For the

ha
4.

of the
3.

Superintendent

"

(W.

side.

Plate xxxvii.)

(Left inner jamb.)

For a duplicate text and translation of this prayer see and p. 31. The close of it gives the titles as in No. 1 above, ending " Huya, maakheru em amakh."
PI. xxviii.
5.

{a) "Praise to thy Xa, ON.! who art worshipped every day, the sun who rises like Aten, filling the two [seeing ?] my lord lands with his beauty
;

(Thickness of Shrine wall.


reception
3

B.
of

side.

Plate xx.)

"A

of

offerings

the

King's

giving,

bread, beer,

and provisions

thy beauty and attending thee every day. For the ha of the Superintendent of the royal harem of the great Queen, Huya, maakheru." " Praise to thy ka,0 N. Thy ka comes in peace, (6)
!

at every shrine of thine, that


:

Nile-god
thee in the

for ever

thy [name] may thrive * in thy tomb-chapel may each generation that is to come call thee and all living May thy name not be to seek for thee (?) in thy

Court of Festival.

and ever, while For the ha

I attend
of

the

Superintendent of the treasuries of the great Queen, Huya,

maakheru."
4.
(ffl)

mansion.
of

[May

made] for thee a dy hetep seten bread .... and beer of thy house. For
there be
etc.,

(Eight inner jamb.)

the ha of the favourite of Ua-en-ra, beloved by his Lord,

"Praise
to

(to)

thy
favour.

ha,

O
'

N.,

my
like

lord

[who
! '

the Superintendent,

Huya, maakheru."

givest (?)]
'

me

Loved

Aten

O
"
is

Prospering
{b)

without

ceasing

6.

(West

side.

Plate xx.)

"Praise to thy Aa,


to see, the ha of the

N., the Light

whom

it

"

the steward of the great royal wife [Tyi,


the Nile

[life]

whole land

to thee

Huya]
the sands of the dunes
in millions
after victory
(?).

more than he dawns

for ever."
5.

(Upper

lintel.)

Thou

shalt be to eternity
(a)

" Praise to thy ka,

living Aten, lord of eternity

the lord of Fortune,


" Praise to
!

causes Plenty and makes the two lands bright by his beauty "
!

who

(b)

thy
risest

ha,

Disc, ruler of
art

the

horizons
'

Thou

and

radiant,

Eeading
|

^.
that there
is

lovely,

two and

gleaming for ever and ever."

'^

The determinative suggests


iii.

an

error
6.

(Lower

hntel.)"
seten,

here and in IV.


3

for

(I
.^

<="

" milk."
(a)

"A

dy hetep

Ua-en-ra, the good ruler

who

Supplying
Eestoring

^
\^
to

makes princes and fills the two lands with his ha, the King of South and North, Nefer-kheperu-ra Ua-en-ra

"

^^

Emending

Copied also in L. D. Text,

II., p.

141.

THE TOMB OF HUYA.


" kdy hetep seten, He who is great in duration I give praise to thy fair face. I propitiate thy ka every day, the good ruler, Akhenaten, great in his duration."
'
'

19

difficulties are
is

not only linguistic

for

Khu'a

manifestly the messenger of the Babylonian,

not of the Egyptian King, whose envoys are


7.

(Inner Door.

Foot
Tea,

of right

jamb.
!

Plate xxvii.)
risest

" Praise to thy the


prosperity, health

Khamashshi and Haai (Khay?).

Nor

Ua-en-ra
of

Thou

living
life,

ruler

the

entire land.

Grant

a very probable messenger of the

Huya He King's.
is

and a happy existence


the favourite
of of

seems to have been always in the Queen's, not


(?),

thy son

(?)

ha of Superintendent of
the
great

"Por

Ua-en-ra

the

the Queen-mother and

Queen Tyi, Huya." The corresponding prayer on the

The appearance of the picture in Huya's tomb counts for little, for Meryra II. records what is almost certainly
the

King's

service.

left

jamb

is illegible.

the same

event.

certain that

we may be fairly Huya would have made himself


Indeed,
in the scene

D. Huya.

much more prominent


our record
is

had he been

able to do so with any truth.

Unfortunately

The
(1) (2)

tomb are Superintendent of the Royal Harem.


titles

given to

Huya

in his

broken in

this part of the picture.

Even

if

the

Superintendent of the Treasury.

tion of the

name Khu'a could be a transcripEgyptian name Huya, the identificaQueen Tyi would
still

(3) Superintendent of the house (Steward),

tion with the steward of


fall far

the three offices being held in the house of

short of certainty.
of

Queen
the

Tyi.

To

these are added

mentary

epithets,

the compli" Favourite of the Lord of

The tomb
and

Huya

is

the only completely

finished one in the necropolis,


as the burial

North or South,
considered
itjp

Two

Lands," and "Following the feet of

chamber
it

is

provided and the

the Lord of the Tavo Lands."

The

activity of

burial scenes pictured,

may be

Huya was
know,
to

thus confined entirely, so far as


the
service

we

probable that on his death his body found


hoped-for resting-place there.

of

the

Queen-mother.

Beyond

these pictorial records of his relations

to both royal households,

we know nothing
^

of

him whatever.
It is true that

Appendix A.
he has been recognized
in the

The

"

Sun-shade
viii.)

"

op Tti.

(Plate

Khu'a who is mentioned in a letter of Burnaburias, King of Kardunias, to Akhenaten, as " Khu'a, my messenger." ^ But it seems impossible to admit this.
so far
it

It

has been pointed out that, beside the

full

pictures of the temple of the Aten, there are


several representations of its Lesser Sanctuary
only.*

Professor Steindorff
it,

is

from thinking of
possible

that he would regard

The question arises whether the depiction

as

that the

represented by Haai, the

name Huya may be name of an Egyptian


in

ambassador

who

is

mentioned

the same

" Huya " has little to do with the pronunciation. know only the skeleton vocables of the name, H

We
-f-

1.

dispatch as well as in several

others.**

The

Khu'a (Hu'a) does not


better rendering
this is
;

fit

this at all.

Khaai (Haai)

is

but, as Professor Steindorff observes,

'

Budge, History
Tell el

of Egypt,

iv.,

pp. 128, 129

MasSee

PBEO, Struggle of the Nations,


^

p. 327.
6).

Amarna Letters, No. 9 (Berlin, No. WiNCKLBE, Tell el Amarna Letters, p. 19.
3

more likely to represent the Egyptian name which on our system is written Khay. (Editor)]. * Part II., Such representations are now p. 20. available to the reader in Plate xxx., and in Le Culte d'Atonou, I., plate i., and p. 18. In the toinb of Pentu
(IV. v., vi., vii.) the picture of the Shrine is too much broken to be of material help, and the whole scene is

Dr. Geo. *A. Beitrdge zur Assyriologie, i., p. 331. Eeisner is also strongly opposed to the identification.

[The

conventional

transcription

of

the

name

as

negligeable,

20

THE ROCK TOMBS OF EL AMARNA.


Queen Tyi
is

of the " Sun-shade " of

in fact

not yet reached the gates, tables of offering,


cupboards, and a small shrine
far as can
fill

a part or the whole of this same sanctuary, or

the space, so

a different building altogether.

be seen.
(Plate x.).This space,

comparison of Plate

viii.

with Plate xxx.


lies

2.

The Inner Court


still

shows at a glance that the choice

between

accepting this "Sun-shade" as a separate temple

more the building behind, as shown by Huya, differs so much from the standard
and
picture, that I

and admitting considerable structural


tions in the old building.

altera-

have suggested (Part

II., p.

24)

As we have
as it
is

in the

that

it

may be
it

a reconstruction of a colonnaded

more

familiar building the

same general model


;

court of the Greater Sanctuary.


see that

But

now

as in the picture in this

tomb
as

itself

might without great

difficulty fall

secondary temple devoted to the same end (the


cult of royal statues)
;

into place here.

The
if

identity of the site will

we know

that the

be made clearer

we merely
:

take the main

" Sun-shade

"

of

Merytaten was a division of


;

lines of the representations


III. XXX.

the great temple

as therefore structural or

functional alterations

seem to have taken place

in the latter, it seems advisable that

we should
fl

consider what changes would be necessary in

the Lesser Sanctuary to


Plate xxx. intelligible.

make the
For
if

picture in
is

no violence

done to either picture in the attempt to

re-

concile them, the result of the study will be

almost equally instructive, whether this building

prove

reconstruction

of

the

Lesser

Sanctuary, or a diiFerent erection of the same


type.

The abbreviated
correspond to

pictures

show three

gate-

ways, with three spaces within them.''

These

(1) The Entrance Gateway, admitting to THE OuTEU CouBT (the wholo of the Great

Sanctuary being omitted).


(2)

The Gateway
The

in

the Dividing Wall,

which admits to the Innee Court.

Colonnaded Gateway, through which the Lessek Sanctuaky is entered. The Great Sanctuary 1. The Outer Court.
(3)

which occupied
vant,

this court is

omitted as

irrele-

and the space occupied by the royal party. In Plate xxx., where the visitors have

'

The second gateway

is

omitted and the two courts

joined into one in the Eoyal Tomb.


p.

20

of Part II. should be consulted,

The diagram on though the identi-

fication of the "

Sun-shade " there

is

doubtful.

THE TOMB OF HUYA.

2]

now

only pai-tially preserved i; but from the remains it seems certain that the statues of

were in the enclosure previously


paraphernalia of sacrifice are
there.*
(3)

but the other


to be seen

still

Amenhetep
son,

III. alternated
all

with those of his

and that

the female statues are repre-

The Sanctuary

sentations of

Queen Tyi, associated with her admitted that this husband and her son alternately. She is styled facie resemblance
in the first case, " the great wife of the King,

must be picture presents little prima


(Plate xi.).
It

to earlier representations of
(e.g. I. xxxiii.).
if

the Lesser Sanctuary

Yet the
not at
all

beloved of him, [Tyi,J living for ever " in the second, the epithet "mother of the King" is added. While Akhenaten is given his two
;

needed transformation,
radical.

extensive,

is

The

original plan

was that of a central court,


opened on three
sides.

names with

full titulary,

prejudice against the

out of which

rooms
lay

name

of

Amen
who

prevented this in the case of


is

Beyond

this

another building,

accessible

his father,

simply named, " King of the

only from outside the sanctuary through an


intervening corridor.

South and North and Lord of the Two Lands, Neb-maat-ra," The two Kings are distinguished
also

In Huya's building (assuming the identity


of the two) this outer edifice has been
THE LESSEE SANCTUAEY.

by

their dress

for while the son

wears

thrown

the hhepersh helmet as usual, the father wears the close-fitting headdress ending in a queue,

which

his

son

rarely

dons.^

The Queen

is

crowned with the two


her robe at the waist.

feathers, as is her almost

invariable wont, and a long red sash confines

A white
The

under-garment
is

with short sleeves and reaching to the knee


indicated under the robe.^

statues are left

with an upright
is

stone-

support behind them, as


figures.

customary with standing

The King
but pro-

and Queen appear on a

single base,

bably they are separate statues standing side

by

side.

In the centre of the court a

less

I
r

ornate copy of the high altar in the Greater

Sanctuary was

set,

replacing the tables which

'

The

greater

number were

in paint only,

and many

of

THE " SUNSHADE " OF

TYI.

(For the the cartouches seem to have been left blank. The hieroglyphs in clearest, see Plate xxv., graflSto 2.) the oblong placards, small as they were, were all incised

into the

main sanctuary by making throughon each


partition
side

corridors

of the

central court.

The supposition of Lepsius that the king, a princess, and the deceased occupied the third space at the foot of this plate was due
and then
filled in

with green paste.

Then the

walls

between the small


as to convert the

rooms were thrown down so


back rooms into one.

to his being misled

by the

scribal error

^.

for

^,
;

four rooms on each side into two, and the two

(L.
3

D. Text, II., p. 140). He wears it, however,

in the statue in the

Louvre

Another change was the transference

of the

no independent evidence is afforded by this. For a tracing of one of the groups on a larger scale^ The details of the figures and of the see Plate xxv. g.
so
s

The parapet
of black

columns

are generally in red paint only.

formed

of the stairway to the altar seems to be and red stone alternating with white.

22

THE ROCK TOMBS OF EL AMARNA.


privacy, to screen off the
so that

enclosed porticoes from the outside to the inside


of the gateway.
closure

doorway of a

rooiti,

Something akin to
(cf.

this en-

had always existed there

Part

II.,

no one entering would command a view That secrecy rather than of the interior.
safety
is

pp. 25, 26), and the alteration caused very

little

aimed at and to
in front

is

plain

from the piercing


doors, in front,

disturbance to the plan.

The

statues,

however,

of this covering wall


to right,
left.

by three
It
is

which Huya shows under the new portico are


not the same as those that stood in the old.

obvious that the

doorway
of the

would almost nullify the use

They

are different in form, being figures which

screen.

But
is

it

will

be noticed that
is

hold altars between their extended arms for the


reception of
gifts. ^

between the opposed doorways


like erection,

set a pillar-

Besides, they are no longer

which

plainly to be interpreted

statues of Akhenaten

and Merytaten

(Nefertiti?).

as a screening

partition within

the vestibule,
size

King with
it
is

the croAvn of uraei and plumes

topped by warning uraei.^

The
is

of the

alternates with one wearing the hhepersh helmet,

gateways to these four rooms

probably only

and

not far to the

conclusion that the

due to the caprice of the


elaborating them.*

artist,

who

is

fond of

groups are those of Amenhetep with Tyi and

Akhenaten with Tyi,


outside.

as in the

new colonnade

The main
at the
as

interest in this, as in all

Egyptian
Here,

The two-plumed head-dress which the Queen wears is also much more characteristic of Tyi than of her daughter-in-law.^ The other statues which will be met with in this sanctuary
do not
differ in

temples, lay in the axis of the building.

back of the old building, we find a shrine,


;

we should expect
one.

but,

owing

to
it is

the in-

corporation of the annexe behind,


final
first,

not the

appearance from those already

That lay immediately behind the


it.

seen, so that it is probable that all the female

but could not be reached directly from


first

statues are effigies of Tyi, associated with those

The
court,

shrine

is

gained through a central


statues
stand,
is

of her

husband and

son.

where a pair of royal

The

furniture of the four side rooms needs no

backed against a screen.


table of offerings, flanked

Within the shrine

comment, but the towered

gateway

Avith

curious annexe, which admits to each of them,

a King on one side, and a

by an altar statue of Queen on the other.


prevents further

demands

interpretation.

Such a construction
and plans above).
It

An

injury to the

sculpture

we have met with


the sanctuary
(I.

already inside the gate of

identification.^

This door also appears to be

xxxiii.

screened.
3

should represent a gateway in an outer wall, with


a

waUed enclosure

before (or perhaps behind)

it.

Cf.

Plate xxxiii. and Part

II.,

Pis. xix.,

xxxvi., pp.
section.

We

24, 38, for screening walls, similarly

shown by

cannot allow that the outside walls of the

But a
in
*

parallel absolutely exact is furnished

by the house

sanctuary were pierced to give access to un-

Pbteib, T. a.,

important rooms.

The entrance

have been from the corridor,

them must and as there was


to

Yet

II. xix.

pi. xl. (cf. also No. 17, pi. xlii.). has a hint of something peculiar in the

gates here.
^

In PI. XXX.

we

see a

similar

table

in the court,

no space there for a forecourt, the drawing


implies a vestibule within the room.
learn

mounted on a low platform and flanked by two


These statue on each
statues.

pairs of

We

thus
of

may

well be the same, there being one

that

it

was customary,

for

reasons

of the four sides.

In

PI. xxx. the

arms

are outstretched; they probably therefore hold altar-slabs.

The head-dresses there


'

faintly suggest

that the statues

We

know

the exact form of such statues from the

rock-stelae,

which are nearly always furnished with a


either side.

pair of
2

them (King and Queen) on


wears plumes in
rarely in

JTefertiti
:

stelae

Tyi

is

and on the rockany other head-dress.


I. xxvii.

were groups of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. But in the Eoyal Tomb {Le Oulte d'Atonou, I. i.) the two statues are similar and male. If a former statue of Nefertiti was retained here, it may have been a reason for providing a shrine for Tyi behind.

THE TOMB OP HUTA.

23

Two side-corridors lead to the space behind. Here, forming a long gallery which may be a reminiscence at least of the former corridor, is
a series of some eight altar-statues, the Queen
(Tyi
?)

The inadequacy of the conventions employed by the Egyptian draughtsman and the caprice shown in their employment have afforded us frequent ground of complaint in dealing with
the plans of the temple and palace
;

alternating as before with the


is

two Kings.

they are

In the centre
wall.

a naos standing free from the

glaring in the inability or neglect to indicate


in

It is set

on a corniced platform to which


is

any way, even when drawing an

elevation,

three or four steps lead up, and


round,^

walled
in

all

whether the building was roofed or hypaethral.

doors

giving
its

admittance
being ceiled.

front.
is

As columns
division

are only employed here and there

There

is

no sign of

Inside

in the temple, the roofing over of of the

any

single

a simple table of offerings, shut off from prying eyes by a screen.^

An

unusual feature here

is

the erection of

royal statues on the steps.

Four are shown,


file

main building is out of the question. The shrines and the small chambers round central courts seem the only parts of the building, beside the colonnades, on which a roof
can even be suspected.^
In estimating the value of this identification
of the " Sun-shade " with the Lesser Sanctuary

but probably
depicted, but

they did not stand in

as

stairway.

two and two on each side of the " Statues " I have said, but in truth
prevent us from seeing

there
in

is

nothing to

or a part of

it,

the omission of the

Greater
all,

them four royal personages, except the difficulty of granting the existence of two Kings
Their hands are
slab.^

Sanctuary must not weigh with us at

since
It

that occurs in all the abbreviated (?) plans.

together at this time.

ex-

may
(1)

still

be urged against

it,

however, that
in so short

tended and bear offerings on a

On

the

Such reconstruction is unlikely

same grounds
represent

as before I conclude that they


III.

a period.

(But unroofed courts are easily re-

Amenhetep
wife

and Akhenaten, with mother


of a

modelled, and there are

many

signs of the King's

Tyi as

both

and

King.

rapid changes, even in buildings.)


(2) There were certainly other shrines in Akhetaten, and perhaps even a number of " Sun-

One would have expected


within the naos
attitude

to find the statues

and

facing

outwards

;*

the

suggests

that they were not placed


gifts,

shades" (Part
(3)

II., p. 26.)

there to receive worship and


the royal spirits to the

but to enable

The omission by Huya of the inner court


is

make

acceptable offering to

with the great stela and the statue

strange.

Sun

eternally in the temple of the

Aten

in

(But the

artist is

omitting everything except the

Akhetaten.

new
^

features introduced in

honour of Tyi.)

The corniced wall is only shown in section at the back. But a back wall only and front gates would be
'

tion

have roofed in the side chambers in the reconstrucon p. 40 of Part I., but on somewhat slender grounds.
line

The corniced
outer wall.
difference
of

above a building only implies a corniced

absurd.
^

We

might expect a simple guide in the


;

Of. Plates xiv., xxx. (broken)

and

I.

xxxii. (centre of

entrances

gate-posts indicating a walled

Meryra's house). The central structure in the building shown in Part I., p. 40, is on essentially the same
model.

enclosure, but

But
I.

if

xxxi.

doorways with lintels a roofed building. I. xxxii. gives us hope of such a reservation, proves it vain and if open gateways at least never
;

See remarks below on remains found in the ruins. * In the accompanying plan of the sanctuary I have not interpreted strictly the eastward (shrine-ward) position of all the statues in the portico and colonnade and may be it is none the less a little unexpected
3
;

admit to roofed buildings, then not a single chamber in the temple was ceiled. If it be claimed that the store-

chambers must have been roofed,

it

can only be replied

that pains are taken in II. xxxvi. to

show

that such a

chamber was open


e

to the sky.
p. 9.

intentional.

Peteib, T. a.,

24

THE ROCK TOMBS OF EL AMARNA.


(4) (2)

The probability is that such a peristyle court would not be a forecourt, but placed within (The temple of the Aten was of a a temple.

Fragments of the upper parts of seven


(Seven

statues wearing the khepersh helmet.

such are pictured on each side of the temple by

new
Deir
(5)
later,

type,
el

more nearly approaching that


is

of

Huya).
(3)

Bahri.)

Fragments of

five statues

with the Maft

The Royal Tomb, which

presumably
(The

or nems head-dress.

(Eight such are pictured on one

does not show, these alterations.

each side.)
(4)

picture seems modelled on early designs, which

Fragments

of five

female statues,

paid

little

regard to structural accuracy.)


of the temple of the

sitting.

(Fifteen are

(6)

The mention
is

Aten

in

(5)

the titulary

omitted in this tomb only.

inscribed
Nefertiti.

Since the plans give no decisive result, let us

shown on each side.) flat slab with two hands underneath with the names of Akhenaten and (Compare the statues noticed in the
great limestone
in
stela

turn to the ruins themselves.


Professor
Petrie,^

As

described

by
an

first shrine.)

the

outer

wall

forms

(6)

Fragments of a
xii. 1, 2),

enormous rectangular oblong, enclosing


far

at the

(Peteie, T. A.,

end remains of a small sandstone temple,


chips.^

and Queen.

honour of the King (Compare the great stela which

marked by numerous

Nothing but a

stood in the court.)


(7)

few sculptured blocks was found here.

The

Scarcely a fragment of lower parts of


(All

main space of the enclosure was covered Avith


chips (possibly from altars), but no signs of the walls of another sanctuary, of pylons, or dividing walls were
stela

statues.

save

those

holding slabs were


solid block

altar statues,

and formed a
seems

below

the elbow, which could be utilized for building.)

Fragments of a limestone and a sculptured block of one of Akhen-

met

"with.

This

evidence

overwhelming

for,

while next to nothing suggesting the presence


of a temple such as this
else in the city, the

aten's

successors

were the

sole

discoveries.

was found anywhere

Near the entrance were enormous foundations of concrete, and the lower part of innumerable
pillars.'

most astonishingly precise


qualifications

confirmation of the pictorial records was derived

from this spot.


;

Two

have to be

These results are very meagre


just

but a heap

made.

Firstly, the

remains correspond to the

outside the wall yielded remains which strongly support us in placing the " Sun-shade of

sanctuary as shown by Huya, but to the court of


it as

shown by Meryra
colonnade of

for the statues seen in

Queen Tyi," pictured by Huya,


the great temple enclosure.
for Professor Petrie,
(1)

at the

back of

the

Huya do

not

seem

to>

be

Mr. Carter, working

represented by the discoveries, while the stela,


statue,

found here
colossal limestone statue

and Osirian figures of

I.

xxxiii. are.*

Fragments of a

of a

King holding the crook and flail. (Compare the statues of Akhenaten (?) in the portico,
xxxiii.)

But we cannot separate the two parts of the design of Huya, nor would it help us to do so. The second qualification is that another site
could be found in the city,
if

I.

necessary, for Tyi's

Peteie, T.A., pp. 7, 10, 11, 18, 19, 43. See also Erbkam's earlier plan (L. D., i. 63, 64). 3 The former perhaps were meant to receive obelisks the latter, probably, to raise this end of the temple above the soil. This hypothesis is confirmed by pictures which show the temple on a platfprm reached by a sloping ascent
1

The coincidence then becomes


of

still

more exact

for

Akhenaten, except the colossi, would be represented by the fragments viz., five life-size altar-statues with tlie helmet, one holding a slab (No. 1
;

each of the statues

(IV.

xviii.,

XX

Le CuUe d'Atonou,

I. xliii., xlv.).

one colossal Osirian figure (out of and one double life-size figure (the statue near the No. 2 of Petrie).
of Petrie's hst),

four),
stela.

THE TOMB OF HUYA.


" Sun-shade"; viz., that of the smaller

25

"Temple"

Tyi, and that in the centre of the court "

where

of Petrie's and Erbkam's plans.

It is an enclosure divided into three courts, entered by as many

the altar would stand

"

lay fragments of black


altar

and red granite (compare the


and black stone parapet noticed Huya's
is

with a red

pylons, the last containing traces of a sanctuary.

in the court of

Professor Petrie found nothing worthy of record

picture).^

But

this

slight

similarity

on the
stone

site,

but Lepsius, half a century

earlier,

negatived

by other

features

and

cannot

places in the back court the ruins of a sandshrine,

seriously detract from the strong evidence for

something of the shape of the

the other

site.

Lesser Sanctuary.

He

also

records

that

he

saw near the entrance fragments

of stone with
'

the names of the King and Queen and also of

L. D. Text,

ii.,

p. 124.

26

CHAPTER
THE TOMB OF AHMES
A. Architectural Features.

II.

(-

1)'

xxix., xxxviii.).

Both

sides of the

entrance

Exterior (Plates xxvi.,


is

xxvii.).

The
of

once contained the figure and inscription cus-

situated a short distance

West
;

tomb the tomb


South
cliff

tomary in

this situation,

executed in the best

style of the period

and brightly coloured.


for the

But

of Meryra,

the

high-priest

it

faces

they were cut to pieces in the great theft of


inscriptions

West.

There being a corner of steep

at
sale in

which was made

purpose of

this point, only a small

amount

of quarrying

1893 (Plate xxxvii.).


in

Fortunately the

had

to

be done to gain

a vertical face of
texts are
so
levelled,
earlier copies

the required height.

The space
in

most instances recoverable from


and photographs.

and enlarged by the


excavation,

The

ceiling

debris cast out


later

from the
times for

was occupied

here retains portions of the painted design and


something, in parts, of the original brightness
of colour.*

shelters, the stone walls of

which

still

cumber
side of
for a

the spot.

The entrance
height,

portal,

on each
of

The Hall
of which
is

(Plates xxvi., xxxviii.).

which the wall of rock has been dressed


corresponding
consists

This has

the form of a lengthy corridor, the further end


entirely taken

simple

framing slightly recessed

(Plate

xxvii.),

and
to the inner

up with the doorway


its

chambers and

decorated with inscriptions in the style already


(Plate
familiar.
It

corniced framing

xxxviii.).
is

The

ceiling,

which at

will

be noticed that in the car-

the

South end
flat at

touches of Ra-Aten the early spelling of the

strongly arched, becomes almost

name

of the

sun-god by means of the


is

the other.

Two

recesses cut in the Bast

disc-

crowned hawk

employed

^
;

as also the differ-

wall bear witness to the use of the


dwelling.

tomb

as a

entiation of the

two determinatives of the word

The doorway has been mutilated by the cutting of a fanlight over it by some later occupier, and more recently by the
"father" above them.^

The Inner Rooms.


access

The

further door gives

by a short passage

in the wall to a second

corridor at right angles to the former, contain-

removal of a large part of the

left

jamb.

ing the place of sepulture.

The

burial shaft
;

translation of the texts will be found on

descends from a bank of rock at the East end

though partially

filled, it

is

p. 32.

open to a depth of
other end
of the

Interior.

Wall Thicknesses (Plates xxviii..


is

nearly thirty

feet.

At

the

'

The tomb

No. 3

No. 4

of Lepsius.

The design

is

in three panels, as in I. xxxix.,

and the

Cf. pp. 9, 15.

pattern closely resembles pattern

there

but the green

tomb and

Eeasons have already been given for making this that of Pentu the earhest in this group, dating from about the ninth year of the King (Part II,, p. 7).
3

of the border has been covered over by drab, and the hearts of the diamonds, instead of being blue and red, are red, vrith the inmost diamond picked out in white.

THE TOMB OF ASMBS.


corridor a few feet of a second and perhaps
later shaft

27

B.
1.

The Sculptured Scenes.

have been cut in the

floor.

At each

end of the corridor an imitation portal has been

The Prayers of Ahmes.


of the

hewn

They are out of place here, being taken over from the class of

in the wall behind the shaft.

The Thickness

Outer Wall.
p. 31.

Plates xxviii., xxix.

For previous copies see

tomb where
hall
(cf.

this cross corridor

formed the main


in the axis of

IV. xiv.).

doorway

the tomb leads from this corridor to the shrine,

and the

ceiling

is

here heightened to give the


aisle.
is

aspect of a central
shrine (Plate xxvii.)

The two figures of Ahmes which occur here His decorashow the usual dress (cf. p. 4). consisting only of a double row of tions are few, gold beads round his neck but he carries on
;

The

portal

of the

his

back the insignia of his

offices,

secured to a

of the kind already

met

with in the tomb of

Huya

strap which passes over his shoulder.


indicates his position as fan-bearer

The fan

(Plate xix.), but has

been

left

unfinished.

A mistake

on the right
this

was made by
filling

cutting insets in the transom and

hand of the King

the long-bladed military axe

them

with the dad signs, columns, and sa or signet

shows the command of soldiery which


his other offices necessarily

and
ren-

involved, or

which should have been put in the panels above. They were afterwards obliterated with
signs,

dered him liable

to."

plaster,

but are

now

partially revealed.

The

A list

of the titles of Ahmes

and a translation

shrine contains the usual seated statue of the

of the prayers will be found below, pp. 31-33.

deceased

man

it

appears to have been as well

superfluous
green,

The device oh the East side for filling up the space by bars of colour (blue,
blue,

executed as the material permitted, but has

been badly mutilated.


cut in the floor before
libation.

A rough
it,

red)

at

intervals

is

paralleled,

basin has been

according to Lepsius, in a tomb of El Bersheh.^

as if for purposes of

The roof

is

arched.

Pivot-holes in
2.

the floor of the entrance show that the chamber

Royal Visit to the Temple.


Upper
half.

was closed by folding doors. The whole tomb is laid out with great accuracy, and the walls are cut true and smooth.
In the outer corridor the wall-surfaces were
given a fine coating of plaster, but the decoration

West Wall.

Plates xxx. to xxxii.

a, xxxix.

[No previous
L'Hote {Papiers,

copies have been made.


xvii. 4)

Lepsius and

took squeezes, and the former

made a

plaster cast, of

which Stbindoeff publishes a


d.

photograph in his Blutezeit

Pharaonenreichs, p. 155.]
is

which they were meant

to receive

was only
some

The

greater part of this picture


it

preserved.

very partially applied.

On

the East side

On the extreme right


(Plate xxxii.)
is

was never even sketched,

traces of red paint indicate the King, Queen,

or has utterly faded away.

The royal chariot

and three princesses under the radiant sun. All the rest is blank, and the clean surface proving
too great a tempation to visitors in the days of

partially preserved in the origi-

nal red ink sketch.

The

soldiers (Plate xxxi.)

are finished with extreme care and are well-preserved,

the Ptolemies, they scratched their names over

though somewhat injured by the casting

the whole space (see Plate xxxv. and p. 34).

and squeezing to which the scene has been subjected.

On

the "West side the greater part of the upper


is

The temple

(Plate xxx.) as far as the


it
is

two designs which were projected served to us in ink or sculpture, and


of the

pre-

second pylon and the division below

but

also

a
is
'

fragment of the lower.


covered with
graffiti.

The remaining space

Cf. I. XXX.,

and Wilkinson, Manners and Customs,


ii.,

All the walls are remark-

p. 196.
2

ably free from

dirt.

L. D. Text,

p. 136.

28

THE BOCK TOMBS OF EL AMAENA.


and has besides had large parts
thieves.

half-finislied,

The

chariot

is

immediately preceded by a

cut

away by

The

existence of the rest


as the surface

troop of foot-soldiers,

who run
the

in

two detachof

of the picture
is

was not suspected,

ments, headed by a trumpeter (Plates xxxi.,


xxxix.).^

to all appearance quite blank.

But chance

Although

habits

Egyptian

observation showed

me

that parts of the design

draughtsmen preclude easy confidence that an


actual military organization
is

at least had survived, yet in a yellow ink which

revealed here,

had conformed
wall that
it

so exactly to the colour of the

there

is

a mixture of

symmetry and divergence


artist.

could only be recovered by blindly

which strongly suggests that knowledge, and


not caprice, has guided the
Since

following the lines on the wall with a pencil,

Ahmes

guided

less by The drawing thus recovered

their colour than their texture.


is

had some military command or supervision, he

the frequent

may
It

well have excluded professional blunders.


is

one of a state

visit to

the sanctuary of the royal

clear that the four files contain ten

men
in

statues in the temple,

though we are not aware

each, the last

man

being an Egyptian armed


;

of anything in the career or offices of

Ahmes

with falchion and baton


the three lower rows
is
;

the eleventh

man

Avhich could be an occasion for its insertion here.


Its

manifestly an
in

officer,

prototype seems plainly to be the scene in


is

holding a baton only

the top

row the

the tomb of Mahu,^ though the design


siderably altered, and
for the

con-

corresponding place has evidently been vacated

was

still

further changed
x.,

tombs of Panehesy and Meryra (L,


lost part

x.a

II. xiii.).

by the trumpeter, who must be in charge of the whole escort. The rear men of the files thus seem here to take the place of our non-commissioned officers
;

The

probably showed

Ahmes and

his

elsewhere they are not so

attendants, or perhaps the other

two princesses

employed, but either in regiments or on police


duty.

and their

train.

The horses which draw the


been sketched with great

They may have been a crack regiment


guard or
as instructors to the irregular

royal chariot have

appointed to positions of trust, and placed here


as a rear

freedom, the

head and neck

showing great

superiority of outline over other designs.


initial

The

troops.

sketch seems to have been in faint yellow


in red
;

ink,

corrected and redrawn

but both
this,

The detachments seem to be composite. Each is led by six Egyptian spearmen, and
the standard-bearers of the six regiments they
represent.

have had to be used in Plate xxxii., and

taken with the indistinctness of the lines in


parts, must do some injustice to the Egyptian
artist.

There follow them representative

The

figures

of the royal

personages

non-Egyptian regiments, which were perhaps attached to the native regiments


soldiers of the

were rubbed out in the general defacement of the monuments after the King's death, and they have had to be restored (Plate xxxii.A) by help The King and Queen of the design of Mahu,
are represented as chatting face to face in the
car,

in equal

numbers (or in half their strength). In the upper detachment we see two bearded
with
characteristically
(?)

Syrian spearmen, a negro bowman, a Lybian


archer

shaped

bow,

an Egyptian sergeant

whose presence here

while the

little

Merytaten, whose head


is

breaks the symmetry, and a second negro with

reaches with difficulty over the rim,


in the prancing horses.
'

interested

IV.

XX.,

xxii.

{Le

Culte d'Atonou,

I.

xlv.,

xlvi.).

' For the trumpeter compare Plate xii. and Wilkinson, Manners and Customs, i., pp. 192 (a very similar picture

Hence Merytaten only is seen, and in her parents' chariot whereas the Northern tombs show the princesses in their

to this), 456, 457


tation in Plate

Le

Culte d'Atonou,

I.

ii.

The

represen-

xii. is

curious, as one can hardly imagine


at once.

own

cars.

two trumpets being used

THE TOMB OF AHMES.


a club.

29

In the lower detachment are three

great royal statue show,

is

the gateway which


;

Syrian spearmen, two Ethiopian bowmen, and


a negro with a club
to those above.^
;

admits to the court of the Lesser Sanctuary


the third
is is

and

all of similar

appearance

the gateway of that building.

There

Each

officer is

thus in charge

no

essential divergence in this picture

from

of ten men, a favourite military unit.

the other plans, a comparison and explanation


of

The standards
to assign

are of the five types which


It

which will be found in Part

II.,

pp. 20-28, and

occur in these tombs.

seems most reasonable

them
;

to the six (or twelve)

Egyptian

on pp. 19-25 of this volume. The space between the first and second gate-

regiments

for the pictures do not enable us

ways (down

to the

bottom of the Plate)

is,

then,

to allot distinctive standards to the foreign corps.


It will

that occupied already or destined to be occupied

be noticed that some of the standard-

bearers, here

and elsewhere, have a

different

dress from the rest.

As

in

I.

x.A, the cortege is

met

at the gate of

Some of the objects seen here are afterwards shown in that building, and the two sets of lavers seem by their posiThe mutilation of tion to imply its existence.
by the Great Sanctuary.
the wall prevents us from
altar

the temple by the military guard and by the


officials,

knowing

if

the great

who approach

presenting bouquets and

was shown, but duplicate pictures and the

offering sacrificial birds

and

cattle

(PL xxx.).

presence of an altar of another type

make

it

Other beasts await


court, close

acceptance in the inner


All
is astir

very unlikely.

We may also
who

note the player on

by the slaughter-house.

the lute and his chorus,

here supplement

within the temple, servants running through


the great gates of the courts in haste to

the harpers' choir in the inner court.

make
3.

ready for the royal

visit.
is

The Royal Family at Home.

The building here depicted


Sanctuary absent.
to
It

the temple

enclosure, but with the whole of the Greater

West Wall

Lower Scenes.
:

Plates xxxiii., xxxiv.

seems that this

is

due only

economy of space, the Smaller Sanctuary being the object of visit. The absence of any traces
of the walls of this building in the ruins of the

previous copy is Hay, MSS. 29814,

fol.

26

(partial) .=

Of the scene which was destined

to cover this

part of the long west wall, only a small part of

temple might make one suspect that the pictures of the Great Sanctuary in the tombs of Meryra

the ink design was ever carried out with the


chisel,

and what was unexecuted

is

erased.

and Panehesy only represent the unexecuted plans which were in the hands of these priests,

sculpture too has been defaced in ancient,

The and
that

again in recent times.


remains,
it

From
office

the

little

and that

it

was

in reality never carried out.

seems likely that the picture was


as

But

in face of the extensive building in the city

connected with Ahmes'


for

chamberlain
the royal

and the mention


of the Aten,

of several shrines in the temple


scarcely likely,

the

existing

fragment

shows

this is

and the early

fainily seated at

meat in the

hall of the palace.

tomb

of

Mahu shows an
it
:

elevation of the great

The remainder would probably have depicted

pylon which
(IV. XX,, xxi.

would be hard to explain away

Ahmes

waiting on his sovereign, the reward of

Le Gulte d'Atonou,
is

I. xliii., xlv.).
;

his assiduity in this office,

and perhaps the conat

The

first

gateway

the outermost entrance

gratulations received

by him

home on

this

the second, as the lavers, the choir, and the

mark
'

of favour.

The contemporary tomb


and the upper part

of

For such mixed troops


I. iv.

cf.

I.

x., II. xvii.

Le

Gulte

The princess

in Plate xxxiv.

of

d'Atonou,

Plate xxxiii. have been restored from this source.

30

THE ROCK TOMBS OP EL AMARNA.


is

Pentu

somewhat similarly illustrated, but equally unfinished and injured. It has a scene in which the royal pair are seen at meat, and
another in which they
sit

in the hall, as here,

and

bestow rewards on their servant (IV.

viii., x.).

This picture of the palace differs in certain


respects from the pictures already seen, being

THE TOMB OF AHMBS.

31

who
II.
is

apparently

sits

on the ground and leans

peoples are jubilant towards thee, giving praise to

against the knees of a companion.

who formed them


fosters]
8

[prostrating themselves to

him him who


by
of

The Men's Apartments.


(3)

As

them,
forth,'!'

who

guidest

by thy
son,

circuit,

thy
the

this division

shining

thy beloved

the

King

almost an exact counterpart of the sets of

rooms

and

(4) above, I conclude that it is

the men's side of the house.


Plate xxxiii. exhibits an interesting feature
in connection with the vault of heaven, which,
as
is

South and North, living on Truth, Nefer-kheperu-ra, the entire land, and all the countries; that they may make laudations at thy dawning and at thy setting likewise. " God 8 who livest on Truth manifestly (lit. " in face of the eyes "). Thou hast made that which existed not, coming making these things in their entirety
forth

customary,

is

stretched above the scene,

its

from thy mouth.

Thou

hast given to
fail

me

favour

before the

King every day without


cliff

ends resting upon the shoulders of the mountains.

burial after old age in the

of

and a goodly Akhetaten. For I

At

their foot a tree

and a shrub are

have completed

my

life
;

with happiness, being an atten-

placed.

This tree occurs

again in a similar

position on a block of this date from

Cairo Museum, and also in

Karnak in the tomb of Ay.^

dant of the good god he hath trodden every place that he desired,^ I following his feet. He fostered me when I was a youth until I attained honoured old age in peace and joy and attendance on the Euler he being in festival
^'' ;

M. Maspero recognizes

in this tree one of the

every day."
2.

two " sycomores of malachite " which grew at the spot where the sun entered and left the upper world.^

(West Wall-thickness.
:

Plate xxix.)

Previous copies are

BuETON, Excerpta, plate vii. L'HoTB, Papiers, iii. 287 " (figure and titles).
;

Lettres Sorites, p. 75

C.
1.

The Religious

Texts.
"
life

Thy dawning
for ever
is

is

beautiful,

Ea-Horakhti,

who

givest

The Longer Prayers.


Plates xxviii.,xxxviii.)

and

ever,

[the living Aten] beside

whom

1.

(East Wall-thickness.
:

Previous copies are


Lepsius, D.
iii.

L'HoTB, Papiers,

iii.

288.

[no other], giving health to the eyes [by his he who has made all that is. Thou risest on the horizon of heaven [to give life to all that thou hast made], viz. all mankind, [cattle,] flying and fluttering
there

rays]

things,
98a.^
earth. living
beautiful,

[with]

all

kinds of

reptiles

which are on the

They

are lively

when they

see thee.

They

lie

"Thy
lords,

setting

is

Aten,

Lord

of

Euler of the

Two

Lands.

the upper regions*] in peace the

[When thou traversest Two Lands and the


the

down [when] thou settest. " Thou givest thy beloved


lives

son, Nefer-kheperu-ra.
is

He

with thee for ever, [doing that which

pleasing to]

'

L. D.

iii.

106a.

(Two

trees

sky

wrongly

Huya seems
;

to read " giving praise because of thy

rendered)
^

rising "
;

Bevtte Critique, Nov. 7th, 1904

they are referred to

the scribe's eye having apparently wandered to the adjacent column.


^

M. in the Book of the Dead, chapters cix. and cxlix. b. Maspero is misled when he supposes that this tree has
been omitted in the tombs already published by me.
evidently belongs to the earlier series of designs
;

Coniecturins ' ^

__

'

aaaaaa
11

O W

<:3>

o
rest is

It

The <=> seems

certain in

Huya's

text,

and the

later

the mythological detail was banned. 3 The restorations in the plate are from
Starred
hieroglyphs

compatible with the defaced signs.


this copy.
7

I should

have written

have been slightly altered, being this I have had more or less comobvious errors. For plete support from the duplicate text on the W. thickness tomb. A photograph taken of the inner wall of Huya's

Var.

" Euler " (Huya).


1^

Eead

<=>

by Professor Petrie shows about a

third of the text

and

- Supplying

completely confirms the old copies. The text of Huya, being badly preserved, was not copied but carefully
collated.
*

^^=^.

Ti
(J(]

(Huya).
is

" The restoration of the plate


Burton's copy having
little

from

this

source.

All variants are noted here.


|

value.
of
I.

Supplying

"^

^ J^ ^

by an injured
(Huya),

text in the

tomb

L'Hote is supported Huya (PL iii.). The


xxxvi.

lacunae are mostly supplied from

32

THE ROOK TOMBS OF EL AMARNA.


Lord
2.

thy heart and seeing what thou hast made every day.

of the

Two

Lands, Ahmes, maakheru and possessor

He

rejoices at seeing thy beauty.

[prosperity,
circuit

health,
(?)

delight,

and]
'^

Grant to him life, joy,' and all thy

of reward."

The

inscription
for

on the
starred

right

hand
(i.e.

is

as

above,

under
;

[his feet.

He]

administers

them
South
*

"

for

substituting

the

passage

" he

who has

thy ka
the

(he) thine offspring

whom

thou thyself hast


the
like

approach to the person of the god


chief of chiefs, sage
(?)

the King), the

begotten,

known North and West and

of the

Two

Lands, First of the

Bast.

The

islands

in the

Companions."

midst of

His ^ Southern boundary (extends) as far as the breezes, and his northern boundaries as far as Aten shines.^ All their
praise to his
ka.
chiefs'^ are suppliants (?), fainting before the will of

the ocean are in

3.

BuRiAii Petitions.
Plate xxvii.)

him,
2.

the good Spirit,

who

brings joy to the

Two Lands and


Place him

(Jambs

of outer door.
:

makes the wealth

of the land in its entirety.

along with thee for ever and ever, since he loves to look on thee. Grant to him sed!-festivals exceeding numerous, of years of peace. Grant unto him s of that which thy heart loveth, like the multitude of the sands of the dunes, like the scales of the fish in the streams or the
hair of the cattle.

Previous copy

L'HoTE, Papiers,
"

iii.

289.'

dy hetep seten

of

Ea-Horakhti and Nefer-kheperu-

ra (alternating with Akhenaten).


(1) (Left side).

Set
(?)
^

him here

till

the

swan

(?)

grows white, till the hills to travel and the deep runs up the river,'" I being attendant on the good god until he orders a burial of his giving." "

black and the crow

grows rise up

from

he grant [entrance and] '* exit the King's house, and that (his) members be
(?)

"May

provided with '* pleasure every day." (2) " May he [grant] the favour of his

children,

and

a reception of loaves from his offerings." (3) " [May he grant] life, prosperity, health, amuse-

2.
1.

The Shorter Praters.


Plate xxvii.
Left side.)

(Lintel of entrance.

"

An

ascription of praise to the living Aten,

act of
cellor,*

homage

Lord

of

and an good King by the Eoyal Chanthe Sole Companion, follower of the feet of the the Two Lands, the favourite of the good god,
to the

ment," happiness and delight." (4) " [May he grant] rejoicing claily and the sight of his fair face every day." " May he grant in (5) (Eight jamb). every place which he treads." (6) " May he grant the sight of Aten from his rising
until there
(7)

comes

his setting as Aten."


life,

"May

he grant a happy

seeing his beauty,


a place of the

whom

his lord loves every day,* the veritable scribe of

the King, beloved of him, the Steward of the house of

and a goodly burial after old age." (8) " May he grant admission
foot') within the palace to see the

(lit.

'

Akhenaten and Superintendent

of the

Court-house of the

King Ua-en-ra."

'

From

Plates
is

iii.

and

xxvii.
I. xli.

Close. " For the ka of the veritable scribe of the King, beloved by him, the Superintendent of the Court-house and Steward of the house of Akhenaten, great in his

The sense
That
is,

clear

from

and

II. xxx.,

but not

duration,

Ahmes

"

the last two

titles

alternating

the text.
3

with " Fan-bearer on the right hand of the King."

the lands.

Emend

to

fl

(I. xli.).

From Huya.
=^^=^

1).

Ahmes.

has been omitted in the


II., p. 45, PI.

plate.

<'

Cf.

Part

xxx.

The
man
of Syria in a white
1.

titles

given to Alimes in his tomb are

This word-sign represents a

Veritable Scribe of the King,

robe with red bordering, and an under-garment with sleeves reaching to the wrists.
8 9

Bead

(Huya).
shanfet, nekhent, sneferu,

The words

are

new

to

Whence the restorations in the plate. I have since found a photograph taken by Professor Petrie, which
'^

gives the text

still

the vocabulary.

For the

first

Mr.

more

fully.

Griffith quotes the

"

Cf. II. ix.

Coptic derivative tyeftCJI, and below, JLITO, pelagus.


'"

Cf.

Part

II., p. 45.

Burton reads

^^.

" Eeadine

from a text in the tomb of


I. xxxi.).

May

(Le Quite d'Atonou,


|

Emending

to

" Emending to

THE TOMB OF AHMES


2.

33

Fan-bearer

on the

right

hand

of

the

The

first

four

titles,

however, represent real and


indicate

King.
3.

responsible ofiices of state, and

that

Superintendent of the Court-house.

Ahmes

was one of the most confidential servants

4.
5.
6.

Steward of the house of Akhenaten. Royal Chancellor.


Sole

of the King,

and closely attached to his person. History, however, has preserved no further relife,

Companion and

First of the

Com-

panions.
7.

and the signs of the King's favour of which Ahmes boasts do not seem to
cord of his

Follower of the feet of the Lord of the


Lands.
of these designations are certainly sinep.

have been very practically exhibited.


parts precisely which might have

His tomb

Two

lay unfinished through half the reign, those

Some
cures,

commemorated
being neg-

and there are other epithets on


still

32

the successful career of the


lected to the end.

ofiicial

which are

more empty of

real significance.

1)

34

APPENDIX
By Seymoue de
THE GREEK
[The numerous graffiti left by visitors to this tomb have already been mentioned (p. 27). They have been scratched with the point of a sharp stone or a weapon in the plaster of the lower part of the walls of the corridor. Owing to their rough character and frequent overlapping they are difficult to decipher, and I have not attempted to exhaust the material or to reproduce it in exact facsimile.
I

B.
Ricci.

GRAFFITI.
Inscriptions
(Paris,

Grecques

et

Latines

de

I'Egypte

They

1848, 4"), pp. 454-459, Nos. 507-522. were reprinted by Franz in 1850 in the
vol.
iii.,

Corpus inscriptionum Graecarum,,


times the only lengthy mention of
to

pp.

1,190 to 1,191, Nos. 4,705& to 4,705r. In modern

wished rather to

call the attention of


it

those

who

are

them known

and estimate its value. It includes one Coptic graffito penned in ink but now nearly illegible, almost the only written memorial of the Coptic occupation of the site (Plate xxv.). Most of the graffiti in the Plate are from the Bast wall 42, 43, 47, 50, 52, 59 are from the West wall 10, 43, 44, 48 are from the South end 57 from the Bast thickness 2, 3 are from the shrine; 51, 54, 55, 68 are from the antechamber of Meryra's tomb. The interesting graffito No. 1 is from the wall outside, just on the right of the doorway. A few ink graffiti also from the East wall (No. 12 from the East inner thickness) of the tomb of Huya are dealt with here. Two unpublished graffiti from " Kotys came " (of. No. the West wall of Huya read and " Alexander .... Lycomedes." N. de G. D.] 22),
specially qualified to deal with
; ; ;
; :

me

is

in an article

by

Prof.

Sayce in the Propublishes from

ceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology,


vol.
iv.

(1892),

p.

123.

He

his

own

copies fifteen graffiti,

and what he conFranz,

siders as part of a
1.

Phoenician one.
;

(Letronne, pp. 455-456, No. 510

p. 1,190,

No. 4,705i).
avafiai;
\_6vpa\i,oi,<;

Evd'

e^apa^e

KaTvWtvo<s ev irpo

T)(yy]v 6a.vp.atfi3v Totv iepa>v

XaoTop-wv

"

Having ascended
engraved

here,

Catullinus

has

this in the

doorway, marvelling
read with Franz

at the art of the holy quarriers."

The Greek Graffiti.


The
fifty-nine

It is also possible to
7rpo[^up]otori.

Greek

graffiti

copied by Mr.
re-

N. de G. Davies in the tomb of Ahmes, and

The whole is a distich. The engraver had begun to engrave the


first

second line too near the


after

produced on Plate xxxv. of the present volume,


are

one, but
letters

by no means

all

unpublished.

They were

having written the

first

two
little

discovered tovp-ards 1835


original copies are

by Wilkinson, whose d6ubtless in the Vauncey2.

he stopped and began again a

lower

down.
/8acr6Xeu[s]

Crewe

collection.

Copies of

sixteen graffiti

were sent by him to Letronne/ who inserted

eoSwpos Tov

them
^

in the second

volume of
in

rouis (eTous) cktov naeii'[i


his Recueil des
list

.]

or A9vpC, ?

The
3.
rjKCOL

sense

is

not clear.

These copies are included

of Letronne's

papers drawn up by his daughter after his death. This but the greater part of list is now in my possession
;

(erous)

X.^

Letronne's papers, including Wilkinson's


lent towards 1868

letters,

was

" I come

Year 37

"

by Mademoiselle Letronne to the late

Note the superfluous


verb.

iota at the

end of the

Carl Wescher, whose

MSS.

are apparently lost.

THE GRAFFITI.
4. 5.
6.

35

nToXe[/Aatos]
KoK(o(f)o<; (?)

A.

Thracian name.

AvkovCevTjs,

Compare AvXovSea, Aulucentus, Aulurenus, Au(cf.

(Sayce, No. 11.)


$tXovi/cos

lusanus, AvXovTpaXrj^
24. (Etovs) k
25. Letronne, p. 456, No.

No. 14),

etc.

7.

[?$i]\&)i'i/fos(?)

511; Franz,

p. 1,190,

IloXvVLKOV
8. 9.

No. 4,705/1).

^7roX(X.)oStupe
Illegible.

10. jditovv(r(oS(opo<s vqoTopo^ It

Evavdo?
Z<i}l\o<;

ASL(jiLav

ought to be
No. 1)

^iovv(ToS(opo<; vewre/jos

AtroWavLov

11. (Sayce,

A(t)po6eo<;

Av8povi.KO<;

AvBp0VL[^K0v]
12.

Badly preserved.
1,

Letronne's readings

In Coptic.
possibly

Line

"Lord God."

Line

2,

of Wilkinson's copies are highly improbable.


26. STTapTaKO<s, Mei'ai'Sp[o]s Mevai'8yoo[u]

ICA..S.K.
.

13. KaWoi)i>

14. [.4u\]o[uT]pa\i7s

(?)

irapeyei'o[ju,iji/]

By two
27. AKOvpaTo\^<;^
?

different hands.

" Aulutrales
16. y4iroXXcoj'[ios]

(?)

I have been here

"

28. SwapraKot; (jitXtoLcnvr)

16. 17.
18.
e

JZroXejU.ato[s]

29. ^TTapraKos o
.

Bpofjiev<s

(T0US) iC

Tv[^L

.]

AXe^avBpov
30. jrro\e|u,[aios]
Sci)Tiov[o?\ ?

(Forms the second half of Letronne, p. 457, No. 513 Franz, p. 1,190, No. A,105k).
;

ZTjVoSciipO'S

XOLO^

l^

31. (Letronne, p. 455,

No. 508

Franz, p. 1,190,

ApLaTo/jLCVT]!;

No. 4,7056

Sayce).
.

E
19.
.

poSeV

VITTOTOV

(EtoUs) tS AlO-^pUtiV
line.

Xo
.

TOV yoaif
6eov
(erow?)
tS

I cannot

make out

the third

evXoyo)

TOV

Oeov ?

SwTOS 0/oaif

MeaopL K^
Sayce only gives the first line and joins
it

We

shall find in these texts further


soldiers.

mention of Thracians, possibly


20. (Sayce, No. 6.)
Ep/xai[o9]
y^KOi

with No.

32.

Letronne reads tov

vo[ho\v deov.
rect, the

If euXoyo) tov Oeov is cor-

author of the graffito was a Jew,

Mao(f>i ?

this

special formula being only

known
at

I cannot read the second line with

any
32.

from

two

Graeco

Jewish

graffiti

certainty.

Perhaps

IlacocjyL ?

Eedesieh in Upper Egypt.


(Letronne, p. 454, No. 507, and p. 457,

21. 'Bavd[o']?
IlTo\ep.a.iov

No. 614; Franz,


Franz,

p.

1,1<;1,

No. 4,705^,

22. (Letronne, pp. 457-458, No. 516;


p. 1,190,

and A,10bd).

No. 4,705jo).
^iXivov TapavTivo<s

SevOrj^ KoTvo<s wSe


a(j)iKeTo

....

(erou?) id AXe^avSpo<;

" Seuthes son of Kotys

came
Cf,

here."

TlToXe/JLaiov

Thracian names,
23. Av\ovleKiJ.is

No. 36.

Sayce publishes the second line as


partly Carian.

36

THE ROCK TOMBS OF EL AMAKNA.


48. 5'7ra/)TaKo[s] *iX[iepyoi;s]

33. Si\l3avos

34. Indeciplierable.
35. (Letronue, p. 458,

Line 2

:$ev0r)q

Cf.
p. 1,190,

No. 39.

No. 517; Franz,

49
UroXe/xaiog
iqKw

No. 4705?

Sayce, Nos. 2-3).

Mvtjaideo? Jwyaiew?
Niffo/xa^os ncrojScravvos

The first line is probably the Coptic


50. Illegible.

apa.

The name
tion of the

ITcro/So-avi'os is

interesting
transcrip-

51, 52. (Sayce, No. 10).

as being a far

more accurate

HpaKXas
53.

Egyptian Pasebkhannut than


Wova-e.vvr]<i.

KaXXias Ep[iaLOv{?)
^77oXXftJI'to[s]

Manetho's
36.
5'eu^ijs

KoTwos No. 22.

54. AvoV^LCOV 55. (Letronne, p. 458,

Cf.

No. 519

Franz, p. 1,190,

37. (Letronne, p. 458,

No. 518

Franz,

p. 1,190,

No. 4,705e).
flToXXas
SapaTTLCov
. . .

No. 4,705m).

rjKO)
?).

(cTovs)

XoiaK
. . .

ty
?

56. (Sayce,

No. 4

38. AiddioKko

SapOLVKtiV

39. 5'ira/3TaKos

f iXiepyous

57. NiKaj'[w/3] 58. Jioj/ucrtos

wSe
Cf.

No. 48.
;

59. Alovvctioi;

40. (Letronne, p. 457, No. 513

Franz,

p. 1,190,

From
very

the long Coptic graffito on Plate xxv.

No. 4,705A;
MrjvoifiiXo';

Sayce, No. 5).


[i.e.

little

can be gathered, as the text


It

is

sadly

eXdov

rjXdov)

mutilated.
" Father,

begins

with

an

invocation
the

41. KpiTLa<;

Son,
.

and

Holy

Ghost,

Holy

A ioi'ucrioSco[pos]
42.
iy^TQV<i) i^

Trinity

."

Further on the word ty?\H^

UtoX.

pov nvppLa<;TarjTO<;

"

to

pray

"

appears to occur twice.


graffiti

epaaTT)^.

Perhaps
Ka/3aSoKo<;

[ejrai/joy

The ink
1.

from the tomb of Huya

43.

(Sayce, No.
A^pafxo<i

8).

(Plate xxv. 1-13) are almost illegible.

rjKO)

Standing figure of Anubis.

The name Abraham borne by a Cappadocian


is

2.

startling.
;

The prenomen of Amenhotep III. and 4 show what may be the same name.
. .
.

44. (Letronne, p. 455, No. 509

Franz, p. 1,190,

5.

dm?

No. 4705c).
(eroKs) tS AuTXpioyv
JioT/je^ijs (?)

6. 8. 9.

Ta^ft)OTi?s(?)
Tevo)p[i,]<;
.
. .

XKlcov

Cf,

No. 12.

"Ptolemy"
Text,
ii.,

in Demotic.
p. 139.

Published L. D.

evkoyoi Trjv Ektlv

45

ewXoya)

Toi/ [^eoj' ?]
;

10.

Opve

....
(?)

46. (Letronne, p. 457, No. 516

Franz,

p. 1,190,

11.

BiKm

Cf.

No.

13.

No. 4.705o).
llroXe/xaios 0atTO5
IlToXejLiaiDs

12. Alovvo-m,

Teuw/ois,

HpaiaKos,

Safiei,v\_o{\,

HpaK\a[^^

[A']ya6oi)v{?), Ai.ov[ya-La]

oas

13. BiKws(?), Apcriy]cn%.

This
ii.,

last

name pub-

47. (Sayce, No. 9).


ApKnoiVvp.o'i

lished L. B. Text,

p. 139.

The

graffiti

near the figures of Anubis read

THE GRAFFITI.
AvKa<; (twice) and probably Tvwpi<s, as in Nos. 8 and 12.
easiest

37

explanation of the frequent occuiTence

Note.

A considerable

of Thracian
as

names

in

Egypt

is

to regard

them

collection of Thracian

having been borne by mercenaries in the pay


Ptolemies
(see

names

is

given in A. Dumont, Melanges d'arche-

of the

Peedeizet, Bevue des


pp.

ologie et d'epigraphie, pp.

538

seqq.

Several of

Etudes Anciennes,
of our graffiti
B.C.,

.1904,

157-160).

Most

them occur

in our graffiti: Aiaxpioiv, AvhpoviKo<;,

may

well be of the

2nd century
date.

MevavBpo<s, Kotus, Sevdr)<s, XirapTaKoi, etc.

The

very few being certainly of

Roman

38

INDEX.
Ahmes, career
,,

of

27, 28, 29, 33 26, 27,

Carter, Mr.

24
3, 4, 21,
1, 2,

figures of
titles of

28 30
28 16

Cartouches
Ceilings

,,

27, 32, 33
6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 16, 27, 28,

....
M.
.

26

26, 27
xi
.

Akhenaten

depicted

Champollion
" Chancellor, Eoyal

affectionate nature of
his relations with his parents

8, 10, 15, 5, 12, 15,

33
xi

Chassinat,

prayers to
statues of

18, 19, 32

Chariots

8, 11, 13, 17, 27,


.

28 27
30
33 16

20-25
4, 7, 8, 9,

Colonnaded courts

8, 13,
1, 2, 3,

20, 22, 23

Akhbtaten
,,

13, 14, 15

Colouring in the tombs

13, 21, 26,

ruins of

10, 12, 22, 24, 25,


.

29 29 36

Columns

1, 2, 3
.

10, 11, 13, 14, 23, 27,


.

Altars

12, 21,

25,'

" Companion, Sole "

Amenhetep
,,

III. (see also

Neb-maat-ra)

5, 15, 16, 21,

Co-regency suggested
Corridors

statues of

21, 22, 23
7, 9, 11, 12,
.

Animals depicted

28
7

Dado scenes
Dancing
Date
,,

Ankhes-en-pa-aten
Anubis, figures of
Architecture of tombs
Artists,
.

3, 1, 2, 3,

36

.... ....
. .

10, 21, 22, 23, 26, 27,


6, 7, 8,
.

30 12 30

11,

of

tombs

26, 27
of graf&ti
.

1,26
37
9

Egyptian

8, 10, 14, 22,


.

28
,,

recorded

Artist's studio depicted

14
Decorative designs
.

Ascents to public buildingi

9, 11, 12,
.

24

1, 2,

13, 26, 27
.

Aten depicted

5, 16,
9, 15,

30 26
32

,,

drapery

4, 3,

Deir

el

Bahri temple compared


of
.

determinatives of

24

Doorways, form
Dress illustrated

prayers to
offerings to

1, 2, 3, 4,

17, 18, 31,


6, 8, 12, 23,

23, 26, 27, 30

Draughtsmanship, Egyptian

29 24
14 31 13

6, 9, 10, 14, 23, 28,


.

30 27

temple of
titulary of

8,

19-26, 27, 28
8,
.

4, 6, 8, 11, 21,
.

By

hetep seten prayers

16, 18, 19, 32

Auta
Ay, scenes in tomb of

Earlier period at El

Amarna

2, 4, 16, 24, 26, 29, 30,

31

30,

El Bersheh tombs compared

Erbkam
Balance depicted
.

....
.

27
.

24, 25
9, 11,

Ethiopians depicted
False Doors

Balcony of palace Banquets depicted


Barsanti, Signer

12, 13,
5, 29,

30

29

30
xi

3,27

" Fan-bearer on the right " Favourite of the

hand

of the

King
"

''

27,33
13,
.

Bedawin Beket-atbn Bouriant, M.


.

6,

10

Lord

of the

Two Lands
of the

19
9

5,

7,8, 14, 16, 16


xi

Fishing, scenes of
" Follower of the feet of the

Lord

Two Lands

"

Burial customs
,,

4,16
,

6, 19, 32,

33

shafts

4, 16,
.

26
19
17

Foreigners

6, 10,

28 36

Burnaburias, King

^"anz
Fretwork

Canopio jars

........

34, 35,

3 30
34, 35, 36

Cappadocian name

36

Graffiti,

Coptic

INDEX.
Grafi&ti,

39

Demotic

40

INDEX.
22, 23
.

Screening walls
" Scribe of the house of recreation " Scribe of the
"

Temple, ruins
,,

of

23, 24, 25, 29

14
32 6
6,

identification of parts of

19-25

King

Thracian names
Transcription of Egyptian

35,37

Shasu

names
.

19
13

Shaven head
Shrines
Slaves

Treasury of Tyi depicted


Tribute
.
. .

8, 12, 19, 22, 23, 25,


.

29
11

9, 11,

12

Trumpeter
Tursha

Southern tombs (see also


Standards
Statues in the tombs

,,

Earlier period ") 28, 29, 30, 31


8, 9, 28, 3, 17,

....
.
.

8,28
.

29 27 29

TuY

4,16
5, 6, 7, 8, 4, 5, 15,

Tyi depicted
,,

15 16
15

Osirian
royal
.

10,24
14, 20, 22, 23, 24, 28,
.

political attitude of

,,

residence of
statues of
.

4, 6, 8, 12, 13, 14,

,,

with altars

22, 23, 24
22, 23, 24
23,
2,

22, 23, 24
.

,,

with slabs of offering

" Sunshade " of

7, 8,

20, 23, 24, 25

Stela in temple court

24

(See also " Steward," " Superintendent.")

" Steward in the house of Tyi

12, 19

of the

house

of

Akhenaten

"

.33
xi,

Ua-bn-ea

2, 6, 12, 18, 19,


.

32
4

Steindorff, Professor

19, 27

Unhee
Unfinished designs
.

Stone shelters " Sunshade "


" Superintendent of the

26
7, 8, 20, 23, 24,

27, 28, 29, 33


.

26 12 12

Uraei

3, 11,

22

harem

of Tyi "

2, 6, 2, 6,

treasury of Tyi

Vases
Vestibule
.

5, 7, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17,

30
22

Court-house

.33
31

" Sycomores of Malachite " Syrians


9, 11, 28, 29,

Viands shown

4, 5, 6, 7, 16, 17,

30

32

Weapons
Tell el

10, 11, 28, 29

Amarna

letters
.

19 29

Wilkinson

34
enrolled
8,

Temple, pictures of

8, 19-25, 27,

Workmen

14

INDEX OF GREEK PROPER NAMES


(occurring in the Graffiti, Plates xxv,
Abramos
.

xxxv, pp. 34-37).

...

INDEX.
Katullinus
.

41

Ptolemaios

4, 16, 21, 30, 32,

42

(?),

46, 49, 9 (p. 36)

Kokophos Kotus
Kritias

(?)

PtoUas
Purrias

55
42
12
. .

22, 36, p. 34
.

41

Sabinos

(?)

(p. 36)

Lukas

p.

37

Sarapion

55, 66
22, 34,
.

Lukomedes
Menandros
Menophilos
Mnesitheos

p.

34

Seuthes
Silbanos
.

36
33

26 40
35 57 35
36)

Sopater

(?)
.

37

Sotion (?)

30
48
36)

Spartakos Tathootes
Teuoris
(?)

26, 28, 29, 39,

Nikanor

(?)

(?)
8,

(p.

Nikomakos
Orne ....
Philierges

Theodoros
10
39,
.

12 (pp. 36, 37) 2


.
.

(p.

Thais

46

48
.

Thoa
(?)

46
21
18

Philinos

32

Philonikos

.6,7
.

Xanthos
Zenodoros
Zoilos

Polunikos

Psobsannos

35

25

PBTNTBP BY GILBBBT AND BIVINGTON LIMITED,

ST,

JOHN'S HOUSE, CLEBKENWELL, E.G.

PLATES.

NOTE.
An
index to the passages in the text which are explanatory of the several plates
will

be found on pages

ix,

El Amarna

III.

TOMB OF HUYA.
'^//,//i'//^fM/j/////yf,^f((.

Plate

I.

^'//MfyMHi/^Mtjf^,.,j.

,^^/^A>y//////// /r/^''/'^'^''y^^y'yy/y'^' y^yyy////yy^^^yyyyy^yyy. -'^^^('^''-^''^^^-'^^^^^^--

r
f-o.

Section on A.B.

'

Ky^Jy^yi^/^Ai^^yyyyiii^y'y^^^^

Scale 1

COLUMN-EAST

FACE.

Section on

CD.

Bank ef rubbi'vh

Longitudinal Section

Scale

i
96

El Amarna

III.

HUYA-EAST THICKNESS.

Plate

II.

Wut.

HYMN TO THE
Scale i

SUN.

Ek Amarna

111.

HUYA-WEST THICKNESS.

Plate

III.

Scale i

HYMN TO THE

SUN.

El Amarna

III.

HUYA-SOU-

TYI SITTING
Seale i
7

AT MEAT]

kLL,

EAST

SIDE.

Plate

IV.

HE KING AND QUEEN.

El Amarna

III.

HUYA-SOUT

-a=

^z
^ y
;^
/
I

v
(7'/iis

picture should have been placed benet

LOWE

Scale
7

L,

EAST

SIDE.

"^^'^}

M
Jfy\

Hi

iM

11/

|i

J'i'

-^

^Ai
/./lll\^'

i)\

l/\l

MM

oer one, the lines

marked A and B

coinciding)

ITERS.

El Amarna

III.

HUYA-SQl

%
A
If

m^

"X

M i
A A

'

)o^^l

TYI ENTERTAINE
Scale I
1

\LL,

WEST

SIDE.

Plate

VI.

ME KING AND QUEEN.

El Amarna

III.

HUYA-SOUTH

^JL
>|-^

'

'^_/\\ y
]

4
j/^
//I

^^
\.

:P

^^. /^

y/.

(I.

^i%At
f.

L'V

X\^

Scale i

WEST

WALL-it

y^^^^

SOUTH WALL, WEJ


Scale i
7

WEST WALLS.

Plate

VII.

'\

V/
\(
(
1

(t-3 5<i

^ S

K't\
fe 'V

la

EST REGISTER.

E-LOWER REGISTERS.

El Amarna

III.

..~-:F'-

3T WALL.
Plate
VIII.

El Amarna

III.

AKHENATEN LEADING T
Scale
I

VALL.

Plate

IX.

/ITHIN

THE TEMPLE.

El Amarna

III.

HUYA-E/

^i^i'-^ir^ii^ii^ii-^ii-^ir-^ii"^!r-^ii--^ii^ii-^ii-Mi-~-ir^ii ^ii---iiS[E

/ALL.

Plate

X.

CO LU

D
I-

<
I-

W
LL

O
_l

< I
UJ

I H

--1I

^ \^\\^^\^ \J>^J>
\
\

\ \

-^^l>ll^ll^^ll^-^U^II--^ll^

ll

>^

^ir-^i

^i

'-^IN "^

"---

i^ ir^ii'-^ii^ii-^l'^l'-v.l.l'^ii'^iN

El Amarna

III.

HUY/

''^

llr^lLjI

VALL.

Plate

XI.

^l U-^ 1^-11 ^U^I-,--1l.^l.^l.>1I^^I^^I^^L-^L---1t^-^l^ll^llj:=Tr

Ul

z I
CO
a:

m z z
lU

I
I-

El Amarna

III.

HUYA-

Scale i

VALL.

Plate

XII.

FERS.

^'

El Amarna

III.

HUYA-W

THE KING AND QUEEN CAR


Scale i
7

ALL.

Plate

Xlil.

THE STATE PALANQUIN.

El Amarna

III.

HUYA-\

<&^

BRINGING THE TR
Scale

\LL.

PLATE XIV.

OF THE NATIONS.

Amarna

III.

HUYA-WE

LOWER
Scale
\

RE

VALL.

Plate XV.

RS.

El Amarna

III.

HUYA-NORTH

WEST

SIDE.

Plate XVI.

O
z y
LU I-

I
>-

m Q UJ Q <
UJ

<
>:d

Vl

El Amarna

III.

HUYA-NORTH

.,

EAST

SIDE.

Plate XVII.

(D

X H
>OQ

Hi

O UJ Q <
Hi a:

< > I

El Amarna

ill.

HUYA-NORTH WALL.

Plate

XVIII.

< LL

LU

Z
111

I-

< z
UJ

i^^^^^

,P"

-L5CJ_

<

Ul 1-

I z u

liJ

H z

Ui

^^m'=^\ mm^m rw/r


i^j^m
''''""'-^

C3

to

to

EL Amarna

III.

HUYA-DOORWAY OF

SHRINE.

Plate XIX.

Scale

El Amarna

III.

HUYA-SHRINE.

Plate XX.

WEST
Scale i.
8

THICKNESS.

EAST THICKNESS.

El Amarna

III.

HUYA-SHRINE AND HALL.

Plate XXI.

"A

.^

^
r.oi

,-r-'\

]Pl\
S.

WALL,

E.

SIDE.

HALL-JAMBS OF

N.

DOOR.

S.

WALL, W. SIDE.

Seale i

El Amarna

III.

HUYA-SHRINE, EAST WALL.

Plate XXII

Ill

El Amarna

III.

HUYA-SHRINE,

WEST WALL.

Plate

XXIII.

to

El Amarna

III.

HUYA-SHRINE,

N.

WALL.

Plate XXIV.

Sitting Statue

of Huya

THE BURIAL FURNITURE.

Scale

i.

Eu Amarna

III.

FRAGMENTS.
Vj-y.a.
r

Plate XXV.

,.-^'/->''-"-y''

Scale "i"

10

$Si<^H

-INC

'-re-

-tn-roTnu^
U
-5.{*^

"V
i.

,r

enNoy
6 re
L

.'

-i

'.

v'*

;?

y/

f^^
^;;&sVOiSiOs>^iJJOs/;i
si ul

rr-

ci-

m^

Mfe

cy

if/,

't.

8'K^N^8.-:'N;f^-w3 -

Scafe

7.
<^k

'&>ie

c)

K
i
1:!

I' r-

'

OJ"

rre

El Amarna

III.

Plate XXVI.

^
-t;-'
I

udiacjnj

psjeapcip

tjeiqqna

pajoapup

jjnoa

||T)^

>( 0(4*4

<^=5^

{^ s

Z 9 H O
UJ

03
-J

z <

z a H

<

o z o

:^^Saav^'8^\\^^^m^\^^^^^^^^^^^.^s^^^v^^^^^^

-It T
*1

J
,\v\VV>v\VWiU)^

El Amarna

III.

AHMES-FApADE.

Plate XXVII.

Unnlt

i.

1
ii

m
,1

'Sik

'iii':

El Amarna

III.

AHMES-EAST THICKNESS.

Plate XXVIII.

ADORATION OF THE SUN BY AHMES.


Scale i

El Amarna

III.

AHMES-WEST THICKNESS.

Plate XXIX.

Scale

HYMN TO THE

RISING SUN.

Eu Amarna

III.

AHME

THE

TEIV

Scale

jjI^WALL.

Plate XXX.

'E

THE ATEN.

El Amarna

AHMESIII.

Scale i

THE

iy/

tIwall.

Plate XX>

5^

ItrESCORT.

El Amarna

III.

AHMES-WEST WALL,

Plate XXXII.

*N

El Amarna

III.

AHMES-WEST WALL,

Plate XXXI Ia.

til

<
03 UJ

I H

El Amarna

III.

AHMES-WEST

LL,

LOWER

HALF.

'Aixxx n'oid

o <
<
0. UJ I-

Ml

AHMES-WEST
El Amarna
III.

/VER HALF.

Plate XXXIV.

<
h-

I-

<

< < >o


a: UJ I-

53

to

El Amarna

III.

QPj^Pj.,^1

Plate XXXV.

25:^wi/oc|aoXA(/AK'="

"^
I

32

47

/^rlCf QONYMU(^,

(ey/vA^

El Amarna

III.

TOMB OF HUYA.

PLATE XXXVI.

UJ

Z z
CO
ui

X
UI

<

El Amarna

III.

TOMB OF HUYA.

PLATE

XXXVII.

(0 (0
III

"T^f

z U X
II(0 Ul

^viiMf

"N8t^%BR'

(0 0)

H
(0

z o X

UI

<

UJ

EL AmARNA

III.

TOMB OF AHMES.

PLATE XXXVIII.

<

w E z
111

Q Z
til

El amarna

III.

TOMB OF AHMES.

Plate XXXIX.

,--*?

4V'

In- ^'//i\

--

i/m
1/1-

4^
///,!

t!*.

C'
-I'l

-!

a,:-

m^
Soldiers and

Trumpeter.

-ym
^,^-i\

/.-

*t'j \ ^
.%;''

Soldiers (continued).

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