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G.C.S.E.

PHYSICAL EDUCATION Unit 2 The Relationship between Health & Fitness

PHYSIQUE

Name: G.C.S.E. P.E. Teacher: .

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PHYSIQUE Physique or physical build can affect performance. It is not the most important factor, but certain shapes suit certain activities. Your body type is something which you are born with because it is determined genetically. Body shape can be improved but you cannot make drastic changes such as increasing your height or your basic bone structure. Therefore, when considering physique and its relationship to sport we tend to think of, for example, shot putters as being larger and heavier than average, long distance runners having lighter upper bodies and basketball players being taller than average. Somatotyping Body types, otherwise known as SOMATOTYPES can be split into 3 different types: Bb Bb Bb These distinctive and extreme somatotypes were identified by an American called W H Sheldon.

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ENDOMORPH (Fat)

MESOMORPH (Muscular)

ECTOMORPH (Thin)

Bb Bb Bb Bb Bb

Bb Bb Bb Bb Bb

Bb Bb Bb Bb Bb

Can you think of 3 sports/positions suited for each somatotype?

Bb Bb BbBb

Bb Bb BbBb

Bb Bb BbBb

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Not many people fall clearly into one of these categories, most people are a mixture of all of these. To classify body shape, Sheldon used a scale of one (1) to seven (7) for each somatotype giving (7) for an extreme somatotype. Complete the following table, placing the sportsmen/women into the highest somatotype rating remember not all sports require participants to be extreme somatotypes. SPORT HIGH JUMPER SUMO WRESTLER WEIGHTLIFTER BASKETBALL PLAYER TENNIS PLAYER SOCCER PLAYER RUGBY (WINGER) RUGBY (FORWARD) SWIMMER JOCKEY SPRINTER (100M) GYMNAST MARATHON SOMATOTYPE ECTOMORPH ENDOMORPH RATING 1, 1, 7 7, 1, 1

SOMATOCHARTS Somatotype ratings are shown on somatocharts. The one below shows average rating for groups of top male athletes.

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They are all towards the mesomorph corner. This proves the importance of muscles. Wrestlers and weightlifters are the most endomorphic. Work out your somatotype, giving yourself a mark between 1 and 7 for each of the 3 types: Endomorph ( ), Mesomorph ( ), Ectomorph ( ) What do you notice about your score? . . Think about your particular sport. Would you say that your body type is suited to your chosen sport? Why? . . . . . . . Draw a somatochart and place your body type on it. Add 4 other people onto your chart how does your body type compare to theirs?

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. . . . . Add the following sports onto the somatochart: Marathon runner Tennis player Gymnast Jockey

BODY TYPE AND SPORT Most sports people are between the mesomorphic and ectomorphic extremes, with a greater tendancy towards the mesomorphic. In sports such as gymnastics and wrestling it is an advantage to have good muscular strength in relation to size. In events where objects have to be thrown such as shot, hammer and javelin, muscular strength and speed are important, as is bulk for stability. These sports people tend to be a mesomorph and endomorph mixture. Sumo wrestlers need to have considerable weight and strength to force their opponent out of the circle and so tend to be endomorphs. In invasion games, e.g. football, hockey, netball etc, different playing positions e.g. goal keepers, midfielder, goal shooters, are best matched to different body types. Explain this using relevant examples. . . . . . . .
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BODY WEIGHT There is a difference between normal health body weight and body weight required for certain physical activities. Sensible control of body weight is important for physical activities, but also for general health. Excess food intake causes fat to be stored in the body, especially under the skin. This fat acts as a heat insulating layer and makes it harder for the body to loose heat. The excess weight makes the heart work harder, and also puts strain on the joints so that movement is more difficult. Energy use is less efficient. Body fat can be measured by using skin fold callipers which measure the amount of fat in different parts of the body. The Body Mass Index is used to measure height/weight ratio. Calculating your B.M.I. 1) 2) 3) Weight yourself in Kg. Measure your height in metres. ..Kg ..m

Put your numbers into the following equation BMI = Weight in Kg Height in M2 BMI =

Less than 20 20-25 25-30 30+

Underweight Just Right Overweight Very Overweight

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SOMATOTYPE
1. For the following somatotype charts, describe the characteristics of the person represented by the chart and the sort of sports he/she may be best suited to.

a)

b)

c)

d)

Describe the physical characteristics of: a) b) c) An extreme mesomorph: . .. An extreme ectomorph: . .. An extreme endomorph: . .. On the chart opposite, mark the likely position of the following sports people: a) Gymnast b) Wrestler c) Sprinter Winterhill Physical Education Department

3.

HOMEWORK/EXTENSION TASKS 1) Collect a range of pictures showing different sports people. Arrange them on the appropriate pages of this booklet.

2) Find 5 websites that contain information about somatotypes.

Websites for physique information

3) Complete the interactive tests on diet and somatotyping on the website TeachPE.com. Print off questions and answers when completed.

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KEY WORDS SECTION WORD 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) DESCRIPTION

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14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26)

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MESOMORPH

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ENDOMORPH

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ECTOMORPH

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ADDITIONAL NOTES

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EXTENSION TASKS

PHYSIQUE

TASK 1 Complete Section A

TASK 2 Complete Section B

SECTION B - KEY WORDS SECTION


WORD 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) DESCRIPTION

14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26)

SECTION A PHYSIQUE ICT TASKS


1) Collect a range of pictures (approx 10) showing different sports people. Arrange them into the 3 different somatotypes and describe their characteristics. (10) Extension task. Complete the interactive tests on diet and somatotyping on the web site TeachPE.com. Print off questions and answers when completed. Exam type questions. Study the table below which shows the results of five boys and five girls who took part in Coopers 12 minute run test.

2)

3)

PUPIL 1 2 3 4 5 TOTAL

DISTANCE RUN/WALKED (metres) BOYS (13 years old) 2040 1963 1868 1725 957 8553

GIRLS (13 years old) 1805 1683 1583 1410 1141 7622

i)

From the table above, did the boys or the girls run the furthest in total?

(1)

ii)

Boy number 5 was a big build (endomorph) whilst girl number 5 was thin and quite tall for her age (ectomorph). Explain how different builds may affect performance in different physical activities.

(5)