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A. Maple Introduction
Maple is a mathematical software package for symbolic computation. Conventional mathematical software packages usually require numerical values for all variables. In contrast, Maple can evaluate both symbolic and numerical expressions. Maple was first developed at the University of Waterloo, Canada in 1980. The objective was to design an algebra software for the researchers and students in Mathematics, Engineering, and Science. It was initially implemented in B on a Honeywell computer and soon was switched to C, one of the most popular programming languages. In 1988 Waterloo Maple Software was founded to directly sell and further improve the Maple system. Currently, the version formally supported by ITS is Maple 11. Maple is acomputer software program for advanced mathematics. It is available for a wide varietyof platforms including Windows, UNIX and Linux. It includes utilities for algebra,calculus, discrete mathematics, graphics, numerical calculation, and many other areas of mathematics. It also provides a unique environment for rapid development of mathematical programs using its vast library of built-in functions and operations. a. Basic Conventions in Maple

1. Enter A Command

Using Maple to enter and execute a command is very simple: merely input the command at the Maple prompt. When you press "Enter", Maple will execute the input and the result will be shown on the line below, in the center of the screen. The following example shows a simple numerical calculation. After you type 1+2; and hit the return key, the result 3 will be shown in the center of screen. Example: Entering and executing a command

2. Arithmetic Operators of Maple

The arithmetic operators of Maple are defined as follows in Table 1: Table 1 Operation Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division Eksponetion Arithmetic Operators + * / ^ or ** Example 1+2 x-y 54*4 x/y 2^3 or 2**3

The material limit of a function is one part of the calculus. A limit function ( ) is that if x approaching a(but x ), and f(x) approaching I. On any material limit function there are several a theorem limit to calculate limit a function. The limit of a function with program maple adapted to a theorem limit existing with the instructions that exists on program maple.

C. Limit Theorem Limits have many character. If a, c coefficient and f(x), g(x) are function that have a value of limits, so :

a. Using Maple to Evaluate Limit Maple has different ways to enter and evaluate limits, for example: - Using the context menu - Entering the "limit" command, or - Using the ( )template in the Expression palette.

b. Using the context menu to evaluate a limit

There are a couple of ways to evaluate a limit using the context menu.

The limit theorem with the orders of the Maple program is as follows :

1. Using "Limit

To evaluate


in the context menu, first enter the .

expression in the limit, then right-click on the expression, and choose

You can change or enter the limit point where were indicated. Also note that, with this dialog box, you have the option to calculate one-sided limits and to calculate the limit numerically (if Maple is unable to evaluate the limit exactly). Once you've made your selections, click SYMBOL.

(In Worksheet mode, Maple will insert the limit command statement.) Maple tells you that = 11. Maple does not tell you how it got this answer, so if your calculus professor wants you to show your work when evaluating limits, Maple won't do that for you here. However, it does give a nice check that the answer you got is correct. (With this limit, it is possible with Maple to simplify the expression first, and evaluate the limit by substituting x = 2 into the simplified expression) 2. Understanding Maple output for limits When evaluating limits in Maple, you must be careful about understanding the output. For instance, in your calculus class it might be the case that is considered to be undefined or does not exist , but Maple returns

In this sense, this limit exists and is infinite (the function diverges to infinity). On the other hand, Maple correctly indicates that does not exist.

Even more complicated output from limits in Maple may arise. This usually means that the limit does not exist in the standard sense, but that there may be a more sophisticated way of understanding the limiting value(s) of the function. 3. One-sided limits To obtain one-sided limits


(right- and left-hand limits)

in Maple, you can use the limit template from the Expression palette to build a one-sided limit. Add a+ 0r a- after the limit point.

4. Limits at Infinity To see what happens to a function f(x) as x gets large, that is, the end behavior of f, you can get Maple to evaluate a limit at infinity, either or . You can use the limit template to build the limit, adding Again, you can get the symbol from the Common Symbol. as the limit point.

The symbol does not represent a number. Writing ( ) consider arbitrarilay large values of x. If the limit the graph of f has y=L as a horizontal asymtote. So ( ) ( )

means that we ( ) is L, then the curves y=

Task :
1. 2. ( )


6. 7. 8.






14. 15.