Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 27

The Essential Guide to Technical Product Specification: Engineering Drawing

Colin Simmons and Neil Phelps

First published in the UK in 2009 by BSI 389 Chiswick High Road London W4 4AL

British Standards Institution 2009 All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior permission in writing from the publisher. Whilst every care has been taken in developing and compiling this publication, BSI accepts no liability for any loss or damage caused, arising directly or indirectly in connection with reliance on its contents except to the extent that such liability may not be excluded in law. While every effort has been made to trace all copyright holders, anyone claiming copyright should get in touch with the BSI at the above address. BSI has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this book, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. The right of Colin Simmons and Neil Phelps to be identified as the authors of this Work has been asserted by them in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

Typeset in Optima and Gill Sans by Monolith http://www.monolith.uk.com Printed in Great Britain by Berforts Group, Stevenage

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 978 0 580 62673 9

Contents
Introduction Dimensioning and tolerancing of size 1.1 Introduction 1.2 General principles 1.3 Types of dimension 1.4 Dimensioning conventions 1.5 Arrangement of dimensions 1.6 Methods for dimensioning common features 1.7 Dimensioning screw threads and threaded parts 1.8 Dimensioning chamfers and countersinks 1.9 Equally spaced repeated features 1.10 Dimensioning of curved profiles 1.11 Dimensioning of keyways 1.12 Tolerancing 1.13 Interpretations of limits of size for a feature-of-size 1.14 Datum surfaces and functional requirements 1.15 Relevant standards Geometric tolerancing datums and datum systems 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Terms and definitions 2.3 Basic concepts 2.4 Symbols 2.5 Tolerance frame 2.6 Toleranced features 2.7 Tolerance zones 2.8 Datums and datum systems 2.9 Supplementary indications 2.10 Examples of geometrical tolerancing 2.11 Relevant standards Graphical symbols for the indication of surface texture 3.1 Introduction 3.2 The basic graphical symbol 3.3 Expanded graphical symbols 3.4 Mandatory positions for the indication of surface texture requirements 3.5 Surface texture parameters 3.6 Indication of special surface texture characteristics 3.7 Indications on drawings 3.8 Relevant standards vii 1 1 1 2 3 4 9 12 13 14 16 17 18 19 21 21 23 23 23 26 27 29 29 32 37 45 64 114 115 115 115 115 116 117 118 120 123

vi

The Essential Guide to Technical Product Specification: Engineering Drawing

Welding, brazed and soldered joints Symbolic representation 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Relevant standards Limits and fits 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Selected ISO fits Hole basis 5.3 Selected ISO fits Shaft basis 5.4 Methods of specifying required fits 5.5 Relevant standards Metric screw threads 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Thread designation 6.3 Relevant standards Illustrated index to BS 8888 Normative references

125 125 133 135 135 135 138 140 140 141 141 141 168 169 169

vii

Introduction
This guide has been produced as a companion to BS 8888, presenting up-to-date information based on the technical product specification aspects of BS 8888 and the essential standards it references. Its aim is to offer straightforward guidance together with pictorial representations, to all practitioners of technical product specification, i.e. those currently using BS 8888 and those who, in a bid to conform to global ISO practices, are making or wish to make, the transition from the old BS 308 to BS 8888. Its scope is to provide the necessary tools to enable engineers engaged in design specification, manufacturing and verification with the essential basic information required for specifying a product or component. It includes comprehensive sections extracted from and referenced to international standards relating to linear, geometric and surface texture dimensioning and tolerancing, together with the practice of welding symbology, limits and fits and thread data. It also includes an illustrated index to all standards referenced in BS 8888. This guide does not replace BS 8888 which is the definitive standard for technical product realization. Any element of BS 8888 not included in this guide should not be considered as less important to technical specification than those included. Most of the drawings in this guide have been extracted (and adapted) from the following BSI publications: BS EN ISO 1101, BS EN ISO 1302, BS ISO 5459, BS 8888 and PP 8888, Parts 1 and 2.

Chapter 1
Dimensioning and tolerancing of size
1.1 Introduction
Dimensioning is the process of applying measurements to a technical drawing. It is crucial to the whole process by which the designer will communicate the information required for the manufacture and verification of products.

1.2 General principles


Dimensions shall be applied to the drawing accurately, clearly and unambiguously. The following points shall be regarded as general dimensioning principles to be applied to all technical drawings. Each dimension necessary for the definition of the finished product shall be shown once only. Never calculate a dimension from the other dimensions shown on the drawing, nor scale the drawing. There shall be no more dimensions than are necessary to completely define the product. Preferred sizes shall be used whenever possible (see notes). Linear dimensions shall be expressed in millimetres (unit symbol mm). If this information is stated on the drawing, the unit symbol mm may be omitted. If other units are used, the symbols shall be shown with their respective values. Dimensions shall be expressed to the least number of significant figures, e.g. 45 not 45,0. The decimal marker shall be a bold comma, given a full letter space and placed on the baseline. Where four or more numerals are to the left or right of the decimal marker, a full space shall divide each group of three numerals, counting from the position of the decimal marker, e.g. 400 or 100 but 12 500 (see notes). A zero shall precede a decimal of less than one, e.g. 0,5. An angular dimension shall be expressed in degrees and minutes, e.g. 20 and 22 30 or, alternatively, as a decimal, e.g. 30,5. A full space shall be left between the degree symbol and the minute numeral. When an angle is less than one degree, it shall be preceded by a zero, e.g. 0 30.

NOTES: Preferred sizes are those referring to standard material stock sizes and standard components such as nuts, bolts, studs and screws. Decimal marker points or commas are not used to separate groups of numerals. This causes ambiguity since the decimal marker is denoted by a comma.

The Essential Guide to Technical Product Specification: Engineering Drawing

End product: complete part ready for assembly or service, or a configuration prod

1.3 Types of dimension

from a drawing specification. An end product may also be a part ready for fu

processing (for example, a product from a foundry or forge) or a configuration nee For the purposes of this section, the following definitions apply. further processing.

dimension
numerical value expressed in appropriate units of measurement and indicated graphically on technical drawings with lines, symbols and notes 6. Dimensioning of technical drawings Dimensions are classified according to the following types.

functional dimension
dimension that is essential to the function of the piece or space (F in Figure 1). See also 1.14

non-functional dimension
dimension that is not essential to the function of the piece or space (NF in Figure 1) End product: complete part ready for assembly or service, or a configuration produced

auxiliary dimensiondrawing specification. An end product may also be(a) Design requirement from a a part ready for further
Dimension, given for information purposes only, thatadoes notor forge)production or inspection processing (for example, a product from foundry govern or a configuration needing operations and is derived from other values shown on the drawing or in related documents further processing.
NOTE: An auxiliary dimension is given in parentheses and no tolerance may be applied to it (AUX in Figure 1). F F

feature

NF

end product

complete part ready for assembly or service NF or NF configuration produced from a drawing specification (AUX) or (a) Design requirement uct: complete part ready for assembly or service, or a configuration produced part ready for further processing (for example, a product from a foundry (b) Shoulder screw or forge) or a configuration awing specification. An end product may also be a part ready for further needing further processing g (for example, a product from a foundry or forge) or a configuration needing
F NF
Figure 57: Types of

ocessing.

NF NF

(AUX)

dimensioning

NF
(c) Threaded hole (c) Threaded hole

(a) Design requirement (a) Design requirement

(b) Shoulder screw (b) Shoulder screw

Figure 1 Types of dimensioning


F NF F
F

NF NF

NF

Figure individual characteristic such as a flat surface, a cylindrical surface, two parallel surfaces, a shoulder, a 57: Types of 6. Dimensioning of technical drawings dimensioning screw thread, a slot or a profile

Dimensioning and tolerancing of size

1.4 Dimensioning conventions


Technical product specification standards specify the following conventions when dimensioning drawings. Extension lines shall normally be placed outside the view to aid clarity, as shown in Figure 2. The extension line connects the dimension line (on which the value of the measurement is placed) to the reference points on the outline of the drawing. The following standard practice is specified. Crossing of extension lines shall be avoided whenever possible. There should be a small gap between the outline of the drawing and a projection line. The extension line shall extend slightly beyond the dimension line, as shown in Figure 2. Extension lines shall, where possible, be drawn at right angles to the dimension line. Centre-lines, extensions of centre-lines and continuations of outlines shall never be used as Drawing practice dimension lines. They may, however, be used as projection lines. Arrowheads and origin circles are commonly used as terminators for dimension lines. Oblique strokes and points can also be used, as shown in Figures 3 and 4. Dimension lines shall be unbroken even if the feature they refer to is shown as interrupted, as illustrated in Figure 5.

6. 6. Dimensioningtechnical drawings draw Dimensioning of of technical drawings 6. Dimensioning of technical


Leader line 2 45

6. Dimensioning of technical drawings 6. Dimensioning of line technical drawing 6. Dimensioning of Extension technical drawings
Value of the dimension
1500 3500 4500

When symmetrical parts are drawn partially, the portions of the dimension lineslines ] When symmetrical parts areparts are drawn partially, the portions of the dimension lines ] When symmetrical drawn partially, the portions of the dimension
Origin indication Dimension line Termination (arrowhead)

extend a short way way beyond axis axis of symmetry and second termination is is extend aextend beyond the the of symmetry of symmetry second termination short a short way beyond the axis and the the and the second termination is ] When ] When symmetrical partsdrawn partially, portions of the dimension lines lines lines ] When symmetrical partsdrawn partially, the the portions of the dimension symmetrical parts are are are drawn partially, the portions of the dimension omitted, as of extensioninshown 62. of 62. Examples omitted, omitted, aslines and dimension lines asFigure 2 Figure shown Figure 58: Examples shown in Figure 62. in Figure extension lines and dimension lines extend a short wayshort beyond axis of symmetrysymmetrysecond termination is is is extend a short way waythe the axis of symmetry the the second termination extend a beyond beyond the axis of and and and the second termination

omitted, as shown as shown 62. 62. 62. omitted, as shown in Figure omitted, in Figure in Figure Terminators: dimension lines shall be terminated according to one of the representations Figure 59:Figure 3. 59: Terminato shown in Terminators for for Figure 59: Terminators Figure

dimension lines lines dimension dimension lines Figure 59:FigureTerminators for fo FigureTerminators for 59: 59: Terminators (c) (c) Arrowhead, (b) (b) Arrowhead, closed closed Arrowhead, open 30 open 30 (b) Arrowhead, (c) Arrowhead, open 30 (a) Arrowhead, closed (a) Arrowhead, closed closed Arrowhead, closed (a) Arrowhead, dimension dimension lines dimension lines lines 30 30 and filledfilled(BS 8888 30 (BS 8888 30 30 and filled and 30 (BS 8888 (a) Arrowhead, closed and filled 30 (b) Arrowhead, closed 30 (c) (c) Arrowhead, open 30 Arrowhead, (b) Arrowhead, closed (c) (c) Arrowhead, 30 30 default) Arrowhead, closed (a) Arrowhead, closed (a) (a) default) default) Arrowhead, closed General (b) Arrowhead, closed Arrowhead, openopen open 30 6.4.1 (b) Arrowhead, closed (BS 8888 default) and filled filled(BS 88888888 8888 30 30 30 and 30 filled 30 (BS and 30 (BS default) default) default)

6.4 Dimensioning conventions

Technical product specification standards recommend the following conventions

(d) Arrowhead, open 90 (BS 8888dimensioning drawings. (e) Oblique stroke (f) Point (used only if no place for (d) Arrowhead, openopen when (e) Oblique strokeOblique stroke PointPoint (used only(used only if no (f) (f) (used (f) Point if no only if no (d) Arrowhead, 90 90 open 90 (e) Oblique stroke (d) Arrowhead, (e) non-preferred) arrowhead; the oblique stroke may (BS 8888 non-preferred)non-preferred) place for arrowhead; the the 8888) the (BS 8888 (BS 8888 non-preferred) place for arrowhead; BS place used also be for arrowhead; (d) Arrowhead, openopen open 90(e) Oblique stroke (d) Arrowhead, 90 90 (d) Arrowhead, oblique strokeonly ifalso also if no may no (f) (used(used may (f) oblique stroke (e) Oblique stroke (e) Oblique stroke (f) PointPoint stroke(usedif no may also oblique Point only only
(BS 88888888 8888 non-preferred) (BS non-preferred) 6.4.2 Extension lines and dimensionarrowhead; theBSthe the (BS non-preferred) Figure 3 Terminators for dimensionlines for arrowhead; be used placeBS 8888) placebe used be used place BS 8888) for lines for arrowhead; 8888) oblique stroke may also also also oblique stroke may may oblique stroke

The extension line connects the dimension linebe used 8888) value of the measure(on which 8888) be used used 8888) BSthe be BS BS ment is placed) to the reference points on the outline of the drawing. The following standard practice is recommended.
]

Figure 60: Origin Figure 60: Origin Figure 60: Origin indication indicationindication Figure 60:FigureOrigin FigureOrigin60: Origin 60: indication indication indication

Extension lines (continuous narrow line type 01.1.3, see Table 1) should normally be placed outside of the view to aid clarity, as shown in Figure 58. Crossing of extension lines should be avoided whenever possible.

] ]

There should be a small gap between the outline of the drawing and a projection features interrupted features interrupted features interrupted

Figure 61: Dimensioning Dimension Figure 61: Dimensioning Figure 61:

line. The extension line should extend slightly beyond the dimension 61:FigureDimensioning as shown Figure line,Dimensioning Figure 61: 61: Dimensioning

dimension lines (a) Arrowhead, closed (b) Arrowhead, closed (c) Arrowhead, open 30

30 (d) Arrowhead, open 90 and filled 30 (BS 8888 (f) Point (used only if no (e) Oblique stroke (BS 8888 non-preferred) The Essential Guide to Technical Product Specification: Engineering Drawing default) place for arrowhead; the oblique stroke may also be used BS 8888)

(d) Arrowhead, open the Origin indication: the origin of 90 dimension Oblique strokeindicated as(f) Point (used only if4. shown in Figure no (e) line shall be (BS 8888 non-preferred) place for arrowhead; the oblique stroke may also be used BS 8888) Figure 60: Origin indication

Figure 4 Origin indication


Figure 60: Origin Figure 61: Dimensioning indication interrupted features

Figure 61: Dimensioning interrupted features

Figure 5 Dimensioning interrupted features


Figure 62: Dimension lines on a partial view of a

When symmetrical parts are drawn partially, the portions of the dimension lines shall extend a short way symmetrical part beyond the axis of symmetry and the second termination shall be omitted, as shown in Figure 6.

Figure 62: Dimension lines on a partial view of a symmetrical part

69

Figure 6 Dimension lines on a partial view of a symmetrical part

1.5 Arrangement of dimensions


The way in which dimensions are typically used on drawings is shown in Figure 7. Conventions for arranging dimensions on drawings are as follows. Dimensions shall be placed in the middle of the dimension line above and clear of it. Dimensions shall not be crossed or separated by other lines on the drawing. Values of angular dimensions shall be oriented so that they can be read from the bottom or the right-hand side of the drawing, as shown in Figure 8. Where space is limited, the dimension can be placed centrally, above, or in line with, the extension of one of the dimension lines, as shown in Figure 9. Larger dimensions shall be placed outside smaller dimensions, as shown in Figure 10.

69

Where space is limited, the dimension can be placed centrally, above, or in line with, the extension of one of the dimension lines (see Figure 66). Larger dimensions are placed outside smaller dimensions (see Figure 67). clarity (see Figure 68).

Dimensioning and tolerancing of size


]

Dimensions of diameters should be placed on the view that provides the greatest

6. Dimensioning of technical5drawings

Dimensions of diameters shall be placed on the view that provides the greatest clarity, as shown in Figure 11.
Figure 64: Orientation of

Figure 63: Examples of the ways in which dimensions are typically used on
60

60

linear dimensions

30

drawings

6. Dimensioning of technical drawings


60
60

Figure 7 Examples of the ways in which dimensions are typically used on drawings (a)
60
Figure 64: Orientation of linear 3 dimensions 0

60

Figure 65: Orientation of angular dimensions 30

60

60 60 30
60
60
(b)

70
30

Drawing practice Drawing practice

60

60

60

(a)

Figure 8 Orientation of linear and angular dimensions


60

Figure 66: Dimensioning Figure 66: Dimensioning smaller features smaller features
60

60
30

6 6

3 3
60

3 Figure30 Orientation of 65: 3 3 3 angular dimensions

Figure 9 Dimensioning smaller 60 features


60

Figure 67: Larger Figure 67: Larger dimensions placed outside dimensions placed outside smaller dimensions smaller dimensions
30

30

90 90
60

6 6
60
60
(b)

12 12

50 50

60

3 3

50 50

60

60

Figure 10 Larger dimensions placed outside smaller dimensions


71

30

Figure 68: Dimensions of Figure 68: Dimensions of diameters placed on view diameters placed on view 30 providing the greatest providing the greatest clarity clarity
60
(b)

60 60

60

60

38 38

(a)

60

30

50

38

6. Dimensioning of technical drawings


6

The Essential Guide to Technical Product Specification: Engineering Drawing 6. Dimensioning of tech

ure 68: Dimensions of

60
Figure 69: Parallel dimensioning

meters placed on view

oviding the greatest

rity

Figure 6

dimensio

35

65

150

420 640

150 420 640

Figure 11 Dimensions of diameters placed on view providing greatest clarity


Superimposed running dimensioning is a simplified parallel dimensioning and may Dimensioning from a common feature can be used where a number of dimensions of the same direction 6.6 Examples of dimensioning methods be used origin. relate to a commonwhere there are space limitations. The common origin is shown as in Figure 70. Superimposed running dimensioning is a simplified parallel dimensioning and may Dimension values may be: Dimensioning from a common feature maythere are space limitations. The common or as superimposed Figure 70. be used where be executed as parallel dimensioning origin is shown as in running dimensioning. from a common feature is used where a number of dimensions of the Dimensioning Dimension values may be: ] above and is the placement of Parallel same directionclear ofto a common a number Dimensioning of lines parallel to one another dimensioning relate the dimension line 6. of single dimension technical drawings origin.(see Figure 70a); or and spaced ] in line with the corresponding extension line (see Figure 70b). out so that the dimensional value can easily be added in, as shown in Figure 12a. ] above and clear of the dimension line (see Figure 70a); or Superimposed running dimensioning is a simplified parallel dimensioning and may be used where Dimensioning from a common feature may be executed as parallel dimensioning or70b). as ] in line with the shown in Figure 12. Dimension Figure there are space limitations. The common origin is ascorresponding extension line (see values may be above and clear ofsuperimposed running dimensioning. the dimension line, as shown in Figure 12b; or in line with the corresponding extension line, as shown in Figure 12c. Figure 70: Examples of Parallel dimensioning is the placement of a number of single dimension lines parallel running dimensioning
Figure be added to one another and spaced out so that the dimensional value can easily69: Parallel in

45

50

Figure 7 running

(see Figure 69).

dimensioning

150 420 640


a)
(a)

150

420

640 150 420


b)

640

(a)

Superimposed running dimensioning is a simplified parallel dimensioning and may be used where there are space limitations. The common origin is shown as in Figure 70. Dimension values may be:
] ]

above and clear of the dimension line (see Figure 70a); or


150 420 640 150

in line with the corresponding extension line (see Figure 70b).


(b)

420

c)

Figure 12 Parallel dimensioning and running dimensioning Figure 70: Examples of (b)
running dimensioning

640

73

Drawing practice

Chain dimensioning consists of a chain of dimensions. These should only be used where the possible accumulation of tolerances does not affect the function of the part
7

Dimensioning and tolerancing of size (see Figure 71).

Chain dimensioning consists of a chain of dimensions. These should only be used Combined dimensioning uses chain dimensioning and parallel dimensioning on the where the possible accumulation of tolerances does not affect the function of the part same drawing (see Figure 72). dimensions. dimensions. These used where the possible Chain dimensioning consists Chain dimensioning consists of a chain of of a chain ofThese shall only be should only be used (see Figure 71). accumulation of tolerances does not affect the function ofdoes part,affect the function of 13. part where the possible accumulation of tolerances the not as shown in Figure the
Figure 71: Chain dimensioning

Combined dimensioning uses chain dimensioning and parallel dimensioning on the (see Figure 71). same drawing (see Figure 72). Combined dimensioning uses chain dimensioning and parallel dimensioning on the same drawing (see Figure 72).
100

dimensioning Figure 71: Chain dimensioning

160

70

200

Figure 72: Examples of

160

70

200

combined dimensioning Combined dimensioning uses chain dimensioning and parallel dimensioning on the same drawing view. 160 70 200 30 Figure 14a illustrates combining single dimensions and parallel dimensioning from a common feature. Figure 72: Examples of

Figure 14b illustrates combining single dimensions and chain dimensions.

combined dimensioning Figure 72: Examples of combined dimensioning

(a) Combining single dimensions and parallel dimensioning from a common feature

(a) Combining single dimensions and parallel dimensioning from a common feature

a) (a) Combining single dimensions and parallel


dimensioning from a common feature

(b) Combining single dimensions and chain dimensions

b) (b) Combining single dimensions and chain dimensions

74

(b) Combining single dimensions and chain dimensions

Figure 14 Combined dimensioning

74 74

150
30

Figure 13 Chain dimensioning

150 100
30

150 100

Figure 71: Chain

Dimensioning by coordinates uses superimposed running dimensioning in two direcThe Essential Guide The common origin may be any Engineering Drawing tions at right angles, as shown in Figure 73. to Technical Product Specification: suitable Dimensioning by coordinates uses superimposed running dimensioning in two direccommon reference feature. It may be useful, instead of dimensioning as shown in tions at right angles, as shown in Figure 73. The common origin may be any suitable Figure 73, to tabulate dimensional values as shown in Figure 74. common reference feature. It may be useful, instead of dimensioning as shown in Dimensioning by coordinates uses superimposed running dimensioning in two directions at right angles, Figure 73, to tabulate dimensional values as shown in Figure 74. as shown in Figure 15a. The common origin may be any suitable common reference feature. It may be useful, instead of dimensioning as shown in Figure 15a, to tabulate dimensional values as shown in Figure 73: Dimensioning Figure 15b. 8

15 ,5

160 160 120 120 90 90 60 60 20 0 20 0 20

by coordinates (two Figure 73: Dimensioning directions) by coordinates (two directions)

15 ,5

15 ,5

11

1 26 5, 5

11

13

,5

26

,5

26

15 ,5

15 ,5

13

13 26 ,5

13

,5

,5

13

60

100

140

13

,5

180

20

60

100

140

180

a) in two directions

200

200

13

,5

13

,5

A2 A2 B2 B2 B1 Y Y A1 A1 X X
b) tabulated

Figure 74: Dimensioning by coordinates (tabulated) Figure 74: Dimensioning by coordinates (tabulated)

C 160 60 120 160 90 60 120 90

B1

Figure 15 Dimensioning by coordinates


75 75

A diameter of a circle or cylinder is dimensioned by prefixing the value with the symbol . This symbol should be as large as the following numerals and the slanting line
Dimensioning and tolerancing of in the should be about 30 clockwise from the vertical,size direction in which it is to be read 9

(see Figure 68). It has already been pointed out (see Figure 68) that the dimensions should be placed on the view that most clearly shows the information. Where dimension lines and other lines (e.g. extension lines) would otherwise intersect,

1.6 Methods for dimensioning common features

the dimension Certain features, such as diameters, radii, squares, hole sizes,shown lines to the feature can be dimensioned by leader lines as chamfers, countersinks and counter-bores, can occur whole view engineering drawings. in Figure 75. Where the frequently in is not shown, concentric diameters can be A diameter of a circle or cylinder shall be dimensioned by prefixing the value with the symbol , dimensioned as in Figure 76. as shown in Figure 16. A square feature shall be dimensioned by prefixing the value with the symbol . Additionally, square and flat features can be indicated by continuous narrow lines drawn diagonally on Circles are to be dimensioned as shown in Figure 77 and spherical surfaces as shown in the flat feature, as shown in Figure 18. Figure 78. Where dimension lines and other lines (e.g. extension lines) would otherwise intersect, the dimension lines to the feature can be dimensioned by leader lines as shown in Figure 16. Where the whole view is not shown, concentric diameters shall be dimensioned as in Figure 17. Dimensionin 6.

25

12. Dimensionin

340 320
20
R1

300
Figure 78: Radial values

35
R1

30

55

370

Figure 16 Diameter dimensions indicated by leader lines


10

Figure 17 Dimensioning concentric diameters on a partial view


20 10

Figure 79: Square values

NOTE. Leader line should be in line with centre of circle

40

40

Figure 18 Dimensioning a square

Figure 80: Spherical radi Circles shall be dimensioned as shown in Figure 19 and spherical surfaces as shown in Figure 20. Radii of features shall be dimensioned by prefixing the value with the letter R. Radii shall bevalues dimensioned by a line that passes through, or is in line with, the centre of the arc. The dimension line shall have one arrowhead only, which shall touch the arc. S50 Radii that require their centres to be located shall be dimensioned as in Figure 21a; those that do not shall be dimensioned as in Figure 21b. Spherical radii shall be dimensioned as shown in Figures 21c and 21d.

SR6
S

SR

12

20

Drawing practice 10 Drawing practice

370

The Essential Guide to Technical Product Specification: Engineering Drawing

Drawing practice Drawing practice


10 10

20

S50 Figure 77: Dimensioning a


circle

S50

Figure 78 spherical

6.7.3 Radii 6.7.3 Radii

Radii of features are dimensioned by prefixing the value with the letter R. Radii should Radii of features are dimensioned by prefixing the value with the letter R. Radii should NOTE. Leader line should dimensioned by a line that passes through, or is in line with, the centre of the arc. be 6.7.3 Radii be in line with centre be dimensioned by a line that passes through, or is in line with, the centre of the arc. 6.7.3 Radii The dimension line should have one arrowhead only, which should touch the arc. of circle 20 The dimension linefeatures have one arrowhead only,Swhich value with the the arc. Radii should S 20 Radii of should are dimensioned by prefixing the should touch letter R. 40 Radii of features are dimensioned by value with the letter R. Radii should Radii that require their centresato bethat passes prefixing theis in line with,Figure 79a;of the arc. be (a) be dimensioned by line located shoulda) dimensioned as in b) centre through, or the (a) Radii that require their centres a line that passes through, or is in(b) as in Figure (b) of the arc. be dimensioned 79a; be dimensioned by to be located should Spherical radii arewith, the centre line dimensioned as those that Thenot are dimensioned as in Figure 79b. do dimension line should have one arrowhead only, which should touch the arc. those that do not are dimensioned as in Figure 79b. Spherical radii are dimensioned as the arc. Figure 20 Dimensioning The dimension 79d. shown in Figures 79c andline should have one arrowhead only, which should touch spherical diameters shown in Figures 79c and 79d. centres to be located should be dimensioned as in Figure 79a; Radii that require their Radii Figure 19 Dimensioning that require are dimensioned aslocated shouldSpherical radii areas in Figure 79a; a diametertheir centres to be in Figure 79b. be dimensioned dimensioned as those that do not Holes are to as dimensioned as 79. The depth of are drilled hole as Holes aredo notdimensioned be shown Figure 79b. Spherical radii79. The depth ofwhen those that to be are dimensioned as in in Figure shown in Figure the dimensionedthe drilled hole w shown in Figures 79c and 79d. given in to the to cylindrical portion given in note 79c and 79d. depth ofFigure 78: Dimensioningof the hole and of to shown in Figures50 refersnote form refers thethe depth of the cylindrical portion notthe hole and n S form the by the point of by drill, unless otherwise specified. R5,5 spherical of the drill, the extremity made extremity made the the pointdiameters unless otherwise specified. R4
R5,5 R4 R4 R5,5 R5,5 R4

R4 R4

R4 R4

5 5 R2 R2

R8 R8
(a)

R2 R2
(b)

given in note form refers to the depth of the cylindrical portion of the hole and not to
(b) (b)

he extremity made by the point of the drill, unless otherwise specified.

12 12

77
SR6 R S0 6 0

12 12

(c) (c)

SR20 SR20

SR SR

Figure 79: Dimensioning radii Figure 79: Dimensioning radii

Figure 21 Dimensioning radii

(d) (d)

Figure 79: Dimensioning radii Figure 79: Dimensioning radii

78 78

S SR6 R60 0

(c) (c)

c)

(d) (d)

d)

SR SR 12 12

SR20 SR20

SR S R

SR S R100 12 R1 R100 2

a) (b) Holes are to be dimensioned as shown in Figure 79. The depth of the drilled hole when (a)

R100 R100

(a) (a)

(a)

S R8 20 R8

R2 R2
(b)

5 25 R2 R

b)

given given the diameter, refersrefers to the depth of the cylindrical portion of theand and after after the diameter, to the depth of the cylindrical portion of the hole hole not to theto the extremity made by the point of the unless otherwise specified. not extremity made by the point of the drill, drill, unless otherwise specified.
Dimensioning and tolerancing of size 11
FigureFigure 80: Dimensioning 80: Dimensioning

32

+ 0,02 0

4 5 5 4

Teachers note: the method of production (e.g. drill, punch, bore or ream) sh Holes shall be dimensioned as shown in Figure 22. The depth of the drilled hole, when given after the not be specified except where it Holes are dimensioned cylindrical Figure 80.the hole and not to is essential to the function of the drawing. diameter, refers to the depth of theas shown inportion 38The depth of the drilled hole, when the extremity made by the 38 of point of thegiven after the diameter,specified.the depth of the cylindrical portion of the hole and drill, unless otherwise refers to The method of production (e.g. drill,the point of the drill, unless otherwise specified. not to the extremity made by punch, bore or ream) shall not be specified except where it is essential to the function of the part. + 0,02 + 0,02
9,5 18 18 9,5
+ 0,5 0

6.7.4 Holes

holes holes

13

32 0 32 0 6.7.5 Chords, arcs and angles

13

+ 0,5 0

4 5

Figure 80: Dimensioning

The dimensioning of chords,7arcs and angles should be as shown in Figure 81 holes


9,5 18
+ 0,5 0

32

+ 0,02 0

6.7.5 Chords, arcs arcs angles 6.7.5 Chords, and and angles

Figure 22 Dimensioning holes

The dimensioning of chords, arcs and angles should be asCurvedin Figure 81. 81. The dimensioning of chords, arcs and angles 6.7.6 be (a) Chord in Figure should shown surfaces as shown (b) Arc Teachers note: the method of production (e.g. drill, punch, bore or ream) should The dimensioning of chords, arcs and angles shall be as shown in Figure 23. not be specified except where it is essential to the function of of holes and other features on a curved surf When dimensioning the spacing the drawing.
100 100
chords, arcs and angles on the drawing, as shown in Figure 82. chords, arcs and angles

whether the dimensions are chordal or circumferential, they are to be indicated cle FigureFigure 81: Dimensioning 81: Dimensioning 105 105 42

6.7.5 Chords, arcs and angles


tice Thecurved surface of chords, arcs and angles should be as shown in Figure 81. a dimensioning
(a) ChordChord (a)

Figure 82: Dimensions on

800 OUTER SURFACE


c) angle

a) chord

(b) Arc Arc (b)

b) arc

(c) Angle

Figure 23 Dimensioning chords, arcs and angles 105 100


42 42

13

Teachers note: note: the method of productiondrill, punch, bore or ream)ream) should Teachers the method of production (e.g. (e.g. drill, punch, bore or should Drawing practice 38 not be specified except where it is essential to theto the function of the drawing. not be specified except where it is essential function of the drawing.
100

105

Figure 81: Dimensioning chords, arcs and angles

Dimensioning the spacing of holes and other features on a curved surface shall be as shown in Figure 24, whether the dimensions are chordal or circumferential, they shall be indicated clearly on the drawing. 6.7.6 Curved surfaces
When dimensioning the spacing of holes and other features on a(b) Arc surface, curved (a) Chord (c) Angle circumferential, they are to be indicated clearly whether the dimensions are chordal(c) Angle or on the drawing, as shown in Figure 82.
42

nsions on

800 OUTER SURFACE

79

79

(c) Angle

75 + 0,5 -

Figure 24 Dimensions on a curved surface

6.8 Dimensioning screw threads and threade parts

13

Holes Holes are dimensioned as shown in Figure 80.depthdepth of the drilled hole, when are dimensioned as shown in Figure 80. The The of the drilled hole, when

12

6. technical 6.8.2 Thread system and size of Dimensioning ofdrawings drawing The Essential Guide to Technical Product Specification: Engineering Drawing 6. Dimensioning 6. Dimensioning of technical technical drawings 6. Dimensioning of technical drawings 6. Dimensioning of technical drawings

The letter M, denoting ISO metric screw threads, is followed by the values of th

1.7 Dimensioning screw threads andM8 1. threaded parts e.g.

nominal diameter and pitch (if required), with a multiplication sign between them

6.8.2 Thread 6.8.2 Thread system and size system and size nominal diameter and the thread tolerance class. If 6.8.2 Thread system and size that the designation shall system the thread6.8.3 Thread tolerance class 6.8.2 Thread indicate and size system, 6.8.2 Thread system and size

ISO metric screw threads shall be designated in accordance with BS EN ISO 6410-1, which specifies

necessary, the pitch shall also be indicated; however, when designating metric coarse threads, the pitch The letter M, denoting ISO metric screw threads, is followed by the values of the The letter M, denoting ISO metric screw threads, is followed by the values of the 6H is suitable for internal threads and toleranc The letter M, denoting ISO For general followed by the class is generally omitted. denoting metric screw threads, isuse, the tolerancevalues of the the The letter M, ISO metric threads, is followed by the the of of The letter M,nominal diameter andscrewscrew threads,with a multiplicationvaluesbetween them, denoting ISO metric pitch (if required), is followed byvalues signthe The nominal diameter refers (if required), multiplication sign threads.between them, nominal diameter and pitch (ifpitch to thewith aclass 6g forof external and internal threads; the dimension nominal diameter and required), major diameter external betweenThe thread tolerance class is preceded by a hyphen, e.g with a multiplication sign them, nominal diameterpitch (if required), with with a multiplication sign between them, nominal diameterM8 and pitch (if required), a multiplication sign between them, and 1. relating 1. the depth of thread refers to the full depth or M10 The direction of a right hand thread (RH) to 1.e.g. e.g. M8e.g. M8 M10-6H of thread. 1-6g. e.g. M8 e.g. M8 1. 1. however left hand threads shall be denoted with the abbreviation LH after the is not generally noted; thread designation. 6.8.3 Thread toleranceScrew threads are dimensioned as shown in Figures 83 and 84. class

6.8.3 Thread tolerance class class 6.8.3 Thread tolerance 6.8.3 and size 6.8.3 Thread tolerance class Thread system Thread tolerance class

Screw threads shall be dimensioned as shown in Figures 25 and 26.


40 40 40 40 40

M36-6g

(a)

38 max

M36-6g

M20-6g

M36-6g M36-6g

M20-6g M20-6g

M36-6g

M36-6g

(a)

(a) (a) (a)

(a)
a)

(b)

Figure 25 Dimensioning external screw threads


M12-6H x 16 M12-6H M12-6H x 16 x 16 M12-6H 15 min M12-6H x 16 x 16 15 min 15 min 15 thread full thread full thread min min full 15 full thread full thread
(a)

(b) Figure 84: Dimensioning Figure 84: Dimensioning Figure 84: Dimensioning M12 x 1,25-6H Figure 84: Dimensioning Figure 84: Dimensioning internal screw threads M12 x 1,25-6H 1,25-6H M12 x internal screw threads threads internal screw M12 xM12 x 1,25-6H 1,25-6H internal threads internal screw screw threads

16

1616

16

16

(a)

(a) (a)

a) (a)

(a)

(b) b) (b) (b)

(b) (b)

M6-6H x 10 20 min full thread c) 28 max including run-out

(c) Figure 26 Dimensioning internal screw threads

M6-6H x 10 M6-6H xM6-6H x 10 10 M6-6H x 20 min 10 M6-6H x 10 thread full thread 20 min full thread 20 min full 28 20includingthread min full run-out 20 min full threadmax including run-out 28 max including run-out 28 max 28 max including run-out 28 max including run-out (c) (c) (c) (c) (c)

16

(b)

M12-6H x 16 38 max 38 max 38 max 15 min 38 38 max max (b) thread full (b) b) (b)

M20-6g

M20-6g

Figure 83: Dimensioning (b) 30 min Figure 83: Dimensioning Figure 83: Dimensioning 30 min 30 min Figure 83: Dimensioning Figure 83: Dimensioning external screw threads 30 30 min min full thread external external screw threads screw threads full thread thread full external screw threads external screw threads full thread full thread

M12 x 1,25-6H

M20-6g

For general use, the tolerance class 6H is suitable for internal threads and tolerance ForThe letteruse, denoting ISO class 6H is suitablesuitable for internal threads and tolerance nominal diameter general general use, the tolerance screw6H is for shall be followed by the values of the For M, the tolerance metric class threads, internal threads and tolerance For required), with a tolerance class sign suitable for internal threads and tolerance general use, the multiplication suitable for internal threads 1. For general use, the tolerance class 6H is 6H isbetween them, e.g. M8 and tolerance hyphen, e.g. and pitch (if class 6g for external threads. The thread tolerance class is preceded by a class 6gclassexternalexternal threads. The tolerance class is preceded by a hyphen, e.g. for 6g for threads. The thread thread tolerance class is preceded by a hyphen, e.g. class 6g for external threads. The thread tolerance class is preceded by a hyphen, class 6g for external threads. The thread tolerance class is preceded by a hyphen, e.g. e.g. M10-6H or M10 1-6g. 40 30 min M10-6H or tolerance class M10-6H 1-6g. Thread M10or M10 1-6g. M10-6H or 1-6g. M10-6H or M10 M10 1-6g. full thread For general use, the tolerance class 6H is suitable for internal threads and tolerance class 6g for external Screw threads are as shown threads. The thread tolerance class dimensioned Figures 83in Figures 83 and 84. Screw threads threads are dimensioned shall be preceded by84.hyphen, e.g. M10-6H or M10 1-6g. Screw are dimensioned as shown in Figures 83 and a and 84. as shown in Screw threads are dimensioned as shown in Figures 8384. 84. Screw threads are dimensioned as shown in Figures 83 and and

81

81 81 81

45, the indications may be simplified as shown in Figures 104 and 105. specified, except where they are essential to the function.
or

Note. Methods of production (e.g. drill, punch, bore, ream)+should not be 0,02
32
0

Dimensioning and tolerancing of size

1.8 Dimensioning chamfers and 2

13.7 Chamfers and countersinks 7


30

4 5

13

Figure 103: Chamfer 13 dimensioning Figure 102: Hole dimensioning

9,5 18 countersinks

30
+ 0,5 0

Chamfers should be dimensioned as shown in Figure 103. Where the chamfer angle is 38 Chamfers shall be dimensioned as shown in Figure 27. Where the chamfer angle is 45, the indications 45, the indications may be simplified as shown in Figures 104 and 105. may be simplified as shown in Figure 28.
13
2 45
+ 0,02 32 0

Figure 104: 45 chamfer

simplified Figure 103: Chamfer

13.7 Chamfers and countersinks


2 30

30

or or

13

dimensioning

2 45

Chamfers should be dimensioned as shown in Figure 103. Where the chamfer angle is 45, the indications may be simplified as shown in Figures 104 and 105.
22 45 45
2 45
or

Figure 105: Dimensionin Figure 104: 45 chamfer internal chamfers simplified Figure 103: Chamfer dimensioning

or or

13

30 2 30

2 45

Figure 27 Dimensioning external and internal chamfers


2 45 2 45
or

Figure 105: Dimensionin

2 45
113

internal104: 45 chamfer Figure chamfers simplified

Engineering drawing practice

or

2 45

Figure 28 Simplified dimensioning of chamfers


2 45

Figure 105: Dimensionin internal chamfers

Countersinks are dimensioned by showing either the required diametral dimension at 2 45 Countersinks shall be dimensioned by showing either the required diametral dimension at the included the included angle, or the depth and the included angle (see Figure 106). 113 or angle, or the depth and the included angle, as shown in Figure 29.
Figure 106: Dimensioning countersinks

14

90

or

113

Figure 29 Dimensioning countersinks

13.8 Other indications


The use of reference letters in conjunction with an explanatory note or table can also be

90
3,5

50

13.5 Equally spaced repeated features


14 The Essential Guide to Technical Product Specification: Engineering Drawing

Where repeated features are linearly spaced, a simplified method of dimensioning may

13.5 Equally spaced repeated features


be used, as illustrated in Figure 95.

1.9 Equally spaced repeated features

ure 95: Dimensioning

Where repeated features are linearly spaced, a simplifieddimensioned as illustrated in If there is any ambiguity, one feature space may be method of dimensioning may be used, as illustrated in Figure 95. Where repeated features are linearly spaced, a simplified method of dimensioning may be used, as Figure 96. shown in Figure 30. If there is any ambiguity, one feature space may be dimensioned as illustrated in Figure 96.

inear spacings

ure 95: Dimensioning

inear spacings

15

5 18 (= 90)

15

Figure 30 Dimensioning of linear spacings


5 18 (= 90)

ure 96: Dimensioning

inear spacings If there is any ambiguity, one feature space may be dimensioned as illustrated in Figure 31. to avoid

nfusion

ure 96: Dimensioning

inear spacings to avoid

nfusion

18 15 18 17 18 (= 306) 15 Angular, equally spaced features may be dimensioned as illustrated in Figure 97. 17 18 (= 306)

13. Dimensioning from a common feature Figure the spacings may be of linear spacings to avoid confusion The angles of 31 Dimensioning omitted when the intent is evident, as shown in Angular, equally spaced features may be dimensioned as illustrated in Figure 97. Figure 98.

Angular, equally spaced features shall may be omitted when the intent is evident, as shown of spacings The angles of the spacings be dimensioned as shown in Figure 32. The angle of the Circular spaced features may be dimensioned indirectly by specifying the number in can be omitted where the intent is explicit, as shown in Figure 33. Figure 98.features, as illustrated in Figure 99. common
Circular spaced features may be dimensioned indirectly by specifying the number of common features, as illustrated in Figure 99.
Figure 97: Dimensioning of angular spacings

15

110

10 3

0'
110

5 10 30' (52 30')

Figure 32 Dimensioning angular spacing


50

Figure 98: The omission of angles of spacings to avoid confusion

4 9

15

10 3
Dimensioning and tolerancing of size

0'
5 10 30' (52 30')

Figure 97: Dimensioning of angular spacings 15

15

10 3

0'
5 10 30' (52 30')

50

Figure 98: The omission confusion

angles of spacings to avo

4 9

50

Figure 98: The omission confusion

angles of spacings to avo

4 9

5 Figure 33 Omission of angle of spacing

Figure 99: Dimensioning circular spacings

16

6 Circular spaced features can be dimensioned indirectly by specifying the number of common features as shown in Figure 34. 5

Figure 99: Dimensioning circular spacings

16
6

5 12

5 12

111

Figure 34 Dimensioning circular spacings

111

16

The Essential Guide to Technical Product Specification: Engineering Drawing

Series or patterned features of the same size may be dimensioned as illustrated in Figures 100 and 101. Series or patterned features of the same size may be dimensioned as illustrated in Figures features 101. Series or patterned 100 and of the same size may be dimensioned as illustrated in Figures 35 and 36.
8 8 8 8

ure 100: Defining a

antity of elements of the ure 100: Defining a me size: linear antity of elements of the

me size: linear

Figure 35 Dimensioning a quantity of features of the same size linear


6 8 6 8

ure 101: Defining a

antity of elements of the ure 101: Defining a me size: circular antity of elements of the

me size: circular

13.6 Holes Figure 36 Dimensioning a quantity of features of the same size circular 13.6 Holes
1.10 Dimensioning diameter, shallprofiles depth The depth of theportion hole, when of curved refer Figure given are dimensioned as shown into the 102. of the cylindrical drilled of the hole Holes after the
Holes are dimensioned as shown in Figure 102. The depth of the drilled hole, when

and not to the point of the the unless otherwise given after the extremity made by the the depth of drill,cylindrical shownspecified. Curved profiles composeddiameter, shall refer tobe dimensioned by radii, asportion of the hole37. of circular arcs shall in Figure and not to thepoints on a curved surface, as shown in Figure otherwiseonly be used when extremity made by the point of the drill, unless 38, shall specified. Coordinates locating the profile is not composed of circular arcs. The more coordinates specified, the better the uniformity of the curve.

112 112

12.9. Curved profiles composed of circular arcs should be dimensioned by radii, as illustrated in Figure 118.

Dimensioning and tolerancing of size

17

Figure 118: The profile

dimensioning of a curved

Engineering drawing practice

Figure 37 Dimensioning of a curved profile


Figure 119: Linear coordinates of a series of points through which a profile passes
119

Figure 38 Linear coordinates of a series of points through which a profile passes

1.11 Dimensioning of keyways

Coordinates locating points on a curved surface, as illustrated in Figure 119, should only be used when the profile is not composed of circular arcs. The more coordinates

specified, the dimensioned by one of the methods shown in Figure 39. Keyways in hubs or shafts shall bebetter the uniformity of the curve.
NOTE: Further information on keys and keyways is given in BS 4235-1, Specification for metric keys and keyways Part 1: Figure 120 illustrates a for metric keys and keyways Part 2: Woodruff keys and keyways. Parallel and taper keys and BS 4235-2, Specificationmethod of specifying a cam profile in association with a

follower. The follower is indicated by a long-dashed double-dotted narrow line type 05.1.1 (see Table 1).

Figure 120: Specifying dimensions in association with a follower

shown in Figure 5.
NOTE Further information on keys and keyways is given in BS 4235-1, Specification for metric keys and keyways Part 1: Parallel and taper keys, and BS 4235-2, Specification for metric keys and keyways Part 2: Woodruff keys and keyways. to Technical Product Specification: Engineering Drawing The Essential Guide

18

Figure 5

Dimensioning of keyways

a) Parallel hub

b) Tapered keyway in parallel hub

c) Parallel keyway in tapered hub

d) Parallel shaft

e) Parallel keyway in tapered shaft

f) Parallel shaft

g) Tapered shaft

Figure 39 Dimensioning of keyways

1.12 Tolerancing

BSI 2006

21

Tolerancing is the practice of specifying the upper and lower limit for any permissible variation in the finished manufactured size of a feature. The difference between these limits is known as the tolerance for that dimension. All dimensions (except auxiliary dimensions) are subject to tolerances. Tolerances shall be specified for all dimensions that affect the functioning or interchange ability of the part. Tolerances shall also be used to indicate where unusually wide variations are permissible. Tolerances shall be applied either to individual dimensions or by a general note giving uniform or graded tolerances to classes of dimensions, for example: TOLERANCE UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED LINEAR 0,4 ANGULAR 0 30

The method shown in Figure 40a should be followed where it is required to tolerance individual linear dimensions. This method directly specifies both the limits of the size of the dimension, the tolerance being the difference between the limits of the size. The larger limit of the size shall be placed above the smaller limit and both shall be given to the same number of decimal places. The method shown in Figure 40b can be used as an alternative way of specifying tolerances.

6.9.3 Tolerancing of individual linear dimensions


The method shown in Figure 85 is recommended where it is required to tolerance indi-

Dimensioning and tolerancing directly 19 vidual linear dimensions. This method of size specifies both the limits of the size of the 6. Dimensioning of technical drawin dimension, the tolerance being the difference between the limits of the size.

nce by

32,15 31,80

32

+0,15 -0,20

f size

The larger limit of the size is placed above the smaller limit, and both are given to the
a) same number of decimal places. b)

Figure 40 Linear dimension tolerance by directly specifying limits of size 6.9.4 Tolerancing of individual angular dimensions
The methods shown in may 86 may to tolerance individual angular dimensions. The methods shown in Figure 41Figurebe usedbe used to tolerance individual angular dimensions.

Figure 86: Tolerancing

30 30' 30 0'

90 0 30'

0 30,5 0,1

angular dimensions

(a)

(b)

(c)

a)

b)

c)

6.10 Summary

Figure 41 Tolerancing angular dimensions

1.13 Interpretations covered those parts of the standards that deal with dimensioning and This chapter has of limits of size for a feature-of-size

tolerancing which are likely to be of use to Design and Technology teachers and their Limits of size for an individual feature-of-size shall be interpreted according to the principles and rules students in schools and colleges. The key points are as follows. defined in BS ISO 8015, BS EN ISO 14660-1 and BS EN ISO 14660-2. A feature-of-size 2155 consist of two parallel plane surfaces, a cylindrical surface or a spherical BIP may File name: 2008-01133_40b.e ] The general principles linear size. A feature-of-size BS 8888:2006 should always surface, in each case defined with a of dimensioning as set out in may also consist of two plane surfaces at an angle to each other (a wedge) or a conical surface, in each case defined with an angular size. be followed if effective communication between the designer, manufacturer and BS ISO 8015 states that limits of size control only the actual local sizes (two-point measurements) end user is to be established and maintained. of a feature-of-size and not its deviations of form (e.g. the roundness and straightness deviations of a ] Functional dimensions are those that directly affect the function of the product. cylindrical feature, or the flatness deviations of two parallel plane surfaces). Form deviations may be ] All dimensions except auxiliary dimensions are subject controlled by individually specified geometrical tolerances, general to tolerancing. geometrical tolerances or through ] The decimal marker is (where the by a comma not a limit the use of the envelope requirement represented maximum material point.of size defines an envelope of perfect form for the relevant surfaces;the left and right of the decimal marker should be divided ] Groups of numerals to see BS ISO 8015). BS ISO 8015 defines the principle counting from the decimal marker, and a full space, notdimensional up into groups of three, of independency, according to which each specified a and geometrical requirement on a drawing is met independently, unless a particular relationship is comma, left between them. specified. A relationship may be specified through the use of the envelope requirement or material condition modifiers maximum material condition (MMC) or least material condition (LMC). Where no relationship is specified, any geometrical tolerance applied to the feature-of-size applies regardless of feature size, and the two requirements shall be treated as unrelated, as shown in Figure 42. Relevant standards Title The limits of size do not control the form, orientation, or the spatial relationship between, individual BS Technical drawings Dimensioning and features-of-size. EN ISO 1660

Consequently, if a particular relationship of size and profiles size and location, or size and tolerancing of form, or orientation is required, it needs to be specified. BS ISO 129-1 Technical drawings Indication of dimensions
and tolerances Part 1: General principles

BS 8888:2008
20

The Essential Guide to Technical Product Specification: Engineering Drawing

BritiSh Standard

Figure 3 Permissible interpretations when no form control is given on the drawing


25,0 24,9

a) drawing presentation

NOTE There is no form control (i.e. over roundness, straightness or cylindricity). Measurements a, b and c may lie between 25.0 mm and 24.9 mm, meeting the drawing requirement using two-point measurement only.
b) Permissible interpretation: straightness unconstrained

Maximum size

5,0

Maximum roundness deviation (resulting from a lobed form)

NOTE For any cross-section of the cylinder, there is no roundness control.


c) Permissible interpretation: roundness unconstrained

Figure 42 Permissible interpretations when no form control is given on the drawing 15.1.2 Limits of size with mutual dependency of size and form

1.13.1 Limits of size with mutual dependency of size and form Envelope Some national standards apply, or have applied, the
Requirement to all features-of-size by default. As the Envelope Requirement the envelope requirement to all features-of-size to Some national standards apply, or have applied, has been the default, they have not used a symbol by indicate this requirement; rather they use a note to indicate when this default. As the envelope requirement not required. This system ofhave not usedsometimes to indicate this has been the default, they tolerancing is a symbol described as the is requirement; rather they use a note Principle of Dependency, or the application of the Taylor Principle. is to indicate when this is not required. This system of tolerancing sometimes described as the principle of dependency, or the application ofthe Envelope Requirement by Standards which apply, or have applied, the Taylor principle. Standards which apply, or have default include: applied, the envelope requirement by default include: ASME Y14.5 (the requirement that there is an envelope of perfect form corresponding to the Maximum Material Size of the feature is The requirement that there shall be an envelopeas Rule #1). form corresponding to the maximum defined of perfect

COMMENTARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON 15.1.2

ASME Y14.5

material size of the feature is defined asBS 308#1). Principle of Dependency was taken as the default Rule (the
option under BS 308, although the option of working to the Principle of Independency was included, through the use of The principle of dependency was taken as the default option indication): the BS 308 triangle I under BS 308, although the option of working

BS 308

BS 8888 to the principle of independency was included, through the use of the BS 308 triangle I indication.

BS 8888 prior to the 2004 revision (the Principle of Dependency was I taken as the default option under BS 8888:2000 and BS 8888:2002, BS 8888 although the option of working to the Principle of Independency was included, through the use of the BS 8888 triangle I indication).

16 BSI 2008

Dimensioning and tolerancing of size

21

BS 8888
Prior to the 2004 revision; the principle of dependency was taken as the default option under BS 8888:2000 and BS 8888:2002, although the option of working to the principle of independency was included, through the use of the BS 8888 triangle I indication.

BS 8888:2004 and BS 8888:2006


the principle of dependency could be explicitly invoked through the use of the BS 8888 triangle D indication.
BS 8888

As the interaction between the envelope requirement and individual geometrical tolerances is not always fully defined within the ISO system, and as the application of the envelope requirement by default to all features-of-size is not formally supported within the ISO system, the use of the principle of dependency is no longer recommended.

1.14 Datum surfaces and functional requirements


Functional dimensions shall be expressed directly on the drawing, as shown in Figure 1. The application of this principle will result in the selection of reference features on the basis of the function of the product and the method of locating it in any assembly of which it may form a part. If any reference feature other than one based on the function of the product is used, finer tolerances will be necessary to meet the functional requirement, which in turn will increase the cost of producing the product, as shown in Figure 43 on page 22.

1.15 Relevant standards


BS EN ISO 1660, Technical drawings Dimensioning and tolerancing of profiles BS ISO 129-1, Technical drawings Indication of dimensions and tolerances Part 1: General principles BS ISO 3040, Technical drawings Dimensioning and tolerancing Cones BS ISO 10579, Technical drawings Dimensioning and tolerancing Non-rigid parts BS ISO 406, Technical drawings Tolerancing of linear and angular dimensions BS EN 22768-1, General tolerances Part 1: Tolerances for linear and angular dimensions without individual tolerance indications BS 4235-1, Specification for metric keys and keyways Part 1: Parallel and taper keys BS 4235-2, Specification for metric keys and keyways Part 2: Woodruff keys and keyways BS ISO 8015, Technical drawings Fundamental tolerancing principle BS EN ISO 14660-1, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) Geometrical features Part 1: General terms and definitions BS EN ISO 14660-2, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) Geometrical features Part 2: Extracted median line of a cylinder and a cone, extracted median surface, local size of an extracted feature PP 8888-2, Engineering drawing practice: a guide for further and higher education to BS 8888:2006, Technical product specification (TPS)

22

The Essential Guide to Technical Product Specification: Engineering Drawing

Description a) Assembly drawing showing a given functional requirement, namely the limits of height of the top face of item 1 above the top face of item 3, with a tolerance of 0.08 mm

Drawing
12,00 11,92

2 3

5,5 5,0

c) Item 2 dimensioned from a functional reference surface NOTE: One direct dimension with a tolerance of 0.05 mm is needed to satisfy the condition shown in a). A nominal flange thickness of 5 mm has been assumed. This value is non-functional and can have any BIP 2155 large tolerance.

File name: 2008-01133_43a.eps Modifications: 11,03 11,00 File name: 2008-01133_43b.eps File name: 2008-01133_43c.eps

correct functional reference surface

d) Item 2 dimensioned from a nonfunctional reference surface NOTE: Tolerances have had to be reduced; two dimensions with tolerances of, say, 0.02 mm for the flange and 0.03 mm are now needed to satisfy the condition shown in a).

incorrect non-functional reference surface

5,00 4,98

BIP 2155

Figure 43 Effect on tolerances by changing datum surfaces from those determined by functional requirements

BIP 2155

BSI/PM: Jenny Cranwell Date: 15/06/2009

Date: 15/06/2009 Modifications:

BSI/PM: Jenny Cranwell Approval of issue

6,05 6,00

Date: 15/06/2009 Approval of issue

b) Detail of head of item 1 showing given limits of size, with a tolerance of 0.03 mm

18,00 17,97

Modifications: