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2 Force and Motion Chapter 1 Motion I

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26
1 Motion I

Practice 1.1 (p. 6)
1 C
2 D
3 (a) Possible percentage error
=
3600 24
10
6

100%
= 1.16 10
9
%
(b)
6
10
1

= 1 000 000 days


It would take 1 000 000 days to be in
error by 1 s.
4 (a) One day
= 24 60 60
= 86 400 s
(b) One year
= 365 86 400
= 31 500 000 s
5 Let t be the period of time recorded by a
stop-watch.
Percentage error =
t
0.4
100% 1%
t 40 s
The minimum period of time is 40 s.
6 (a) Percentage error
=
measured time
time reaction to due error
100%
=
10
3 0.
100%
= 3%
(b) From (a), the percentage error of a short
time interval (e.g. 10 s) measured by a
stop-watch is very large. Since the time
intervals of 110-m hurdles are very short
in the Olympic Games, stop-watches are
not used to avoid large percentage
errors.
7 (a) From 1 January 2009 to 10 January 2009,
the watch runs slower than the actual
time by 9 minutes.
Therefore, when the actual time is
2:00 pm on 10 January 2009, the time
shown on the watch should be 1:51 pm
on 10 January 2009.
(b) Percentage error
=
60 24 9
9

100%
= 6.94 10
2
%

Practice 1.2 (p. 15)
1 C
2 B
3 D
4 D
5 (a) Total distance she travels
=
2
15 2
2
20 2
2
10 2
+

+


= 141 m
(b) Magnitude of total displacement
= 10 2 + 20 2 + 15 2
= 90 m
Direction: east
Her total displacement is 90 m east.
6 His total displacement is 0.
7 With the notation in the figure below.

Since ZX = ZY = 1 m, = = 60.
Therefore, XY = ZX = ZY = 1 m
The magnitude of the displacement of the ball
is 1 m.
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8 (a) The distance travelled by the ball will be
longer if it takes a curved path.
(b) No matter which path the ball takes, its
displacement remains the same.

Practice 1.3 (p. 23)
1 B
Total time
= 9821
8 . 0
5000
4 . 1
5000
= + s
Average speed = 02 . 1
9821
5000 5000
=
+
m s
1

2 C
Total time = 9821 + 10 60 =10 421 s
Average speed = 96 . 0
421 10
5000 5000
=
+
m s
1

3 D
When the spacecraft had just finished 1
revolution, the spacecraft returned to its
starting point. Therefore, its displacement was
zero and its average velocity was also zero.
4 D
5 (a) Average speed
= 3 . 10
69 . 9
100
= m s
1

(b) Yes. This is because the magnitude of
the displacement is equal to the distance
in this case.
6 (a) Two cars move with the same speed, e.g.
50 km h
1
, but in opposite directions.
(b) A man runs around a 400-m playground.
When we calculate his average speed,
we can take 400 m as the distance and
his average speed is non-zero. But since
his displacement is zero (he returns to
his starting point), his average velocity
is zero.
7 (a) Length of the path
= 0.8 120 = 96 m
(b) Length of AB along the dotted line
=

96
= 30.6 m
(c) Magnitude of Jacks average velocity
= 51 . 0
120
2 6 . 30
=

m s
1


Practice 1.4 (p. 31)
1 C
2 B
Final speed
= 1.5 1 0.2 1 = 1.3 m s
1

3 A
By
t
u v
a

= ,
v = u + at
) . (
.
5 1
6 3
36
+ = 2
= 7 m s
1

= 7 3.6 km h
1

= 25.2 km h
1

Its speed after 2 s is 25.2 km h
1
.
4 B
Take the direction of the original path as
positive.
Average acceleration of the ball
=
8 . 0
17 10

= 33.8 m s
2

The magnitude of the average acceleration of
the ball is 33.8 m s
2
.
5 By
t
u v
a

= ,
t =
a
u v
=
5 . 6
0
6 . 3
100

= 4.27 s
The shortest time it takes is 4.27 s.
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6
Time / s 0 2 4 6 8
Speed / m s
1
2 7 12 17 22
5 . 2
8
2 22
=

=
t
u v
a m s
2

The acceleration of the car is 2.5 m s
2
.
7 (a) I will choose towards the left as the
positive direction.
(b)


(c) By
t
u v
a

= ,
15 3 ) 2 ( 9 = = = at v u m s
1

The initial velocity of the skater is
15 m s
1
.
8 (a) The object initially moves towards the
left and accelerates towards the left. It
will speed up.
(b) The object initially moves towards the
right and accelerates towards the left. It
will slow down. Its velocity will be zero
and then increases in the negative
direction (moves towards the left).

Revision exercise 1
Multiple-choice (p. 35)
1 C
2 D
3 B
4 D
Average speed
=
5
60 80 +

= 28 km h
1
Average velocity
=
5
60 80
2 2
+

= 20 km h
1
5 C
Total time
=
3
10
2
10
+
= 8.33 s
Average speed
=
33 . 8
20

= 2.4 m s
1

Her average speed for the whole trip is
2.4 m s
1
.
6 C
7 C
8 C
9 B
10 A
Magnitude of displacement
=
2 2
6000 2000 +
= 6324.6 m
Magnitude of average velocity
=
3600 4
6 . 6324


= 0.439 m s
1


2000
6000
tan =
= 6 . 71
His average velocity is 0.439 m s
1

(S 6 . 71 E).
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11 C
Total time s 780 min 13 = =
Average speed
1
s m 15 . 2
780
2 840

=

=
12 D
13 (HKCEE 2003 Paper II Q3)

Conventional (p. 37)
1 Total time left for the two players
= 4 60 + 9 + 5 60 + 16 = 565 s (1M)
Total time they have been playing
= 2 60 60 565
= 6635 s (= 110 min 35 s = 1 h 50 min 35 s)
(1A)
2 (a) 50 m (1A)
(b) Magnitude of average velocity of Kitty

15 60 1
50
+
= (1M)

1
s m 667 . 0

= (1A)
(c) Average speed of the coach

15 60 1
5 50 5
+
+ +
= (1M)

1
s m 8 . 0

= (1A)
3 (a) Since she measures the time interval
based on 1 cycle of the pendulum, the
error (0.3 s) in measuring the cycle of
the pendulum accumulates. (1A)
The range of the time interval (10 cycles)
is from 8 to 14 s. (1A)
(b) When finding the time for one pendulum
cycle, Jenny should time more pendulum
cycles (e.g. 20) with the stop-watch and
divide the time by the number of cycles.
(1A)
4 (a) Time required
=
6 . 20
1000 4 . 7
(1M)
= 359 s (5 min 59 s) (1A)
(b) Displacement from Sheung Shui to Lok
Ma Chau
=
1
1000
6.3
= 6300 m (1A)
Magnitude of average velocity
=
359
6300
(1M)
= 17.5 m s
1
(1A)
5 (a) Total distance
= 1500 + 40 1000 + 10 1000
= 51 500 m
Total time
= 2 3600 + 3 60 + 8
= 7388 s
Average speed
=
7388
500 51
(1M)
= 6.97 m s
1
(1A)
(b) Swimming:
Average speed
=
28 60 21
1500
+

= 1.16 m s
1
Cycling:
Average speed
=
53 60 1 3600 1
000 40
+ +

= 10.8 m s
1

Running:
Average speed
=
47 60 39
000 10
+

= 4.19 m s
1

(1M)
His average speed was the highest in
cycling. (1A)
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(c) Yes. Since the time interval of this
competition is quite long, (1A)
using stop-watch will not result in large
percentage error as the reaction time for
an average person is only 0.2 s. (1A)
6 (a) v = u + at (1M)
= 0 + 6 4
= 24 m s
1

= 86.4 km h
1
(1A)
The maximum speed of the car is
86.4 km h
1
.
(b) v = u + at (1M)
= 24 + (4) 2
= 16 m s
1

= 57.6 km h
1
(1A)
The final speed of the car is 57.6 km h
1
.
(c) a =
t
u v
(1M)
=
6
0 16

= 2.67 m s
2
(1A)
The average acceleration of the car is
2.67 m s
2
.
7 (a) Average speed
=
60 8
000 30

(1M)
= 62.5 m s
1
(1A)
The average speed of the train is
62.5 m s
1
.
(b) Maximum speed
=
6 . 3
430
= 119.4 m s
1
> average speed
(1A)
The average speed must be smaller than
the maximum speed because the train
needs to speed up from start and slows
down to stop during the trip. (1A)
(c) Total time = 5 min 45 s 1 min 58 s
= 3 min 47 s
= 3 60 + 47 = 227 s

t
u v
a

= (1M)
=
227
0
6 . 3
431

= 0.527 m s
2
(1A)
The average acceleration of the train is
0.527 m s
2
.
8 (a) Total distance
= 8000 + 4000 + 5000
= 17 000 m
Total time
= 1 3600 + 30 60 + 45 60
= 8100 s
Average speed
=
8100
000 17
(1M)
= 2.10 m s
1
(1A)
(b)

Magnitude of displacement
= 5000 4000 3000
2 2
= + m
Magnitude of average velocity
= 617 . 0
8100
5000
= m s
1
(1A)
tan =
3000
4000

= 53.1 (1A)
His average velocity is 0.617 m s
1

(N 1 . 53 E).
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31
XYZ is a
right-angled
triangle.
N
9 (a) Distance travelled
= 10.5 3 60 (1M)
= 1890 m (1A)
(b) Circumference of the track
= r 2
= ) 400 ( 2
= 2513 m
The distance travelled by Marilyn is
1890 m which is about
4
3
of the
circumference. (1A)


Magnitude of displacement AB
=
2 2
400 400 +
= 566 m
Magnitude of average velocity
=
60 3
566


= 3.14 m s
1
(1A)

400
400
tan =
= 45 (1A)
Her average velocity is 3.14 m s
1

(S 45 E).
10 (a) Total distance
= (120 + 50) 1000 (1M)
= 170 000 m (1A)
(b)










Magnitude of displacement (from town
X to town Z)
=
2 2
000 50 000 120 +
= 130 000 m (1A)

50
120
tan =
= 4 . 67 (1A)
= = 6 . 22 4 . 67 90
= = 4 . 37 6 . 22 60
The total displacement of the car is
130 000 m (N 4 . 37 E).
(c) Total time
= 200 10
6 . 3
60
000 170
= s (1A)
Magnitude of average velocity
=
200 10
000 130
(1M)
= 12.7 m s
1
(1A)
Its average velocity is 12.7 m s
1
(N 4 . 37 E).
X
Y
Z
60
30
120 km
50 km



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32
11 (a)

(Correct label of velocity with correct
direction (towards the left).) (1A)
(Correct label of acceleration with
correct direction (towards the right).)
(1A)
(b)

Time / s 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
v / m s
1
6 4 2 0 +2 +4 +6
(0.5A 6)
(c) The car will slow down and (1A)
its speed will drop to zero. (1A)
After that the car will move towards the
right with increasing speed (uniform
acceleration). (1A)
12 (a) Total distance travelled
= 60 + 80 + 80 + 60 (1M)
= 280 m (1A)
(b) Magnitude of total displacement
= 80 + 80 = 160 m (1M)
The total displacement of the athlete is
160 m (west). (1A)
(c) Total distance travelled
= 280 + 60 + 80 (1M)
= 420 m (1A)






AC =
2 2
80 60 + = 100 m
tan =
60
80
= 53.1
The total displacement of the athlete is
100 m (S53.1W). (1A)
13 (a) The coin moves in the following
sequence: BACCA
Therefore, it is at A finally. (1M)
Displacement of the coin
= 15 cm (1A)
(b) Distance travelled by the coin
= 15 + 30 + 30 (1M)
= 75 cm (1A)
(c) (i) Total time = 2 s 4 = 8 s
Average velocity
=
8
10 15
2

(1M)
= 0.0188 m s
1
(1A)
(ii) Average speed
=
8
10 75
2

(1M)
= 0.0938 m s
1
(1A)
(d) (i) The coin moves in the following
sequence:
BACCABB
Therefore, it is at B finally. (1A)
(ii) The displacement of the coin is
zero. (1M)
Therefore the average velocity of
the coin is also zero. (1A)
14 (a) Total distance
= r (1M)
= 5
= 15.7 m (1A)
Total displacement
= 5 + 5 (1M)
= 10 m (1A)
A
C
60 m
80 m

(1M)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 1 Motion I

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33
The total displacement travelled by her
is 10 m.
(b) Janes statement is incorrect. (1A)
Since both girls start at X and meet at Y,
they have the same displacement. (1A)
Bettys statement is incorrect. (1A)
Since both girls return to their starting
point, their displacements are zero. (1A)

Physics in articles (p. 40)
(a) From 19 January 2006 to 28 February 2007,
(1A)
It takes New Horizons spacecraft a total of
406 days to travel from the Earth to Jupiter.
(1A)
(b) (i) Average speed
=
travel of time total
travelled distance total
(1M)
=
24 406
10 8
8


= 8.21 10
4
km h
1
(1A)

(ii) Average acceleration
=
travel of time total
y in velocit change
(1M)
=
( )
24 406
10 79 . 5 23 . 8
4



= 2.50 10
4
km h
2
(1A)
(c) July 2015 (1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 2 Motion II

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1
2 Motion II

Practice 2.1 (p. 61)
1 D
2 B
3 D
4 D
5 B
10
2
10 30
=

= v m s
1

The velocity of the car at t = 2 s is 10 m s
1
.
6 C
7 (a) Total displacement
= 4 5 + (5) (7 5) = 10 m
The total displacement from the
staircase to her classroom is 10 m.
(b) Classroom C
8

9 (a) The object accelerates.
(b) The object first moves with a constant
velocity. Then it becomes stationary and
finally moves with a higher constant
velocity again.
(c) The object decelerates to rest, and then
accelerates in opposite direction to
return to its starting point.
(d) The object moves with uniform velocity
towards the origin (the zero
displacement position), passes the origin,
and continues to move away from the
origin with the same uniform velocity.
10 (a) The object moves with a constant
velocity.
(b) The object moves with a uniform
acceleration from rest.
(c) The object moves with a uniform
deceleration, starting with a certain
initial velocity. Its velocity becomes
zero finally.
(d) The object first moves with a uniform
acceleration from rest, then at a constant
velocity, and finally moves with a
smaller uniform acceleration again.
(e) The object moves at a constant velocity
and then suddenly moves at constant
velocity of same magnitude in the
opposite direction.
(f) The object moves with uniform
deceleration from an initial velocity to
rest, and continue to move with the
uniform acceleration of the same
magnitude in opposite direction.
11 (a) The object moves with zero acceleration
(with constant velocity of 50 m s
1
).
(b) The object moves with a uniform
acceleration of 5 m s
2
.
(c) The object moves with uniform
deceleration of 5 m s
2
.
12 (a) It moves away from the sensor.
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2
(b)

13 (a)

(b) Total distance travelled
= area under the graph
=
2
3 6) (12 +

= 27 m
(c) Average speed
=
taken time
travelled distance total

=
3
27

= 9 m s
1

14 (a) She moves towards the motion sensor.
(b) The highest speed of the girl in the
journey is 3.5 m s
1
.
(c) The greatest rate of change in speed

2
5 . 3 0
=
= 1.75 m s
2

(d) Total distance travelled
= area under the graph
=
2
6 2
2
2 5 . 3
+


= 9.5 m

Practice 2.2 (p. 71)
1 C
By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,

2
3.6
290

= 0 + 2 1 s
s = 3240 m = 3.24 km < 3.5 km
The minimum length of the runway is
3.5 km.
2 B
Cyclist X is moving at constant speed.
Time for cyclist X to reach finish line
= s 30
5
150
time
nt displaceme
= =
For cyclist Y: u = 5 m s
1
, s = 250 m,
a = 2 m s
2

By s = ut +
2
1
at
2
,
250 = 5 t +
2
1
2 t
2

t = 13.5 s or t = 18.5 s (rejected)
Y needs 13.5 s to reach finish line.
Therefore, cyclist Y will win the race.
3 B
Since the bullet start decelerates after fired
into the wall, we could just consider the
displacement of the bullet in the wall. To
prevent the bullet from penetrating the wall,
the bullet must stop in the wall.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 2 Motion II

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By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
0 = 500
2
+ 2 (800 000) s
s = 0.156 m = 15.6 cm < 15.8 cm
The minimum thickness of the wall is
15.8 m.
4 C
When the dog catches the thief at t = 5 s, its
total displacement is 30 m. The dog is sitting
initially, so u = 0.
By s = ut +
2
1
at
2
,
30 = 0 +
2
1
a(5)
2

a = 2.4 m s
2

Its acceleration is 2.4 m s
2
.
5 D
6 a =
t
u v
10
6 . 3
36
6 . 3
90

= = 1.5 m s
2

By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
s =
a
u v
2
2 2

=
1.5 2
3.6
36
3.6
90
2 2

= 175 m
The distance travelled by the motorcycle is
175 m and its acceleration is 1.5 m s
2
.
7 (a) Thinking distance
= speed reaction time
=
6 . 3
108
0.8 = 24 m
(b) Since the car decelerates uniformly,
braking distance
=
2
u v +
t
=
2
0
6 . 3
108
+
(3 0.8)
= 33 m
(c) Stopping distance
= thinking distance + braking distance
= 24 + 33 = 57 m
8 By v = u + at,
14 = u + 2 5
u = 4 m s
1

By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
14
2
= 4
2
+ 2 2 s
s = 45 m
The displacement of the girl is 45 m.
9 (a) v = u + at = 0 + 20 0.3 = 6 m s
1

The horizontal speed of the ball
travelling towards the goalkeeper is
6 m s
1
.
(b) By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
a =
0.8 2
6 0
2 2

= 22.5 m s
2
The deceleration of the football should
be 22.5 m s
2
.
10 (a) The reaction time of the cyclist is
0.5 s.
(b) Braking distance
=
( )
25 . 11
2
15 5 . 0 0 . 2
=

m
Thinking distance
= 15 0.5 = 7.5 m
Stopping distance
= 11.25 + 7.5 = 18.75 m 20 m
Therefore, the bicycle would not hit the
child.
11 By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
0 = 3
2
+ 2 (0.5) s
s = 9 m 8 m
Therefore, the golf ball can reach the hole.
12 (a) (i) By v = u + at,
0 = u + (4)(4.75)
u = 19 m s
1

The initial velocity of the car is
19 m s
1
.
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4
(ii) By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
0 = 19
2
+ 2 (4) s
s = 45.1 m
The displacement of the car before
it stops in front of the traffic light
is 45.1 m.
(b) By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
17
2
= 0 + 2 3 s
s = 48.2 m
The displacement of the car between
starting from rest and moving at 17 m s
1

is 48.2 m.
13 (a) By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
v
2
= 0 + 2 0.1 500
v = 10 m s
1

His speed is 10 m s
1
.
(b) Consider the first section.
By v = u + at,
t =
a
u v

=
1 . 0
0 10

= 100 s
Consider the second section.
By s = ut +
2
1
at
2
,
800 = 10t +
2
1
0.5t
2

t = 40 s or t = 80 s (rejected)
Total time taken
= 100 + 40
= 140 s
It takes 140 s for Jason to travel
downhill.

Practice 2.3 (p. 83)
1 D
2 D
3 C
For option A, apply equation v
2
= u
2
2gs
and take s = 0 (the ball returns to the second
floor),
v = u = 10 m s
1
(vertically downwards)
This is the same velocity as the initial velocity
of option B.
Therefore, in both ways the ball has the same
vertical speed when it reaches the ground.
4 B
Take the upward direction as positive.
By s = ut +
2
1
at
2
,
0 = u 30 +
2
1
(10) 30
2
u = 150 m s
1
The speed of the bullet is 150 m s
1
when it is
fired.
5

Speed of
stone
Distance
travelled by
the stone
Equation used at u v + =
2
2
1
at ut s + =
t = 1 s 10 m s
1
5 m
t = 2 s 20 m s
1
20 m
t = 3 s 30 m s
1
45 m
t = 4 s 40 m s
1
80 m
6 By s = ut +
2
1
at
2
,
10 = 0 +
2
1
(10) t
2

t = 1.41 s
v = u + at
= 0 + 10(1.41)
= 14.1 m s
1

It takes 1.41 s for a diver to drop from a 10-m
platform. His speed is 14.1 m s
1
when he
enters the water.
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5
7 Take the upward direction as positive.
By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
4
2
= 0 + (2)(10)s
s = 0.8 m
The highest position reached by the puppy is
0.8 m above the ground.
8 (a) Consider the boys downward journey.
Take the downward direction as
positive.
By s = ut +
2
1
at
2
,
0.5 = 0 +
2
1
(10) t
2

t = 0.316 s
Hang-time of the boy
= 0.316 2 = 0.632 s
(b) Take the upward direction as positive.
By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
0 = u
2
+ 2 (10) 0.5
u = 3.16 m s
1

The jumping speed of the boy is
3.16 m s
1
.
9 Take the upward direction as positive.
(a) By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
0 = u
2
+ 2(10)(200)
u = 63.2 m s
1

The velocity of the firework X is
63.2 m s
1
when it is fired.
(b) By v = u + at,
0 = 63.2 + (10)t
t = 6.32 s
It takes 6.32 s for the firework X to reach
that height.
(c) From (a) and (b), for firework Y to
explode at 130 m above the ground, the
speed of Y should be smaller than that of
X. Therefore, Y should be fired at a
lower speed.
Besides, since Y spends a shorter time to
reach its highest point, it should be fired
after X.
10 (a) By s = ut +
2
1
at
2
,
120 = 8t +
2
1
10 t
2

t = 4.16 s or t = 5.76 s (rejected)
It takes 4.16 s to reach the ground.
(b) v = u + at = 8 + 10 4.16 = 49.6 m s
1

Its speed on hitting the ground is
49.6 m s
1
.
11 (a) Distance between the ceiling and her
hands
= 6 2 1.2 = 2.8 m
(b) Let s be her vertical displacement when
she jumps.
As the maximum jumping speed is
8 m s
1
, i.e. u = 8 m s
1
.
By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
s =
a
u v
2
2 2


=
10) ( 2
8 0
2 2

(upwards is positive)
s = 3.2 m > 2.8 m
Therefore, the indoor playground is not
safe for playing trampoline.
12 (a) By s = ut +
2
1
at
2
,
132 = 0 t +
2
1
10 t
2

t = 5.14 s
The vehicle can experience a free fall in
the Zero-G facility for 5.14 s.
(b) By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
v
2
= 0
2
+ 2 10 132
v = 51.4 m s
1
The speed of the vehicle before it comes
to a stop is 51.4 m s
1
.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 2 Motion II

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

6
(c)


Revision exercise 2
Multiple-choice (p. 87)
1 D
By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
0 = 10
2
+ 2a(25 10 0.2)
a = 2.17 m s
2

His minimum deceleration is 2.17 m s
2
.
2 D
3 B
Consider the rock released from the 2
nd
floor.
By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
v
2
= 2as (as u = 0)
Then consider the rock released from the 7
th

floor.
Note that s
2
= 3.5s.
(v
2
)
2
= 2as
2


= 3.5(2as)
= 3.5v
2

v
2
= 1.87v
4 A
5 C
The stone returns to the ground with the same
speed (but in opposite direction).
Take the upward direction as positive.
By v = u + at,
v = v gt
2v = gt
If the stone is projected with a speed of 2v, let
the new time of travel be t.
(2v) = (2v) gt
t = 4 ) (
g
v

= 2t
Its new time of travel is 2t.
6 B
Take the upward direction as positive.
s = ut +
2
1
at
2

= (10)(4) +
2
1
(10)(4)
2

= 40 m
The distance between the sandbag and the
ground is 40 m when it leaves the balloon.
7 D
8 C
Take the downward direction as positive.
u = 200 m s
1
, v = 5 m s
1
, a = 20 m s
2

By v = u + at,
5 = 200 + (20)t
t = 9.75 s
The rockets should be fired for at least 9.75 s.
Both C and D satisfy this requirement. But for
D, after firing for 10.2 s,
v = u + at
= 200 + (20)(10.2)
= 4 m s
1

i.e. it flies away from the Moon with 4 m s
1

upwards. It cannot land on the Moon.
Therefore, the correct answer is C.
9 D
10 D
2 Force and Motion Chapter 2 Motion II

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

7
11 (HKCEE 2006 Paper II Q1)
12 (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q2)
13 (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q33)

Conventional (p. 89)
1 (a) The reaction time of the driver is 0.6 s.
(1A)
(b)
t
v
a = (1M)
=
6 0 6 3
12 0
. .


= 4 m s
2
(1A)
The acceleration of the car is 4 m s
2
.
(c) The stopping distance of the car is the
area under graph. (1M)
Stopping distance
=12 0.6 +
2
6 0 6 3 12 ) . . (

= 25.2 m (1A)
The stopping distance of the car is
shorter than 27 m. The driver will not be
charged with driving past a red light.
(1A)
2 (a) The object moves away from the motion
sensor with uniform velocity at
0.35 m s
1
from t = 1.20 s to 1.25 s.(1A)
From t = 1.25 s to 1.45 s, the object
moves with negative acceleration. (1A)
Then, from t = 1.45 s to 1.50 s, the
object changes its moving direction and
moves towards the motion sensor again
with a uniform velocity of 0.35 m s
1
.
(1A)
(b) (i)

(Correct axes with label) (1A)
(A straight line with slope = 0.35 m s
1

from t = 1.20 s to 1.25 s) (1A)
(A straight line with slope = 0.35 m s
1

from t = 1.45 s to 1.50 s) (1A)
(ii)

(Correct axes with labels) (1A)
(Correct graph with the acceleration of
about
30 . 1 40 . 1
35 . 0 35 . 0



= 7 m s
2
at t = 1.30 s to 1.40 s) (1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 2 Motion II

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

8
3 (a)

(Correct axes with labels) (1A)
(Correct shape of minibus graph) (1A)
(Correct shape of sports cars graph) (1A)
(Correct values) (1A)
(b) From the graph in (a), the two vehicles have
the same velocity at t 2.3 s after passing the
traffic light. (1A)
(c) The area under graph is the displacement of
the cars. (1M)
Consider their displacements at t = 3 s,
For the sports car:
s =
2
1
15 3 = 22.5 m (1A)
For the minibus:
s =
2
1
(7 + 13) 3 = 30 m (1A)
The minibus will take the lead 3 s after
passing the traffic light. (1A)
4 (a) The car moves forward with uniform
acceleration at 1 m s
2
from t = 0 s to
t = 5 s. (1A)
Its instantaneous velocity is 0 at t = 5 s.
(1A)
Then the car changes its moving
direction. From t = 5 s to t = 8 s, it
moves backwards with a uniform
acceleration of 6.67 m s
2
. (1A)
(b) Total displacement of the car
= area bound by the vt graph and the
time axis (1M)
= ( ) ( ) 3 20
2
1
5 5
2
1

= 17.5 m (1A)
(c) Yes, the car moves 12.5 m forwards
from t = 0 to t = 5 s. Therefore, it hits
the roadblock. (1A)
5 Take the upward direction as positive.
(a) From point A to the highest point:
By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
0 = 4
2
+ 2 (10) s
s = 0.8 m (1M)
By v = u + at,
0 = 4 + (10)t
t = 0.4 s (1M)
From the highest point to the trampoline:
s = ut +
2
1
at
2
(1M)
= 0 +
2
1
(10)(1.2 0.4)
2

= 3.2 m (1A)
The maximum height reached by him is
3.2 m above the trampoline.
(b) Height of point A above the trampoline
= 3.2 0.8 (1M)
= 2.4 m (1A)
6 (a) Initial velocity v
= 90 km h
1

=
6 . 3
90
m s
1

= 25 m s
1

Thinking distance
= v t (1M)
= 25 0.2
= 5 m (1A)
The thinking distance is 5 m.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 2 Motion II

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

9
(b) By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as, (1M)
a =
s
u v
2
2 2


=
5) (80 2
25 0
2 2


= 4.17 m s
2
(1A)
Hence, the deceleration of the car is
4.17 m s
2
.
(c) By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as, (1M)
s =
a
u v
2
2 2


=
2) 4.17 ( 2
25 0
2 2


= 37.5 m (1M)
Braking distance = 37.5 m
Stopping distance
= 37.5 + 5 = 42.5 m (1A)
The driver could not stop before the
traffic light. Therefore, his claim is
incorrect. (1A)
7 (a) Take the downward direction as
positive.
By s = ut +
2
1
gt
2
, (1M)
3 = 0 t +
2
1
10 t
2

t =
10
2 3
= 0.775 s (1A)
The apple travels in air for 0.775 s.
(b) By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as, (1M)
v = 3 10 2
= 7.75 m s
1
(1A)
The speed of the apple is 7.75 m s
1

when the apple just reaches the ground.
(c) The slope of the graph is the magnitude
of the acceleration of the apple. (1A)








(Correct labelled axes) (2A)
(Straight line with a slope of 10 m s
2
)
(1A)
(d) The two graphs have no difference.
(1A)
8 (a) Take the downward direction as
positive.
By v
2
= u
2
+ 2gs, (1M)
v = gs u 2
2
+
= 3) (40 10 2 0
2
+
= 27.2 m s
1
(1A)
The speed of the residents landing on the
cushion is 27.2 m s
1
.
(b) (i) By s = ut +
2
1
gt
2
, (1M)
40 3 = 0 +
2
1
10 t
2

t = 2.72 s (1A)
The time of travel in air is 2.72 s.
(ii) By s =
2
v u +
t, (1M)
t =
v u
s
+
2

=
0 2 . 27
3 2
+

t
= 0.221 s (1A)
The time of contact is 0.221 s.
speed / m s
1
time / s
0
0.775
7.75
2 Force and Motion Chapter 2 Motion II

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

10
(c)

(Correct labeled axes) (1A)
(Correct shape) (1A)
(Correct values) (1A)
9 (a) t = 2 s:
Displacement of the trolley
= 0.7 0.15 = 0.55 m (1A)
t = 3.4 s:
Displacement of the trolley
= 1.175 0.15 = 1.025 m (1A)
t = 4.9 s:
Displacement of the trolley
= 0.6 0.15 = 0.45 m (1A)
(b) It moves away from the motion sensor
with a changing speed from t = 2 s to
t = 3.4 s. (1A)
Then it rests momentarily at t = 3.4 s.
(1A)
After that, it moves towards the motion
sensor with a changing speed. (1A)
(c) By s = ut +
2
1
at
2
, (1M)
0.1 = 0.7 2.9 +
2
1
a (2.9)
2

a = 0.507 m s
2
(1A)
The acceleration of the trolley is
0.507 m s
2
.
10 (a) The motion sensor is protruded outside
the table to avoid the reflection of
ultrasonic signal from table. (1A)
(b) Slope of the graph from t = 0
to t = 0.28 s
=
0 28 0
0 3 2

.
.
(1M)
= 8.21 m s
2
(1A)
The acceleration of the ball due to
gravity is 8.21 m s
2
.
(c) (i)

(Correct sign) (1A)
(Correct shape) (1A)
(ii) The method does not work (1A)
since ultrasound will be reflected
by the transparent plastic plate.
(1A)
11 (a) (i) The ball is held 0.15 m from sensor
before being released. The ball hits
the ground which is 1.1 m from the
sensor. (1A)
Therefore, the ball drops a height
of 0.95 m. (1A)
(ii) The ball rebounds to the positions
which are 0.45 m, 0.65 m and
0.775 m from the sensor in its first
3 rebounds.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 2 Motion II

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

11
At the 1
st
rebound, the ball rises up
(1.1 0.45) = 0.65 m. (1A)
At the 2
nd
rebound, the ball rises up
(1.1 0.65) = 0.45 m. (1A)
At the 3
rd
rebound, the ball rises up
(1.1 0.775) = 0.325 m. (1A)
(b) (i) The ball hits the ground with
velocities of 3.9 m s
1
, 3.25 m s
1

and 2.75 m s
1
in its first 3
rebounds. (3A)
(ii) Acceleration
= slope of graph =
0.55 0.95
3.9

(1M)
= 9.75 m s
2
(1A)
12 Take the downward direction as positive.
(a) By s = ut +
2
1
gt
2
, (1M)
2 = 0 t +
2
1
10 t
2

t =
10
2 2
= 0.632 s (1A)
It takes 0.632 s from t
1
to t
2
.
(b) At t
2
,
v = u + at
= 0 + 10 0.632
= 6.32 m s
1
(1M)
Shirleys speed is 6.32 m s
1
when she
lands on the trampoline at t
2
.
At t
4
, she leaves the trampoline at the
same speed. Therefore, from t
3
to t
4
,
by v
2
= u
2
+ 2as, (1M)
a =
s
u v
2
2 2


=
3 . 0 2
0 ) 32 . 6 (
2 2



= 66.6 m s
2
(1A)
The average acceleration is 66.6 m s
2
.
(c)









(3 straight lines) (1A)
(Correct slopes) (1A)
(Correct labels of time and velocity)(1A)
13 (a) Speed v = 70 km h
1

=
6 . 3
70
m s
1

= 19.4 m s
1

Reaction time =
v
d
(1M)
=
4 . 19
6

= 0.309 s (1A)
The reaction time of the man was
0.309 s.
(b) By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as, (1M)
a =
s
u v
2
2 2


=
48 2
4 . 19 0
2 2


= 3.92 m s
2
(1A)
The average deceleration of the car was
3.92 m s
2
.
(c) Speed v
= 80 km h
1

=
6 . 3
80
m s
1

= 22.2 m s
1

t
3

6.32
v / m s
1
t / s
6.32
t
1
t
2
t
4
t
5

2 Force and Motion Chapter 2 Motion II

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

12
Thinking distance
= vt
= 22.2 0.309
= 6.86 m (1A)
By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
braking distance s
=
a
u v
2
2 2


=
) 92 . 3 ( 2
2 . 22 0
2 2


= 62.9 m (1A)
Therefore, the stopping distance
= 6.86 + 62.9
= 69.8 m (1A)
This stopping distance is greater than the
initial distance between the car and the
boy. (1A)
Therefore, the car would have knocked
down the boy if the car had travelled at
80 km h
1
or faster.
(d) A drunk has a longer reaction time.(1A)
This means that the thinking distance,
and thus the stopping distance (sum of
thinking distance and braking distance),
increases. (1A)
14 (a) Take the upward direction as positive.
By v = u + at, (1M)
u = 0 (10) 0.7
= 7 m s
1
(1A)
The speed of Belinda leaving the spring
board is 7 m s
1
.
(b) Total time taken from the spring board
to the water
= 0.7 + 1.05 = 1.75 s
Take the upward direction as positive.
s = ut +
2
1
at
2
(1M)
= 7 1.75 +
2
1
(10) 1.75
2

= 3.06 m (negative means the water
is below the spring board)
The spring board is 3.06 m above the
water. (1A)
Alternative method:
Consider the upward motion and
downward motion separately.
For the upward motion, she takes 0.7 s
to reach the highest point from the
spring board.
Take the upward direction as positive.
By s = ut +
2
1
at
2
, (1M)
s
1
= 7 0.7 +
2
1
(10) 0.7
2

= 2.45 m
For the downward motion, she takes
1.05 s from the highest point to enter
water.
Take the downward direction as
positive.
By s = ut +
2
1
gt
2
,
s
2
= 0 +
2
1
10 1.05
2
= 5.51 m
Therefore the height of the spring board
above the water
= s
2
s
1

= 5.51 2.45
= 3.06 m (1A)
(c) v = u + at (1M)
= 0 + (10) 1.05
= 10.5 m s
1
(1A)
The speed of the diver entering the water
is 10.5 m s
1
.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 2 Motion II

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

13
(d)

(Correct shape) (1A)
(Correct times) (1A)
(Correct velocities) (1A)
(e) (See the figure in (d).)
(Correct slope - parallel to that in (d).)
(1A)
(Correct position above that in (d).)
(1A)
15 (a) Speed 70 km h
1

=
6 . 3
70
m s
1

= 19.4 m s
1

Distance travelled by car Y in 2 s
= vt = 19.4 2 = 38.8 m < 50 m (1M)
Since the distance between the cars is
greater than the distance that car Y can
travel in 2 s, the driver of car Y obeys
the rule. (1A)
(b) Deceleration of a car is the slope of their
corresponding vt graph. (1M)
Deceleration of car X
= slope of the graph during 05 s
=
0 5
4 19 0

.

= 3.88 m s
2

The deceleration of car X is 3.88 m s
2
.
(1A)
Deceleration of car Y
= slope of the graph during 0.5 s8.5 s
=
5 . 0 5 . 8
4 . 19 0

= 2.43 m s
2

The deceleration of car Y is 2.43 m s
2
.
(1A)
(c) Thinking distance
= area under the graph during 00.5 s
= 19.4 0.5
= 9.7 m (1A)
Braking distance
= area under the graph during 0.5 s8.5 s
=
2
1
19.4 (8.5 0.5)
= 77.6 m (1A)
The thinking distance and the braking
distance are 9.7 m and 77.6 m
respectively.
(d) The coloured area is equal to the
difference in the stopping distances
travelled by cars X and Y. (1A)
(e) Stopping distance of car X
= area under the graph during 05 s
=
2
1
19.4 5 = 48.5 m
Coloured area
= 9.7 + 77.6 48.5 (1M)
= 38.8 m < 50 m (1M)
Since the difference in stopping
distances of the cars is smaller than the
initial separation of the cars, the two cars
do not collide with each other before
they stop. (1A)
16 (a) From t = 0 s to t = 5 s, the car moves
with a uniform acceleration of
4 . 3
5
0 17
=

m s
2
. (1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 2 Motion II

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

14
From t = 5 s to t = 20 s, the car moves
with a constant velocity of 17 m s
1
.
(1A)
From t = 20 s to t = 28 s, the car moves
with a uniform acceleration of
20 28
17 0

= 2.125 m s
2
. (1A)
From t = 28 s to t = 30 s, the car remains
at rest. (1A)
(b)

(Correct shape) (1A)
(Correct time instants) (1A)
(Correct accelerations) (1A)
(c) Yes. (1A)
The car changes direction at t = 30 s.
(1A)
Its velocity changes from positive to
negative, showing a change in its
travelling direction. (1A)
17 (HKCEE 2002 Paper I Q8)
18 (a) v = u + at (1M)
= 0 + 17.5 8 60
= 8400 m s
1
(1A)
The speed of the Shuttle after the first 8
minutes is 8400 m s
1
.
(b) s = ut +
2
1
at
2
(1M)
= 0 +
2
1
17.5 (8 60)
2

= 2 016 000 m (2016 km) (1A)
The Shuttle travels 2 016 000 m
(2016 km) in the first 8 minutes.
19 (a) (i) The cyclist is using first gear when
the acceleration is greatest before
braking. (1A)
(ii) The cyclist uses second gear for the
shortest time. (1A)
(b) Distance travelled
= area under straight line PQ (1M)
=
2
2 ) 6 8 ( +
(1M)
= 14 m (1A)
The cyclist travels 14 m in second gear.
(c) The acceleration during t = 18 s20 s
=
18 20
9 0

(1M)
= 4.5 m s
2
(1A)
The deceleration is 4.5 m s
2
.
20 (HKCEE 2005 Paper I Q1)
21 (a) s = ut +
2
1
at
2
(1M)
= 0 +
2
1
10 (500 10
3
)
2

= 1.25 m (1A)
Therefore the minimum height the
laptop must fall for it to be saved is
1.25 m.
(b) v = u + at (1M)
= 0 + 10 (500 10
3
)
= 5 m s
1
(1A)
The speed of the computer when it hits
the ground is 5 m s
1
.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 2 Motion II

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

15
(c) Most falls are likely to be from below
this height, (1A)
so the protection will not have taken
effect. (1A)
22 (a) Any one from: (1A)
Rate of change of displacement
Displacement per unit time
(b) The velocity of a braking car is
decreasing (with time) (1A)
so the car has negative acceleration.(1A)
Its displacement is (still) increasing with
time, (1A)
so its velocity is (still) positive (1A)
In this case, the acceleration and
velocity are in opposite directions. (1A)
(c) (i)

(Correct graph) (1A)
(ii) Vertical distance travelled
= area under the graph from 4.0 s
to 10.0 s (1M)
=
( )
2
6 130 70 +

= 600 m (1A)
The vertical distance travelled by
the rocket between t = 4.0 s and t =
10.0 s is 600 m.
Physics in articles (p. 96)
(a) 2.45 m (1A)
(b) (i) Take the upward direction as positive.
By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as, (1M)
u
2
= v
2
2as
u
2
= 0 2(10)(2.45 + 0.07 1.09)
u = 5.35 m s
1
(1A)
The vertical speed of Javier Sotomayor
is 5.35 m s
1
when he leaves the ground.
(ii) Take the upward direction as positive.
Consider the upward journey.
By v = u + at, (1M)
54 . 0
10
35 . 5 0
=

=
a
u v
t s
Consider the downward journey.
By s = ut +
2
1
at
2
, (1M)
( ) ( ) 10
2
1
0 71 . 0 07 . 0 45 . 2 + = + t
2
t = 0.60 s
The time that he stays in the air
= (0.54 + 0.60) = 1.14 s (1A)
Alternative method:
Take the upward direction as positive.
By s = ut +
2
1
at
2
, (1M)
( ) ( )
2
10
2
1
35 . 5 09 . 1 71 . 0 t t + = (1M)
t = 1.14 s or t = 0.07 s (rejected)
(1A)
The time that he stays in the air is 1.14 s.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

1
3 Force and Motion

Practice 3.1 (p. 104)
1 C
2 C
3 (b), (e), (f)
4

5 (a) Stretching a rubber band
(b) Standing on the floor
(c) Walking
(d) Exists in every object on the earth at any
time
(e) A compass
(f) A rubbed plastic ruler attracts small bits
of paper

Practice 3.2 (p. 111)
1 C
2 C
3 D
4 C
5 (a) No. Athletes would hit the wall of the
stadium if it is too close to the finishing
line.
(b) The mat is used to protect the athletes if
they hit the wall after passing the
finishing line.
6 (a) The MTR train is accelerating in the
forward direction. The man tends to
move at his original speed (smaller
speed), so he would move backwards
relative to the MTR train.
(b) The MTR train is slowing down. The
man tends to move at his original speed
(greater speed), so he would move
forwards relative to the MTR train.
(c) The MTR train is moving forwards at
constant velocity. The man moves
forwards with the same constant velocity,
so he would remain at rest relative to the
MTR train.
(d) The MTR train is turning a corner. The
man tends to move at his original
direction, so he would move outwards
relative to the MTR train.
7 In space, the gravitational force acts on the
spaceship is negligible. When the rockets are
shut down, they do not exert a force on the
spaceship. Therefore, no net force acts on the
spaceship. By Newtons first law, the
spaceship is in uniform motion and can travel
far out in space.
8 Joan moves on the ice surface with a constant
velocity.

Practice 3.3 (p. 122)
1 D
2 A
3 B
4 A
5 D
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

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2
6 (a)

Resultants magnitude is 67 N and the
angle between the resultant and the
horizontal is 13.
(b)

Resultants magnitude is 65 N and the
angle between the resultant and the
horizontal is 19.
(c)

Resultants magnitude is 60 N and the
angle between the resultant and the
horizontal is 25.
(d)

Resultants magnitude is 50 N and the
angle between the resultant and the
horizontal is 37.
7 (a) Horizontal component
= 40 + 30 cos 30 = 66.0 N
Vertical component
= 30 sin 30 = 15 N
Resultant =
2 2
5 1 6 6 + = 67.7 N
Let be the angle between the resultant
and the horizontal.

66
15
tan = = 12.8
Resultants magnitude is 67.7 N and the
angle between the resultant and the
horizontal is 12.8.
(b) Horizontal component
= 40 + 30 cos 45 = 61.2 N
Vertical component
= 30 sin 45 = 21.2 N
Resultant =
2 2
21.2 2 . 1 6 + = 64.8 N
Let be the angle between the resultant
and the horizontal.

61.2
21.2
tan = = 19.1
Resultants magnitude is 64.8 N and the
angle between the resultant and the
horizontal is 19.1.
(c) Horizontal component
= 40 + 30 cos 60 = 55 N
Vertical component
= 30 sin 60 = 26.0 N
Resultant =
2 2
26.0 55 + = 60.8 N
Let be the angle between the resultant
and the horizontal.

55
26.0
tan = = 25.3
Resultants magnitude is 60.8 N and the
angle between the resultant and the
horizontal is 25.3.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

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3
(d) Resultant =
2 2
30 40 + = 50 N
Let be the angle between the resultant
and the horizontal.

40
30
tan = = 36.9
Resultants magnitude is 50 N and the
angle between the resultant and the
horizontal is 36.9.
8 (a)

(b)

(c) R = weight cos = 20 cos 30
= 17.3 N
9 Suppose the two forces act in the direction as
shown.

Vertical component F
x
= 5 sin
Horizontal component F
y

= 5 5 cos = 5 (1 cos )
(magnitude of the resultant)
2
= F
x
2
+ F
y
2

5
2
= (5 sin )
2
+ [5 (1 cos )]
2

1 = sin
2
+ 1 2 cos + cos
2

cos = 0.5
= 60
Hence, the angle between the two 5-N forces
is 120.
Alternative method:
By tip-to-tail method, the two 5-N forces and
the resultant 5-N force form an equilateral
triangle. It is known that each angle of an
equilateral triangle is 60. Therefore, the
angle between the two 5-N forces is 120.
10

Resultant force = 2 400 = 800 N
The resultant force provided by the cable is
800 N.
11 For the 2-kg mass:

T = 20 N
Therefore we have:

2T cos 45 = W
2 20 cos 45 = W
W = 28.3 N
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

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4
12 (a) 2T sin 10 = 500
T = 1440 N
The tension of the string is 1440 N.
(b) Component of force
= T cos 10
= 1440 cos 10
= 1420 N
The component of the force that pulls
the car is 1420 N.
13 (a)

(b) As the mass is stationary, the net force
acting on it is zero.
(c) (i) y-component of
1
F
= weight of mass
= 10 N
y-component of
1
F =
1
F 30 sin

1
F 30 sin = 10 N

1
F = 20 N
x-component of
1
F =
1
F 30 cos
= 20 30 cos
= 17.3 N
(ii) y-component of
2
F = 0
x-component of
2
F
= x-component of
1
F = 17.3 N
(d) From (c)(i),
1
F = 20 N.

2
F = x-component of
2
F = 17.3 N

Practice 3.4 (p. 140)
1 D
2 B
3 B
4 C
5 A
Net force = ma = 40 0.5 = 20 N
6 C
By v
2
u
2
= 2as,
0 u
2
= 2a(20)
u
2
= 40a
a =
40
2
u

Resistance = ma =


40
12
2
u
= 0.03u
2

7 A bag of sugar weighs 10 N. or A bag of
sugar has a mass of 1 kg.
8 By F = ma,

5
10 4
000 800

= =
m
F
a = 2 m s
2

When it flies horizontally, its acceleration is
2 m s
2
.
9 (a) a =
t
u v
=
6
0 )
6 . 3
100
(
= 4.63 m s
2

The acceleration of the car is
4.63 m s
2
.
(b) F = ma = 15004.63 = 6945 N
The force provided by the car engine is
6945 N.
10 (a)

(b) (i) Downwards along the slide
(ii) No net force
(iii) No net force
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

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5
11 Take the upward direction as positive.
Weight = mg
= 3 10
5
10
= 3 10
6
N
Net force = ma
= 3 10
5
12
= 3.6 10
6
N
Net force = thrust weight of the rocket
Thrust = net force + weight of the rocket
= 3.6 10
6
+ 3 10
6

= 6.6 10
6
N
The thrust of the rocket is 6.610
6
N.
12 (a)

(b) The friction acting on the box is 3 N.
(c) By F = ma,
1
2
3 5
=

= =
a
F
m kg
The mass of the box is 1 kg.
13 (a) (i) Weight, air resistance
(ii) Weight
(iii) Weight, air resistance
In the above 3 cases, the net force acts
downwards.
(b)

14 Take the downward direction as positive.
Let R be the reading of the balance.
(a) By F = ma,
R mg = 0
R = 20 N
The reading of the balance is 20 N.
(b) By F = ma,
mg R = ma
20 R = 2 1.5
R = 17 N
The reading of the balance is 17 N.
(c) By F = ma,
R mg = 0
R = 20 N
The reading of the balance is 20 N.
(d) By F = ma,
mg R = ma
20 R = 2 (0.5)
R = 21 N
The reading of the balance is 21 N.
15 (a) f = mg sin = (2)(10)sin 10 = 3.47 N
The frictional force acting on the trolley
is 3.47 N.
(b) By F = ma,
ma f mg = sin
a 2 47 . 3 30 sin ) 10 )( 2 ( =
a = 3.27 m s
2

When the trolley moves down the
runway, its acceleration is 3.27 m s
2
.
16 (a) Take the direction of the car movement
as positive.
By F = ma,
a =
m
F
=
1500
6000
= 4 m s
2

By v

= u + at
t =
a
u v
=
4
)
6 . 3
108
( 0
= 7.5 s
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

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6
It takes 7.5 s to stop the car.
(b) By
2
2
1
at ut s + = ,
s = (30)(7.5) +
2
) 5 . 7 )( 4 (
2
1
= 112.5 m
The braking distance is 112.5 m.
17 (a)
AB BC CD DE
Acceleration
a / m s
2

1 2 0 3
Net force
F / N
3 6 0 9
(b) His comment is correct. From the graph,
the velocity of the object starts to
decrease from t = 30 s onwards and
becomes zero at t = 40 s. If the force
continues to act on the object, its
velocity will become negative. That
means it will change its moving
direction.
18 (a)
Time t / s 05 510 1020 2030
Acceleration
a / m s
2

0 4 1 0
(b) During 05 s, the object is moving at a
constant velocity as no net force acts on
it. During 510 s, the object is moving
with an acceleration of 4 m s
2
as a net
force of 20 N acts on it. During 1020 s,
the object is moving with an acceleration
of 1 m s
2
as a net force of 5 N acts on it.
During 2030 s, the object is moving at
constant velocity as no net force acts on
it.

Practice 3.5 (p. 148)
1 D
2 C
3 D
4 A
5 C
6 (a)

(b)

(c) Force acting on A by B and force acting
on B by A.
7 (a) When the roller skater exerts a force on
the wall, the wall also exerts an equal
but opposite force on the skater.
Therefore the skater moves backwards.
(b) When the diver pushes the platform, the
platform also exerts an equal but
opposite force on the diver. Therefore
the diver gains speed and dives.
(c) When we push ourselves against the side
of the pool, the pool exerts an equal but
opposite force on us. Therefore we
accelerate forwards.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

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7
(d) When the runner exerts a force on the
starting block, the block exerts an equal
but opposite force on the runner.
Therefore the runner moves forwards.
8 (a) (i) Trolley As weight component
down the plane
= sin mg
= 20 sin ) 10 )( 3 (
= 10.3 N
(ii) Net force acting on it
= 10.3 N T (down the plane)
(b) (i) Trolley Bs weight component
down the plane
= sin mg
= 30 sin ) 10 )( 2 (
= 10 N
(ii) Net force acting on it
= T 10 N (up the plane)
(c) Trolley A moves down the plane while
trolley B moves up the plane.
9 (a)

(b) Net force acting on A
= 20 N force acting on A by B
Net force acting on B
= force acting on B by A
(c) (i) By F = ma,
a =
m
F
=
5 3
20
+
= 2.5 m s
2

The accelerations of the blocks are
2.5 m s
2
.
(ii) By F = ma,
20 force acting on A by B
= m
A
a = 3 2.5 = 7.5 N
Force acting on A by B
= 12.5 N (towards the left)
By Newtons third law,
force acting on B by A
= force acting on A by B (opposite
direction)
= 12.5 N (towards the right)
10 (a) F = ma = (1)(1) = 1 N
The net force acting on toy car B during
collision is 1 N towards the right.
(b) By Newtons third law of motion, the
force acting on B by A has the same
magnitude as that acting on A by B, but
their directions are opposite.
Therefore, the net force acting on toy car
A is 1 N towards the left.
(c) Take the direction towards the right as
positive.
By F = ma,
a =
m
F

=
3
1

= 0.333 m s
2

v = u + at
= 3 + (0.333)(0.5)
= 2.83 m s
1

The velocity of toy car A after the
collision is 2.83 m s
1
towards the right.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

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8
Practice 3.6 (p. 165)
1 A
Moment of force
= 30 sin 15 0.7 = 5.44 N m (clockwise)
2 B
Let W be the weight of the girl nearer to the
boy.
Take moment about the joint, in equilibrium,
clockwise moment = anticlockwise moment
600 3 = 400 (2+1) + W 2
W = 300 N
The weight of the girl nearer to the boy is
300 N.
3 D
f 0.05 = 100 0.3
f = 600 N
4 (a) A door handle is placed well away from
the hinge to give a large moment for
turning the door.
(b) A mechanic uses a long spanner to give
a large moment for undoing the nut.
5 The centre of gravity of the bat is outside the
edge of the table. The weight of the bat seems
to act on the centre of gravity and produces a
torque which tips the bat over. The bat then
falls down.
6

(Accept other reasonable answers.)
7 (a)

(In opposite directions and acting at
different positions.)
(b)

(In the same direction, with equal
distance from O and on different sides of
O.)
(c)

(In opposite directions and acting at the
same position.)
8 (a) Let F be the force exerted by the biceps.
Take moment about the elbow contact
point.
Clockwise moment
= 5 10 0.3 + 1.5 10 0.15
= 17.25 N m
Anticlockwise moment
= F 0.05
In equilibrium,
clockwise moment = anticlockwise
moment
17.25 = F 0.05
F = 345 N
The force exerted by the biceps is
345 N.
(b) Take moment about the shoulder joint,
the clockwise moment (= weight of
dumb-bell length of the whole arm) is
greatly increased. In order to balance the
dumb-bell, the shoulder muscle has to
exert a great force to provide a sufficient
anticlockwise moment. Therefore the
man feels more tired.
9 (a) Torque = 5 N 0.5 m = 2.5 N m
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

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9
(b) Maximum force that can be applied
=
distance lar perpendicu
torque maximum
=
5 . 0
50
= 100 N
10 (a) Let m be the maximum mass that the
system can withstand.
Take moment about A.
m 10 0.1 = 2.4 10 0.06
m = 1.44 kg
The maximum mass that the system can
withstand is 1.44 kg.
(b) Use a G-clamp to fix the stand on the
bench or add a heavy weight on the
platform of the stand.

Revision exercise 3
Multiple-choice (p. 170)
1 A
Moment of force about O
= F d
= 8 sin 45 0.4
= 2.26 N m (clockwise)
2 A
By F = ma,
1000 500 = 1500a
a = 0.333 m s
2


2 2
) 10 )( 333 . 0 (
2
1
0
2
1
+ = + = at ut s = 16.7 m
3 B
On the Earth:
By
2
2
1
at ut s + = ,

2
) 10 (
2
1
0 2
E
t + =
t
E
= 4 . 0
On the Moon:
By
2
2
1
at ut s + = ,

2
6
10
2
1
0 2 t

+ =
t = 4 . 2 = 6 t
E
= 2.45 t
E
4 C
5 D
6 B
7 A
8 B
9 D
10 D
11 B
12 A
13 D
14 (HKCEE 2006 Paper II Q31)
15 (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q6)
16 (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q30)
17 (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q27)

Conventional (p. 173)
1 (a) Gravitational acceleration of Mars
= 10
3
1

= 3.33 m s
2
(1A)
(b) The block dropped on Mars has a
smaller acceleration than that on Earth.

(1A)
Thus, it takes more time for the block on
Mars to reach the ground.

(1A)
2 (a) (i)

weight
tension
T
1
from
m
1

tension
T
2
from
m
2

normal
force
M
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

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10
(2 tensions with T
1
> T
2
) (1A)
(Weight and normal force, both of
the same magnitude) (1A)
(ii)

(2 tensions with T
1
> T
2
) (1A)
(Weight and normal force, both of
the same magnitude) (1A)
(Friction) (1A)
(b) (i) Mass m
1
accelerates downwards,
m
2
accelerates upwards and M
accelerates to the left. (1A)
(ii) Let f be the friction acting on M.
If T
1
> T
2
+ f, the masses will move
in a way similar to that in (b)(i) but
the magnitude of the acceleration
of the system will be smaller. (1A)
If T
1
= T
2
+ f, the masses will
remain at rest. (1A)
3 (a) Moment about P
= Fd (0.5A)
= 10 3
= 30 N m (clockwise) (1A + 0.5A)
(b) Moment about Q
= 10 1
= 10 N m (clockwise) (1A + 0.5A)
(c) Moment about R = 10 0 = 0 (1A)
(d) Moment about S
= 10 1
= 10 N m (anticlockwise) (1A + 0.5A)
4 Take moment about the left trestle.
In equilibrium,
clockwise moment = anticlockwise moment
(1M)
500 3 = 700 1 + Y 4 (1M)
Y = 200 N (1A)
Besides,
net force = 0 (1M)
X + Y = 700 + 500
X + 200 = 1200
X = 1000 N (1A)
5 (a) By F = ma, (1M)
a =
m
F
=
4
10 30
= 5 m s
2
(1A)
The acceleration of the box is 5 m s
2
.
(b) s =
2
2
1
at ut + (1M)
= 4 5 + ( )( )
2
5 5
2
1
= 82.5 m (1A)
The displacement of the box is
82.5 m.
(c) Any one of the following: (1A)
Add a layer of oil / polystyrene beads
along the path of the block.
Use air cushion.
6 (a)

(Weight of Joan) (1A)
(Reaction from the balance on Joan)
(1A)
weight
tension
T
1
from
m
1

tension
T
2
from
m
2

normal
force
M
friction
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

11
(b)

Reading of
the scale
( , = or
500 N* ** *
Weight that Joan
feels (heavier,
lighter or normal
weight)
Lift
accelerates
upwards
> 500 N
(1A)
heavier
(1A)
Lift moves
up at
constant
speed
= 500 N normal weight
Lift slows
down and
stops
< 500 N
(1A)
lighter
(1A)
(c) Let R be the normal reaction acting on
Joan by the balance (the reading of the
scale) and W be the weight of Joan.
Take the upward direction as positive.
(i) By F = ma (1M)
R W = ma
R 500 = 50 3
R = 650 N (1A)
The reading of the scale is 650 N.
(ii) Since acceleration is 0 and, by
F = ma, the reading of the scale
R = W = 500 N. (1A)
(iii) By F = ma, (1M)
R W = ma
R 500 = 50 (2)
R = 400 N (1A)
The reading of the scale is 400 N.
7 (a) A force of 50 N is used to pull blocks of
total mass 40 kg.
By F = ma, (1M)
50 = (10 + 30) a
a = 1.25 m s
2
(1A)
The acceleration of the boxes is
1.25 m s
2
.
(b)

(Correct force) (1A)
(Correct label) (1A)


(Correct force) (1A)
(Correct label) (1A)
(c) Let T be the tension in the string.
For the 30-kg box,
By F = ma, (1M)
T = 30 1.25 = 37.5 N (1A)
The tension in the string is 37.5 N.
(d) Net force = 50 T
= 50 37.5
= 12.5 N (1A)
The net force acting on the 10-kg box is
12.5 N.
(e) Her statement is not correct. (1A)
When the string breaks, the net force
acting on the 30-kg box is zero. (1A)
By Newtons first law of motion, the
box will continue to move and its
velocity will be constant. (1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

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12
8 (a)
t
u v
a

= (1M)
=
05 . 0
1 2
= 20 m s
2

F = ma (1M)
= 0.5(20)
= 10 N (1A)
The force acting on the stone during the
collision is 10 N.
(b) Force acting on the can
= force acting on the stone
= 10 N (1A)
(c) By F = ma, (1M)
25
4 . 0
10
= = =
m
F
a m s
2

v = u + at (1M)
= 0 + (25)(0.05)
= 1.25 m s
1
(1A)
The velocity of the can after collision is
1.25 m s
1
.
9 (a) When the box tends to move along the
plane, friction acts on it to oppose its
motion. (1A)
Unless the net force acting on the box
down the plane is greater than zero (i.e.
when the weight component of the box
along the plane is larger than the friction
acting on it), the box will not slide down
the plane. (1A)
(b) Samuel assumes that the plane is
friction-compensated, such that the
weight component of the box along the
plane balances the friction acting on the
box. (1A)
Therefore, the net force acting on the
box along the plane is zero and the box
will move along the plane with a
uniform speed after pushing the box
gently momentarily. (1A)
(c) The box will slide down the plane by
either reducing the friction acting on the
box or increasing the weight component
of the box down the plane.
Any two of the following: (2 1A)
Add rollers on the plane.
Add a layer of wax/oil on the plane.
Tilt the plane more such that the weight
component of the box along the plane is
greater than the friction acting on it.
(Or other reasonable answers)
10 (a)

(Correct forces) (1A)
(Correct labels) (1A)

(Correct forces) (1A)
(Correct labels) (1A)
The reaction of m
1
(R) and the force
acting on pan A by m
1
(R) form an
action-and-reaction pair. (1A)
(b) The pans and masses would move
up/down at constant speed (1A)
or remain at rest. (1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

13
11 (a)

(Correct forces) (1A)
(Correct labels) (1A)
(b) The weight of Jackie is constant. (1A)
The air resistance acting on her increases
gradually from zero as her velocity
increases. When the air resistance is
equal to her weight, the net force acting
on her becomes zero. (1A)
(c) Jackie will fall at a constant speed. (1A)
When the air resistance is equal to her
weight, the net force acting on her is
zero. (1A)
By Newtons second law, she will fall at
a constant speed. (1A)
12 (a) I do not agree with Gloria. (1A)
The air resistance acting on the flower
pot increases from zero as the pot falls in
air. (1A)
Since the maximum magnitude of air
resistance acting on the pot is equal to
the weight of the flower pot, (1A)
the downward net force acting on the pot
is always greater than or equal to zero.
By F = ma, the pot will not slow down.
(1A)
(b) Take the downward direction as
positive.

(Axes with correct labels) (1A)
(The speed of the pot increases at a
decreasing rate.) (1A)
13 (a) (i)

(Weight) (1A)
(Normal reaction) (1A)
(Friction) (1A)
(ii) Take the direction down the plane
as positive.
By s = ut +
2
1
at
2
, (1M)
2 = 0 +
2
1
a 4
2

a = 0.25 m s
2
(1A)
The acceleration of the trolley is
0.25 m s
2
.
(iii) F = ma (1M)
= 1 0.25 = 0.25 N
The resultant force acting on the
trolley is 0.25 N (down the plane).
(1A)
normal
reaction
friction
weight
v / m s
1

t / s
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

14
(b) In order to allow the trolley to move
down the runway at uniform velocity,
we should make the runway
friction-compensated, i.e. reduce the size
of the angle . (1A)
(c) The student is wrong. (1A)






When the trolley moves up along the
runway, friction on the trolley acts
downwards along the runway and the net
force acting on the trolley is not zero.
(1A)
Instead of moving at a uniform speed,
the trolley decelerates as it moves up
along the runway. (1A)
14 (a) When the food parcel is thrown from the
plane, it accelerates at first. As it gains
speed, the air resistance acting on it
increases. The net force acting on the
food parcel and thus the acceleration
decreases (from point A to point B).
(1A)
Eventually, the air resistance balances
the weight of the food parcel. The net
force acting on the food parcel and thus
the acceleration becomes zero (from
point B to point C). (1A)
As a result, the food parcel moves with a
constant speed called terminal speed
(50 m s
1
). (1A)
(b)

(Axes with correct labels) (1A)
(The graph decreases linearly from A to
B.) (1A)
(The graph is horizontal between B and
C.) (1A)
(The graph is on the x-axis between B
and C.) (1A)
15 (a) a =
t
u v
(1M)
=
40
0 80
= 2 m s
2

By as u v 2
2 2
= , (1M)
80
2
0
2
= 2 2 s
s = 1600 m (1A)
The minimum length of the runway is
1600 m.
(b) Net force acting on the aeroplane
= ma (1M)
= 2.5 10
5
2
= 5 10
5
N (1A)
(c) I would adjust the thrust to balance the
air resistance and the weight of the
aeroplane. (1A)
16 (a) 04 s: The object moves with an
acceleration of 6 m s
2
. (1A)
48 s: The object moves with zero
acceleration. (1A)
812 s: The object moves with an
acceleration of 6 m s
2
. (1A)
friction
weight
normal reaction
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

15
(b) During 04 s:
F = ma = 2 6 = 12 N (1A)
The force acting on the object is 12 N.
During 48 s:
F = ma = 2 0 = 0 (1A)
The force acting on the object is 0.
During 812 s:
F = ma = 2 (6) = 12 N (1A)
The force acting on the object is 12 N.
17 (a)

(Axes with correct labels) (1A)
(Correct shape) (1A)
(Correct slopes : during 09 s,
slope = 3 m s
2
; then slope = 0; final part
steeper than the first part with negative
slope) (3 1A)
(v = 0 at the starting point and the end
point) (1A)
(v = 27 m s
1
at t = 9 s) (1A)
(b) The magnitude of the maximum
acceleration of the train is 4 m s
2
. (1A)
18 (a) (i) Net force along vertical direction
= 3 N 2 N
= 1 N (downwards) (1A)
(ii) Net force along horizontal
direction
= 10 N 5 N
= 5 N (towards the right) (1A)
(b) Net force acting on the block
=
2 2
5 1 + (Pythagoras theorem)
= 5.10 N (1A)
tan =
1
5

= 78.7 (1A)
The net force is 5.10 N (S 7 . 78 E).
(c) By F = ma, (1M)
a =
5 . 2
10 . 5
= 2.04 m s
2
(1A)
The acceleration of the block is
2.04 m s
2
.
19 (a)






(Forces F normal to the wings) (1A)
(Weight) (1A)
(b)

Consider the forces in the vertical
direction.
2F cos = mg (1A)
The aeroplane does not fly with uniform
velocity. (1A)
This is because a net force, 2F sin , acts
on the aeroplane towards the left. By
F = ma, the aeroplane has an
acceleration. (1A)
weight


F
F

weight
F
F
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

16
20 (a)

(2 tensions) (1A)
(Weight) (1A)
(b) The net force acting on the picture is
zero.
Consider the vertical components.
2T cos = mg (1M)
2T cos


2
80
= 1 10
T = 6.53 N (1A)
The tension in the string is 6.53 N.
(c)

If a longer string is used, will be
smaller. (1A)
Since T =
cos 2
mg
, T decreases with .
(1A)
Therefore, the tension in a longer string
is smaller and it is harder for the string
to break. (1A)
21 (a)

(Weight of passenger) (1A)
(Reaction from the platform to the
passenger) (1A)
(b) Take the upward direction as positive.
(i) Total distance during initial rise
= 50 2 = 48 m
Total time = 24 s
Average speed =
24
48
(1M)
= 2 m s
1
(1A)
The average speed of the platform
when it rises from the ground to
the top of the tower is 2 m s
1
.
(ii) Total distance during the first
downward thrust = 50 9 = 41 m
Total time = 43 39 = 4 s
Average speed =
4
41
(1M)
= 10.25 m s
1
(1A)
The average speed of the platform
during the first downward thrust
is 10.25 m s
1
.
(iii)

2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

17
Let P be the pulling force.
By F = ma,
P + mg = ma (1M)
P = ma mg
= m(1.5g) mg
= 70 (15) 70(10)
= 350 N (1A)
During the first downward thrust,
the pulling force acting on the
passenger by the chain is 350 N.
22 (a) By F = ma, (1M)
8000 5000 = 500a
a = 6 m s
2
(1A)
The acceleration of the balloon is
6 m s
2
.
By
t
u v
a

= , (1M)
=

=
6
0 20
a
u v
t 3.33 s (1A)
The balloon reaches a velocity of
20 m s
1
in 3.33 s.
(b) He feels his weight heavier than
expected. (1A)
The upward net force acting on him is
R W = ma > 0, where R is the normal
reaction and W is his weight. He feels
heavier because R is greater than W.(1A)
(c) By Newtons first law, the sandbag
moves up at 20 m s
1
when it leaves the
balloon. (1A)
Then it slows down due to gravity. (1A)
After reaching the maximum height, it
changes its moving direction and
accelerates downwards. (1A)
As its velocity increases, the air
resistance increases. As a result, the
acceleration of the sandbag decreases.
(1A)
23 (a) The net force acting on the case is 0.
(1A)
(b) Let T be the tension.
4T cos 20 = 225 10 (1M)
T = 599 N (1A)
The tension in each string is 599 N.
(c) It is safer to hang the case with a longer
string, (1A)
because the angle between the string and
the vertical will be smaller. (1A)
Therefore, the tension in the string is
smaller and it is harder for the strings to
break. (1A)
24 (a) Take moment about the left trestle.
In equilibrium,

moment
clockwise
=
moment
ise anticlockw
(1M)
600 1 + 200 2 = Y 4 (1M)
Y = 250 N (1A)
Besides,
net force = 0 (1M)
X + Y = 600 + 200
X + 250 = 800
X = 550 N (1A)
(b) (i) When the plank begins to tip, the
reaction Y is zero. (1A)
(ii) Let d be the distance the painter is
away from the left trestle when
the plank begins to tip.
From (i), we have Y = 0.
When the plank just begins to tip,
the conditions of equilibrium still
apply.
Take moment about the left
trestle.

moment
clockwise
=
moment
ise anticlockw
(1M)
200 2 = 600 d
d = 0.667 m (1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

18
When the plank begins to tip, the
painter is 0.667 m away from the
left trestle.
25 Note that the centre of gravity of the can is
approximately at its centre. The can will
topple when its centre of gravity is outside the
edge of the runway.
Maximum distance travelled by the can
= 3 0.035 = 2.965 m (1M)
By F = ma, (1M)
0.2 = 0.5 a
a = 0.4 m s
2
By v
2
u
2
= 2as, (1M)
0
2
u
2
= 2 (0.4) 2.965
u = 1.54 m s
1
(1A)
The maximum velocity of the can just after
the impact is 1.54 m s
1
.
26 (a) The trolley remains at rest until
t = 0.8 s. (1A)
Then it moves with a uniform
acceleration. (1A)
(b) a =
t
u v
(1M)
=
8 . 0 8 . 2
0 15 . 1

= 0.575 m s
2
(1A)
The acceleration of the trolley is
0.575 m s
2
.
(c) F = ma (1M)
= (1)(0.575) = 0.575 N (1A)
The net force acting on the trolley is
0.575 N.
(d) He is incorrect. (1A)
This is because he ignores the friction of
the runway. The spring balance reading
is equal to the pulling force only. The
net force is equal to the pulling force
minus the friction. (1A)
27 (a) The ball bearing accelerates at first. As it
gains speed, the fluid friction acting on it
increases. The net force acting on the
ball bearing and thus the acceleration
decreases. (1A)
Eventually, the fluid friction increases to
a value that balances the weight of the
ball bearing. The net force acting on the
ball bearing and thus the acceleration
becomes zero. (1A)
Then the ball-bearing moves with a
constant speed called terminal speed.
(1A)
(b)

(Axes with correct labels.) (1A)
(The velocity firstly increases with time
linearly.) (1A)
(Then the slope of the curve decreases
continuously.) (1A)
(Finally, the velocity becomes constant
and the slope of curve becomes zero.)
(1A)
(c) When an aeroplane travels at a high
speed in air, it experiences a great air
resistance which opposes its motion of it.
(1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

19
Air resistance increases with the speed
of the moving object. Therefore, it is
difficult for an aeroplane to travel at the
speed of sound in air. (1A)
In order to improve the speed of an
aeroplane, the body of the aeroplane
should be streamlined so that air can
flow smoothly over its surface and air
resistance can be reduced. (1A)
28 (a) In Figure v, from t = 0.1 s to t = 0.4 s,
the average value of tension is 2.44 N.
Tension T equals to the weight of the
weights.
Let m be the mass of the weights.
T = mg (1M)
2.44 = m 10
m = 0.244 kg (1A)
The mass of the weights is 0.244 kg.
(b) (i) By the data in Figure v, the tension
of the string is 1.93 N
(t = 1.1 s to 1.5 s). (1A)
(ii) The acceleration of the trolley is
equal to the slope of the graph in
Figure w.
The acceleration is 1.24 m s
2
.(1A)
(c) According to Newtons second law
(F = ma), (1A)
the tension pulling the force sensor and
the trolley T = ma.
T = (0.333 + 0.718) 1.24 = 1.30 N(1A)
This theoretical result is not close to the
result in (b)(i). The results are not in
accordance with Newtons second law.
(1A)
The discrepancy may be due to the
friction acting on the trolley; the friction
acting on the trolley may not be
negligible. (1A)
The student must use a
friction-compensated runway to carry
out this experiment. (1A)
29 (a) (i)

(Weight) (1A)
(Force on boat by air) (1A)
(ii) The boat moves with a constant
velocity (1A)
towards the direction it is pushed.
(1A)
(b) (i) As fans B and C blow air
backwards, an action force acts on
the air by the fans. (1A)
Thus, an equal and opposite
reaction force acts on the fans by
the air. (1A)
Therefore, the boat moves forwards.
(1A)
(ii) By F = ma,
0.2 + 0.2 = 1a
a = 0.4 m s
2
(1M)
v = u + at (1M)
= 0 + (0.4)(5) = 2 m s
1
(1A)
Its speed is 2 m s
1
.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

20
(iii) Any one of the following: (1A)
Switch off fan C.
Control fan B to blow air
backwards and control fan C to
blow air forwards.
(c) (i) The boat still moves forwards (1A)
with a constant velocity. (1A)
(ii) Any one of the following: (1A)
Switch off fan A, then the boat will
land on the ground and will be
stopped by the friction.
Control both fans B and C to blow
air forwards.
30 (a)

(Weight) (1A)
(Force on toy by air) (1A)
(b) The powerful fan of the toy blows air
downwards. Therefore, an action force
acts on the air by fan. (1A)
Then, an equal and opposite reaction
force acts on the fan of the toy by the air.
(1A)
Such upward reaction force is larger
than the weight of the toy. Therefore, the
toy can go up in mid-air. (1A)
(c) (i) Minimum upward force
= weight of the toy
= 10
1000
50

= 0.5 N (1A)
(ii) The reading on the balance is not
zero. (1A)
The fan blows the air downwards
and hits the balance. (1A)
The air therefore exerts a force on
the balance. (1A)
31 (a) Take the moving direction of the trucks
as positive.
By F = ma, (1M)
a =
m
F
=
3000 10 5 . 5
6000
3
+

= 0.706 m s
2

By v
2
u
2
= 2as, (1M)
0 u
2
= 2(0.706)(30)
u = 6.51 m s
1
(1A)
The speed of the trucks after the
collision is 6.51 m s
1
.
(b) a =
t
u v
(1M)
=
05 . 0
0 51 . 6
= 130.2 m s
2

Net force = ma = (5.5 10
3
)(130.2)
= 716 000 N (1M)
Force acting on truck P by truck Q
= net force friction
= 716 000 (3000)
= 719 000 N (1A)
(c) Force acting on truck Q by truck P
= force acting on truck P by truck Q (but
in opposite direction)
= 719 000 N (1A)
(d) Net force acting on truck Q
= force acting on truck Q by truck P +
friction
= 719 000 + (3000)
= 722 000 N (1M)
By F = ma, (1M)
722 000 = 3000a
a = 240.7 m s
2

2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

21
By v = u + at,
u = v at = 6.51 (240.7) 0.05
= 18.5 m s
1
(1A)
The speed of truck Q before the collision
is 18.5 m s
1
.
32 (a) (i)

(Weight acting at A) (1A)
(Friction) (1A)
(Normal reaction) (1A)
(ii) The weight and the normal reaction
provide an anticlockwise moment
about X. (1A)
On the other hand, the clockwise
moment is zero. (1A)
The anticlockwise moment is
larger than the clockwise moment.
(1A)
Therefore, the box would topple
about X. (1A)
(b) In this case, the weight of the box acts at
B, (1A)
and provides a clockwise moment about
X, (1A)
which balances the anticlockwise
moment provided by the normal reaction
and keeps the box in equilibrium. (1A)
33 (a) He needs to make sure that x is the
horizontal distance between O and the
centre of gravity of the object, (1A)
because the weight acts at the centre of
gravity of the object. (1A)
(b) (i)

(Weight) (1A)
(Normal reaction) (1A)
(ii)

(Force by the square object and the
masses) (1A)
(Normal force and weight of the
plank) (1A)
(iii) The force acting on the plank by
the square object and the normal
force acting on the square object by
the plank. (1A)
(iv) (1) F should be the force acting on
the plank by the square object.
(1A)
From (iii), we know that the
force acting on the plank by
the square object and the
normal force acting on the
square object by the plank are
an action-and-reaction pair, so
they are equal in magnitude.
(1A)
Since the square object is in
equilibrium, by Newtons first
law, the net force acting on it
is zero. Therefore, the normal
reaction acting on the square
object is equal to the weight of
the square object in magnitude.
(1A)
1 fon:e and Motio
Therefore. F is equal to the
"eight of the square object in
magnitude. which is 10 N.(IA)
(2) Torque
= Fxd
= 10 )( I
=\O\lm (lA)
(v) The result on the torque is not the
same. (lA)
The square object is accelerating.
so the nonnat reaction acting on
the square object is nOI equal to
the weight of the square object
(JO ~ ) in mOlgnitude. (I A)
Thereibre. F is dilTcrcnt and so i ~
the torque ( = F x d). (lA)
(I IKCEE 2006 Paper I Q-i)
(a) Cvlomem) F >< [)Cmcndicular di stance
from pivot
( b) (i) 1.501
(IA+IA)
(lA)
Assumption: unifonnlregular beam.
(H) (I)
A
(I A)
c B
to m
fzs
60N
(Pi\ot hct\\ccn the cube of
weight and the centre of the
beam) (I A)
(2) Lcl x be thc distance between
the new position of tile pivot
and the original position.
Take moment about the j oint.
In equilibrium. clockwise
momem i ~ equal to the
antic lock" i5e moment. (IM)
New Senior Secondary Physics at Work 70
36 (a )
ha ;) force and Motlo
40><x "" 60><(I - x) ( I M)
.Y -:; 0.6 m (I A)
(iii ) ( I ) The centre of gravity is the
point on which the (entire)
weight of the body seems to
act.
(2)
A
r '
60 N
(Correct arrow)
"
"
'"
3.0
=--
0.80
3.75 m s - ~
( lA)
8
(lA)
(IM)
( lA)
(b) (i) Air resistance increases with SI)C{.-d.
(I A)
so the net force (= forward thms! -
air resistance) decreases. and the
acceleration decreases. (lA)
(ii) When the air resistance is equal to
the forward thrust in magnitude.
(lA)
the net force and hence the
acceleration is lero. so the car
reaches a constant specd. ( lA)
(c) (i) The ,"clocity ofthc ear decreases al
a decreasing mtc. ( lA)
The car eventually travels at a
constant \elocity. (lA)
(ii ) When the parachute is opened. the
ai r resistance becol11es grC31cr than
the thrust in magnitude. As a rcsuil .
the velocity decreases. (lA)
Cl Oxford University Press 2009
37
Force and Mot
(" )
(b)
(0)
Air resistance dc:;;fe.h ... ..., "ith speed.
and is equal ILl the in
magnilUde. Th..:rc:: the <:J!
tralclsatconqam\dc>\"lf!o_ (l A)
No net force. (l A)
( i) 1\\X\""l\X - ":.: (l A)
( ii) R= w -I\ - . 11.\)
(I)
O.Sm
I
, 1 15 m
R 'I
0H
3m
! 0.5m
H:;:::J=b=======::j 'I.
pC] , Q
w
,
BO N 20 N
(Do\\ O\\ ard for":':.1
(Upward for.:e)
(l A)
(l A)
(Correcl dislance of all dOlI nIl ard
(l A)
( ii) Tal-.. e mome-m aboUllhe Pl\Ot.
In equil ibrium.
II' X 0.1 =l'iO
11 "'600'
.:!n ...
11 \I)
( L \ )
(COITCCI perpendicular distances of
the forces from the plI01.)
(Hi) R= 600 +80 -.:!O"" -OO ' (l A)
Physics in articles (p, 183)
(a) When the air bag inflat es. the air
acting on the air bag and the peThOn mcreases.
( l A)
When the ai r resistance is grealer than the
weight orthc person. the person \\ ill
down II/a). ( I .\)
1I is easier for a person 10 land \I jl h a 10\\ er
falling speed. (I \ )
New Senior Secondary Physics at Work 71
(b) (I)
ha t@f' 3 force and Motio
Bp
I .
III +- ar.
2
4 O+.!.(IO) r
2
1- 0.8945
(I M)
(lA)
The man takes 0.894 s 10 HIli from Ihe
first floor to the ground \\ ithout the air
bag.
(ii) 0.5 5+ 0.1 s = 0.6 s (I A)
The lime inle"31 bcl\\een the man
jumps lmd the bag is full y inflated is
0.6
(Hi) From (i) and (iil.the time for air
rc"i"t;mcc actin!! on the man is
shon and the Iclocity orthc man cannot
be r<.>duced to a small value. (lA)
In (hi:. case. the man is mainly proK'Cted
by the thick special cu"hi on or the air
bag when he reache:. the ground. (Ill)
, Oxford University Press 2009
2 Force and Motion Chapter 4 Work, Energy and Power

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

1
4 Work, Energy and Power

Practice 4.1 (p. 196)
1 D
2 B
3 B
4 C
5 (a) Work = Fs = 375 10 1 = 3750 J
The work done on the water skier by the
tension is 3750 J.
(b) Since the skier moves at uniform speed,
the energy gained by the skier is zero.
The work done on the skier by the
tension is used to overcome the gravity
and the friction/air resistance acting on
the skier.
6 The work done is 0.
7 Work = Fs
500 = 10 10 s
s = 5 m
The depth of the well is 5 m.
8 (a) Work = Fs
30 = F 1.5
F = 20 N
The size of the force is 20 N.
(b) F = ma
20 1 10 = 1(a)
a = 10 m s
2

The acceleration of the box is 10 m s
2
.
(c) By v
2
u
2
= 2as,
v
2
0 = 2(10)(1.5)
v = 5.48 m s
1

The velocity of the box is 5.48 m s
1

when it reaches 1.5 m above the ground.
9 (a) Component of force in the direction of
motion = 25 cos 50 N
Work = (F cos )s
= 25 cos 50 10
= 161 J
The work done by John is 161 J.
(b) The chemical energy of John converts to
the kinetic energy of the sledge.
10 (a) Work = Fs = 10 3 = 30 J
The work done by F on the block is 30 J.
(b) Work = fs = 4 3 = 12 J
The work done by f on the block is
12 J.
(c) The chemical energy of the source of the
force converts to the kinetic energy of
the block.
11 (a) Work = Fs = 10 10 0.8 = 80 J
The work done by the man is 80 J.
The chemical energy of the man
converts to the gravitational potential
energy of the box.
(b) No, he has not done work in this process.
Yes, the man feels tired.

Practice 4.2 (p. 202)
1 A
Let m
t
and v
t
be the mass and the speed of the
thief respectively, and
m
p
and v
p
be the mass and the speed of the
policeman respectively.

2

2
1
p p
v m =
2
2
1
t t
v m

t
p
v
v
=
p
t
m
m
=
2
1

2 Force and Motion Chapter 4 Work, Energy and Power

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

2
2 A
By KE =
2
2
1
mv ,
2.17 10
18
=
2 31
10 1 9
2
1
v

.
v = 2.18 10
6
m s
1

Its speed is 2.18 10
6
m s
1
.
3 B
Her gain in gravitational PE
= mgh = 50 10 30 = 15 000 J
4 KE of the ball =
2
2
1
mv
=
2
6 3
2 246
1000
57
2
1
|
.
|

\
|

.
.

= 133 J
5 By KE =
2
2
1
mv ,
521 =
2
1000
9 14
2
1
v
.

v = 264 m s
1

The speed of the bullet fired is 264 m s
1
.
6 Gain in KE
= ( )
2 2
2
1
u v m = ( )( )
2 2
5 30 2 . 0
2
1
= 87.5 J
7 Her gain in gravitational PE
= mgh = 50 10 72 = 36 000 J
8 Speed of the passenger
=
60 12
1400

= 1.94 m s
1

KE of the passenger
=
2
2
1
mv =
2
94 . 1 75
2
1
= 141 J
9 (a) (i) Work done
= Fs = 176 10 1.8 = 3168 J
(ii) Minimum force that each of his
arms acted on the barbell
=
2
10 176
= 880 N
(b) Work done
= Fs = 176 10 2 = 3520 J
(c) A short weightlifter has an advantage in
this sport. This is because a short
weightlifter needs to move the barbell
for a shorter displacement in the
direction of the force applied. Therefore,
less work done is required.
10 (a) Change in the gravitational potential
energy of each worker
= loss in the gravitational potential
energy of each worker
= mgh = 75 10 (3.5) = 2625 J
(b) The gain in KE of each worker = 0
(c) Loss in the gravitational potential energy
of each worker
= gain in the kinetic energy of each
worker + work done against tension
Since the platform is lowered in a
uniform speed, there is no gain in KE of
each worker. Then, the loss in
gravitational potential energy of each
worker is equal to the work done against
tension.

Practice 4.3 (p. 212)
1 C
2 C
3 B
4 B
Work done against friction = loss in KE
Fs = ( )
2 2
2
1
u v m
9000s =
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|

2 2
6 . 3
36
6 . 3
72
1500
2
1

s = 25 m
The distance travelled by the car when it
slows down is 25 m.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 4 Work, Energy and Power

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3
5 (a) The chemical energy of the weightlifter
is converted to the gravitational potential
energy of the barbell.
(b) The electrical energy is converted to the
gravitational potential energy of the
passengers and the lift.
6 (a) PE = mgh = 80 10 6.14 = 4912 J
The gain in his gravitational potential
energy at the highest point is 4912 J.
(b) By conservation of energy,
kinetic energy when he left the ground
= gain in his gravitational potential
energy at the highest point
= 4912 J
7 (a) PE = mgh = 0.4 10 5 = 20 J
The potential energy before it falls is
20 J.
(b) By the law of conservation of energy,
the potential energy of the ball is
converted to its kinetic energy when it
falls. Therefore, its KE on hitting the
ground is 20 J.
(c) KE =
2
1
mv
2

20 =
2
1
0.4 v
2

v =
0.4
20 2
= 10 m s
1
Its velocity on hitting the ground is
10 m s
1
.
8 (a) KE =
2
1
mv
2
=
2
1
0.01 10
2
= 0.5 J
The kinetic energy of the stone is 0.5 J
when it is thrown from the ground.
(b) By the law of conservation of energy, all
kinetic energy of the stone is converted
to its potential energy when it reaches
the highest point. Therefore, the
potential energy gain is 0.5 J when it is
at the highest point.
(c) Take the potential energy of the bob at
ground level be 0.
PE = mgh
0.5 = 0.01 10 h
h = 5 m
The maximum height the stone reaches
is 5 m.
(d) By the law of conservation of energy, all
potential energy of the stone at its
highest point is converted back to kinetic
energy when it falls. Its kinetic energy is
0.5 J on hitting the ground again.
9 (a) Take the potential energy of the bob at
the lowest level be 0.
PE = mgh = 0.01 10 0.1 = 0.01 J
Its potential energy gain after being
raised is 0.01 J.
(b) By conservation of energy, the potential
energy of the bob in (a) is converted to
its kinetic energy at its lowest position.
Therefore, its kinetic energy is 0.01 J as
it passes its lowest position.
By KE =
2
1
mv
2
,
0.01 =
2
1
0.01 v
2

v = 1.41 m s
1

The speed is 1.41 m s
1
as it passes its
lowest position.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 4 Work, Energy and Power

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4
(c) New total energy
=
2
1
mv
1
2
+ original PE
=
2
1
0.01 1
2
+ 0.01
= 0.015 J
The potential energy of the bob at the
other end = mgh = 0.015 J
0.01 10 h = 0.015
h = 0.15 m
The height of the bob above its lowest
point at the other end is 0.15 m.
10 (a) Gravitational PE of the carts and the
passengers at A
= mgh = 5000 10 85 = 4.25 10
6
J
(b) By the law of conservation of energy,
loss in gravitational PE = gain in KE
mg(h
A
h
B
) =
2
1
mv
2

v = ) ( 53 85 10 2
= 25.3 m s
1

(c) At B, the actual kinetic energy of the
carts and the passengers
=
2
1
mv
2
=
2
1
5000 20
2
= 10
6
J
By the law of conservation of energy,
loss in gravitational PE
= gain in KE + work done against
friction
work done against friction
= 5000 10 (85 53) 10
6

= 6 10
5
J

Practice 4.4 (p. 219)
1 D
2 B
P =

= =
60 2
000 60
t
E
500 W
3 D
4 Usual output power
=
t
E
=
t
mgh
=
( ) ( )
20
20 3 10 10 60
= 18 kW
5 By P
t
E
= ,
=

= =
20
2000 10 45
P
E
t 45 000 s = 12.5 hr
The climbing time of Jack is 12.5 hours.
6 Let v be Alexs maximum speed.
By P = Fv,
P = mgv
30 = 65 10 v
v = 0.0462 m s
1

His maximum speed is 0.0462 m s
1
.
7 Let F be the force against friction.
P = Fv
10 10
3
= F
6 3
30
.

Force against friction = 1200 N
Since the block moves at a constant velocity,
the net force acting on the block is zero and
the friction = F = 1200 N.
8 Let n be the maximum number of people that
the lift can raise at 2 m s
1
.
P =
t
mgh

15 10
3
= (120 + 70n) 10 2
n = 9
The maximum number of people who can be
raised at 2 m s
1
is 9.
9 Work done by the engines
= gain in kinetic energy of the cars
For car A:
Work done by car As engine
=
2
1
mv
2
=
2
1
m
2
6 3
100
|
.
|

\
|
.
= 386m J
Power of car As engine
=
time
done work
=
6
386m
= 64.3m W
2 Force and Motion Chapter 4 Work, Energy and Power

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

5
For car B:
Work done by car Bs engine
=
2
1
mv
2
=
2
1
m
2
6 3
100
|
.
|

\
|
.
= 386m J
Power of car Bs engine
=
time
done work
=
4
386m
= 96.5m W
Therefore, car Bs engine can output more
power.
10 (a) Loss in PE of water per second
= mgh = 4000 10 500 = 2 10
7
J
In each second, water of 4000 kg loses
potential energy of 2 10
7
J.
(b) Since all the potential energy is assumed
to be converted into electrical energy,
the power output of the generator is
2 10
7
W.
(c) Not all potential energy of the water is
converted into electrical energy because
energy is lost in heating up the wire,
moving the movable parts of the
generator, driving the turbine, etc.

Revision exercise 4
Multiple-choice (p. 222)
1 B
PE gained by the load
= mgh = 50 10
1000
5
= 2.5 J
2 D
Work done by the force
= Fs = 20 2
100
30
= 37.7 J
3 C
By the law of conservation of energy, the
potential energy at A is converted to kinetic
energy at B. i.e. mgh =
2
1
mv
2

v = gh 2
Therefore, if the block moves at 2v at B, the
height of the block should be 4h.
4 C
A: Work done by Stephen
= kinetic energy of the ball bearing at A
=
2
1
mv
2
=
2
1
0.1 5
2
= 1.25 J
B: By the law of conservation of energy,
the kinetic energy at A is converted to
potential energy at B. i.e.

2
1
mv
2
= mgh
v = gh 2
C: It is not true when the ball bearing rolls
down from B to A.
D: It is true by the law of conservation of
energy.
5 A
(1) By the law of conservation of energy,
total energy of the bob is equal to its
potential energy at the highest point, i.e.
total energy
= mgh = M 10 0.1 = M J
(2) By the law of conservation of energy,
the potential energy of the bob is
converted to kinetic energy at its lowest
position. i.e.

2
1
mv
2
= mgh
v = gh 2
which is independent of the mass of the
bob.
(3) By conservation of energy, the bob will
move up to a point at the same level as A,
whether there is a pin at C or not.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 4 Work, Energy and Power

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6
6 A
(1) By the law of conservation of energy,
the gravitational potential energy of the
ball at A is equal to the kinetic energy of
the ball at B.
mgh =
2
1
mv
2

0.1 10 h =
2
1
0.1 4
2

h = 0.8 m
(2) By the law of conservation of energy,
kinetic energy of the ball at B
= gravitational potential energy of the
ball at C + kinetic energy of the ball at C

2
1
mv
B
2
= mgh
C
+
2
1
mv
C
2


2
1
4
2
= 10 0.5 +
2
1
v
C
2
v
C
= 6 m s
1

(3) When the ball arrives at B and D, it has
the same gravitational potential energy
which is zero because B and D are at the
same level. Therefore, the ball at B and
D has the same kinetic energy, hence the
same velocity.
7 A
8 A
Work done by the braking force
= change in KE of the car
Fd
1
= 0
2
1
mv
2

Fd
1
= 0
2
1
m
2
3.6
40
|
.
|

\
|

d
1
=
F
m 7 61.

Work done by the braking force
= change in KE of the car
Fd
2
= 0
2
1
mv
2

Fd
2
= 0
2
1
m
2
3.6
80
|
.
|

\
|

d
2
=
F
m 247

d
1
: d
2
=
F
m 7 61.
:
F
m 247
= 1 : 4
The ratio of the braking distance of d
1
to d
2
is
1 : 4.
9 D
10 (HKCEE 2006 Paper II Q5)
11 (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q4)
12 (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q31)
13 (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q32)

Conventional (p. 224)
1 (a) His chemical energy converts to (1A)
kinetic energy. (1A)
Then his kinetic energy converts to his
gravitational potential energy. (1A)
(b) His change in gravitational potential
energy
= mgh (1M)
= 50 10 1860
= 9.3 10
5
J (1A)
2 (a) Speed of Dora =
time
distance

=
40
50

= 1.25 m s
1

KE =
2
1
mv
2
(1M)
=
2
1
60 1.25
2

= 46.9 J (1A)
The kinetic energy of Dora is 46.9 J.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 4 Work, Energy and Power

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

7
(b) Dora loses all her kinetic energy over
the last 1 m from side B. The loss of her
kinetic energy is due to the work done
against the decelerating force.
Let F be the decelerating force and s be
the distance of travel.
Fs = 46.9 (1M)
F 1 = 46.9
F = 46.9 N (1A)
Therefore, the decelerating force is
46.9 N.
Alternative method:
By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
a =
s
u v
2
2 2

=
1 2
25 1 0
2

.
= 0.781 m s
2

(1M)
The average deceleration is 0.781 m s
2
.
F = ma = 60 0.781 = 46.9 N (1A)
The average decelerating force is
46.9 N.
(c) In order to swim at uniform speed, Dora
should exert a force of the same size as
the decelerating force but in opposite
direction, so that net force acting on her
is zero.
Power of Dora = Fv (1M)
= 46.9 1.25
= 58.6 W (1A)
3 Let T be the temperature of water at the
bottom of the waterfall and m be the mass of
water reaching the bottom.
By the law of conservation of energy,
loss in gravitational potential energy
= gain in internal energy (1M)
mgh = mcT (2M)
10 100 = 4200 (T 12)
T = 12.2 C (1A)
The temperature of water at the bottom of the
waterfall is 12.2 C.
4 (a) As the man moves at a constant speed,
the tension acting on the man is equal to
the weight of the man. Hence, the
tension acting on the man is 700 N.(1A)
(b) Work done by the tension
= Fs (1M)
= 700 15
= 10 500 J (1A)
(c)

(Correct labelled axes) (1A)
(Correct graph) (1A)
(Correct values) (1A)
5 (a) Work done on the load by the lift
= Fs (1M)
= 16 000 508
= 8.128 10
6
J (1A)
(b) Time required to transport the load from
the ground to the top floor
=

508
60
1010
= 30.2 s
P =
t
E
(1M)
=
2 . 30
10 128 . 8
6


= 269 kW (1A)
The power of the light in (a) is 269 kW.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 4 Work, Energy and Power

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

8
(c) The actual power of the lift is larger than
that in (b). (1A)
When calculating the actual power of the
lift, besides the maximum capacity of
the lift, the weight of the lift needs to be
taken into account as well. (1A)
6 (a) KE =
2
1
mv
2
(1M)
=
2
1
1500
2
6 3
72
|
.
|

\
|
.

= 3 10
5
J (1A)
The kinetic energy of the car is
3 10
5
J.
(b) Distance travelled in 60 s
= vt = |
.
|

\
|
6 3
72
.
60 = 1200 m (1M)
Work done against friction
= Fs = 500 1200 = 6 10
5
J (1A)
(c) Power of the car engine
= fv (1M)
= 500 |
.
|

\
|
6 3
72
.

= 10 kW (1A)
(d) Acceleration when braking
=
1500
6000
=
m
F
= 4 m s
2
(1M)
By v
2
u
2
= 2as,
0
2

2
6 . 3
72
|
.
|

\
|
= 2 (4) s
s = 50 m (1A)
7 (a) (i) Initial KE of the metal cylinder
=
2
1
mv
2
(1M)
=
2
1
1 4
2

= 8 J (1A)
(ii) By the law of conservation of
energy,
loss in KE of the cylinder
= gain in PE of the cylinder + work
done against friction (1M)
Loss in KE = mgh + fs
8 = 1 10 h + 5h
h = 0.533 m (1A)
The maximum height reached by
the cylinder is 0.533 m.
(b) Let v be the minimum initial speed of
the metal cylinder to win the game.
Loss in KE of the cylinder
= gain PE of the cylinder
+ work done against friction (1M)

2
1
1 v
2
= 1 10 3 + 5 3
v = 9.49 m s
1
(1A)
The minimum initial speed of the metal
cylinder is 9.49 m s
1
.
(c) Any two of the following and other
reasonable methods: (2 1A)
Put the bell higher.
Use a heavier metal cylinder.
Increase the friction between the
cylinder and the support.
Move the pivot of the plank closer to A.
8 (a) The ball should be released at a position
1 m above the ground. (1A)
(b) Let H be the height that the ball should
be released.
By conservation of energy,
mgH = mgh + 10% mgH (1M)
H = 1 + 0.1H
= 1.11 m (1A)
The ball should be released at a height of
1.11 m above the ground.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 4 Work, Energy and Power

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9
The energy loss of the ball due to the
work done against friction is converted
into the internal energy of the rail and
the ball. (1A)
(c) She will not win. (1A)
The calculation in (b) takes the initial
kinetic energy of the ball as zero.
If she pushes the ball at the beginning,
the kinetic energy of ball at A will not be
zero. Therefore, the ball will not stop at
A and she will not win. (1A)
9 (a) After the car starts its engine, it
accelerates. (1A)
It continues to accelerate because the
output power is greater than the power
against the frictional force (= fv). (1A)
Once the velocity increases to a value
such that the power against the frictional
force is equal to the output power, (1A)
the car moves with constant velocity.
(1A)
(b) For maximum speed v,
output power = power against friction
(1M)
80 1000 = 1600 v
v = 50 m s
1
(1A)
The maximum speed of the car is
50 m s
1
.
10 (a) Work done by Alan
= 30 10 2 10 = 6000 J (1A)
Work done by Billy
= 80 10 25 = 20 000 J (1A)
Work done by Chris
= 400 2.5 50 = 50 000 J (1A)
Chris is the winner.
(b) (i) Power (1A)
(ii) Power of Alan
=
10
6000
= 600 W (1A)
Power of Billy
=
20
000 20
= 1000 W (1A)
Power of Chris
=
60
000 50
= 833 W (1A)
The real winner is Billy.
11 (a)

(Labelled 4 forces: weight, tension,
friction, normal reaction) (4 1A)
(b) By F = ma, (1M)
80 10 10 10 sin 30 = 10a
a = 2 m s
2
(1M)
By s =
2
2
1
at ut + , (1M)
10 = 0 +
2
) 2 (
2
1
t
t = 3.16 s (1A)
The man takes 3.16 s to pull the block to
the top.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 4 Work, Energy and Power

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

10
(c) Power of the man =
t
Fs
(1M)
=
16 . 3
10 80

= 253 W (1A)
(d) By v
2
u
2
= 2as, (1M)
v
2
0 = 2(2)(10)
v = 6.32 m s
1
(1M)
Gain in KE
=
2
1
m(v
1
2
v
0
2
) (1M)
=
2
1
10 (6.32
2
0)
= 200 J (1A)
(e) Let v be the required speed.
output power = power against friction
(1M)
253 = 10 v
v = 25.3 m s
1
(1A)
12 (a) Loss in PE
= mgh (1M)
= 50 10 12
= 6000 J (1A)
(b) KE =
2
1
mv
2
(1M)
=
2
1
50 14.5
2

= 5260 J (1A)
At point A, Fannys kinetic energy was
5260 J.
(c) Fannys mechanical energy is not
conserved. (1A)
This is because her potential energy loss
at A is greater than her gain in kinetic
energy. (1A)
Fannys mechanical energy is not
conserved because she has to do work
against the air resistance acting on her.
(1A)
(d) The work done against the force acting
on Fanny (between A and her lowest
position) is equal to her kinetic energy at
A.
Let F be the minimum average force
acting on her after passing A.
KE = Fs (1M)
5260 = F 8
F = 658 N (1A)
The minimum average decelerating
force acting on her was 658 N.
13 (HKCEE 2004 Paper I Q7)
14 (HKCEE 2005 Paper I Q2)
15 In this question, g is taken to be 9.8 m s
2
.
(a) (i) E = mgh (1M)
= (16.8 + 1.2) 9.8 0.5 (1M)
= 88 J (1A)
(ii) 88 + 20 = 108 J (1A)
(iii) Work done = Fs (1M)
108 = F 0.4
F = 270 N (1A)
(b) Gain in KE
= loss in PE work done (1M)
= 88 20
= 68 (1M)
KE =
2
2
1
mv (1M)
68 =
2
18
2
1
v
v = 2.75 m s
1
(1A)
(c)

2 Force and Motion Chapter 4 Work, Energy and Power

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11
(Graph starts at origin and forms a full
rounded peak.) (1A)
(Exactly two cycles, i.e. 4 peaks, shown
but not arches.) (1A)
(Height of peaks decreases and peaks
approximately equally spaced.) (1A)
16 (HKCEE 2006 Paper I Q3)
17 (a) PE required
= mgh = 75 10 1.6 = 1200 J (1M)
KE required
=
2
2
1
mv =
2
80 . 0 75
2
1
= 24 J (1M)
Total energy required
= 1200 + 24 = 1224 J (1A)
(b) Let v be the minimum speed.

2
2
1
mv = 1224 (1M)

2
75
2
1
v = 1224
v = 5.71 m s
1
(1A)
The minimum speed is 5.71 m s
1
.

Physics in articles (p. 228)
(a) A manhole gained the maximum potential
energy when it reached its maximum height,
which is 10 m as stated in the passage.
Maximum potential energy gained by a
manhole cover in the explosion
= mgh (1M)
= 20 10 10
= 2000 J (1A)
(b) By v
2
u
2
= 2as, (1M)
v
2
0 = 2(10)(10)
v = 14.1 m s
1
(1A)
The speed of a manhole cover when it fell
back to ground was 14.1 m s
1
.
(c) The air resistance is assumed to be negligible.
(1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 5 Momentum

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

1
5 Momentum

Practice 5.1 (p. 238)
1 D
Take the upward direction as positive.
Change in momentum of the ball
= mv mu
= 0.5 6 0.5 (8)
= 7 kg m s
1

2 C
Momentum of the tennis ball
= m
t
v
t
=
1000
57
60 = 3.42 kg m s
1

Momentum of the football
= momentum of the tennis ball
= 3.42 kg m s
1

m
f
v
f
= 3.42

1000
400

f
v = 3.42
v
f
= 8.55 m s
1

The velocity of the football is 8.55 m s
1
.
3 B
4 B
5 Magnitude of momentum of the boy
= mv = 60 4 = 240 kg m s
1

Magnitude of momentum of the girl
= mv = 40 6 = 240 kg m s
1

The magnitudes of momenta of the boy and
the girl are the same.
KE of the boy
=
2
2
1
mv =
2
1
60 4
2
= 480 J
KE of the girl
=
2
2
1
mv =
2
1
40 6
2
= 720 J
The girl has larger kinetic energy.
6 Let the mass of runner A be m
A
and the
velocity of runner A be v
A
.
Momentum of runner A = m
A
v
A
= p
KE of runner A =
2
2
1
A A
v m = E
Momentum of runner B = 2m
A
v
A
= 2p
KE of runner B =
2
) 2 (
2
1
A A
v m = 2E
The momentum and kinetic energy of runner
B are 2p and 2E respectively.
7 (a) Momentum of the object before the
force acts
= mu = 2 5 = 10 kg m s
1

(b) Momentum of the object after the force
has acted
= mv = 2 10 = 20 kg m s
1

(c) Gain in momentum
= mv mu = 20 10 = 10 kg m s
1

(d) Force acting on the object
=
impact of time
momentum in change
=
5
10
= 2 N
8 (a) The cushion in the glass column can
reduce the force of impact acting on the
peanut by lengthening the time of impact.
Therefore, the peanut does not break.
(b) The cushion in an envelope can reduce
the force of impact acting on the fragile
items by lengthening the time of impact.
9 (a) Take the travelling direction of the car
as positive.
F =
t
mu mv

=
1
20 80 0 80

= 1600 N
The force acting on the driver is 1600 N
opposite to the travelling direction of the
car.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 5 Momentum

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

2
(b) Since the force acting on the driver is
huge (1600 N), the driver will be
seriously hurt or even dead if he/she
does not wear a seat-belt.
10 (a) By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
v = gs 2 = 10 10 2 = 14.1 m s
1

When the dry cell hits the ground, its
speed is 14.1 m s
1
.
(b) F =
t
mu mv
=
3
10 4
0 1 . 14 02 . 0


= 70.5 N
The net force acting on the cell is
70.5 N.
11 (a) Take the initial travelling direction of
water as positive.
F =
t
mu mv
=
1
25 15 0
= 375 N
The water experiences a force of 375 N,
in a direction opposite to its initial
travelling direction, by the wall.
(b) By Newtons third law, the force exerted
by the water on the wall is equal to the
force exerted by the wall on water.
Therefore, the force exerted by the water
on the wall is 375 N, in the initial
travelling direction of the water.
12 For football P:
Take the initial travelling direction as
positive.
Net force =
t
mu mv

=
( )
5 . 0
20 15 m m

= 70m N
Force from the wall = net force on P
Football P experiences a force of 70m N
from the wall.
For football Q:
Take the initial travelling direction as
positive.
Net force =
t
mu mv

=
5 . 0
20 ) 15 ( m m

= 70m N
Force from the ground + weight = net force
Force from the ground = 70m 10m
= 80m N
Football Q experiences a force of 80m N.
Therefore, football Q experiences a larger
force.
13 (a) The shaded area represents the impulse
of the force acting on the trolley and
impulse = Ft, where F is the force on
trolley and t is the time of impact.
The area is also equal to the change of
momentum of the trolley,
i.e. impulse = Ft = mv mu
where m is the mass of the trolley, and u
and v are the velocities of trolley before
and after impact respectively.
(b) Time of impact = 0.3 s
(accept 0.30.4 s)
Area under curve = Ft = 0.47 N s
F =
3 0
47 0
.
.
= 1.57 N
(accept 1.1751.57 N)
The force acting on the force sensor is
1.57 N.
(c) From the vt graph, the velocities of the
trolley before and after impact are
0.36 m s
1
and 0.35 m s
1
respectively.
Note that the direction of the initial
velocity of the trolley is positive.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 5 Momentum

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

3
By Ft = m (v u),
m =
u v
Ft

=
36 . 0 35 . 0
47 . 0

= 0.662 kg
The mass of the trolley is 0.662 kg.

Practice 5.2 (p. 257)
1 B
2 C
3 A
4 (a) This is an inelastic collision. Some of
the kinetic energy of the bullet is
converted into internal energy of the
apple.
(b) This is an inelastic collision. The kinetic
energy of the car is converted to sound
energy and internal energy of the wall
and the car.
(c) This is an elastic collision. The kinetic
energy of the puck does not change.
5 Take the moving direction of the shell as
positive.
By conservation of momentum,
total momentum before firing the shell
= total momentum after firing the shell
0 = m
shell
v
shell
+ m
cannon
v
cannon

0 = 5 v
shell
+ 8000 (0.08)
v
shell
= 128 m s
1

The velocity of the shell is 128 m s
1
.
6 (a) It does not contradict the law of
conservation of momentum. We
consider the system which includes the
ball only. There is force acting on the
ball by the ground during the impact and
also there is weight acting on the ball,
providing external net forces on the
system. Therefore, the total momentum
of the system is not conserved.
(b) This is because the mass of the earth is
huge and the motion of the earth is not
noticeable.
7 Let v be the common velocity of the bullet
and trolley.
By conservation of momentum,
total momentum before impact
= total momentum after impact
m
bullet
u
bullet
+ m
trolley
u
trolley
= (m
bullet
+ m
trolley
) v
0.006 u
bullet
+ 0.8 5 = (0.006 + 0.8) 8.5
u
bullet
= 475 m s
1

The velocity of the bullet before the impact is
475 m s
1
.
8 (a) Take backwards as positive.
By conservation of momentum,
total momentum before hitting the ball
= total momentum after hitting the ball
0 = m
Kathy
v
Kathy
+ m
ball
v
ball

0 = 3 + 0.3 v
ball

v
ball
= 10 m s
1

The velocity of the volleyball after
impact is 10 m s
1
.
(b) F =
t
mu mv
=
25 0
3
.
= 12 N
The average force acting on Kathy is
12 N.
9 (a) By conservation of momentum,
total momentum before collision
= total momentum after collision
m
white
u
white
+ m
blue
u
blue

= m
white
v
white
+ m
blue
v
blue

0.135 u
white
+ 0
= 0.135 0.2 + 0.135 0.5
u
white
= 0.7 m s
1

The speed of the white ball when it hits
the blue ball is 0.7 m s
1
.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 5 Momentum

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

4
(b) Total KE before the collision
=
2
1
m
white
(u
white
)
2
+
2
1
m
blue
(u
blue
)
2

=
2
1
0.135 0.7
2
+ 0
= 0.0331 J
Total KE after the collision
=
2
1
m
white
(v
white
)
2
+
2
1
m
blue
(v
blue
)
2

=
2
1
0.135 0.2
2
+
2
1
0.135 0.5
2

= 0.0196 J
Since there is loss of total kinetic energy,
the collision is inelastic.
10 (a) Let v be the velocity of the boat after
dropping water.
By conservation of momentum,
total momentum before dropping water
= total momentum after dropping water
m
boat
v
boat
= (m
boat
+ m
water
) v
0.45 1 = (0.45 + 0.01) v
v = 0.978 m s
1

The velocity of the boat after dropping
water in it is 0.978 m s
1
.
(b) Total KE before dropping the water
=
2
1
mu
2
=
2
1
0.45 1
2
= 0.225 J
Total KE after dropping the water
=
2
1
mv
2

=
2
1
(0.45 + 0.01) 0.978
2

= 0.220 J
(c) Since the total kinetic energy of the boat
and water before collision is not equal
to that after collision; and the boat and
water stick together after the collision,
the collision is inelastic.
11 (a) It is a completely inelastic collision.
(b) Before collision:
Velocity of trolley A, u
A

= slope of the graph
=
0.6 2.6
0.2 0.9


= 0.35 m s
1
(accept 0.340.39 m s
1
)
Velocity of trolley B, u
B
= 0
After collision:
Velocity of trolleys A and B
= slope of the graph
=
6 2 6
0.9 1.5
.


= 0.176 m s
1
(accept 0.160.19 m s
1
)
(c) Total momentum before collision
= m
A
u
A
+ m
B
u
B

= 0.5 0.35 + 0
= 0.175 kg m s
1

Total momentum after collision
= (m
A
+ m
B
)v
= (0.5 + 0.5) 0.176
= 0.176 kg m s
1

Momentum is conserved within limits of
experimental error.
12 Let u and v be the speeds of the white ball and
the red ball after the collision respectively.
Along the direction in which the white ball
travels before collision:
By conservation of momentum,
0.135 1.8 = 0.135 u cos 30 +
0.135 v cos 60
1.8 = v u
2
1
2
3
+
v = 3.6 u 3 (1)
Along the direction perpendicular to which
the white ball travels before collision:
2 Force and Motion Chapter 5 Momentum

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

5
By conservation of momentum,
0 = 0.135 u sin 30 0.135 v sin 60
0 = v u
2
3
2
1

u = v 3 (2)
Substitute (2) into (1):
v = v 3 3 6 . 3
v = 0.9 m s
1

Substitute v = 0.9 m s
1
into (2):
u = v 3 = 1.56 m s
1

The speeds of the white ball and the red ball
after the collision are 1.56 m s
1
and 0.9 m s
1

respectively.

Revision exercise 5
Multiple-choice (p. 261)
1 C
2 B
By Ft = mv mu,
1.5 = ) 15 ( 024 . 0 024 . 0 v
v = 47.5 m s
1

The speed of the ball is 47.5 m s
1
when it
leaves the racket.
3 D
By F =
t
mu mv
, the largest net force acting
on the object is represented by the steepest
slope of the graph.
4 D
A: F = 0013 . 0
6 . 3
96
6 . 3
110

|
.
|

\
|
= 44000 N
B: F = 0018 . 0
6 . 3
98
6 . 3
120

|
.
|

\
|
= 33600 N
C: F = 0021 . 0
6 . 3
112
6 . 3
130

|
.
|

\
|
= 32000 N
D: F = 0015 . 0
6 . 3
109
6 . 3
140

|
.
|

\
|
= 46100 N
5 D
All choices (AD) follow the conservation of
momentum.
D violates the law of conservation of energy
and the total KE of the balls after collision is
greater than that before collision.
6 C
Along the direction in which fragment P
travels:
Take the direction in which fragment P
travels be positive.
By conservation of momentum,
v
P
+ v
R
cos 45 = 0
3 + v
R
cos 45 = 0
v
R
= 4.24 m s
1
The speed of fragment R is 4.24 m s
1
.
7 A
8 A
9 (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q29)
10 (HKCEE 2005 Paper II Q45)

Conventional (p. 262)
1 (a) Change in momentum
= area under Ft graph (1M)
=
2
1
0.15 18 000
= 1350 N s (1A)
The change in momentum of the ball is
1350 N s.
(b) Average force on the ball
=
impact of time
impulse
(1M)
=
15 0
1350
.

= 9000 N (1A)
The average force experienced by the
ball is 9000 N.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 5 Momentum

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

6
2 (a) Take the initial direction of the bullet be
positive.
F =
t
mu mv
(1M)
=
01 . 0
) 500 500 ( 10 3
3



= 300 N (1A)
The force on each bullet is 300 N, in the
same direction as the final travelling
direction of the bullet.
(b) By Newtons third law of motion,
average force on Superman
= (average force acting on the
bullets)
=
time total
bullets of momentum in change total

(1M)
=
60
) 500 500 ( 10 3 50
3



= 2.5 N (1A)
The average force acting on Superman is
2.5 N, in the initial direction of the
bullets.
3 (a) By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as, (1M)
v = as u 2
2
+
= 4 2 2 0 +
= 4 m s
1
(1A)
The velocity of trolley A was 4 m s
1

before collision.
(b) Take the travelling direction of trolley A
before collision as positive.
By conservation of momentum,
total momentum before collision
= total momentum after collision (1M)
m
A
u
A
+ m
B
u
B
= m
A
v
A
+ m
B
v
B

1 4 + 2 0 = 1 (1) + 2 v
B

v
B
= 2.5 m s
1
(1A)
The velocity of trolley B was 2.5 m s
1

after collision. Its direction was the same
as the travelling direction of trolley A
before collision.
4 (a) Initial momentum of the jet fighter
= m
fighter
u
fighter
(1M)
= 8000 100
= 800 000 kg m s
1
(1A)
(b) Momentum of each missile when fired
= m
missile
v
missile
(1M)
= 20 500
= 10 000 kg m s
1
(1M)
By conservation of momentum,
total momentum before firing
= total momentum after firing (1M)
m
fighter
u
fighter
+ m
missile
u
missile

= m
fighter
v
fighter
+ (m
missile
v
missile
) 5
800 000 + 0
= 7900 v
fighter
+ 10 000 5
v
fighter
= 94.9 m s
1
(1A)
The velocity of the jet fighter after firing
five missiles is 94.9 m s
1
.
(c) By conservation of momentum,
total momentum before firing
= total momentum after firing (1M)
m
fighter
u
fighter
+ m
missile
u
missile

= m
fighter
v
fighter
+ (m
missile
v
missile
) 5
7900 94.9 + 0
= 7800 v
fighter
10 000 5
v
fighter
= 103 m s
1
(1A)
The velocity of the jet fighter after firing
another five missiles is 103 m s
1
.
5 (a) Magnitude of impulse
= Ft (1M)
= 80 0.10
= 8 N s (1A)
2 Force and Motlo
6
( b) Assume the direction ofthc forcc
applied is as shown in the figure below.
o
F
Along the direction in \\ hich the puck
travcls before impact:
1ll0111enlJlll before impact + impulse
= momentum alter impact
0.25 x 15 + (- 8)cos 0'" 0
0= 62.00
(IM)
( lA)
(c) Along the direction perpendicular to
which the puck travels before impact:
velocity of the puck alter impact
C' )
= velocity bctore impact + impulse( I M)
0 + 8 sin 62.0
= 7.07 n: s' ( lA)
The speed of the puck after impact is
7.07015 ' .
1" 1I + 1fI
= 22 + (2(2
== 18ms '
(IM)
The velocity of the mi ni bus is 18 m Si
towards lhe Ilortheasljust before
collision. (I A)
(b) Along Ihe direction lowards the cast:
Take the direction towards the cast as
positivc.
By conservation of momentum.
lotal momentum before collision
= lotalmomenlutn after collision ( I M)
3000 )( 18 cos 45 - 2500 x II..,., COS 45
o
lI,ot= 21.6ms
1
The vclocilY oflhe car is 21.6 In s i
10\\ ards the nortlmcst jusl before
collision. (lA)
New Senior Secondilry PhYSiCS at Work
7
89
ha ter 5 Momentu
(c) Let v be the velocity of the vehicles just
after :he collision.
Along the direction towards the north:
Take the direction 10\\ ards thc nonh as
posit ive.
B} conscr"\ ation of lllomentmn.
IOtal momentum before collision
,., tol almomcnlum aflercollisi on (lM)
3000 x 18 sin 45" + 2500 )( 21.6 sin 45"
= (3000 + 2500) )( v
v =
The velocity of the vehicles is 13.9111 S- l
IOwanls the north just after the
(a) Let I' be the \ elocity of can Yafter
col[ision.
"
1.2 m 5-
1
/
,
,
2m5-
1
(45
0-=-"--- - 0:10
m
--
,
,
,
v "
"-
(I A)
Along the original moving direction of
cart X:
By conservation ofmomemurn.
75 )( 2 = 75 x 1.2 cos 45 + 150)( vcos 0
l'COS 0 = 0.576 ......... (1)
Along the direction perpendicular to the
original moving direction of cart X:
By conservmion of momentum.
o 75)( 1.2 sin 45" - 150)( I' sin 0
\' sin 0= 0.424 ........ (2)
(2) + (1)'
O
0.424
tan ""--
0.576
o 36.4"
rrorn ( 1):
I' cos 36.4 "., 0.576
1': 0.7[6111 5 I
( lA)
(lA)
Oxford University Press 2009
1: force and Motio
After the coll ision, cart )'moves at a
velocity of 0.716 m s I at an angle of
36.4
0
to thc originAl moving direction of
cart X.
(b) Bcfore the collision. total KE of carts X
and Y
I ,I ,
=- - - 111111)
2 . 2
=..!..x 75 x 21 +..!.. x 150 x 0
2
2 2
= 150 J (lA)
After the col lision, total KE of cam.\'
and }'
I ,I ,
= -II/\I'r- + -III}l'r-
2 2
I _ , I ,
= - x 7";) x (Ut +- x 150 x 0.716-
2 2
92.4 J (lA)
Since the carts lose kinet ic energy in the
collision. the collision is (I A)
change in momentum
By/' = (IM)
2 =
lime of impact
0.Sx(0.5 - u)
I
1I =-2ms
1
The speed of 1\ ater is 2111 S-I before il
hits Victor.
(h) I don'! agrce with him.
(I A)
( lA)
This is because friction and nomlal
reaction acts on thc fcet of Victor when
he takes shower. The friction and nonna[
reaction balances the force acting on him
by the water (zero net force). ( lA)
When external nct force acts on objects.
conservation of momentum is not valid.
However. it is correct in the absence of
external net force. (lA)
New Senior Secondary Physics at Work 90
9
ha ter 5 Momentu
(a) When the plunger is released. clastic
potential energy ofthc spring (lA)
is convertcd into sound energy :md (I A)
kinetic energy of trolleys.
(b) By conservat ion of energy,
(I A)
( I A)
elaSlic potential energy oflhe spring
= sound energy + K E of trolleys
I , ,
5 x 0.7 = - (11/ ,1'1- + 1118 " 8 ) . ....... ( I)
2
(I A)
By conservation of momentum, (I A)
III 11'1 = 11/ 81'8 ....... (2) (I A)
(c) From (2).
0.5 x = - 1.5 Xl' S
Substitute 1'1 = into (I),
5 x 0.7 =..!.. [0.5 X + [.5 X I' s 2]
2
I"H ""' 1.08 ms I
1'1 ""-3 x 1.08 =-3.24 111 Si
The veloc ity of trolley A is 3.24 m 5 I
(Iowards the left). ( I i\)
The velocity of trolley /J is I.OS III 5 I
(Iowards the right). (lA)
10 (:I) Take the travelling direction or lhe bullet
after collision as positive.
Let A denote the bullet and /J denote the
block.
By conservalion of momentum.
lolal momentum before collision
::0: lotal momentum after coll isi on (IM)
11/ ,Ill +- IJIsll8 = (11/ , + II/R) x I'
0.0511 , + 0 = (0.05 + I) x 5
11
1
= 105 I11S-' (lA)
The speed oflhe hullet is 105 III 5 I just
before the collision.
" Oxford University Press 2009
2 Force .nd Hatlo
(b)
11 (a)
(b)
(c)
12
(" )
Average force
change in momentum
(lM)
time of impact
Ix(5 - 0) = 25 N
( lA)
0.2
The average force acting on the block by
the bullet is 25 N. in the travelling
direction of the bullet.
, ,
By t '- = 11- + 2(/:;.
(IM)
1/
2
== 0 + 2( IOX30 - 2.75)
1'= 23.3 m S i
( lA)
The velocity of the person when he just
arrives at the sur/acc of the cushion is
23.3 m SI .
Impulse = 1111' - /J/l1
(IVI)
= 50x (23.3 - 0)
= 1165Ns ( lA)
The impulse acting on the is
1165 N s.
Average forcc acting on the person
=
impulse
( lA)
timc of impact
Since the cushion can lengthen Ihe lime
of impact.
( lA)
the average force acting on the person
falling on the cushion is reduced so the
cushion reduces the chance of injury;
therefore it saves peoplc. ( lA)
According to Newton's third law of
motion.
( ")
whcn the men paddle. an action force
\\ hich is in backwards di rCClion acts on
the water by the paddles. (I A)
A reaction forcc which is in forwards
direction then acts on the paddles by the
water.
(I AI
Therefore, the boat can movc forwards
by paddling.
New Senio- Secondary Physics at Work
91
ha ter 5 Homentu
(b) 1' = /I "' ul=0 + 2x3 = 6ms 1
After aecclerating for 3 s.thc boat and
thc men travel at 6 m 5.
1
.
Change in KE of the team
I ,
= -(600 + 70 x22)x6-
2
= 38520J
A, er.lge POI' er
increase in KE
lime taken
" =52:::0
3
= 12840W
(I M)
(I M)
( lA)
The average power of the team in the
first 3 seconds is 12840 W.
(c) The tOlal momentum of the boat and the
athletes \\as zero when the boat was
parkcd at the pier
(I A)
By thc conscnatiOI1 of momentum.
when athletes mOlled forwards and
stepped on the pier. the boat would
moved hackwards \\ ith mOlllentum of
the same magnitude.
(lA)
Therefore. they need a rope to lix the
position of the boat before landing.
13 (3) Take the direl:tion lowards the right as
positive.
(i) Nct force on the waler ejected
1111
'
- 111//
(I M)
=
0.5 x (1O- 0)
= 5N
By Newton's 3rd law. the net force
(thrust) acting on thc rocket is 5 N
(towards the left). (I A)
Cl Oxford university Press 2009
(ii ) By conservation of momentum. (0) Air cushions lengthen the time of im[h1ct
momentum before launching for people falling from a height. (I A)
'" momentum after launching so il can reduce the force acting on the
o II/, V, + 111" 1',, (1:-'-1) people when they fall on the cushion and
0 = (2 - 0.5) x I'r + 5 reduce Ihe chance of injury.
1',=-3.33ms
1
(lA) (lA)
The rodet mme!> aI3.33 m s' 15 (a) The inilial vc1ocityof B is - 10 III 5-
1
towards the lefl. (I A)
(b) Since the thrust is less than the weight of and its final velocity is -3.5 m s r. (I A)
Ihe rocket. the rocket cannot ny up in air. (b) By conservation of momentum.
(I. \) total mOlllent um before collision
Any onc of the following modifications: = 10lal momenlum after collision (I M)
(I A)
1111111 + 11/8118 = 11/ rl' l 1118 " 1/
More water can be ejectcd. 0.2 x 20.,. 0.8 x (- 10)
Water can be ejected al a higher speed. ,--, 0.21' 1 + 0.8 x (- 3.5)
I.
(" )
The harder the plate. the shon("r the lime
" I'""-6ms
l
( lA)
ofimpacl. ( lA) The \ clocity of block A after collision is
(h) ( i) Yes. the momentum change of the
- 6 illS I,
ba1! in both arc the sa111e.( I A) (0) Change in momentum of block A
This is because Ihe \("Iocit) oflhe
11/ x ( 1'.1 - Ill)
ball just bclore colliding \\ ilh Ihe 0.2< (-6 -20)
platc depends on the height of = -5.2 kg m S-1
(lA)
release. h. \\ hich i!> the in From Figure h. the lime of impact is
both cases. And the \ eIOCII) j U!>1 0.5 s.
after collision is the same in both
change in momenlum
(lM) orce ""
cases. (I AI
lime of imp..1cl
(ii ) Force acting on an object F
- 5.2
._-
= change in momentum
0.5
time of impJcl
(lA)
- 10.4 N (lA)
Since the change in momentum of
A force of -\ 0.4 N acts on block A
the ball after b the same
during collision.
for both plates.
16 (,) ( ;) Take the direction oflhe final

I
and
\ elocity of the trolley as positive.
time of impact Change in momentum
I I '= 1111' - (- 1111') (IM)
FIwIl :F""r.""-'-
0.1 0.1
"" 21111' (I A)
"" 1 : I
(lA)
New Senior Secondary PhySiCS at Work 92 , Oxford University Press 2009
2 Force and Motio
Change in KE
I 2 I
=' -1/11'
2 2

(ii) Average force
= change in momentum
time of impact
21111'
(b) (i) Change in momentum

Change in KE
1 , I
= 0 - -1111'- =
2 2
(ii) Average force
= change in momcntum
time of impact
11/1'

2,
(IM)
(lA)
(IM)
(lA)
(I A)
(lA)
(I A)
(c) Momentum of the system is
not conserved in both (a)
:md (b).
(I A)
(I A)
Since the wall is fixed on the ground. the
ground exens a force on the wall in the
collisions and the momentum of the
trolley-\\all system is not cOlbervcd.
(lA)
The momentum ofa mechanical system
is conserved only ifno external force
exerts on the system.
(d) The collision in (a) is clastic and
the collision in (b) is inelastic.
( lA)
(I A)
Thi s is because the trolley in (a) does not
lose kinetic energy in collision while the
trolley in (b) loses kinet ic energy in the
collision. (lA)
New Senior Secondary Physics at Work 93
ha ter 5 Momentu
17 Take the downward direction as posi tive.
(a) By \ ,2 - Il = 20s. (IM)
- 0 = 2(10)5
.\.= 1.25 m (lA)
Gilbert jumps from a height of U5 lTl.
(b) Change in momentum
'" m(l - /I)
= 70 x (0-5)
= -350 l\' s
(I M)
( lA)
(c) A\erage net force
= change in momentum
time of impact
- 350
N
1.2
(I M)
(I A)
The:1\ erage net force acting on him
\\ hen he reaches the ground i s - 292 N.
(d) net force = force by the ground \\eight
(IM)
- 292 = F..,.. 700
r '"'--992N (I A)
The average force acting on him by the
ground is -992 N.
(c) l Ie bends his knecs to increasc the lime
of impact and hence reduce the loree
acti ng on him \\ hen he reaches the
ground. (I A)
18 (a) Before Ihe impact. the velocity orthe
(b)
(I A)
After the impact. the \'c locity of the ball
0.36ms 1.
Impulse = IJIV-1/I1/
= 0.2 x (- 0.36 0.42)
(lA)
(IM)
= -O.156Ns (lA)
impulse
(c) Avemge force = (IM)
time of impact
-0. 156
1.75 1.6
=-I.04N (lA)
() Oxford Uni versity Press 2009
2 Force and Motio
I. (a)
(b)
20 (u)
(b)
(,)
,,,
"
tI ' "J
By conservation ofmomcntulTI.
momcntum before the actor reaches the
m
= momentum after the actor reaches the
car
(I")
1000 x 20 = (1000 + 75) I '
1' = IS.6ms I (I A)
The speed of the car is [8.6 m S-I when
the actor reaches the car.
Increase in KE
I , , 4
(lM) =-x 75 x(,,--18.6-)= 10
2
,, =:: 24.8 ms- I
( lA)
Impulse = Ill\> - 11111
( I")
= 75 x (24.8 - 18.6)
= 465Ns ( lA)
The impulse on the actor is 465 N s.
Area under the graph
I
=- x 0.15 x 25 000
,
=1875Ns (I A)
The area under graph in (a) is the
impulse experienced by the driH'r. (l A)
(Or it is the change in momentum oflhe
dri,'er.)
(The largest force experienced b ~ the
driver becomes 8 3 3 0 ~ . onc-third of the
original force.)
" A)
New Senior Secondary Physics at Work 94
ha er 5 Momentu
(The impact timc of the driver and the
windscreen becomes OA5 s. three times
the original impact time.) (1 A)
21 (a) Assume their velocity after the collision
is as shown belo\\.
y
;
,
A Sms " (}
"---'-"'-'--- --1' - - - - - - - - .... x
60 kg
8 70 kg
Along .\"-a.\is:
By consenation of momentum. (I M)
60 x 5 = (60 + 70) x I'COS 0
30
I'COS 0 =- .. ..(1)
13
Alony-axis:
By conservation of momentum.
70 x 6 = (60 + 70) x "sin 0
I ' sin 0=_ 42 ......... (2)
13
(2) + (1),
42
tan 0 =-
30
0 = 54.5
0
From (I):
1" cos 54.5
30
13
(I A)
I ' 3.97 m S-I (lA)
Their velocity is 3.97 m Sl, at an angle
of 54. 5 to thc original direction orA.
(b) Total loss in kineti c energy
=c x60x5
2
+ ~ X70
X
6
2
)
-G x 130 X3. 97
1
)
(I M)
= 986 J (lA)
10 Oxford University Press 2009
2 Force and Motio
22 (:1) (i) The shaded area is the impulse
acting on the force sensor. (lA)
(ii) Let F be the average force acting
on the force sensor.
From the graph.
t ime of impact
= 3.021 - 3.012
"'- 9x10
1
s (lM)
Impulse = arl!a under F- I graph
Impulse = FI
0.24457 = F x 9 x 10 .1
F = 27.2N (I A)
An average force 01'27.2 N
(towards the right) acts on the force
sensor by the trolley during the
impact.
(iii) The average force acting on the
force sensor by the trolley and the
average lorce acting on thc trolley
by the force sensor lonn an
action-and-reaction pair. ( lA)
By Newton's third law.lhese
forces have the same magnitude
but in opposi te direction. i.e. the
average force acting on the trolley
by the force sensor is also 27.2 N
(towards the Jell). (lA)
(h) Figures nand 0 show that soil/elastic
materials tend to have a longer time of
imp..1ct and a smaller maximum force of
impact. (lA)
For mbbcr plungcr.
avcmge force acting on the iorce sensor
change in momentum
I ime of impact
,,"",0'0-2:c
7
-, 4c-
6S
,=
2.570 - 2.550
= 13.7 N
New Senior Secondary Physics at Work
(I A)
95
ha ter 5 Momentu
It is smaller than that by the steel plunger
in (a)( ii).
I f a man is knocked down by a car. with
the same change in momentum of the
man. the average force acting on the
man \,ould be smaller if the bumper is
softer. (lA)
A::. a result. the injury caused to the Illan
can be reduced and a softer bumper is
safer to the public. (1 A)
23 (a) (i ) Before the impact (i.e. whell
1 < 2.50 s). trolley IJ moves towards
the len \\ ith an average speed of
about0,42ms-
l
. (lA)
During the impact (i.e. from
r = 2.50 s to f '" 2.75 s). trolley B
decelerates. It becomes
momentarily at rest at f ~ 2.66 s
(I A)
and then ren'rses its travelling
direction. (I A)
Afterthe impact (i.e. when
f > 2.75 s). trolley B trtl\ els at
about -0.15 m s l. (lA)
(The acceptable range of time of
impact is from 1 = 2.50- 2.52 s to
1 = 2.75- 2.8 s)
(ii) From Figure r. the time ofill1pact
of trolley is (2.75 s- 2.5 s) = 0.25 s.
( IM)
A \ crage force
change in momentum
time of impact
I .38x (- 0.15 - 0.42)
0.25
=-3.15 N
Cl Oxford University Press 2009
2 Force and Motio
The average force acting on trolley
B is 3.15 N (towards the right).
(lA)
(b) In Figure q, the velocity of trolley A
changes from 0.55 m S 1 to - 0.55 ms-
I
.
A "crage forcc acting 011 A by B
= changc in momentum
timeofimpact
O.69x(- 0.55 - 0.55)
0.25
=-3.04 N
The avcragc force acting on trolley A is
3.04 N (towards the left). (lA)
Within c.\.pcrimental error. the a\ ('rage
force acting 011 A by 13 has the same
magnitude but in the opposite direction
as the average force acting on B
(lA)
Therefore. the experimental i!> in
accordance with Newton s third la\\.
(I A )
24 (:1) (i) The trollcy accel erates from rest
down the runwa). I1 hits the force
sensor at 0.50 m S- I and
The collision bet\\ een the
and the force sensor is ineLhllc.
, lA)
(i i) The shaded area rcpresenb the
impulse of the force. '1.-\ )
(iii) From the F-I graph. time ofimpacl
= 1.544 - 1.531
= 0.013 s
A verage force
area under the cun e
time of impact
0.31
0.013
= 23.8 N
New Senior Secondary Physics at Work
, I \1)
( 1.\)
96
ha ter 5 Momentum
(b) (i) The trolley accelerates from rest
down the runway. It collides with
the force sensor with a velocity of
0.43 m S-I and rebounds with
- 0.36 ms-I . (lA)
The collision is inelast ic because
the trolley rebounds at a smaller
velocity.
(ii) Time of impact
..,. 1.65 - 1.60 = 0.05 s
Average force
area undcr the curve
time of impact
0.44

0.05
- 8.8 N
(lA)
( lA)
(ii i) As compared with the collision
wit h plasticinc. the collision with <l
spring has a longer time of impact
and a smaller average force. It is
closer to an clastic collision. (2A)
25 (3) Perpendicular to the initial travelling
direction of the ball:
By conservation of momentum. (I M)
0 = M/lV
lI
sin 12.0" + MI'VI' sin 36.0"
0 = 5.90 x VB sin 12.0"-
JIf" x 3.30 si n 36.0"
V
lI
= 1.58MI' ...... . . ( I)
Along the initialtr:lvelling direction of
the ball:
By consen'ation ofll1omentum.
Jl-f/jV = MRV
B
cos 12.0" + MpVpcos 36.0
5.90 x 3.00 = 5.90 X V/I cos t 2.0
0
+
'\(" x 3.30 cos 36.0"
17.7 = 5.77V8 + 2.67MI' ... (2)
Substitute (I) into (2):
17.7 = 5.77(I.S8M,,) - 2.67M,.
Mp = 1.S0kg (lA)
Cl Oxford University Press 2009
2 Force and Motio ha ter 5 Momentum
(b) Substitute Mp = 1.50 kg into (I): (Hi) Mean resistance force
VB = 1.58M" (IM)
_ change in momentum
( IM)
= 1.58 x 1.50
time
= 2.37ms I
(lA)
60,(0-3.67)
4.0
(0) Total kinetic energy before collision
= -55. 1 N (lA)
I 1
= - M !lV- =- x 5.90x 3.00- = 26.)5 J
The mean resistive force acting on
2 2
Total kinetic energy aftcr collision
them is 55.1 N towards the left .
I ,I ,
(i\') It is invalid because the external
= 2MBVs- +
2
MI'VI'-
force is not negligible. (lA)
_ I ? I _ .2
--x5.90 x_.37 + - xl. )0x3.30
2 2
27 (a) By conservation of momentum. (lA)
11/ X 10 = 1//1'/ ... 11/1'8
= 24.7 J
( l A)
1'/ + I 'B= 10
(Correct calculations) (IM)
(b)
0)
If Ihey stick together on coHision,
Since the total kinetic cnergy ofthc ball
v/ = 1'8.
and pin before collision is not cqualto
Then.
that after collision, the collision is
1'.0/-0. VB = 10
inelastic. (lA)
. .,
:::> 1'..1 = I 'B = ) m s (lA)
26 (a) The IOtal momentum of the system is
(ii) Original KE
conserved. (lA)

provided that there is no external nct
1
force acting on the system. (lA)
Final KE
(b) (I) Total momentum before collision I
, ,
= -1111' ... -mvIJ
= IOtal momentum after collision
2 A
1
(IM)
1 . ' 1 .'
=- IIIX)- +- IIIX)-
2 2
20 x 8 + 40 x 1.5 =601' (IM)
1' = 3.67 III S-l
= 25111
"" 3.7 m S- l (I A)
(Correct calculations for both KE)
( ii) Mean force
(1 M)
change in momentum
Fraction of original KE lost
timeo!" impact
(IM)
50111- 25111 I
(lA)

50111 2
0.50
(0)
0)
1'1 = 0, VB= 10 m S-l (lA)
= - 173 N (lA)
(ii) The total KE is the same before
The mean force acting on the left
and aftcr collision. (lA)
hand trolley is 173 N towards the
lcft.
New Senior Secondary Physics at Wo rk 97 Oxford University Press 2009
2 force and Motlo
(i ii) Steel is 'hard" so collisions arc
elastic. ( lA)
A passes on momentum to B. then
B to C. Cto D. 1) toE. In each
si ngle collisi on. all the momentum
is transferred. (lA)
Therefore. A. B. C and D are left
stat ionary. and E gets the
momentum and s\\ ings. ( lA)
28 (11) (i) Impulse or change inmornentum.
( l A)
(ii) Change in momentum
= shaded area
(i i i)
= 1.6x 1.7 = 1.361\' s
,
(1:0.1)
Since the kinetic encrg) of the ball
after the collision is the !)arlle as it
was before collision. the
magniludes of momentum before
and after collision arc the same.
(] \1)
Initial momentum orl he ball
=..!.-xI.36 = 0.68," s !lA)
,
momentum
ot-------
0.5 1.0 t 5 2.0
""
(Not linear) (I A.J
(From negati\ e to posili\e. \\ ilh
same magnitude bd'ore and after
collision)
1I AI
(b) Television set in ) is more l i " e l ~ to
survive without damage. f 1. \ )
New Senior Secondary Physics at Work 98
ha teT 5 Momentu
Package Yhas a longer time of impact.
( I A)
With the same change in momentum in
each case. (lA)
the force experienced by the television
set in Y is smaller.
(For efTecli\ e communication)
( lA)
(IC)
29 (IIKCEE 2007 Paper I Q9)
30 (:I) (i) Total momentum before collision =
total momentum after collision
0.60 x 40 = 0.60 x 35 + 0.045v
(b )
(1 M)
)' = 66.7 III Si (lA)
The veloci ty oflhe ball after the
coll ision is 66.7 m s I towards the
right.
(i i) The Principle of Conservation of
Momentum is nOI applicable if
there is an external net force acting
on the system (the ball and
cl ub-head). (lA)
During the collision. the golfcr
applies force on his club. \\ hich is
an external force to the system.
Total KE before collision
I ,
=-- xO. 60 x40-
2
= 480 J
Total KE after collision
I ,I ,
=- xO.60x35- +-xO.045x 66.7
2 2
= 468 J
( l A)
( lA)
(lA)
The total KE aftcr collision is smaller
than that before collis ion. Therefore.
kinetic energy is lost in the collision.
(I A)
o Oxford University Press 2009
2 Force and Motio
(c) By Newton's second 1,1\\. (lA)
" chan\!em momentum (IM)
mean lorce = - ,
lime laken

1.5x 10-.
1
= 2001 "'"
Physics in articles (p. 272)
(a) li lengthens the time of impact during
collision.
This reduces the force acting on the
passcngcr.
(b) The mass of the object and
the time of impact.
( lA)
(lA)
(lA)
(lA)
(For estimation. the final velocity of the
object is usually taken to be 7ero. Ifmore
precise result is needed. the final velocity
should also be known.)
(c) (i) 11 = 331 km h-
t
= 92.2 III s I (I M)
F= m(v - II) (IM)
I
0.l x (O _331)
3.6
0.1
= - 92.1 N (I A)
The average force acting on the object is
92.2 N.
(H) The air bag bursts at a very high speed.
When it hits the baby. the force on the
baby is so large tha! may severely injure
it. (lA)
New Senior Secondary PhySiCS at Work
ha ter 5 Momentu
99 e Oxford University Press 2009
2 Force and Motion Chapter 6 Projectile Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

1
6 Projectile Motion

Practice 6.1 (p. 286)
1 D
In the horizontal direction:
t =
u
s
x
=
5
10
=2 s
In the vertical direction:
v
y
= gt = 10 2 = 20 m s
1

Its vertical speed is 20 m s
1
.
2 C
3 C
4 In the horizontal direction:

x x
u v = = 20 m s
1

In the vertical direction:
v
y
= gt = 10 4 = 40 m s
1

Speed of the object after 4 s
=
2 2
y x
v v + =
2 2
40 20 + = 44.7 m s
1

5 (a) The aeroplane and the bomb travel in the
same horizontal velocity. Therefore, at
the moment when the first bomb hits the
ground, the aeroplane is right above the
impact point.
In vertical direction:
s
y
=
2
2
1
gt =
2
15 10
2
1
=1125 m
Therefore, at that moment, the aeroplane
is 1125 m right above the impact point.
(b) Distance between the successive impact
points of the bombs on the ground
= 1
6 . 3
720
= 200 m
6 (a) In the horizontal direction:
t =
u
s
x
=
60
30
= 0.5 s
In the vertical direction:
s
y
=
2
2
1
gt =
2
5 . 0 10
2
1
= 1.25 m
The arrow drops 1.25 m over this range.
(b) The archer should aim above the target.
(c) s
y
=
2
2
1
gt =
2
2
1

u
s
g
x
=
2
2
1
2
1

u
gs
x

The vertical distance fell is inversely
proportional to the square of the release
speed. When the release speed is
reduced by half (from 60 m s
1
to
30 m s
1
), the distance fell is four times
as calculated in (a), i.e. 1.25 4 = 5 m.

Practice 6.2 (p. 295)
1 D
2 A
3 (a) Greatest height
=
g
u
2
sin
2 2

=
10 2
30 sin 25
2 2


= 7.81 m
(b) By s
y
= ( )
2
2
1
sin gt t u ,
0 =( )
2
10
2
1
30 sin 25 t t
t t 5 . 12 5
2
= 0
t = 0 (rejected) or 2.5 s
The time of flight of the object is 2.5 s.
(c) The time need for the object to reach its
highest point = 25 . 1 5 . 2
2
1
= s
4 (a) Best possible distance
=
g
u
2
=
10
25
2
= 62.5 m
2 Force and Motion Chapter 6 Projectile Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

2
(b) s
x
= 5 . 62
2
1
= 31.25 m
By s
x
=
g
u 2 sin
2
,
31.25 =
10
2 sin 25
2


sin 2 = 0.5
2 = 30 or 150
= 15 or 75
The angle of elevation is 15 or 75.
5 Along the horizontal direction:
u
x
=
t
s
x
=
5
45
= 9 m s
1

Along the vertical direction:
By s
y
= u
y
t
2
2
1
gt ,
0 = u
y
5
2
5 10
2
1

u
y
= 25 m s
1

u =
2 2
y x
u u + =
2 2
25 9 + = 26.6 m s
1

tan =
x
y
u
u
=
9
25
= 70.2
His initial velocity is 26.6 m s
1
at an angle of
70.2 to the ground.
6 (a) Maximum height = 8 . 1
2
sin
2 2
+
g
u

= 8 . 1
10 2
30 sin 20
2 2
+



= 6.8 m
The maximum height that the volleyball
can reach is 6.8 m.
(b) By s
y
= ( )
2
2 2
cos 2
tan
x x
s
u
g
s

,
1.8 =( )


30 cos 20 2
10
30 tan
2 2
2
x
x
s
s
0.016 67s
x
2
0.5774 s
x
1.8 = 0
Solving the quadratic equation, we have
s
x
= 37.5 m or 2.88 m (rejected)
The horizontal distance AB is 37.5 m.
Revision exercise 6
Multiple-choice (p. 298)
1 A
Along the vertical direction:
By s
y
=
2
2
1
gt t u
y
,
10 = 0
2
10
2
1
t
t = 1.414 s
Minimum speed
= minimum u
x
=
414 . 1
20
= 14.1 m s
1
The minimum speed of the car to reach the
lower bridge is 14.1 m s
1
.
2 A
3 (HKALE 2004 Paper II Q3)
4 (HKALE 2006 Paper II Q3)

Conventional (p. 299)
1 (a) Range =
g
u 2 sin
2
(1M)
70 =
10
2 sin 80
2


= 3.14 or 86.9 (rejected) (1A)
The angle of projection should be
3.14.
(b) From R =
g
u 2 sin
2
, when u increases
and R needs to be kept constant, (1A)
should be decreased. (1A)
(c)

Player B releases the arrow at a higher
position than player A. (1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 6 Projectile Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

3
With all conditions being the same,
player Bs arrow would travel a longer
horizontal distance (s
x
) when reaching
the same level of the target as shown
above. (1A)
To reduce s
x
, the angle of projection
should be smaller, i.e. he should aim at a
lower position above the target. (1A)
2 (a) Along the vertical direction:
By s
y
=
2
2
1
gt t u
y
, (1M)
30 = 10 sin 30 t
2
10
2
1
t
5t
2
5t 30 = 0
t = 3 s or 2 s (rejected) (1A)
(b) Along the horizontal direction:
R = u
x
t (1M)
= 10 cos 30 3
= 26.0 m (1A)
The distance R of point P from the foot
of the cliff is 26.0 m.
(c) Horizontal component of v
P

= u
x
= 10 cos 30 = 8.66 m s
1
(1M)
Vertical component of v
P

= u
y
gt
= 10 sin 30 10 3
= 25 m s
1
(1M)
Velocity v
P

= ( )
2 2
25 66 . 8 + = 26.5 m s
1
(1A)
tan =
66 . 8
25

= 70.9 (1A)
The velocity v
P
of the stone is 26.5 m s
1

at 70.9 to the horizontal.
(d) Greatest height H
=
g
u
2
sin
2 2

+ 30 (1M)
=
10 2
30 sin 10
2 2


+ 30
= 31.25 m (1A)
The greatest height H above the ground
reached by the stone is 31.25 m.
3 Let v be the speed when the boy is projected.
By the law of conservation of energy,
loss in PE = gain in KE (1M)
mgh =
2
2
1
mv
v = ( ) 1 5 10 2 2 = gh = 8.94 m s
1
(1M)
Consider the projectile motion afterwards.
By s
y
= ( )
2
2 2
cos 2
tan
x x
s
u
g
s

, (1M)
1 =( )
2
2 2
0 cos 94 . 8 2
10
0 tan d d


d = 4.00 m (1A)
4 (a) By s
y
= ( )
2
2 2
cos 2
tan
x x
s
u
g
s

,(1M)
2.43 2 = (tan 30)(12)

30 cos 2
12 10
2 2
2
u

u = 12.2 m s
1
(1A)
(b) Take the direction to the right as
positive.
Along the horizontal direction:
v
x
= u
x

= 12.2 cos 30 (1M)
= 10.6 m s
1
(1A)
Take the upward direction as positive.
Along the vertical direction:
v
y
2
u
y
2
= 2as
y
(1M)
v
y
2
(12.2 sin 30)
2
= 2 (10) (2)
v
y
= 8.79 m s
1
(1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 6 Projectile Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

4
The vertical velocity is 8.79 m s
1

(downwards) and the horizontal velocity
is 10.6 m s
1
(towards right).
(c) Along the vertical direction:
By v
y
= u
y
gt,
t =
g
u v
y y



10
30 sin 2 . 12 79 . 8


=
= 1.49 s (1A)
Horizontal distance travelled
= u
x
t = 10.6 1.49 = 15.8 m (1A)
Since the horizontal distance travelled
by the volleyball (15.8 m) is shorter than
the distance AD (21 m), (1A)
the ball falls within the court on the
opposite side. (1A)
5 (a) Speed of the ball when it is released
= speed of the car
= 70 km h
1

=
6 . 3
70
= 19.44 m s
1
= 19.4 m s
1
(1A)
(b) Height of the ball
= vertical distance travelled by the car
= 19.44 sin 30 10 (1M)
= 97.2 m (1A)
The height of the ball above the ground
when it is released is 97.2 m.
(c) Horizontal distance travelled before
released
= 19.44 cos 30 10 = 168 m (1M)
Consider the motion after the ball is
released.
Along the vertical direction:
By s
y
=( )
2
2 2
cos 2
tan
x x
s
u
g
s

,
97.2 =( )
x
s 30 tan

2
2 2
30 cos 44 . 19 2
10
x
s


0.0176 s
x
2
0.577 s
x
97.2 = 0
Solving the quadratic equation, we have
s
x
= 92.5 m or 59.7 m (rejected) (1M)
Distance XY = 168 + 92.5
= 260.5 m (1A)
(d) Take the direction to the left as positive.
Along the horizontal direction:
v
x
= u
x

= 19.44 cos 30 (1M)
= 16.8 m s
1
(1A)
Take the downward direction as
positive.
Along the vertical direction:
v
y
2
u
y
2
= 2as
y
(1M)
v
y
2
(19.44 sin 30)
2
= 2(10)(97.2)
v
y
= 45.1 m s
1
(1A)
The horizontal velocity is 16.8 m s
1

(towards left) and the vertical velocity is
45.1 m s
1
(downwards).
6 (HKALE 2000 Paper I Q1)
7 (HKALE 2003 Paper I Q7)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 7 Uniform Circular Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

1
7 Uniform Circular Motion

Practice 7.1 (p. 308)
1 D
2 A
3 Angular speed
=
t

=
20
5 . 1
= 0.2356 = 0.236 rad s
1

Linear speed
= r = 28 0.2356 = 6.60 m s
1
4 (a) The angular speeds of Peter, Paul and
Mary are the same.
Angular speed
=
60 60 24
2

= 7.27 10
5
rad s
1

(b) Linear speed of Peter
= r
= (6400 10
3
) (7.27 10
5
)
= 465 m s
1

Linear speed of Paul
= r
= (6400 10
3
cos 60) (7.27 10
5
)
= 233 m s
1

Linear speed of Mary
= r
= 0 (7.27 10
5
)
= 0
5 (a) Angular velocity
=
60 127
2

= 8.25 10
4
rad s
1

(b) Linear velocity v
= r
= [(1740 + 200) 10
3
] (8.25 10
4
)
= 1600 m s
1
(c) Centripetal acceleration required
=
r
v
2
=
( )
3
2
10 200 1740
1600
+
= 1.32 m s
2

Practice 7.2 (p. 324)
1 D
2 B
Centripetal force =
r
mv
2

Weight of the aircraft = mg

weight
force l centripeta
=
mg r
mv 1
2

=
gr
v
2

=
) 10 10 ( 10
200
3
2


= 0.4
3 A
tan =
gr
v
2
= 0.4
= 21.8
4 D
Corresponding to the dry road, we have:
f
max
=
r
mv
2
max

The maximum frictional force is
2
max
f
on wet
road.

2
max
f
=
2
1
2
max

r
mv
=
r
v
m
2
max
2


Therefore, the maximum safe speed when the
road is wet
=
2
30
= 21.2 m s
1

5 (a) Vertical component of tension
= weight of the mass
T cos = mg
T cos 20 = 0.8 10
T = 8.51 N
2 Force and Motion Chapter 7 Uniform Circular Motion

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2
The tension of the string is 8.51 N.
(b) Centripetal force on the mass
= T sin 20 = 8.51 sin 20 = 2.91 N
(c) Centripetal force =
r
mv
2
= 2.91

20 sin 5 . 1
8 . 0
2
v
= 2.91
v = 1.37 m s
1
The speed of the mass is 1.37 m s
1
.
6 Horizontal component which provides the
centripetal force:
R sin =
r
mv
2
(1)
Vertical component which balances the
weight:
R cos = mg (2)
(1) (2):
tan =
rg
v
2

tan 30 =
10 20
2

v

v = 10.7 m s
1

The maximum speed is 10.7 m s
1
.
7 Angular speed of the pendulum
= 2 0.5 = rad s
1

Horizontal component which provides the
centripetal force:
T sin = mr
2

T sin = 0.4 (2 sin )
2
T = 7.90 N
Vertical component which balances the
weight:
T cos = mg
7.90 cos = 0.4 10
= 59.6
8 (a) Normal reaction
= weight of the rider and the motorcycle
= mg = 500 10 = 5000 N
(b) Frictional force
= centripetal force
=
r
mv
2
=
20
15 500
2

= 5625 N
(c) tan =
N
f

tan =
5000
5625

= 48.4
The angle that the motorcycle makes
with the vertical is 48.4.

Revision exercise 7
Multiple-choice (p. 327)
1 B
2 D
3 D
Centripetal force = mr
2

For A and B, the values of m and are both
the same, and r
B
= 2r
A
.
Therefore, centripetal force for B is twice that
for A.
Centripetal for A = T
1
T
2

Centripetal for B = T
2

Then we have:
T
2
= 2 (T
1
T
2
)
3T
2
= 2T
1


2
1
T
T
=
2
3

4 (HKALE 2000 Paper II Q11)
5 (HKALE 2006 Paper II Q4)
6 (HKALE 2007 Paper II Q4)

Conventional (p. 328)
1 (a) Angular speed of the Earth
=
60 60 24 26 . 365
2

(1M)
= 1.99 10
7
rad s
1
(1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 7 Uniform Circular Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

3
(b) Linear speed of the Earth
= r (1M)
= (1.50 10
11
) (1.99 10
7
)
= 2.99 10
4
m s
1
(1A)
(c) Centripetal force required
= mr
2
(1M)
= (5.98 10
24
)(1.5 10
11
) (1.99 10
7
)
2
= 3.55 10
22
N (1A)
2 (a) The tension in the string provides the
centripetal acceleration of mass m. (1A)
(b) Centripetal force =
r
mv
2
= T

r
mv
2
= Mg (1A)
v =
m
Mgr
(1A)
(c) No (1A)
3 Angular speed
=
60 60 5 . 0
2

= 3.49 10
3
rad s
1
(1M)
Centripetal force required
= mr
2

= 400 50 (3.49 10
3
)
2

= 0.244 N (1M)
For the cart at the lowest point of the circle:
F mg = 0.244
F 400 10 = 0.244
F = 4000.244 N (1A)
The force supporting the cart at the lowest
point of the circle is 4000.244 N (upwards).
For the cart at the highest point of the circle:
mg F = 0.244
400 10 F = 0.244
F = 3999.756 N (1A)
The force supporting the cart at the highest
point of the circle is 3999.756 N (upwards).
4 (a) Let r be the minimum radius of the path.

r
v
2
= 6g (1M)

( )
r
2
340 2
= 6 10
r = 7710 m (1A)
The minimum radius is 7710 m.
(b) Let be the angle of banking.
tan =
gr
v
2
(1M)
tan = 6
= 80.5 (1A)
The angle of banking is 80.5.
(c) The apparent weight of the pilot is the
normal reaction R acting on him by the
seat.
R cos = mg (1M)
R cos 80.5 = 65 10
R = 3940 N (1A)
The apparent weight of the pilot in the
turn is 3940 N.
5 Centripetal force = m
1
r
2

For maximum value of r (= r
max
):
m
2
g +
s
m
1
g = m
1
r
max

2
(1M)
m 10 + 0.5 m 10 = m r
max
6
2
10 + 5 = 36r
max

r
max
= 0.417 m (1A)
For minimum value of r (= r
min
):
m
2
g
s
m
1
g = m
1
r
min

2
(1M)
m 10 0.5 m 10 = m r
min
6
2
10 5 = 36r
min

r
min
= 0.139 m (1A)
6 (a) When there is no friction,
tan =
gr
v
2
(1M)
tan 30 =
100 10
2

v

v = 24.0 m s
1
(1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 7 Uniform Circular Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

4
(b) (i)

(Weight) (1A)
(Normal reaction) (1A)
(Friction) (1A)
(ii) Along vertical direction:
N cos 30 f sin 30 mg = 0
N = f tan 30 +
30 cos
mg
(1)
(1M)
Along radial direction:
N sin 30 + f cos 30 =
r
mv
2
(2)
(1M)
Substitute (1) into (2):
(f tan 30 +
30 cos
mg
)sin 30
+ f cos 30 =
r
mv
2

f (tan 30 sin 30 + cos 30) =

100
0 . 48 700
2

700 10 tan 30
f = 10 500 N (1A)
The value of the frictional force f is
10 500 N.
7 When a motorcyclist is turning around a
corner, frictional force acting on the wheels
provides the centripetal force and also gives a
turning moment on the motorcycle. (1A)
To avoid overturning, the motorcyclist has to
lean inwards as shown in the free-body
diagram below. (1A)

(Correct diagram) (1A)
In equilibrium,
tan =
gr
v
2
(1A)
According to the equation above, the higher
the speed v, the larger the angle , i.e. the
motorcyclist leans closer to the ground. (1A)
8 (a) Consider v = r. Since B and C have the
same v and r
B
< r
C
,
B
>
C
. (1A)
Meanwhile, the angular speed of A and
B are the same. Therefore, the angular
speed of C is slower than that of A. This
means that A will overtake C. (1A)
(b) Consider a = r
2
. Since r
A
> r
B
and
A
=

B
, A has a higher centripetal
acceleration than B. (1A)
On the other hand, consider a =
r
v
2
.
Since r
B
< r
C
and v
B
= v
C
, B has a higher
centripetal acceleration than C. (1A)
Therefore, A has the highest acceleration
(1A)
and C has the lowest. (1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 7 Uniform Circular Motion

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5
(c) Linear speed of B = 5 m s
1
(1A)
Angular speed of B
=
B
B
r
v
=
25
5
= 0.2 rad s
1
(1A)
Acceleration of B
=
B
B
r
v
2
=
25
5
2
= 1 m s
2
(1A)
Angular speed of A
= angular speed of B = 0.2 rad s
1
(1A)
Linear speed of A
= r
A

A

= (25 + 11) 0.2
= 7.2 m s
1
(1A)
Acceleration of A
= r
A

A
2

= (25 + 11) 0.2
2

= 1.44 m s
2
(1A)
Linear speed of C
= linear speed of B = 5 m s
1
(1A)
Angular speed of C
=
c
c
r
v
=
11 25
5
+
= 0.139 rad s
1
(1A)
Acceleration of C
=
c
c
r
v
2
=
11 25
5
2
+
= 0.694 m s
2
(1A)
(d) Centripetal force
= mass centripetal acceleration
From (b), we have centripetal
acceleration of A > B > C. (1A)
Since the athletes have the same mass,
centripetal force of A > B > C. (1A)
(e) The centripetal forces are provided by
the frictional force between the feet of
the athletes and the ground. (1A)
9 (a)

(Upthrust) (1A)
(Air resistance) (1A)
(Weight) (1A)
(Pushing force) (1A)
upthrust = weight (1A)
air resistance = pushing force (1A)
(b) (i) The horizontal component of
upthrust provides the centripetal
acceleration of the aircraft. (1A)
(ii) Along vertical direction:
U cos = mg (1)
Along radial direction:
U sin =
r
mv
2
(2)
(2) (1):
tan =
gr
v
2
=
) 10 15 ( 10
200
3
2

(1M)
= 14.9 (1A)
The angle of banking is 14.9.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 7 Uniform Circular Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

6
10 (a)

(Correct direction of v

) (1A)
(Correctly using tip-to-tail method)(1A)
The direction of acceleration of the steel
ball is the same as the direction of v

in
the figure above, pointing towards the
centre. (1A)
(b)

(Tension) (1A)
(Weight) (1A)
(c) (i) Along vertical direction:
T cos = mg (1M)
T cos 60 = 7 10
T = 140 N (1A)
(ii) Centripetal force
= radial component of tension
= T sin (1M)
= 140 sin 60
= 121 N (1A)
The centripetal force acting on the
steel ball is 121 N.
(iii) Centripetal force = mr
2
= 121
(1M)
7 (1.2 sin 60)
2
= 121
= 4.08 rad s
1
(1A)
The angular speed of the steel ball
is 4.08 rad s
1
.
(iv) We have:
T cos = mg(1)
T sin = mr
2

= m(L sin )
2

T = mL
2
(2)
Substitute (2) into (1):
(mL
2
)cos = mg (1M)
cos =
L
g
2

(1M)
increases as the metal ball rotates
faster and faster, i.e. increases,
increases. (1A)
11 (a) For the same angular distance on the
curved tracks, the outer tracks are longer
than the inner ones since their radii of
curvature are larger. (1A)
If the starting lines are all aligned,
athletes will need to run different lengths
of track. This makes the race unfair.(1A)
(b) Let r
1
and r
2
be the radius of curvature
from the midde of tracks 1 and 2 to the
centre of the circular path, respectively.
r
1
= 100
r
1
=

100
(1M)
r
2
= r
1
+ 1 =

100
+ 1 (1M)
r
2
= 100 (1M)
=
1

100
100
+
= 3.05 rad = 175 (1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 7 Uniform Circular Motion

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7
(c) For the athlete running on track 1:

1
=
1
1
r
v
(1M)

100
10
=
= 0.314 rad s
1
(1A)
For the athlete running on track 2:

2
=
2
2
r
v
(1M)

1

100
10
+
=
= 0.305 rad s
1
(1A)
12 While stopping along the straight line, the
motion of the car can be described by
v
2
u
2
= 2as
where v = 0, u = v
0
and s = r
a =
r
v
2
2
0


Therefore, the frictional force between the
road and the car is
r
mv
2
2
0
. (1A)
While turning at the corner along a circular
path, the centripetal force is provided by the
frictional force. (1A)
Centripetal force required by the car
r
mv
2
0
= >
r
mv
2
2
0
(1A)
The centripetal required is larger than the
frictional force between the road and the car.
The car will skid and be in danger. Therefore,
the man should not attempt to take the turn.
(1A)
13 (a) Angular velocity
=
10
2
(1M)
= 0.6283 rad s
1
= 0.628 rad s
1
(1A)
The angular velocity of the player is
0.628 rad s
1
.
(b)

(Force exerted by the chain) (1A)
(Weight) (1A)
(c) The centripetal force is provided by the
horizontal component of the force
exerted by the chain. (1A)
(d) (i) Vertical component which balances
the weight:
T cos = mg(1) (1M)
Horizontal component which
provides the centripetal force:
T sin = mr
2
(1M)
T sin = m(l sin )
2

T = ml
2
(2) (1M)
Substitute (2) into (1):
ml
2
cos = mg
cos =
l
g
2

=
28 6283 . 0
10
2


= 25.2 (1A)
(ii) Tangential speed
= r (1M)
= (28 sin 25.2)(0.6283)
= 7.49 m s
1
(1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 7 Uniform Circular Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

8
The tangential speed of the player
is 7.49 m s
1
.
(iii) Centripetal force required
= mr
2
(1M)
= (70)(28 sin 25.2)(0.6283)
2

= 329 N (1A)
The centripetal force required to
keep the player in circular motion
is 329 N.
(e) No, the student is wrong. (1A)
From (d)(i), we have derived that:
cos =
l
g
2

(1A)
The angle is independent of the mass
of the seat-player system. (1A)
Since the angular velocity and the
length l are the same for all seats, all
seats including the empty one will make
the same angle with the post.
(f) Recall the equation (2) in (d)(i):
T = ml
2
(1M)
When the tension is 1400 N,
1400 = (60 + 10) 28
2
(1M)
= 0.845 rad s
1
(1A)
The maximum angular speed that can be
used is 0.845 rad s
1
.
(g) At frequency 0.11 cycles per second,
angular speed
= 0.11 2
= 0.691 rad s
1
(1M)
Therefore, the angular speed should not
be higher than 0.691 rad s
1
.
From (d)(i), we have
cos =
l
g
2

(1M)
When angle is 30,
cos 30 =
28
10
2


= 0.642 rad s
1
(1M)
Therefore, the angular speed should not
be higher than 0.642 rad s
1
.
From the two constraints, we can
conclude that the maximum angular
speed that can be used is 0.642 rad s
1
.
(1A)
14 (a)

Along vertical direction:
(N
1
+ N
2
)cos 35 mg
(f
1
+ f
2
)sin 35 = 0 (1M)
(N
1
+ N
2
)cos 35 mg
(N
1
+ N
2
)sin 35 = 0
N
1
+ N
2
=
35 sin 35 cos
mg
(1)
Along horizontal direction:
(N
1
+ N
2
)sin 35 +
(f
1
+ f
2
)cos 35 =
r
mv
2
(1M)
(N
1
+ N
2
)sin 35 +
(N
1
+ N
2
)cos 35 =
r
mv
2

N
1
+ N
2
=
( ) + 35 cos 35 sin
2
r
mv
(2)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 7 Uniform Circular Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

9
Substitute (2) into (1):

( ) + 35 cos 35 sin
2
r
mv

=
35 sin 35 cos
mg
(1M)
v =
( )

+
35 sin 35 cos
35 cos 35 sin

gr

=
( )( )( )

+
35 sin 8 . 0 35 cos
35 cos 8 . 0 35 sin 18 10

= 24.8 m s
1
(1A)
The car would start to skid outwards at
24.8 m s
1
.
(b)

Just before overturning occurs, N
2
= 0.
Along the vertical direction:
N
1
cos 35 f
1
sin 35 mg = 0 (1)
(1M)
Along the horizontal direction:
N
1
sin 35 f
1
cos 35 =
r
mv
2
(2)
(1M)
Take moment about c.g.
clockwise resultant torque =
anticlockwise resultant torque
N
1

2
5 . 2
= f
1
2
N
1
= 1.6f
1
(3) (1M)
Substitute (3) into (1):
1.6f
1
cos 35 f
1
sin 35 mg = 0

m
f
1
=
35 sin 35 cos 6 . 1
g
= 13.6
Substitute (3) into (2):
1.6f
1
sin 35 f
1
cos 35 =
r
mv
2

v = ( ) 35 cos 35 sin 6 . 1
1
m
f

= ( ) 35 cos 35 sin 6 . 1 6 . 13
= 1.16 m s
1
(1A)
The car would start to overturn inwards
at 1.16 m s
1
.
(c) The range of speed for turning this
corner safely is from 1.16 m s
1
to
24.8 m s
1
.
15 (HKALE 2001 Paper I Q1)
16 (HKALE 2003 Paper I Q1)
17 (HKALE 2004 Paper II Q1)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 8 Gravitation

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1
8 Gravitation

Practice 8.1 (p. 339)
1 A
Gravitation force
=
2
2 1
r
m Gm

=
( )( )( )
( )
2
3 6
24 11
10 3600 10 37 . 6
250 10 98 . 5 10 67 . 6
+



= 1000 N
2 A
a
M
=
2
M
M
r
GM

a
E
=
2
E
E
r
GM

With the information given, we have:
a
M
=
E
a
6
1


2
M
M
r
GM
=
2
6
1
E
E
r
GM


4
1
272 . 0
81
1
6 6 = = =
E
M
E
M
M
M
r
r

The ratio of the radius of the Moon to that of
the Earth is about 1 : 4.
3 Gravitational force
=
2
2 1
r
m Gm

=
( )( )( )
2
11
5 . 0
60 60 10 67 . 6


= 9.60 10
7
N
The magnitude of the gravitational force they
act on each other is 9.60 10
7
N.
4 Gravitational force =
2
2 1
r
m Gm

1800 =
( )( )( )
( )
2
3 6
2
24 11
10 2000 10 37 . 6
10 98 . 5 10 67 . 6
+


m

m
2
= 316 kg
The mass of the rocket is 316 kg.
5

F
AC
=
2
CA
C A
r
m Gm

=
( )( )( )
2
11
10
1 2 10 67 . 6


= 1.33 10
12
N
F
BC
=
2
CB
C B
r
m Gm

=
( )( )( )
2
11
8
1 3 10 67 . 6


= 3.13 10
12
N
To find resultant force F, resolve F
AC
into
F
AC
cos and F
AC
sin .
F
AC
cos = 1.33 10
12

10
8
= 1.06 10
12
N
F
AC
sin = 1.33 10
12

10
6
= 7.98 10
13
N
Magnitude of F
= ( ) ( )
2 2
sin cos
AC AC BC
F F F + +
= ( ) ( )
2
13
2
12 12
10 98 . 7 10 06 . 1 10 13 . 3

+ +
= 4.27 10
12
N
tan =

cos
sin
AC BC
AC
F F
F
+

=
12 12
13
10 06 . 1 10 13 . 3
10 98 . 7


= 10.8
2 Force and Motion Chapter 8 Gravitation

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

2
The resultant gravitational force acting on C
by A and B is 4.27 10
12
N at an angle of
10.8 to BC.

Practice 8.2 (p. 353)
1 C
2 B
3 D
4 Gravitational field strength
=
2
N
N
R
GM

=
( )( )
( )
2
3
30 11
10 20
10 99 . 1 100 10 67 . 6




= 3.32 10
13
N kg
1
The gravitational field strength at the surface
of the neutron star is 3.32 10
13
N kg
1
.
5
final
initial
g
g
=
( )
2
2
3
R
GM
R
GM
M
M
=
9
1

The ratio is 1 : 9.
6 =
T
2

=
60 60 24 365 9 . 11
2


= 1.674 10
8
rad s
1

Gravitational force = centripetal force

2
r
M GM
J S
=
2
r M
J

r =
3
2

S
GM

=
( )( )
( )
3
2
8
30 11
10 674 . 1
10 99 . 1 10 67 . 6



= 7.80 10
11
m
The distance of Jupiter from the Sun is
7.80 10
11
m.
7 Gravitational force = centripetal force

2
r
m GM
E
=
r
mv
2

v =
r
GM
E

=
( )( )
( )
3
24 11
10 1600 6370
10 98 . 5 10 67 . 6
+



= 7070 m s
1

Its linear speed is 7070 m s
1
.
8 When the satellite is close to the Earths
surface, we can take the following
approximation:
Gravitational force = mg
Then we have:
Gravitational force = centripetal force
mg = mr
2

=
r
g

=
3
10 6370
10


= 1.253 10
3
rad s
1
T =

2

=
3
10 253 . 1
2


= 5015 s (= 1 hr 23 min 35 s)
Its period is 1 hr 23 min 35 s.
9 (a) Gravitational force = centripetal force

2
r
M GM
M S
=
r
v M
M
2

v =
r
GM
S

=
( )( )
( )
11
30 11
10 50 . 1 5 . 1
10 99 . 1 10 67 . 6




= 2.43 10
4
m s
1

The speed of Mars is 2.43 10
4
m s
1
.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 8 Gravitation

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

3
(b) T =

2

=
v
r 2

=
( )
4
11
10 43 . 2
10 1.50 1.5 2



= 5.82 10
7
s
= 674 days
The Mars orbits around the Sun once in
674 days.

Revision exercise 8
Multiple-choice (p. 356)
1 C
Weight on the planet
=
2
P
P
R
m GM

Weight on the Earth
=
2
E
E
R
m GM

eight on the planet =
2
Earth on the weight


2
P
P
R
m GM
=
2
2
1
E
E
R
m GM

R
P
=
E
E
P
R
M
M
2
=
E
R 2 2
= 2R
E

2 D
3 A
4 A
Gravitational force = centripetal force

2
r
GMm
=
r
mv
2

v =
r
GM
(1)
T =

2

T =
v
r 2
(2)
Substitute (1) into (2):
T =
r
GM
r 2
= 2
GM
r
3

5 (HKALE 2003 Paper II Q11)
6 (HKALE 2004 Paper II Q7)
7 (HKALE 2005 Paper II Q28)

Conventional (p. 356)
1 Gravitational force = centripetal force

r
mv
r
m GM
E
2
2
=
v =
r
GM
E
(1M)
=
( )( )
( )
3
24 11
10 7000 6370
10 98 . 5 10 67 . 6
+



= 5460 m s
1
(1A)
The linear speed of the satellite is 5460 m s
1
.
2 (a) g
M
=
2
M
M
r
GM

=
2
2
1
10
1

E
E
r
M G
(1M)
=
2
5
2
E
E
r
GM

= g
5
2
(1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 8 Gravitation

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

4
(b) Weight on Mars
= mg
M
(1M)
=

g m
5
2

= ( ) mg
5
2

=
5
2
weight on Earth
=
5
2
700
= 280 N (1A)
(c) The force acting on the astronaut by the
chair will be decreasing as the spacecraft
is leaving Mars. (1A)
As the astronaut is further away from
Mars, his weight (the gravitational force)
becomes lighter. (1A)
Therefore, the force supporting the
astronaut by the chair, which balances
the astronauts weight to maintain
constant speed, becomes smaller. (1A)
3 The value 10 m s
2
is the accepted value of
the acceleration due to gravity of the Earth
(1A)
at positions very close to the surface of the
Earth. (1A)
When involving celestial body in the space,
the distances used in calculations are different
from the radius of the Earth and gravities due
to different bodies have to be considered.(1A)
Therefore, this value is invalid for those
calculations.
4 (a) The radius/diameter of the planet. (1A)
The mass/density of the planet. (1A)
(b) (i) Volume of granite
=
3

3
4
r (1M)
= ( )
3
3
10 2 . 0
3
4

= 3.35 10
7
m
3
(1M)
Difference in mass
= difference in density volume
(1M)
= (3700 2200) 3.35 10
7

= 5.0 10
10
kg (1A)
(ii) Since point A is long way from the
granite rock, we assume the granite
rock does not affect the
gravitational field strength at A.
(1M)
Difference between gravitational
field strength
=
2
r
M G
(1M)
=
( ) ( )
( )
2
3
10 11
10 40 . 0
10 0 . 5 10 7 . 6



(1M)
= 2.09 10
5
N kg
1
(1A)
(iii)

(Correct shape always below
original curve) (1A)
5 (a) Gravitation field strength =
2
r
GM
(1M)
Gravitation field strength due to the
Earth
=
( )
2
8
10 6 . 3
E
GM
(1M)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 8 Gravitation

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

5
Gravitation field strength due to the
Moon
=
( )
2
8 8
10 6 . 3 10 0 . 4
M
GM
(1M)
=
( )
2
8 8
10 6 . 3 10 0 . 4
81

E
M
G

=
( )
2
8
10 6 . 3
E
GM

= gravitation field strength due to the
Earth (1A)
The gravitational fields due to the Moon
and the Earth are equal in magnitude at
point P.
(b)

(Correct direction) (1A)
(c) After P, the rocket will encounter a net
attraction to the Moon. (1A)
6 (a) Speed is a scalar (is described by
magnitude only) (1A)
while velocity is a vector (is described
by both magnitude and direction). (1A)
(b) (i) By s =
2
1
(u + v)t, (1M)
3.6 =

+
2
26 . 4
) 0 (
2
1
u (1M)
u = 3.4 m s
1
(1A)
The initial vertical velocity of the
projectile is 3.4 m s
1
.
(ii) a =
t
u v
(1M)
=
13 . 2
4 . 3 0
(1M)
= 1.60 m s
2
(1A)
The acceleration due to gravity on
the Moon is 1.60 m s
2
.
(iii) The other time
= 4.26 0.90 (1M)
= 3.36 s (1A)
(iv)

(Correct diagram) (3 1A)
(v) This method is not valid on the
Earth (1A)
because there is atmosphere on the
Earth which gives air resistance to
affect the motion of the projectile.
(1A)
(c) (i) Resultant initial velocity
=
2 2
4 . 3 0 . 2 +
= 3.94 m s
1
(1A)
tan =
0 . 2
4 . 3

= 59.5 (1A)
The resultant initial velocity of the
projectile is 3.94 m s
1
and the
angle between the resultant and the
horizontal is 59.5.
(Correct calculating method for
both values) (1M)
(ii) The projectile will land on the
moving Moon vehicle. (1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 8 Gravitation

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

6
Throughout the motion of the
projectile, the only force acting on
it is the gravitational force along
the vertical direction. Therefore,
the net force in horizontal direction
is zero, and it moves with constant
speed of 2.0 m s
1
, which is the
same as that of the Moon vehicle.
(1A)

Physics in articles (p. 359)
(a) The space debris orbits the Earth in circular
motion (or elliptical motion). (1A)
The gravitational forces acting on them
provide the centripetal forces (1A)
instead of pulling them down to the Earth.
(1A)
(b) Gravitational force
=
2
r
m GM
E
(1M)
=
( )( )( )
( )
2
3 3
24 11
10 1000 10 6370
260 10 98 . 5 10 67 . 6
+


(1M)
= 1910 N (1A)
The gravitational force acting on the satellite
by the Earth is 1910 N.
(c) Collision with satellites or spacecrafts. (1A)
Return to the Earth and cause damage. (1A)