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Medical jurisprudence is a branch of medicine that involves the study and application of medical knowledge in the legal field.

Because modern medicine is a legal creation and medicolegal cases involvingdeath, rape, paternity etc. require a medical practitioner to produce evidence and appear as an expert witness, these two fields have traditionally been inter-dependent. Forensic medicine is a narrower field that involves collection and analysis of medical evidence (samples) to produce objective information for use in the legal system. Medical jurisprudence includes: 1. questions of the legal and ethical duties of physicians; 2. questions affecting the civil rights of individuals with respect to medicine; and 3. medicolegal assessment of injuries to the person. Under the second heading there are many aspects, including (but not limited to):

(a) questions of competence or sanity in civil or criminal proceedings; (b) questions of competence of minors in matters affecting their own health; and (c) questions of lawful fitness or safety to drive a motor vehicle, pilot an aeroplane, use scuba gear, play certain sports, or to join certain occupations.

Under the third heading, there are also many aspects, including (but not limited to):

(a) assessment of illness or injuries that may be work-related (see workers' compensation or occupational safety and health) or otherwise compensable; (b) assessment of injuries of minors that may relate to neglect or abuse; and (c) certification of death or else the assessment of possible causes of death this is the incorrect, narrow meaning of forensic medicine as commonly understood. MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE (HONOURS) is a course in medical law. It is intended to provide a survey of the main issues in this field of law, considering both the legal and the ethical dimensions. The noun forensic medicine has one meaning the branch of medicine that interprets and establishes the medical facts in civil or criminal law cases. Also called legal medicine or medical jurisprudence. The branch of medicine that interprets or establishes the facts in civil or criminal law cases also called medical jurisprudence.

Medical jurisprudence is a science of applying medical facts to legal problems. Routine tasks include filling out birth and death certificates, deciding insurance eligibility, and reporting infectious disease. Perhaps more significant is medical testimony in court. When merely relating observations, doctors are ordinary witnesses; interpreting facts based on medical knowledge makes them expert witnesses, required to present their opinions without bias toward the side that called them. Conflicts between medicine and law can occur, usually over medical confidentiality. Forensic medicine is one of the largest and most important areas of forensic science. Also called legal medicine or medical jurisprudence, it applies medical knowledge to criminal

and civil law. Areas of medicine that are commonly involved in forensic medicine are anatomy, pathology, and psychiatry. Medical jurisprudence or forensic medicine, the application of medical science to legal problems. It is typically involved in cases concerning blood relationship, mental illness, injury, or death resulting from violence. Autopsy (see post-mortem examination) is often used to determine the cause of death, particularly in cases where foul play is suspected. Post-mortem examination can determine not only the immediate agent of death (e.g. gunshot wound, poison), but may also yield important contextual information, such as how long the person has been dead, which can help trace the killing. Forensic medicine has also become increasingly important in cases involving rape. Modern techniques use such specimens as semen, blood, and hair samples of the criminal found in the victim's bodies, which can be compared to the defendant's genetic makeup through a technique known as DNA fingerprinting; this technique may also be used to identify the body of a victim. The establishment of serious mental illness by a licensed psychologist can be used in demonstrating incompetency to stand trial, a technique which may be used in the insanity defense (see insanity), albeit infrequently. The synonym of forensic medicine is forensic pathology. Forens Forensic pathology Forensic pathology is the legal branch of pathology concerned with determining cause of death (such as bullet wound to head, exsanguiation, strangulation, etc.) and manner of death (including murder, accident, natural, or suicide). Examination of some wounds and injuries due to crime or negligence Examination of tissue specimens that may be relevant to rape, or other crimes. Forensic pathologists work closely with the coroner (England and Wales) or medical examiner (United States). The examination of dead bodies (autopsy or post mortem) is a subset of anatomical pathology. Often times, a coroner or medical examiner has a background in pathology. Forensic medicine is often used in civil cases. The cause of death or injury is considered in settling insurance claims or medical malpractice suits, and blood tests often contribute to a court's decision in cases attempting to determine the paternity of a child. . Autopsy (post mortem examination or an obduction) How is an autopsy performed? The extent of an autopsy can vary from a single organ such as the heart or brain to a very extensive examination. Examination of the chest, abdomen, and brain is probably considered by most as the standard autopsy and one technique is briefly described below. The autopsy begins with a complete external examination. The body weight and height

are recorded, and identifying marks such as scars and tattoos are documented. The internal examination begins with the creation of a Y or U-shaped incision from both shoulders joining over the sternum and continuing down to the pubic bone. The skin and underlying tissues are then separated to expose the rib cage and abdominal cavity. The front of the rib cage is removed to expose the neck and chest organs. This opening allows the trachea (windpipe), thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, esophagus, heart, thoracic aorta and lungs to be removed. Following removal of the neck and chest organs, the abdominal organs are cut (dissected) free. These include the intestines, liver, gallbladder and bile duct system, pancreas, spleen, adrenal glands, kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, abdominal aorta, and reproductive organs. To remove the brain, an incision is made in the back of the skull from one ear to the other. The scalp is cut and separated from the underlying skull and pulled forward. The top of the skull is removed using a vibrating saw. The entire brain is then gently lifted out of the cranial vault. The spinal cord may also be taken by removing the anterior or posterior portion of the spinal column. In general, pieces of all of the major organs mentioned above are converted into thin sections of tissue that can be placed on slides and studied under a microscope. The organs may be returned to the body or may be retained for teaching, research, and diagnostic purposes. Dissection and examination of a dead body to determine cause of death and learn about disease processes in ways that are not possible with the living. Autopsies have contributed to the development of medicine since at least the Middle Ages. Beyond revealing causes of individual deaths, autopsy is crucial to the accuracy of disease and death statistics, the education of medical students, the understanding of new and changing diseases, and the advancement of medical science.

Forensic medicine or legal medicine has been described as a key to the past, a explination for of the present and to some extent a signpost to the future. After highschool it takes 15 year to became a doctor in this area. The movies helped by the fact that they have aroused the interest of young intelligent people, and because of that there are a lot of young students are studying this course but it also brings a wrong presentation of reality. The procedures are not that easy ( present video- no internet tell de example with the test that can last minimum weeks ..maximum a life time ) About the National Institute of Forensic knew little - and those trivial. But I was, I saw and I was amazed: "halidom death" proved to be one of science, building huge hiding many secrets ... bright. Always associated with death, suffering, violence, and all evil in the world, the National Institute of Legal Medicine is a scary place. A place where no one wants to be forced to go, because, if it comes, it means that something bad happened, he or someone close. Entire forensic field has a dark aura of mystery that often generates a contagious fascination - see the success of documentaries about "forensic". We wanted to move beyond the clichs that dominate our thinking when it comes to the Institute of Forensic Medicine: autopsy room and that famous though too few saw - "museum of horrors". We crossed a huge building (high intimidating), I

joined several of its many rooms, talked to people who work there and we realized: forensics is really a fascinating field, but it is first of all and more above all, science. Many people refer to the Institute of Bucharest as the only of its kind in Romania, because few know that in our country there are a number of other institutions of the same kind. National Institute of Legal Medicine Minovici Mine is "father" of 13 more similar establishments, county senior subordinated to him. There, in a few cities, and some forensic practices with modest endowments and responsibilities. National Institute founded by Dr. Mina Minovici (1858-1933), was one of those establishments whose foundation opens up a new path. In this case, meant forensic reform in Romania. Until the advent INML, it was not clear individualized. National School of Medicine and Pharmacy (founded in 1856 by Carol Davila) is teaching and forensic medicine, but it was not a distinct field of specialization. With small steps, through teaching and administrative reorganization, establishment of laboratories and appearance Penal Code (1865), Romanian forensic headed to its status today. In 1892, Professor Mina Minovici founded the city morgue, an institution dedicated forensic exercise. The old name still persist in collective memory Morgue version, date forensic institutes and offices. But Professor Mina Minovici was aware of the importance of what you promote and have big ambitions. Among them, the ambition to change the name of the newly established institutions, so that after a few years, it has ceased to be just a city morgue, becoming Forensic Institute. IML was in 1898 and became the first institute of forensic medicine in the world. At the time, it was, in terms of technology and the most advanced in Europe. And that organization, network forensic in Romania was a model for the rest of the world. Today, even when it comes to the dead people is not only forensic autopsy pathology, anthropology judicial. Toxicological analysis is a large and fine, means histochemical analyzes - establishing tissue preparations, staining and examination under a microscope - is complex microbiological analysis, genetic analysis is at an advanced level. And when it comes to living people, people who have suffered, who have gone through dramatic events, it expects forensic discovery of truth, proving justice, punishing offenders, relieving suffering ... And all this must be done with reliable methods of high accuracy. For many, it looks like "work object" in INML would be only the body, on which is achieved expertise of all kinds. Too few know that an important part of the work of the Institute is dedicated to the human spirit in its manifestations healthy or pathological. This works psychiatrists and psychologists whose main activity is the implementation expertise to determine the discernment of a person. A villain is aware of the damage that it does, or is a poor patient, the victim of its own pathologies? Answer can be given only after an hours work of highly emotionally and intellectually difficult and very responsible. "

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