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CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION

After the wealth of research into green initiatives & green marketing, accounting as per the researcher,(1992), and management McDonough and Prather, (1997), gaps still exist in the Human Resource Management (HRM) literature on the HR aspects of environmental management - Green HRM. Such gaps include an informative guide on the emergent literature, its scope and coverage, and a process model and research agenda in this field. The contribution of this article is threefold: (1) To examine and draw together the HR aspects of environmental management, employee engagement and map the terrain in this field. (2) To detail a model of the HR processes involved in Green HRM. (3) To propose a research agenda to guide future research in the field of Green HRM. As per the research proceed first, by reviewing the literature on the HR aspects of environmental management & employee engagement, second, by discussing the issues arising from the review of these literatures, third, in proposing a process model of HR issues involved in Green HRM, and fourth, by providing a research agenda in Green HRM and also impact of green initiatives on employee engagement in service sector. As per the research then offer some conclusions forward. As per the research begin with a note on the research methodology used in this article, and then a review of the extant literature on environmental management and HRM, which covers the following HR processes in turn, namely of: recruitment; performance management and appraisal; training and development; employment relations; pay and reward; and exit. There is a growing need for the integration of environmental management into Human Resource Management (HRM) Green HRM research practice. A review of the literature shows that a broad process frame of reference for Green HRM has yet to emerge. A concise categorization is needed in this field to help academics, researchers and practitioners, with enough studies in existence to guide such modeling. This article takes a new and integrated view of the literature in Green HRM, using it to classify the literature on the basis of entry-to-exit processes in HRM (from recruitment to exit), revealing the role that HR processes play in translating Green HR policy into practice. The contribution of this article lies in drawing together the extant literature in this
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area, mapping the terrain in this field, and in proposing a new process model and research agenda in Green HRM. 1.1 Green Initiatives taken by Indian Companies.1 1) Patni Responds to Green Initiatives with IT- BPO Center in Noida 2) Acer, HCL Info systems and Wipro Personal Computing run programmers on E- Waste management (Take back services). 3) Sify Technologies, India's integrated ICT services provider has implemented green measures in its facility in Mumbai.
4) Bajaj Auto has installed wind peas per the research generation units in three factories that

not only conserve energy but also save Rs 25 crore in peas per the research costs each year. 5) The Orchid Emote HotelAsia's first ecofriendly five-star hotel chain, is conserving natural resources without compromising quality of service 6) ITC achieved milestone tags, such as "carbon positive," "zero solid waste," and "water positive." 7) Infosys plans to become a carbon neutral company by 2012
8) Dr Reddy's Laboratories (DRL) the only Indian pharmacy company to release an

annual report, called the Sustainability Report.

1.2

Green Initiatives taken in the World:2

1) Polycom has decreased energy use and carbon dioxide emissions by 34%. 2) Boeing has decreased energy use and carbon dioxide emissions by 24%. 3) Nokia : sources 25% of its energy from renewable resources and aims to increase that amount to 50% by 2010.
4) HPs ENERGY STAR qualified products save consumers money 5) Wal-Mart: Pushed its 60,000 suppliers to push 60,000 suppliers to produce eco-friendly

goods, Cut energy use at its more than 7,000 stores worldwide by 30%. 6) General Electric Co. Launched the nation's first credit card. : Invested$900 million in
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www.chillibreeze.com/.../top-10-indian-green-companies-green-business-practices.asp. www.buzzle.com/articles/environmental-issues/. Viewed

viewed on :16th feb,2011


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on : 16th Feb,2011

cleaner technology research and development in 2006, drawing closer to its $1.5 billion annual ecomagination R&D target by 2010.

Yahoo! Autos : create Green Ratings for cars, giving consumers easy-to-use environmental information about their car choices. Dell plants solar trees in the parking lot.

1.3Some of green initiatives taken by Indian government are as follows:


1) Gujarat moots green credits for clean earth rather than carbon credit. 2) A network of Environmental Information System (ENVIS), with its focal point in the Ministry of Environment and Forests, has been created . 3) President Barack Obama and Indian Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh jointly launched a new U.S.-India Green Partnership [ National Environmental Protection Authority (NEPA)]. 4) The government has taken initiatives like providing tax concessions on purchase of environment-friendly home equipments, regulations

1.4 What does Going Green mean? Eric G. Olson (2009) defines a green initiative as,
An initiative that complements the business, operations and asset strategies already understood and articulated by the enterprises, that has a positive impact on the environment. Three principles:
I. II. III.

Common culture of awareness and action. Facilitates decisions and transformation initiatives that improve the environment. Attractive value propositions that is cost effective.

From Regulatory Issues to looking at them as Green Strategy Business Issues


a) New environmental regulations and laws as per the researchre created

in 1970s to protect the environment b) Formation of CERES (Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economics in 1989)

1.5

Need for green initiatives

The basic need for the evolution of green initiatives is as follows:


1.5.1 Growing population ---> Depletion of natural resources: Overpopulation is a

condition where an organism's numbers exceed the carrying capacity of its habitat. The term often refers to the relationship between the human population and its environment, the Earth.
1.5.2 Lack of proper waste disposal: Recycling is processing used materials (waste)

into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from land filling) by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal and greenhouse gas emissions as compared to virgin production.
1.5.3 Deforestation: The loss of forests due to overcutting of trees. One consequence

of deforestation is soil erosion, which results in the loss of protective soil cover and the water-holding capacity of the soil.
1.5.4 Excessive pollution: The pollution that peoples throw anything on the street

like rests of food, paper, plastic bags and all other things. I dont understand why people throw things on foot when a garbage.ken is really near. I understand that not all people like to respect the rules of society.
1.5.5 Global warming: Global warming is when the earth heats up (the temperature

rises). It happens when greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrous oxide, and methane) trap heat and light from the sun in the earths atmosphere, which increases the temperature. This hurts many people, animals, and plants. Many cannot take the change, so they die.

1.6

FACTS OF GREEN INITIATIVES:

1.6.1

For every ton of paper that is recycled, the following is saved: 7,000 gallons of water;

380 gallons of oil; and enough electricity to an average house for six months. 1.6.2 You can run a TV for six hours on the amount of electricity that is saved by recycling one aluminum can. 1.6.3 By recycling just one glass bottle, you save enough electricity to 100-watt bulb for four hours.
1.6.3 An aluminum can that is thrown away will still be a can 500 years from now. 1.6.4 Lighting typically uses 10% of a homes electric bill. Compact florescent light bulbs

(CFS) use 75% less energy than standard incandescent. They also last 10 times longer. 1.6.5 The average American uses 680 pound of paper every year and uses seven trees a year in various wood products. The average household throws away 13,000 pieces of paper a year.

www.gogreen_facts_initiatives%.html. Viewed on : 24th of Feb.2011

CHAPTER-2 2.1 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY


In order to deploy green initiatives, an environmental policy should be created that is aligned with the strategic goals of the business. Business stakeholders define a set of ongoing objectives that address the environmental policy. Every research has certain objectives which research to be done. So the certain objectives are mentioned below: 1. To Identify of the Indian IT companies which are taking green initiative in India. 2. To understand the Role of HR in taking green initiatives. 3. To study the impact of green initiatives on employee engagement in IT sector.

2.2 SCOPE OF THE STUDY


The study is conducted on all over INDIA in IT (Information Technology) sector through email and personal visit. This study is conducted because many of the organizations are not aware about the green HRM and if they are aware they didnt apply it. So as per the research will intended to see in this study that an organization which is taking green initiatives is having more employee engagement. At last but not least will find out that organizations who are taking green initiatives are not only increasing their business performance and profits but also contributing towards an eco-friendly environment.

CHAPTER-3
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3.1 EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT


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Employee engagement is one of the crucial roles of HR. Employee Engagement is the

means or strategy by which an organization seeks to build a partnership between the organization and its employees, such that employees fully understand and is committed to achieve the organizations objectives, and the organization respects the personal aspirations and ambitions of its employees. It is seen largely as the organizations responsibility to create an environment and culture conducive to this partnership. High engagement levels amongst the employees leads to high productivity. In other words an "engaged employee" is one who is fully involved in, and enthusiastic about, his or her work and thus will act in a way that furthers their organization's interests. According to Scarlett Surveys, "Employee Engagement is a measureable degree of an employee's positive or negative emotional attachment to their job, colleagues and organization which profoundly influences their willingness to learn & perform at work". The IT industry is faced with high levels of attrition at the entry level. The purpose of this study has been to find out the engagement levels of the entry level employees in the IT sector and suggest measures to increase the same. In the first phase of the project, through secondary research, as per the research found out the variables influencing employee engagement. In the second phase as per the research found out the impact of these variables on the entry level employees in the IT sector. In the next stage, the obtained data was analyzed using statistical tools and techniques and their interpretations done. The Indian IT sector is faced with high attrition rate among the entry level employees resulting in high recruitment and training costs. The attrition also results in loss of productivity due to the vacancy created by the exodus of the employee. The purpose of this study is to find out where the lacuna is and to try and find what corrective measures can be taken to reverse this undesirable trend. The engagement levels of the entry level employees observed, various factors considered, and thereafter the attempt to address the problem of reducing the attrition level was undertaken.
1. An engaged employee is more likely to:

Understand and support through action a companys vision and goals


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realizedworth.posterous.com/csr-green-initiatives-how-to-engage-employees

Viewed on: 4th of Mar.2011


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Recommend the companys products and services to friends and family Work smarter and longer hours without being asked twice. Categories of Employee Engagement:
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According to the Gallup the Consulting organization there are there are different types of

people:(1)Engaged: "Engaged" employees are builders. They want to know the desired expectations for their role so they can meet and exceed them. They're naturally curious about their company and their place in it. They perform at consistently high levels. They want to use their talents and strengths at work every day. They work with passion and they drive innovation and move their organization forward. (2) Not Engaged: Not-engaged employees tend to concentrate on tasks rather than the goals and outcomes they are expected to accomplish. They want to be told what to do just so they can do it and say they have finished. They focus on accomplishing tasks vs. achieving an outcome. Employees who are not-engaged tend to feel their contributions are being overlooked and their potential is not being tapped. They often feel this way because they don't have productive relationships with their managers or with their coworkers. (3) Actively Disengaged: The "actively disengaged employees are the cave dwellers." Theyre Consistently against Virtually Everything." Theyre not just unhappy at work; theyre busy acting out their unhappiness. They sow seeds of negativity at every opportunity. Every day, actively disengaged workers undermine what their engaged coworkers accomplish. CHAPTER-4

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
4.1 GREEN INITIATIVES

authenticorganizations.com/.../3-types-of-employee-engagement-advocates-which-typeare-you/ Viewed On: 4th of Mar.,2011


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Now a days the global trading is emerging in every organization. When a company is becoming global the main challenge for them is to respect other culture and workforce and for this the company is focusing on corporate social responsibility. To introducing CSR Hr plays a crucial role and by introducing green initiatives the value of share holder, employee engagement and employer brand recognitions increased. CSR should include the companys carbon footprints which benefit the planet and there should be fully utilization for the natural resources. Embarrassing green aspects of CSR is clearly understood; give the direct impact that raising energy and utility cost has on everyone responsibility. For reducing each employees carbon foot prints the company should use recycling for the wastage. (D. Jhones 2010). The historical comparison of four communities, the article concludes that organizing and managing natural resources in part as community property can play a central role in avoiding surprises. Here a surprise means sudden and unexpected changes in natural environment. Organization can play a vital role in avoiding these surprises, by using the concept of GREEN HRM that involves taking initiatives for employee engagement. King A. (1995). The Green Team of volunteers from within the company," noted for sustainability. "These include designers, production people, shipping people, and sales people and represents all facets of the company; so when someone has an idea of how as per the research can do something better, it's often the Green Team that champions it." Mike Santos. ( Jan 2011). Employee buy-in is a key factor in ensuring small- and medium-size enterprise (SME) engagement with corporate social responsibility (CSR). They use participant observation and semi-structured interviews to investigate the way in which three fair trade SMEs utilize human resource management (and selection and socialization in particular) to create employee engagement in a strong triple bottom-line philosophy, while simultaneously coping with resource and size constraints. The conclusions suggest that there is a strong desire for, but tradeoff within these companies selection of individuals who already identify with the triple bottom-line philosophy and individuals with experience and capability to deal with mainstream brand management two critical employee attributes that appear to be rarely found together. The more important the business experience to the organization, the more effort the organization must expend in formalizing their socialization programmes to ensure employee engagement. A key method in doing this is increasing employee knowledge of, and affection for, the target beneficiaries of the CSR programme (increased moral intensity). Andrew Crane (2010). The unavoidable need for Corporation to shift to Environment friendly business practices that will help reduce carbon emission and in the
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process that sustainable business will be the only profitable business into the next round of corporate social responsibility and the issue of sustain ability gain ground across the world. All worker in the organization should be aimed not towards the maximum of financial profit, but towards the maximum of the balance b/w Economic, Social and environmental capital and by doing this the organization can earn profit and they can also include the employee engaged side it reduce the unemployment rate. Sharma Aditi (2009). The HR role is to help in educating and nurturing a breed of future generation leader who are environment sensitive. He define going green as a biggest contribution that HR can make is in building awareness among the expensive for making choice that will work towards a sustainable Environment. Greening the business is not only the role of the HR but also the role of the each individual and leader. They promote the environment friendly business practice and when the organization goes for greening then there is the more in of employee. Rath Bimal (2009). The everyone should take the responsibility for greening, be it the private sector ,public sector, Educational institutions or individual. Now a days in many organization they circulate regular to all the Employee to be more eco friendly by using less paper, energy, electricity etc. the organization can also promote the green campaign by making it measurable criteria in performance assessment and should be a part of key result area (KRA). Dutta Madhusudan (2009). Unless the practice of greening starts at an individual, lend of corporation born should come forward into the matter. Firstly Frees are moved to build a building are made around the trees CII Addressing the greening at two level .At policy level where they engage with the govt. in the policy formation and rule making .They also green their office Environment and Engage source of their worker in it . and second is smoking banned and not allow to carry a poly bag in the office campus so at cast when every individual keep their home clean and green than only it come up to the corporate level . Rajan Subha (2009). 4.2 EMPLOYEE RETENTION The challenge has extended to Esty includes "the directive to better integrate and coordinate our state's energy and environmental policy in order to strengthen our ability to protect the environment; to clean, conserve and the cost of energy; and to set the table for rapid and responsible economic growth."So that the employee retention in company results good Patricia Daddona (Feb 11, 2011). They believe that employers are starting to pay a

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premium again for new staff but warn they mustn't be complacent about their ability to attract talent. "Eighteen months ago, candidates might have been begging you for a job, but life has changed radically since then and they've now got choices," he says. "a lot of employers don't understand the importance of their employer brands. It's not only about how you conduct interviews, but also factors like how quickly you get back to candidates. If employers don't get these things right it can stain their reputation.". Employers meantime should be increasing their focus on employee retention. "The balance is once again shifting and it's becoming a candidates' market once more," [Amanda McCulloch] adds. "Employers need to look at staff retention strategies to include both short and long-term financial incentives. Victoria masterson (2010), John Denholm(2009). The green workforce and its impact on the organizations and environment. Green workforce involves greens initiatives adopted by companies across industries for its employees. It has high impact on companys operating cost and the environment. Initiative like green workforce can helps companies to retain and attract best available talent thereby to reap benefits in the longer run along with saving millions by taking on the green workforce initiatives. Vasu Gaurav (2008). The most and important appropriate way to aware the employees about green are by learning to differentiate is to market their companies to employees and prospects as green. Green is considered as an important recruitment and retention tool. The reason behind this is that employees feel a significant sense of responsibility and association with their employers action concerning the environment.( Dwigder (2007).

4.3 EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT Employee engagement is the level of commitment and involvement an employee has towards their organization and its values. An engaged employee is aware of business context, and works with colleagues to improve performance within the job for the benefit of the organization. It is a positive attitude held by the employees towards the organization and its values. The paper focuses on how employee engagement is an antecedent of job involvement

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and what should company do to make the employees engaged. The paper also looks at the Gallup 12 point questionnaire, survey that identifies strong feelings of employee engagement and the steps which shows how to drive an engaged employee.( Reinhardt, F. L. (2002).
When every organizations & employee clear about the objective of Go Green and need

accepted at the top level, then it will be automatically flow through the hierarchy upto the lost employee protecting the environment means protecting the future generation. It will not only improve the Quality of life but also help the organization to achieve the long term lost effectiveness. This all an possible their awareness of going green HR is only one which can take in initiative towards going green by engaging all the employee of the organization towards this objective and it also improve the company image. Garg Ajay (2009). Every business choice must be evaluated based on a cost/benefit analysis. The implementation of green business practices is no exception. The good news is that "going green" can have a big impact on a company's success. There are a number of fundamental things that are typically involved in greening a company. Arguably, the most important factors of truly successful green strategies are: getting employees involved by finding green initiatives that they are passionate about and finding ways to communicate to customers about the company's efforts to be more environmentally and socially responsible. A suggested course of action is to hold staff meetings and sessions with key franchisees to solicit input regarding green initiatives the company could undertake. Investing time and resources in green initiatives company to "do the right thing" but it also a smart investment that can make big improvements to a company's bottom line. Phil Baugh (2010). If the organization educate their employees, transparency of communication is there and the employee participation is more than they feel the belongingness with the organization than the company can make the cost reduction a priority and green practice can be go on easily and by this employee engagement will become more in an organization and as per the research all know that Engaged employees can be a the force to drive green cost saving initiatives forward and it can only establish by credibility and trust and a relationship with employees. The way to do that is by demonstrating continued commitment to the employees. One of the biggest benefits of engaging employees is that because ideas come from employees, buy-in is essentially ensured -- most of the people affected by the cuts approve of them before they are given a green light. It is important, though, to continue to keep people informed about the status of their recommended cuts. Going green can provide demonstrable benefits to all stakeholders and helping the client to drive expenses saving and revenue growing using sustainability. Establish credibility and
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reduce expenses through employee engagement in sustainable business practices .Use their proprietary innovation process to design green products and services to engage your customers and increase revenue. Franklin Glennon(2010). The employee motivation on green or sustainable business practices is the basis for success in green marketing and innovation. The challenge is to align internal practices with green business goals. The organisation should start the collection of information related to green initiative informally so employees that have initiated green activities do not hide them out of concern over having done something "against the rules" or without proper authorization. The best way to talk about green initiatives is in straight-forward language without hype or promotional elements. There is a strong propensity among the green audience to view with suspicion any pronouncement that only reports the good elements without regard for the challenges inherent in change and give an opportunity to the employee to speak for themselves. As we move forward, maintain some informality or community feel to green initiatives to foster a sense of partnership between the company and its employees. This can encourage and motivate others to get involved and provide a sense of empowerment that will generate momentum on green goals. Franklin Glennon(2009). A growing band of companies are investing in schemes aimed at getting their employees to engage fully with their sustainability initiatives. Employers are investing significant resources in these schemes because they view them as an effective way to engender pride and goodwill among their staff. Employee engagement also figures highly in BSkyB's 'The Bigger Picture' program, which aims to tackle climate change, encourage participation in sport and generate interest in the arts. Its sustainability strategy in 2006 and this has proved popular with staff as well as consumers. Charles Gemma (2009). When organizations think about the carbon management strategy more often than not the primary emphasis is placed on the external communication of these initiatives. For the maximum employee engagement the management should break their strategy in five principal such as consultation, communication, education, participation and measurement. The organization should be educate their employee where the employee are lacking and by doing this the gap is being fulfilled and when carbon offsetting is part of a climate change strategy, employees can be part of the decision making team that selects the types of emission reduction projects a company invests in, increasing the likelihood that employees will feel connected with the development of the project and the surrounding communities that benefit as a result, when carbon offsetting is part of a climate change strategy, employees can be part of the decision making team that selects the types of emission reduction projects a
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company invests in, increasing the likelihood that employees will feel connected with the development of the project and the surrounding communities that benefit as a result and when the whole organization come to know about the carbon emission objective then only the goal is being fulfilled effectively and efficiently and it gives the impact on employee engagement. Rachel Mountain (2001). Engagement is most closely associated with the existing construction of job involvement Job involvement is defined as the degree to which the job situation is central to the person and his or her identity (Lawler & Hall, 1970). Kanungo (1982) maintained that job involvement is a Cognitive or belief state of Psychological identification. Job involvement is thought to depend on both need saliency and the potential of a job to satisfy these needs. Thus job involvement results form a cognitive judgment about the needs satisfying abilities of the job. Jobs in this view are tied to ones self image. Engagement differs from job in as it is concerned more with how the individual employees his/her self during the performance of his / her job. Furthermore engagement entails the active use of emotions. Finally engagement may be thought of as an antecedent to job involvement in that individuals who experience deep engagement in their roles should come to identify with their jobs. Brown (1996)

4.4 CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Employee buy-in is a key factor in ensuring small- and medium-size enterprise (SME) engagement with corporate social responsibility (CSR). In this exploratory study, as per the research use participant observation and semi-structured interviews to investigate the way in which three fair trade SMEs utilize human resource management (and selection and socialization in particular) to create employee engagement in a strong triple bottom-line philosophy, while simultaneously coping with resource and size constraints. The conclusions suggest that there is a strong desire for, but tradeoff within these companies selection of individuals who already identify with the triple bottom-line philosophy and individuals with experience and capability to deal with mainstream brand management two
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critical employee attributes that appear to be rarely found together. The more important the business experience to the organization, the more effort the organization must expend in formalizing their socialization programmes to ensure employee engagement. A key method in doing this is increasing employee knowledge of, and affection for, the target beneficiaries of the CSR programme (increased moral intensity).Andrew Crane (2010) 4.5 GREEN TECHNOLOGY When it comes to selling environmentally friendly, or "green," technology, many solution providers still don't believe it to be a sustainable endeavor to take to customers. At least not yet at Varnex Fall Conference in late November, a Synnex Corp. poll found that 42 percent of solution providers say green IT is building traction in the market. But 33 percent deemed it a hard sell, requiring significant justification of cost savings and another 12 percent of solution providers said it will only be a niche play in the foreseeable future. An additional 13 percent think it will be worthwhile once the economy picks up. During a roundtable session at the conference, several vendor executives said they surprised by the poll results. Solution providers intent on leading with an environmental message should choose their target customers wisely. Now everyone should move ahead for green initiative because of sustainability (Scott Campbell (2009). The main aims of the organisations for taking green initiatives are to promote awareness of the environmental impact on IT. It illustrates the impact of extensive use of IT in homes and organizations, and considers the ways in which a business could address IT efficiency and at the same time benefit from Green IT. It looks at the organizational, process, cultural and ICT efficiencies which Green IT offers. It sets out a best practice framework of five steps for a programme that will after the first stage become part of the standard processes of IT operations. The author draws attention to the responsibility of organizations to audit their information and look at information lifecycle management as a key element of greening IT. It is all about being green.( Gabriel Chris (2008). By the theoretical understanding of the relationship between job-related demands and resources, employee as being and innovativeness. In conditions characterized by too high levels of demands, employees may suffer from burnout. When job resources are high, they are likely to feel engaged with their work. Burnout in turn can be seen as an inhibitor of innovativeness, and work engagement as an antecedent to innovativeness, mediating the effects of resources and demands at work on innovativeness Marjo-Riitta Parsifal (2007)

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4.6 MOTIVATION Engagement is important for managers to cultivate given that disengagement or alienation is central to the problem of workers lack of commitment and motivation .Meaningless work is often associated with apathy and detachment from ones works .In such conditions, individuals are thought to be estranged from their selves .Other Research using a different resource of engagement (involvement and enthusiasm) has linked it to such variables as employee turnover, customer satisfaction loyalty, safety and to a lesser degree, productivity and profitability criteria (Schnidt & Hayes,(2002). The organisations which relates the forprofit organizational environment requires continuous improvement. The improvement efforts increase existing employee workloads and accountability for sustained performance while not directly and equally increasing resources relative to the employees workload. The inequity of resources to workload has been shown to affect employee perceptions; with considerable literature addressing perceptions related to job satisfaction, performance and the current trends of organizational change, and perceptions related to job satisfaction and motivation Bennis (1996)

4.6 JOB SATISFACTION The environmental responsibility has become a building block of corporate reputation and a key component of most admired and best places to work. It impacts everything from consumer brand preference, purchase decisions and employee retention, to partnership opportunities, analyst perceptions and investor confidence. Thus in todays marketplace commitments to protecting the environment are rapidly becoming the green fees for doing the business (Duffy Jim (2010). In todays scenario employees are choosing that workplace to invest their time and energy which is really influenced by green issues. Green initiatives have a big impact on not just retention but also on employee engagement which can be seen through job satisfaction, the commitment and engagement of an employee towards a company.( Murray James (2007).

4.7 ROLE OF HR IN TAKING GREEN INITIATIVES


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It has been widely accepted that the greatest asset of any successful company is its people. As recession looms and large-scale redundancies are announced on a daily basis it would be understandable for green issues to slide to the bottom of the in-tray for HR Managers. Inevitably short-term acute pressures will drive immediate priorities, but for those HR Managers who have the space to think about how their organization can best weather the current economic storm and come out on the other side in a stronger position, green issues should be very much at the forefront of their thinking. There are three major areas which need to be considered by HR managers to maintain sustainability-operational, functional and influence. Thus HR play an instrumental Role in Creating a climate where green behaviors become a part of the companys i.e. decreasing building energy use, reducing vehicle emissions;, expanding green procurement, increasing green processing in the delivery of programs and services, improving collaboration with communities for sustainability. Suzanne Richbell (2001). According to this research paper it analyzed that in 2009 survey HR professional found that the reasons the company implementing the green policies because in improve the employee morale, productivity, increases employee loyalty, recruitment and retention rate increased and the most important thing is that green HR practice is simple to implement and reduce the huge cost for e.g. heightened recycling effort, the elimination of disposal cups and other material and increase effort to turn off the light and electronic while it not in use and the employee should be rewarded i.e. through monetary or non-monetary benefit at the end of the year. The most effective and money-saving of green HR policies involve the use of technology i.e. telecommuting, a practice that keeps car off the road and among this most important is video conferencing which reduces the thousand of airfares as well as time, conducting a internet interview also eliminate the cost. So it can be said that HR plays a crucial role in taking green initiatives. Jamie McMahon (Aug. 2009). According to this article it analyzed that HR plays a crucial role in greening the workplace because HR has been urged to do encourage staff to make their workplace move to environmentally and ecofriendly product and policies and its possible when the bottom line is aware and encourage to adopt the same. HR is the only who can change the workplace operator and how staff travel to work and as we know the HR is central helping to changing policies and procedure as well as arguing the business benefits. HR can also initiate the about the video conferencing in reduction of cost and so on. Karen Dempsey (June 14, 2005). Human Resource Departments play a critical role in ensuring that the company adopts Green Initiatives and Corporate Social Responsibility programs. Furthermore, HR can manage the Green Initiatives
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plan implementation and monitor its adoption proactively, while documenting (and celebrating) its success throughout the company. Human Resources technology can help with a employee engagement program, including reducing the companys carbon footprint to benefit the planet. Start with these areas:
a) b) c) d)

Implement and encourage green practices. Foster a culture of social responsibility. Celebrate successes. Share and communicate the value of corporate social responsibility to employees and the community.

Implement and Encourage Green Practices for Employee Engagement and Corporate Social Responsibility
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Implement green practices to assist in environmental waste reduction, while promoting and

encouraging stewardship growth, better corporate ethics and long-lasting practices that promote both personal and corporate accountability. The value inherent in embracing green aspects of corporate responsibility is clearly understood, given the direct impact that rising energy and utility costs has on employees pocketbooks. Conservation has become an accepted means of making our planet healthier. Reducing each employees carbon footprint is a great way of getting energy conservation and recycling waste initiatives off the ground. Suggestions are as follows: i. ii. Recycle paper, cans and bottles in the office; recognize departmental efforts. Collect food and donations for victims of floods, hurricanes and other natural disasters around the globe. Lokhandwala Shafiq (2010): Green IT Adoption Is Driven by Business, Not Environmental, Considerations, Forrester Blogs, vol. 4, Issue.23, Pg. No.124-129. Viewed on 23rd feb, 2011
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iii.

Encourage reduced energy consumption; subsidize transit passes, make it easy for employees to car pool, encourage staggered staffing to allow after rush hour transit, and permit telecommuting to the degree possible.

iv.
v.

Encourage shutting off lights; computers and printers after work hours and on weekends for further energy reductions. Work with IT to switch to laptops over desktop computers. (Laptops consume up to 90% less Increase the use of teleconferencing, rather than on-site meetings and trips. Promote brown-bagging in the office to help employees reduce fat and calories to live healthier lives and reduce packaging waste, too.

vi.

Foster a Culture of Employee Engagement Creating a culture of change and responsibility starts with HR. Getting the younger employees, who are already environmentally conscious; excited about fresh Corporate Social Responsibility initiatives is a great way to begin. A committed set of employees who infuse enthusiasm for such programs would enable friendly competition and recognition programs. Employer brands are being eroded and the once sacred trust that employees had with stable pensions, defined benefits and lifelong jobs, are being replaced with pay for performance and adjustment to new learning goals. In this environment, Green Initiatives can go a long way in rehabilitating the employer brand with potential new hires and society at large. It can help defeat the image that corporate objectives are rooted in single minded profit at the expense of society and the environment. Having a global HR solution that offers companies flexibility, ease of use and the right mix of tools is essential to the success of both employees and employers alike, as they manage and maintain work-life balance and thrive in a changing environment that includes taking on social responsibility. The success of your Corporate Social Responsibility plan is possible with an HRIS that provides the capability to effectively plan, control and manage your goals, achieve efficiency and quality, and improve employee and manager communications.

19

No doubt, green is red hot. Unfortunately, all the noise that individuals and businesses are making about their half-hearted efforts to be environmentally friendly is its own form of pollution. Going green seems to be more about look at me than look what we need to do. True, some individuals and corporations do a lot in the way of conserving resources and energy, and those efforts are deserving of some recognition; but the truth is, all the measures that people and businesses are now taking or, in many cases, merely say they are taking to reduce their carbon footprint are the sort of measures that we should have been taking (and have been advised to take by environmental experts) for decades. Green Team should be to investigate the latest green practices and educate employees centerwide strike that, organization-wide on all that they can do to soften the companys impact on the environment. Be sure to involve agents on the team; having come of age amidst the green frenzy of recent years, members of Generation Y tend to be a little more environmentally savvy and, thus, will likely be able to enhance your organizations carbonreduction efforts. Further, including agents on such an important team is a great way to increase morale and engagement, and add job diversity to a position that is cloaked in repetition and routine. Reducing air travel has a bigger impact on the environment than you might think. According to Sightline Institute, a Seattle-based not-for-profit think-tank focused on sustainability, flight is one of the most fuel-guzzling forms of passenger transportation. While its true that airlines aim to compensate for their high fuel bills by packing passengers into their planes, the fact is that, per mile, powering a jet uses almost as much energy, and emits almost as much climatechanging carbon dioxide, as each passenger would use driving alone in an average car.

20

Sr.No. 1.

Themes of the article Green Initiatives

Name of the Author King A. Mike Santos. Andrew Crane D. Jhones Aditi Sharma Bimal Rath Madhusudan Dutta Subha Rajan Particia Daddona Victoria Masterson

Year 1995 2011 2010 2010 2009 2009 2009 2009 Feb 11,2011 2010

2.

Employee Retention

John Denholm 2009 Gaurav Vasu 2008 Dwigder 2007 3. Employee Engagement Reinhardt, F. L. Phil Baugh Franklin Glennon Franklin Glennon Franklin Glennon Gemma Charles Rachel Mountain Brown Ajay Garg Andrew Crane
21

2002 2010 2010 2010 2009 2009 2001 1996 2009 2010

4.

Corporate social responsibility

5.

Green technology

Scott Campbell

2009

CHAPTER-5 BIGGEST TYCOON IN IT SECTOR (INDIA) TAKING GREEN INITIATIVES

Polycom (UK) India Ltd. ------Bangalore, Karnataka.

Tata Consultancy Services ----- Bangalore, Karnataka.


22

Beetel Teletech Ltd.----- Gurgaon , NCR

IBM India Ltd.---- Noida , NCR.

5.1 POLYCOM (UK) India Pvt. Ltd.

Introduction:
7

Polycom provides the most life-like experience for communication and remote meetings

from anywhere to anywhere, instantly. Today, the sole provider of integrated, end-to-end unified collaboration solutions that help organizations meet both productivity and cost containment challenges. By leveraging our leadership in all aspects of a face-to-face meeting that include hearing each other (audio), seeing each other (immersive telepresence and video) and showing each other things (content), Polycom makes meeting over distance just as productive as being there. They enable rapid and collaborative decision-making, as per the research shorten chains of communication over distance, and as per the research continuously
7

www.polycomasia.com, viewed on 15th Mar.2011


23

enable innovative products and services. Polycom solutions have become critical to companies and organizations trying to win in today's increasingly competitive world. As the market leader in unified collaboration solutions, Polycom leverages the growing organizational demand for collaboration. As per the research have over 600 patents either issued or pending approval and over 15 million lines of active code across our product portfolio. Last year as per the research delivered our vision for collaboration with best-ofbreed Voice over IP and Video over IP products. Recently raised the bar yet again, by becoming the only provider of the ultimate high definition solution, Polycom Ultimate technology, Economic uncertainty, Globalization and cultural complexity, Outsourcing, offshoring, and mobile workforces. Reduced travel, reduced budgets, and mandates to carbon footprint. Convergence in business and a greater need to collaborate at every level. These are the realities that every business faces today. With Polycom, your teams can communicate and share information in real time over any device, across any network. It can bring your dispersed and extended teams together instantly, make decisions faster, and increase your companys productivityand gain a fast return on your investments (ROI) at the same time. Thats why more Global 2000 and Fortune 500 companies worldwide use Polycom solutions to connect people, ideas.. Reduce your carbon footprint with Polycom collaborative tools. The carbon footprint is part of ecological footprint and represents the overall impact the activities your organization has on the environment. The larger your footprint, the greater the amount of greenhouse gases produced, which are measured in units of carbon dioxide (CO2).Carbon emissions and changes in the climate are real concerns, and have resulted in an increased focus on organizations to adopt go green initiatives. Governments have established mandates and organizations are being offered incentives to adopt environmentally friendly policies. equity. Polycom works with organizations to identify ways in which our collaborative technologies such as voice, video, and conferencing can be deployed to help organizations go green. Our Go Green Initiative Service Program includes an evaluation of current travel patterns and practices, an assessment of how users currently work and would prefer to work, and
24

Businesses are starting to realize that a responsible

environmental policy not only provides a competitive advantage, but it also increases brand

provides formulas that can be used to increase productivity, improve time efficiency, and reduce travel costs. Note : Year.
10 Sep 2007 ... Many factors comprise a corporate green initiative 17 Apr 2008 ... Fujitsu Siemens Computers uses Polycom immersive
8

Polycom Takes Green Initiatives At the Duration Of 1

5.2 Tata Consultancy Service Introduction:


9

Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) is one of the major providers of information technology

services. The company provides a wide range of services including business consulting, information technology, business process outsourcing, infrastructure, and engineering. The company operates in Americas, Europe, Middle East, South Africa and Asia Pacific. The company is headquartered at Maharashtra, India and has around 111,407 employees. The company recorded revenues of INR228,614 million (approximately $5,678.8 million) during the Financial Year (FY) ended March 2008, an increase of 22.7% over 2007. The operating profit of the company was INR53,651.1 million (approximately $1,332.7 million) during FY2008, an increase of 15.5% over 2007. The net profit was INR50,190.6 million (approximately $1,246.7 million) in FY2008, an increase of 21.5% over 2007. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS) (BSE: 532540, NSE: TCS) is a Software services consulting company headquartered in Mumbai, India. TCS is the largest provider www.polycomasia.com, viewed on 15th Mar.2011 9 www.tcs.com and www.tcs.co.in, viewed on 15th Mar.2011
8

25

of information technology and business process outsourcing services in Asia. TCS has offices in 42 countries with more than 142 branches across the globe. The company is listed on the National Stock Exchange and Bombay Stock Exchange of India.TCS is one of the operative subsidiary of one of India's largest and oldest conglomerate company, the Tata Group or Tata Sons Limited, which has interests in areas such as energy, telecommunications, financial services, manufacturing, chemicals, engineering, materials, government and healthcare.

Greening For Future: Tata Consultancy Services, (TCS) has designed and
developed a comprehensive solution Greening for Future approach that caters to these specific needs of M&M industries. This approach focuses on building carbon footprints of all GHG emissions across the entire mining and metal producing value chain which will help build better internal control, make reporting easier, accurate and timely, thus, enabling the organizations to achieve their business goals. Organizations are getting cleaner and more efficient, but only incrementally. Many of the gains are offset by the ever-growing economy. The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per dollar of economic activity may be dropping but the growing economy means that these emissions are largely unchanged. Moreover, there does exist a huge gap in the controls and measures which have been built in developed economies against those in developing economies. Mining and Metal Industry contributes to approximately 4-5% of the total world GHG emissions. Technological advancements in the industry over the past 25 years have enabled substantial reductions in CO2 emissions. Work is continuously on to build technologies that would radically reduce emissions and take the organizations levels of GHG output. Green IT Consulting It looks after greening efforts focused at IT operations where TCS Green IT consultants helps customers align their IT vision and strategy with their business and sustainability goals to achieve superior performance. By improving the IT infrastructure and capabilities that affect people and processes across the organization, as per the research can help our clients use IT to reduce their carbon footprint while increasing efficiency and productivity. The result is immediate environmental and business benefits, reduced costs and maximized value of our clients IT spends. Note :
10

10

TCS Takes Green Initiatives At the Duration Of 1 Year.

www.tcs.com and www.tcs.co.in, viewed on 15th Mar.2011


26

3rd Feb 2008 The TCS 21 Green Planning Committee researched several organizations

and businesses to determine the feasibility and costs of planning a carbon neutral conference.
TCS , at the end of the 2009 financial year, BT reported a 58% reduction in emissions 2010 TCS green' initiatives can marry eco-sustainability with core operational

5.3 BEETEL TELETECH Pvt. Ltd.

Introduction:
11

Beetel Teletech Limited Established in the year 1985, Bharti Teletech Limited an ISO

9001:2000 Certified company is a renowned name engaged in marketing and distribution of smart phones, high quality cordless phones and air set top boxes of brands like Blackberry, Logitech, Samsung and Apple. In addition manufacturing and exporting quality landline telephones under Beetel brand for Airtel, BSNL / MTNL. Our range includes Samsung MP3 & MP4 Players, Beetel Basic Phones, Blackberry Smart Phones, Caller Id Phones, Digital Set Top Boxes, Computer Modems, Transcend Memory Devices, Projectors and Beetel Cordless Phones. These are catering to the requirements of tele communications, consumer electronics and IT sector. Beetel Teletech Limited comes from the Bharti Enterprises Group, founded by Sunil Bharti Mittal. Being the market leader in manufacturing and distributing Landline phones in India, they are committed to providing an excellent customer experience through world class service for the end customers and the channel and proud to be a major Sales and Distribution organization dealing with technology products in industries such as telecom, memory & latest technology. To become Indias finest Sales & Distribution Company by 2015: building a
11

www.beetel.co.in , viewed on 16th Mar.2011


27

boundary-less distribution scale across India delivering profitable growth and success to our partners making Beetel a loved, trusted and inspirational brand of Indian consumer ensuring a performance driven and satisfied ecosystem of our people, partners and consumers. Beetel, one of the largest manufacturers of landline phones in India, is amongst the leading telecommunication equipment provider across the globe. Our products and solutions have been deployed in over 35 countries and across 5 continents. They share the pride of being associated with the leading telecom operators and biggest brands in the OEM space. As per the research have our strength as customization of products with a quick turnaround time which is established by the telecom operator approval as regional approvals like CE-Europe, NOM-Mexico, ICASA-South Africa, CNC-Argentina, MIC-Korea and SIRIM-Malaysia etc. With a strong R&D focus, as per the research had been able to lead the technology curve in the Telecom industry. Note:
12

Beetel Teletech At The Duration Of Every 1 Year

Beetel

Teletech Limited in year 2009 decided to leverage its network of Channel ... Located near the main city, green and pollution-free environment.

12

www.beetel.co.in , viewed on 16th Mar.2011


28

5.4 IBM TECHNOLOGY Pvt. Ltd. INTRODUCTION


13

IBM is a global technology and innovation company that stands for progress. With

operations in over 170 countries, IBMers around the world invent and integrate hardware, software and services to help forward-thinking enterprises, institutions and people everywhere succeed in building a smarter planet. To achieve this they first decided to build the machine with "off-the-shelf" parts from a variety of different original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and countries. Previously IBM had always developed their own components. Secondly for scheduling and cost reasons, rather than developing unique IBM PC monitor and printer designs, project management decided to utilize an existing "off-the-shelf" IBM monitor developed earlier in IBM Japan is an existing Epson printer model. Consequently, the unique IBM PC industrial design elements relegated to the system unit and keyboard. They also decided on an open architecture, so that other manufacturers could produce and sell peripheral components and compatible software without purchasing licenses. IBM also sold an IBM PC Technical Reference Manual which included complete circuit schematics, a listing of the ROM BIOS source code, and other engineering and programming information. IBM has been present in India since 1992. The diversity and breadth of the entire IBM portfolio of research, consulting, solutions, services, systems and software, uniquely distinguishes IBM India from other companies in the industry.IBM India's solutions and services span all major industries including financial services, healthcare, government, automotive, telecommunications and education, among others. As a trusted partner with wide-ranging service capabilities, IBM helps clients transform and succeed in challenging circumstances.
13

www.ibm.com and www.ibmtech.co.in , viewed on 19th Mar. 2011


29

IBM has been expanding its footprint in India - and has a presence in over 200 cities and towns across the country - either directly or through its strong business partner network. IBM India has clearly established itself as one of the leaders in the Indian Information Technology (IT) Industry - and continues to transform itself to align with global markets and geographies to grow this leadership position. Widely recognized as an employer of choice, IBM holds numerous awards for its industry-leading employment practices and policies. The challenges have become clear that the need for clean water and air; affordable and reliable delivery of energy; the dwindling supply of fossil fuels; the reality of climate change and its implications for future generations. At IBM, our approach is twofold: as per the research are working to make our existing products and processes more efficient for both the environment and for business, while also developing new innovations that can help the world become smarter, drive economic and operational improvements, increase accountability and lessen environmental impact. Today's energy- and climate-related issues are at the top of our strategic agenda. IBM solutions can help customers reduce costs and systemically minimize energy, water, carbon emissions and waste. IBM is helping customers to become more energy efficient, implement new ways to source, manufacture and distribute goods and services in a more sustainable manner, enable safe and renewable sources of energy and manage resources at a macro level, transforming entire industries. IBM takes a holistic approach to our planet's challenge that combines their innovative technology, deep business insight, and industry expertise. Together can enhance the sustainability of business and planet too. Note:
14

IBM takes the green initiatives at the duration every 6

months
11 Oct 2007 ... Big Blue announces 'Big Green' initiative. IBM's $1 billion-a-year

initiatives aimed at building datacenters that consume less energy.


1 Nov 2008 ... Big Blue goes green: environmental initiatives thrive at IBM. 21 Apr 2009 ... The IBM initiative will provide free access to a lot of software. 28

Aug 2010 ... "Last year the USTA launched a comprehensive Green Initiative program ...fans and employees to take part in our recycling program

14

www.ibm.com and www.ibmtech.co.in , viewed on 19th Mar. 2011


30

CHAPTER-6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


The research study is quantitative research because it seeks to provide understanding of human experience, perceptions, motivations, intentions, and behaviors based on description and observation and utilizing a naturalistic interpretative approach to a subject. It also based on traditional scientific methods, which generates numerical data and usually seeks to establish causal relationships between two or more variables, using statistical methods to test the strength and significance of the relationships. 6.1 RESEARCH DESIGN The research methodology is causal research because Causal Research explores the effect of one thing on another and more specifically, the effect of one variable on another. Studies that engage in hypotheses testing usually explain the nature of certain relationships, or establish the differences among groups or the independence of two or more factors. Hypothesis testing is undertaken to explain the variance in the dependent variables.

6.2 SAMPLE SIZE A mailing system has been taking under consideration which has been mailed to HR of various organizations, but the data has been retrieved from some of the organization i.e.
Polycom, TCS, Beetel Teletech Ltd & IBM Technologies. After that HR of organizations has

conveyed this questionnaire to their various departments (IT Analysts, Operations, Marketing) for further assistance. In this project HR has plays an active role. 40 respondents are shows their interest from Polycom, 30 respondents from TCS, 20 respondents from IBM and 30 respondents from Beetel Teletech. So data retrieve from 120 respondents.

31

6.3 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE Panel sampling is used because in this method we first selecting a group of participants through a random sampling method and then asking that group for the same information again several times over a period of time. Therefore, each participant is given the same survey or interview at two or more time points; each period of data collection is called a "wave". This sampling methodology is often chosen for large scale or nation-wide studies in order to gauge changes in the population with regard to any number of variables. Panel sampling helps the researcher to know about the changes within a person regarding their job due to introduction of green initiatives taken in an organization. In this study Five point Likert scale is used. 6.4 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION: 6.4.1 Primary Data: The data collection was done using a questionnaire which was e-mailed
to the individual respondents. As there was a constraint of time and other resources, so mail was

the most efficient way of collecting the data. 6.4.2 Secondary Data: Secondary data is data collected by books, journal (Human Factor), magazine, newspaper (Business line, Economics Times) etc.

6.5 HYPOTHESIS
Null hypothesis (Ho): There is no significant impact of green initiatives on employee engagement. Alternate hypothesis (H1): There is a significant impact of green initiatives on employee engagement.

32

6.6 DATA MODELING


1) Percentage analysis: As we know the now a days HR plays a crucial role in the

organizations. So percentage analysis analyzes the role of HR department in taking green initiatives.
2) Paired T-test: paired T-test is used to analyze the impact of green initiatives on employee

engagement i.e. whether the employee engagement in the organizations is more before taking the green initiatives or after taking green initiatives. SPSS will applied to analyzed the data.
3) Cluster Analysis: Cluster analysis' is a statistical technique that can be applied to data

that exhibit natural groupings. Cluster analysis sorts through the raw data and groups them into clusters. A cluster is a group of relatively homogeneous observations. Objects in a cluster are similar to each other. Cluster analysis is just like factor analysis. Whereas factor analysis reduces the number of variables by grouping them into a smaller set of factors and cluster analysis reduces the number of observations by grouping them into a smaller set of clusters. It has been applied to see exactly which factor is affecting on employee engagement related to green initiatives. SPSS will be applied to analyze the data.

33

CHAPTER-7 DATA MODELING


PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS: DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLE

1. Age :

Fig-1

Interpretation: Hereby, this graph depicts that among 120 respondents from which we retrieve the data from different organization with different age groups .The highest respondents are between the age of 25-30 years.

34

2. Department:

Fig.-2 Interpretations: This graph depicts that data received from the respondents from various departments. It shows IT analyst has 63%, HR has 29%, and Finance Department has 0% and marketing Department have 8%. The retrieve data we analyze that the higher percentage of respondents are from Operations/IT Analysts.

35

3. Marital Status:

Fig-3 Interpretation: This graph depicts the marital status of the respondents on which 66% of employees are married and 54 % of employees are single.

36

4. Experience :

Fig-4

Interpretation: The above histogram depicts that the highest percentage of respondents are from Polycom having 5 to 10 years of experienced employees and rest of the employees having, 0 to 5 years of experience from Beetel, TCS, and IBM. This mentioned fig. also shows that none of the employees having more than 20 years of experienced.

37

5. Remuneration Per Month:

Fig-5

Interpretation: This graph depicts that the income levels of the respondents are on the peak level. This histogram shows that 40% of employees in Polycom, 20% of employees in Beetel, 25% of employees in TCS and 20% of employees in IBM are having more than Rs.20000 remuneration per month. The data also shows that there are only few respondents who comes under the slab of Rs. 10,000 to Rs. 15,000.

38

6. What kind of green initiatives are taken in your organization?

Name of organizations Recycling Use of less paper Eco- Friendly

the Polycom(UK) Table 1

Beetel Teletech N/A N/A

TCS N/A

IBM N/A

Video Conferencing Others

Interpretation: From the above graph depicts that this four company i.e. Polycom, Beetel Teletech, TCS and IBM are using recycling and eco-friendly product, except Beetel Teletech all are using less paper. Only Polycom is the company using vedio conferencing and other practices such as car pulling etc.

39

ROLE OF HR DEPARTMENT IN TAKING GREEN INITIATIVES

Training Programs update skills which increase performance on the job in term of Eco Friendly and carbon Emission.
SA A I D SD

Training Programs update skills which increase performance on the job in term of Eco Friendly and carbon Emission.

Fig-7 Interpretation: Here by this graph depicts that most of the employees in Polycom, Beetel, TCS and IBM agreed with this statement. Among these organizations 89% of respondents from Polycom are strongly agree, 65 % of respondents from Beetel are agree, 59% of respondents from TCS are strongly agree and 47% of the respondents are from IBM are strongly agree on the given statement.

Performance management system is linked with green initiatives.


40

SA

SD

Performance management system is linked with green initiatives.

Fig-8

Interpretation: The above histogram depicts that these four organizations i.e. The data retrieve from Polycom (78%), Beetel (55%), TCS(60% ) and IBM(72%) where strongly agree that they are linking their performance management system with green initiatives. The percentage share of Polycom is highest because they are dealing in VOIP a new technology in term of video conferencing and the least highest is TCS because they initiates the support from Avaya, Juniper in term of SAP implementation for Tata Group. Only few of them are agree on the given statement and a very least no. of respondents are disagree and strongly disagree on this given statement.

HR Department Play a Passive Role

41

SA HR Department Play A Passive Role

SD

Fig-10 Interpretation:

Hereby this graph depicts that 35% of respondent in Polycom are disagree and 5% of respondent are strongly disagree, 15% of respondents in TCS are disagree and 10% of respondent are strongly disagree, 20% of respondent in IBM are disagree and 5% of respondent are strongly disagree and 20% of respondent in Beetel Teletech are disagree and 10% of respondent are strongly disagree with this statement that HR plays a passive role in taking green initiatives.

HR dept. plays an active role SA A I D SD

42

HR dept. play an active role

Fig-11 Interpretation: Hereby this graph depicts that 30% of respondents are strongly agree and 9% of respondents are agree in Polycom, 19% of respondents are strongly agree and 4% of respondents are agree in TCS. 15% of respondents are strongly agree, 4% of respondents are agree and 5% of respondents are neutral in IBM and 13% of respondents are strongly agree, 3% of respondents are agree and 4% of respondents are neutral in the statement i.e. HR plays an active role.

Policies and practices are eco friendly SA Policies and practices are eco friendly A I D SD

43

Fig-12 Interpretation: Hereby this graph depicts that 30% of respondent are agree and 10% of respondent are strongly agree in Polycom, 20% of respondents are agree and 5% of respondents are strongly agree in Beetel, 15% of respondent are agree and 5% of respondent are strongly agree in TCS and IBM with the that policies and procedure are eco-friendly.

Assessing comprehensive new hiring training programs; and updated organizational procedures and policies
SA A I D SD

Assessing comprehensive new hiring training programs; and

44

updated organizational procedures and policies

Interpretation: This graph depicts that 25% of respondent are agree and 15% of respondents are strongly agree in Polycom, 20% of respondents are agree and 5% are strongly agree in Beetel, 15% of respondents are agree and 5% are strongly agree in IBM, 15% of respondents are agree an 10% are strongly agree in TCS with this statement i.e. Assessing comprehensive new hiring training programs; and updated organizational procedures and policies.

Benefits, allowances and perquisites provided by my company are quite attractive and are based on the job responsibilities SA Benefits, allowances and perquisites provided by my company are quite attractive and are based on the job responsibilities 35 A 65 I 20 D 0 SD 0

45

Interpretation: This graph depicts that 25% of respondent are agree and 15% of respondents are strongly agree in Polycom, 15% of respondents are agree and 10% are strongly agree in Beetel, 15% of respondents are agree and 5% are strongly agree in IBM, 10% of respondents are agree are 10% are strongly agree in TCS with this statement i.e. Benefits, allowances and perquisites provided by my company are quite attractive and are based on the job responsibilities.

Able to focus on the missing link in the transfer link chain in training program (carbon emission)

SA
Able to focus on the missing link in the transfer link chain in training program (carbon emission)

SD

46

Interpretation: This graph depicts that 30% of respondent are agree and 10% of respondents are strongly agree in Polycom, 15% of respondents are agree and 10% are strongly agree in Beetel, 15% of respondents are agree and 5% are strongly agree in IBM, 15% of respondents are agree are 5% are strongly agree in TCS with this statement i.e. Able to focus on the missing link in the transfer link chain in training program (carbon emission).

Attrition rate of the four companies is as follows


Name of the company
15

ATTRITION RATE (IN %) 8.43 % 9% 8.55 %

Polycom TCS IBM

16

17

15 16

www.polycomasia.com, viewed on 22nd Mar.2011 www.tcs.com, viewed on 22nd Mar.2011 17 www.ibm.com, viewed on 22nd Mar.2011

47

18

Beetel teletech

7.41 % Table-2

Retention rate of four companies: Name of the company


19

Polycom 20 TCS

Retention rate (in %) 38 37

18

www.beetel.co.in, viewed on 22nd Mar.2011


www.polycom.com , viewed on 22nd March,2011

19

20

www.tcs.com ,viewed on 22nd March, 2011

48

21 22

IBM Beetel Teletech

33 27 Table-3

21

www.ibm.com , viewed on 22nd March, 2011

22

www.beetel.com , viewed on 22nd March, 2011

49

Table-4 Paired Samples Test


Paired Differences 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Std. Mean Pair 1 aprassial of the respondent - PMS of an organization Pair 2 recretional activity is provided to the respondent job satisfaction level, peers, mentor & Superior Pair 3 career planning of an respondents in an organization - opportunity to develop an employee for future prospective Pair 4 rewards & benefits are provided as per there competencies and performance - aprassial of the respondent Pair 5 aprassial of the respondent - training is provided where an employee are lacking Pair 6 relationship with peers,(coordination & cooperative) - supervisors approach the matter of handling employee conflicts Pair 7 job satisfaction level, peers, mentor & Superior opportunity to develop an employee for future prospective Pair 8 rewards & benefits are provided as per there competencies and performance - job satisfaction level, peers, mentor & Superior Pair 9 PMS of an organization - creating a work environment or setting in which people are enabled to perform to the best of their abilities. Pair 10 Income of the respondents - job satisfaction level, peers, mentor & Superior -.62500 .48615 .04438 -.71288 -.53712 -14.083 119 .000 -.04167 .57095 .05212 -.14487 .06154 -.799 119 .426 -.08333 .65572 .05986 -.20186 .03519 -1.392 119 .166 .15000 .79547 .07262 .00621 .29379 2.066 119 .041 -.59167 .97443 .08895 -.76780 -.41553 -6.651 119 .000 .24167 .67358 .06149 .11991 .36342 3.930 119 .000 -.16667 .63950 .05838 -.28226 -.05107 -2.855 119 .005 .13333 .79846 .07289 -.01099 .27766 1.829 119 .070 .10833 Deviation .71943 Std. Error Mean .06567 Loas per the researchr -.02171 Upper .23838 T 1.650 Df 119 Sig. (2tailed) .102

.05833

.77020

.07031

-.08089

.19755

.830

119

.408

ANALYSIS OF PAIRED t-TEST:

50

There is a 5% level of significance thus from the result of paired T- test, it seems that there are six pairs of factors which are greater value than 0.005 that are Performance appraisal of the employee and performance management system of the organization which value is 0.102, Recreational activity and job satisfaction which value is 0.408, Career planning and opportunities For development which value is 0.070, Job satisfaction and opportunity to development which value is 0.041, Rewards and benefits and job satisfaction which value is 0.166 and Performance management system and work environment which value is 0.426. This indicates that there is a positive impact of green initiative on employee engagement.

51

TABLE-6 CENTROIDS PMS of an organization Mean Cluster Clu 1 ster 2 3 4 Std. 1 Deviation 2 4.3913 3 4.3000 4 .49901 .46609 5.0000 4.8333 4.3333 5.0000 4.2667 4.6833 123 recretional activity is provided to the respondent Cluster Distribution Mean N career planning of an opportunity to develop respondents in an an employee for future organization prospective % % of Std. of Combined Mean Std. Total Mean Std. 19.2% 25.0% 4.9565 27.5% 4.8333 15.8% 4.7879 12.5% 4.0000 100.0% 4.0000 4.6083 Deviation .20851 .37905 .41515 .00000 .00000 .49017 18.7% 24.4% 4.4783 26.8% 4.0667 15.4% 4.5758 12.2% 4.7368 97.6% 4.7333 2.4% 4.4750 100.0% Deviatio n .51075 .25371 .50189 .45241 .45774 .50147

23 Deviation 30 33 .00000 19 .37905 15 .47871 120 .00000 3 .45774 .46713

4.6061 5 .49620 5.0000 Combined .00000 .00000 .49195 4.6000

5 Excluded Cases 5.0000 Combine Total d

TABLE-5

INTERPRETATION: After considering the results of cluster analysis, the research found that the combined highest percentage is gained by the following clusters i.e., appraisal and performance management, recreational activities and job satisfaction, career planning and opportunity to development job satisfaction and opportunities to development and the percentages are: Cluster1=19.2% cluster2=25% cluster3=27.5%

52

INTERPRETATION: Whereas the highest standard deviations of components among this are as follows:Performance management (cluster1) =0.49901 Recreational activities (cluster3) =0.47871 Career planning (cluster3) =0.51075 Opportunity to development (cluster1) =0.51075

Among this four components as per the research have analyzed that the cluster3 and cluster 1 i.e. career planning, opportunities to develop for future prospects, performance appraisal, recreational activity and PMS of an organization are having the maximum standard deviation, which signifies that these component are contributing more effect on employee engagement by taking the green initiatives by the organizations.

CHAPTER-7
FINDINGS
1. The research analyzed that green practices such as video conferencing and recycling are

playing an indispensable role in contributing towards the protection of the environment.


2. As the research analyzed that the attrition rate in IT sector is high at the entry level of the

employees.
3. The organization which is taking green initiatives shows more employee engagement

because commitment to the organization goals.


4. Career planning and opportunities for development in future are considered more

indispensible factors in employee engagement and retention.

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5. The growth prospection and sustainable development of those companies are high which

are taking green initiatives.


6. Present workforce prefers to work with those organizations which are involved in green

practices because generational dynamics in the workplace affect morale, productivity, recruitment and retention.
7. It has been found from the study that the green practices are considered the building

blocks for corporate sector.


8. It is perceived from the study that to sustain in the competitive market place organization

have to take green initiatives.

CHAPTER-8 RECOMMENDATION
1. When any organization start indulging itself in green practices there should be less

retention rate and employees will feel more belongingness to the organization so every organizations recommended for taking green initiatives.
2. As per today's scenario pollution is at hike undue to this global warming is increasing so

the organization should take green initiatives such as recycling of products, eco-friendly policies and product etc. 3. To increase the employee engagement and increase the retention rate of the organization the company should take the green practices i.e. recycling, eco-friendly policies and product, green recruitment etc.

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4. The Data that must be tracked accurately are employees air travel, electricity

consumption, steam and chilled water consumption, and any other data that contributes a significant portion to the overall footprint.
5. To track the Organization progress once mitigation strategies ( i.e. the programme of

works developed to conserve, protect, record and investigate archaeological structures and deposits that are threatened by emission or partial destruction through some kind of IT related work or natural erosion are in place). Progress should be tracked at least once a year but quarterly data collection is recommended.
6. Let the employees decides which energy sources they deemed green, it was found that

over half of the employees believed hydro power, solar power, wind power and fuel cells to be green, while they considered coal, natural gas, nuclear power and bio fuels not to be green.
7. To take in order to increase employees awareness related to green energy source both

effectively and cost efficiently. Thus, it is crucial that the community to be informed of the decisions and policies.
8. To help raise green awareness among employees and creating an event during orientation

that introduces new employees to environmental issues surrounding them is a great opportunity for learning.
9. A great place to start integrating sustainability is to engage your employees. The Quick

Green Assessment includes recommendations for how to begin educating your employees and shifting your culture to promote innovative and cost-saving strategies.
10. Employs an easy-to-understand systems approach to ensure the root causes of turnover

are addressed and the potential for lasting change unleashed.


11. Integrates hands-on, action-oriented approaches that enable organizations to move

forward quickly and effectively


12. These bases are leading-edge organization-development methodologies to bring your

organizations strengths to the fore, to rekindle the dynamic potential of your company to meet todays challenges and to rebuild workforce commitment to the heart of your organizations mission.
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CHAPTER-9

CONCLUSION
Public sector and private Sector has made a cautious and tentative start to green IT. The sector has yet to form a joined-up and coherent strategy to go green at national and regional levels. Organizations like (TCS, Polycom, Beetel and IBM) have announced IT strategies to adopt green measures. The organizations have started work on developing standard ways of measuring and reporting public sector progress and the move towards green IT. Our research found that where there was pressure for action e.g., in procurement policies then adoption was high in the sector and amongst our contacts. Most of the organizations as per the research contacted in our research either had no means of measuring progress towards green IT, or used non-standard methods that makes it difficult to establish benchmarks against which to measure progress. There are different perceptions and expectations of green IT, and of how to define it, and objectives are set at different levels by different organizations. The sector also has the opportunity to help others, such as SMEs and industry associations, to go green by providing them with help and advice and best practice guidelines. A strategic approach to green IT that is linked to, and works with, the organizations business objectives. The

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creation of a business cases for change that highlights the financial, citizen, and regulatory drivers for green IT, to win approval from senior executives.

CHAPTER-10 REFERENCES
Andrew Crane (2010) Business Ethics: A European Review, Vol. 19, Issue 2, pp. 126-139 Anderson James, (2010) how green is my IT buy Purchasing B2B. Toronto Publications: Sep 2010. Vol. 52, Issue. 6; pg. 21, 1 pgs. Bandyopadhayay Parlab (2009); Is HR part of green equation?; Human Factor, vol.1,Issue. 4, pg.30 Bennie (1996), Job Satisfaction & Motivation, Harvard Business, Vol 3, Issue. 6, PP 431435. Bassam (2010), Retention & Engagement, Business Solution, Vol. 4, Issue 342,pp 235-237 Chris Gabriel,(2009) why its not nave to be green, business information review, Hartepool; vol, 25, Issue 4; pg 230 Dubey Amardeep, (2009); Green not just the Color of dollar; Human Factor, vol.1,Issue. 4, pg.24

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Dutta Madhusudan (2009) ; Green must be performance criteria; Human Factor,vol.1,Issue. 4, pg.25 Daniel Hann(2009), Maastricht University; European Centre for Corporate Engagement, Human Factor, Vol.2, Issue.5 ,pg,35 Garg Ajay, (2009); Aiming for green corporate image; Human Factor, vol.1, Issue. 4, Pg.27 Goyal Sudhir, (2009); our on thinking can kill business; Human Factor, vol.1, Issue. 4, Pg.29 Gabriel Chris (2008), The impact of extensive use of IT, Business Review Vol.19,Issue. 6 No.8,pp,314-320 Gerard Seijts (2006), Vol.8,Issue.9,pp.378-382. Resentment & Boredom, Harvard Business Review,

Franklin Glennon (1998), Environmental Consciousness, Business Review, Vol. 9, Issue 7,PP 129. Jamie McMahon (2009), Greening your staff, Credit union management, Business Review, vol. 2, issue 10. PP22 Karen Dempsey (2005), HR called to champion greener workplace, Personnel Today, PP 15 Marjo-Riitta Parzefall (2007) Creativity and Innovation Management, Businees Review; Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 299-306, Marjo-Ritta Passifal(2007), Innovative Resources Inhibitor business, Business world, Vol29,Issue 2,pp 129. King.A (1995), System Analysis Employee Engagement , Business Publication , Vol. 6, Issue 8, PP. 320-324. Oakley and Alge (2006), Work Role Performance. Business Related publication, Vol. 5, Issue.4,pp.78-80 Rath Bimal, (2009); can HR assure sustainability?; Human Factor,vol.1,Issue. 4, pg.19. Rajan Subha (2009); Incentinise your Green policy; Human Factor, vol.1, Issue. 4,pg.26 Reinhardt.F.L (2002), Organization & Its values, Human Factor, Vol.2, Issue. 6, PP.34 Reinhardt, F. L. (1999); Organizational Development, Harvard Business Review, 77(4): 149158
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Scott Campbell (2009), Green initiatives & Employee Engagement, Business World; vol.6 Issue. 1291; pg. 64 Sethi Sanjeev (2009); Can as per the research correct the depleting state? Human Factor, vol.1, Issue. 4, pg.31. Suramanyam (2007), Greening Enormous, Human Factor, Vol.1,Issue. 7,pp.45 Sanford Don (1996), Green Initiatives & Employee Engagement, Human Factor, Vol. 3, Issue 5, PP.56 Suzanne Richbell; H Doug Watts (2001), The greenfield concept in HRM, Employee Relations, 23, 4/5; ABI/INFORM Global pg. 498 Thomas Joan, (2010): environment protection of IBM, PR Newswire, Vol. 53, Issue. 6; pp. 22, 2 pgs.

GLOSSARIES Green Initiatives: Green refers to the health impact of what we do on living things. So Green is primarily a health-related issue. This is seen in the fact that cleaning products were the early Green issues. In fact, indoor air quality is a big factor in Green buildings.

Employee Engagement: Employee Engagement is the means or strategy by which


an organization seeks to build a partnership between the organization and its employees, such that employees fully understand and is committed to achieve the organizations objectives, and the organization respects the personal aspirations and ambitions of its employees. Corporate Social Responsibility: A form of corporate self-regulation integrated into a business model. CSR policy functions as a built-in, self-regulating mechanism whereby business monitors and ensures its active compliance with the spirit of the law, ethical standards, and international norms. The goal of CSR is to embrace responsibility for the company's actions and encourage a positive impact through its activities on the environment, consumers, employees, communities, stakeholders and all other members of the public sphere. Attrition Rate: A factor, normally expressed as a percentage, reflecting the degree of losses of personnel or materiel due to various causes within a specified period of time.

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Retention Rate: The percentage of present earnings held back or retained by a corporation, or one minus the dividend payout rate. Retention Percent of participants who have been employed in four continuous quarters after completing services. Paired T-test: Used to compare means on the same or related subject over time or in differing circumstances. Cluster Analysis: Statistical classification technique in which cases, data, or objects (events, people, things, etc.) are sub-divided into groups (clusters) such that the items in a cluster are very similar (but not identical) to one another and very different from the items in other clusters. It is a discovery tool that reveals associations, patterns, relationships, and structures in masses of data.

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