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ISSN: 2244-5382

Volume 1, Issue 1

FOREWORD This compilation of psychological researches is in partial fulfillment of therequirements for the course Research Report 2 for the degree Bachelor of Arts in Psychology. The issue includes the work of twenty-threeundergraduates of the Bachelor of Arts in Psychology for the Academic Year 2012 2013. The topics reflect the varied research interests and focus of the students and their advisers. The articles were written following the latest APA (American Psychogical Association) format.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT With our sincerest gratitude, we, the graduating students of the Psychology Department Class 2013, would like to thank the following people: To Prof. Paul Hilario PhD, Prof. Margaret Sanapo PhD, Prof. Butch Dela Cruz PhD, Prof. Theresa Masilungan, Prof. Fatima Bullecer, Prof., Maida Aguirre, and Prof. Gladys Lazo, for their patienceand unceasing mentorship that encouraged us to strive for excellence during the completion of our study and attain the highest possible standards set by the department, To all the participants who devoted their time and helped us with our data gathering, To our families and friends, for their undying support and understanding that sustained us throughout this challenging but fulfilling journey, To the Bedan Community, for nurturing our work values, keeping us grounded as Christ-centered individuals and standing as a constant reminder of St. Benedicts philosophy -Ora et Labora, and last but not the least, To God, Our Father and Provider, who is the source of our strength and inspiration, making all things possible not only in our college life but in all the aspects of our lives.

"O give thanks unto the LORD, for he is good: for his mercy endures forever... -Psalm 107:1 "That In All Things, God May Be Glorified!

Perception of Sexual Orientation, Sexual Status, and Sexual Stereotypes Alicia Marie Alcantaraand Maida Natiola

A She or a He: Attitude towards Transsexuals among Filipino Young Adults Aldrin Almodovarand Maida Natiola

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Attribution of Success or Failure in Academics Among Psychology Majors George Ambas andFatima Bullecer

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Internet Use and Behavioral Traits Among First Year High School Students Jennie Asenci andFatima Bullecer

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Psychological Techniques for Mental Toughness: The case of Mixed Martial Arts Fighters Rain Aga Balibalos andTheresa Masilungan Personality-type and Locus of Control on Academic Procrastination among College Students Denise Faith Belizario and Gladys Lazo Perceptions of College Students on PeerCyberbullying Krystelle Ann Bracewell and Margaret Sanapo

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Parenting Style and Child Disciplineof Filipino Women Married to Americans Nadine Compradoand Margaret Sanapo Delinquency Tendencies of Male Teenagers from Intact and Broken Families Jeano Esquilona andFatima Bullecer He Said, She Said: Gender Differences on Disciplinary Practices of Filipino Parents Cristine Floresand Margaret Sanapo Instructor-made Videos and the Mathematical Performance of Elementary Pupils Darius Immanuel Guerrero and Gladys Lazo Predictors of Production Operators Safe Work Behaviour Rackee Lu Jaquilmo and Butch dela Cruz Spare the rod and spoil the child: Filipino Parents likelihood to use Corporal Punishment Laurice Anne Labradorand Margaret Sanapo Experiences of Filipino Parents with their Stay-at-Home Adult Child Jastine Joy Ledesma and Margaret Sanapo Engagement in Social Network Sites and Level ofNarcissism among First Year College Students Martha Lopezand Margaret Sanapo Experiences of Filipino Familiesin caring for their Childrenwith Autistic Disorder Francis Angel MabatoandTheresa Masilungan Social Video Gaming and Social Skills of Filipino Adolescents Carlo Neil Opleand Butch dela Cruz Seating Structure Design and Active Classroom Participation of College Students Mildred Ruedas and Gladys Lazo

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Predictors of Counterproductive Work Behavior among Call-Center Agents Samantha Faye Salcedoand Butch dela Cruz Online Social Networking and Interpersonal Relationship Among College Students Catherine Anne Santos and Margaret Sanapo Self-Reflection and Procrastination Among Thesis Writers Jaimee Michelle Santos and Gladys Lazo Gender, Optimism and Self-efficacy: Predictors of College Completion Levi Jess Valencia and Margaret Sanapo Anxiety and Social Competence among Fifth Grade Pupils Angela Vergara andFatima Bullecer 284

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Perception of Sexual Orientation, Sexual Status and Sexual Stereotypes among College Students
Alicia Marie Alcantara Maida Natiola
This study probed the effects of amount and type of male stereotypes on perception of male sexual orientation. An imaginary male person named Tim was developed to represent a male model that is to be stereotyped by the selected respondents. Results confirmed the assumption that the type of male stereotypes known about a male target directly influences perceptions of the male target's sexual orientation F(2, 88) = 6.76, p<. 05 and that the given amount of information affects the persons sexual stereotype towards the male target.

Over the years, the social acceptance of gay people has seen dramatic changes. Not just in media, it has become a usual situation to have the presence of gay men in many places. Interestingly, despite the acceptance to openly gay people, society is still susceptible to traditional stereotypes. People still often wonder whether a male individual is gay or not? What are the standards for stereotyping and measuring who is gay and who is not? This study reexamines the study by Abrams in 2008. The researcher opted to use this study as a basis and guide in order to find out the degree of stereotyping among Filipinos when it comes to sexual orientations. Sexual orientation refers to an enduring pattern of emotional, romantic, and/or sexual attractions to men, women, or both sexes. Sexual orientation also refers to a persons sense of identity based on those attractions, related behaviors, and membership in a community of others who share those attractions (APA, 2008). There are also some researches that indicate that the sexual orientation of an individual is fluid for some people, meaning, it is not really an action that is being learned just to acquire but unconsciously happening (Diamond, 2007). While sexual status refers to the sexual identity of an individual. This refers to the attitudes, feelings, and behaviors that a given culture associates with a persons biological sex, as what is also stated by Diamond (2007). In addition, as for sexual stereotypes, Hillegass (2011) defined the term as referring to the generalization about the sexual aspects, differences, and roles of individuals and/or groups. Based on social identity theory, Turner et al. (2000) mentioned that individuals categorizing themselves as group members are subjected to social processes that create a common shared reality. A self-categorization theory was categorized which focuses on the cognitive mechanism of self-categorization as an underlying basis of psychological group formation. In this framework, stereotypes represent the contextual view of inter-group reality, which group members are expected to accept (Oakes et al., 2000). The appearance of the social identity and self-categorization theories, as well as preoccupation with sharing beliefs in general and shared stereotypes in particular, direct the attention in recent years to the social nature of the stereotypes.

Stereotypes can be positive or negative, but they rarely communicate precise information about other people. When people automatically apply gender assumptions to others regardless of evidence to the contrary, they are doing sexual stereotyping. Many people recognize the dangers of sexual stereotyping; yet, they continue to make these types of generalizations. This study explores how college students judge a persons sexual orientation. It aims to investigate the type of male stereotype (gay or straight) and amount of male stereotype (low, medium, and high) information on the perception of male sexual orientation. Specifically, to their physical appearance on how they present themselves. The study investigates how the amount and type of male stereotypes, endorsed by society, influence our perceptions of sexual orientation. Likewise, it attempts to extend our knowledge on how information about male sexual orientation is transferred to observers. This will also help students who might encounter the same study and who might also encounter the situation of stereotyping of sexual orientation itself, whether they are stereotyped and vice-versa. In addition, the study explores how individual appearances and behaviors affect other peoples perception about them. This is to help them adjust and change some of their unintentional gestures and physical presentation. Lastly, this is also significant for adults, teachers and parents, for greater awareness and a decrease in the negative effects of negative stereotyping. Review of Related Literature Perception of Sexual Orientation According to the American Psychiatric Association (2011), sexual orientation is a term frequently used to describe a persons romantic, emotional or sexual attraction to another person. The kinds of sexual orientation normally include attraction to same sex (gay men or lesbians), attraction to the opposite sex (heterosexuals), and attraction to members of both sexes (bisexuals). In addition, some research indicates that sexual orientation is fluid for some people, meaning, it is not really an action that is being learned just to acquire but unconsciously happening (Diamond, 2007). Sexual orientation is commonly thought to be like a characteristic of an individual, like biological sex, gender identity, or age. This perspective is incomplete because, as stated by American Psychological Association (2002), sexual orientation is defined in terms of relationships with others. Mixed results were evaluated by Rees (2005) stating that whether it is possible to reliably identify the sexual orientation of another based on observation or not. He stated that some have found accurate judgments of sexual orientation based on speech samples, video clips and pictures. Presumably, there is nothing inherent natural appearance (e.g. a particular shape of nose) that allows one to identify anothers sexual orientation. It is just that, overt behaviors, (i.e. the way a person dresses, the way he/she walks), is a factor observed and considered when identifying whether a person is gay. These are generally physical characteristics.

Francis (2001) studied the effect of physical appearance, pertaining to facial masculinity or femininity, on attributions of sexual orientation and found that masculine female faces and feminine male faces were more likely to be judged as lesbian/gay, even though they only look that way, but are not really gays. Religion is strongly associated with the belief that homosexuals choose their sexual orientation. This argument is immediately countered by a less conservative faction who will argue that there is some sort of disagreement of homosexual traits. However, despite of some agreement with this, there is also disagreement here as well, saying that gays just existed like religion, which was not accepted by other scholars, Whitehead (2009). Though there is a lot of perception towards sexual orientation, the negative perception of older gay men may have major consequences within the gay community compared to the younger ones, Jones (2001) stated. Schope (2005) added that it is easier to notice gay people when they age or grow older, since that will be the time, being adults, they will tend to look for a life partner. How they come out with their physical appearances may really vary from the standard norm of their genders, making their sexual orientation observable. Perception of Sexual Stereotype Papa (2011) stated that physical perception is based on the tangible world. It is the way your ears and eyes perceive something and how your mind process it, making you conclude about what you just saw or heard. Sexual stereotype was defined by Hillegass (2011) as referring to the generalization about the sexual aspects, differences, and roles of individuals and/or groups. Stereotypes can be positive or negative, but they rarely communicate precise information about other people. When people automatically apply gender assumptions to others regardless of evidence to the contrary, they are doing sexual stereotyping. Many people recognize the dangers of sexual stereotyping; yet, they continue to make these types of generalizations. Rogers (2000) believed that stereotypes are shaped in a very early stage. The attainment of idea about sex roles begins at an early age. They stated that by age three children can correctly apply gender labels already and can correctly associate sex-typed objects like articles of clothing, which are obviously included to physical appearance, with the appropriate sex. Woolery (2007) stated that gays and lesbians are more likely to be motivated by and be involved in the task of building the skills needed to identify and interpret the social and cultural cue of the gay and lesbian subculture. People doing and concluding into a type of stereotype is just normal and is unavoidable. Individuals personal stereotypes are important to consider since they may differ greatly from the stereotypes that society or the average person is thought to hold (Devine, 2000). Therefore, it does not necessarily mean that stereotyping causes bad things. It is also good when one gets to deviate from the societal stereotype than to conform to it.
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Elliott (2000) has found that stereotyping the gays is not under generalization. There are differences between peoples societal stereotypes and personal beliefs when assessing stereotypes of racial groups. Much of the previous research on sex stereotypes has certified the concept that most of the men and women have similar perceptions of the sexual orientation because they share the same societal stereotypes, Williams & Best (2000). One reason why people find it easy to stereotype basing on the physical standards is through the pictures in their mind way back when they saw a real gay from the past moments of their lives according to Atwell (2008). He also added that they had some examples in their minds already that make it easier for them to recognize. For example, they will think that a person who wears skinny jeans is gays since they saw it already from a male gay before and so on. Gay people sometimes have to suffer from some pretty and, sometimes, petty offensive stereotypes that are thrown to them by extremists in the community and the media, as what is stated by Smith (2010). These stereotypes are usually deployed in the form of anecdotes about how gay people are immoral or corrupting. These misrepresentative anecdotes have serious consequences, not just in the continued denial of fundamental civil rights to gay people in their places, but also at the individual level. In addition, Madson (2000) found that neutral appearing people were more likely to be assessed as gays than others, thinking that they are all playing it safe to be saved from stereotype. Individuals who are perceived to fit the gender stereotype face negative consequences, as stated by Rudman & Fairchild (2004). Perception of Sexual Status Sexual status refers to the sexual identity of an individual. Is the individual gay or not? This is more of a sexual standing. This refers to the attitudes, feelings, and behaviors that a given culture associates with a persons biological sex, as what is also stated by Diamond (2007). The emergence of homosexuality is never a problem to deal with, actually, but its existence into humanity that starts to question the whole situation. Many people, since then, keep asking, how and why a person becomes homosexual. Whitehead (2009) once stated that just like how religious events were stated and being talked about even without really having an exactly dated events, so is homosexuality, too. People always demand that instead of hiding, gay people should just express who they are so other people will not be really into the said Gaydar. McLean (2007) stated that the process of coming out of revealing a gay, lesbian or bisexual identity to others is considered one of the key events in the development of an integrated and healthy homosexual and bisexual identity. However, she also stated that coming out is not as easy as it gets. It is not just like a blink of an eye, though it is one best way to feel better about oneself. That is why she even added that it is normal and, sometimes, better for gay people to keep the truth about their sexual orientations a secret as possible as it could be to lessen the pressure around him/her. All
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throughout McLeans statements, she still ended up encouraging that there are many factors that could inhibit a gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgendered individuals ability to come out. Others felt that the belief among gay men that growing old is intolerable was just endorsed by heterosexual society, having this main purpose, to discourage young gay men from choosing to come out of the closet and choosing a homosexual lifestyle, (Berger, 2001). Gorrindo (2010) stated that Coming Out is the process of revealing to friends, parents, family members, and acquaintances that he or she is different, or directly speaking, a gay. It is more than just a simple act or decision to announce that a person is gay, but rather a process that unfolds overtime, usually in small steps. Moreover, bringing up themselves physically is, sometimes, a potential medium of the primary steps of "Coming Out." Synthesis Being able to stereotype is usual and unavoidable, judging is not. According to the previous citations from Gorrindo (2010), Smith (2010), and Devine (2000), it is natural and easy to judge and stereotype according to what is seen, but it is hard for the gay people to adjust to different feedbacks. It is better for them to be blatant to their sexual orientation, and it is better for heterosexuals to be open-minded. It is a process of give and take. This is, also, to sum up that it is easy to judge according to what is being seen but it is difficult to accept obnoxious stereotypes. According to Ravichandran (2010), it is good to do some stereotypes and it is useful for the fight and still may be a fight pertaining to the argument if gays deserve a place in our society or not. Just like what was has been mentioned from the first citations stated by Whitehead (2010) regarding the issue of homosexualitys existence into humanity that starts to question the whole situation. But, if we hold on to them without reason, we risk undue alienation, and undeservedly so, not just within a still heteronormative society, which is a term to describe any of a set of lifestyle norms that hold that people fall into distinct and complementary genders (man and woman) with natural roles in life, but even within the so-called gay community. His point is that to stereotype who is gay and who is not is good and is normal. Method Research Design A quasi-experimental research design was used for this study. This design was used to compare groups that are likely to be different even before this study begins. This study results from the method of choosing participants to participate in the study, as the participants involved college students. Participants A total of sixty students: twenty males, twenty females and twenty gays) were recruited to participate in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to one of the six conditions. Participants for the study were selected using random sampling method.

Instruments A Likert-type format scale was constructed for data gathering. The items were based on the validated and generated lists of statements described by sixty (60) students based on their perception of sexual orientation. Sixty (60) statements were constructed. Another sixty (60) participants were expected to rate from a scale of one to three, where one is low, two is medium and three is high. High scores indicated which group had the highest degree of stereotyping with regards to sexual preferences, while low scores indicated the lowest degree of stereotyping. The reliability of the the test used by the proponent has achieved a reliable Cronbach Alpha score of 0.86.

Procedure The participants were told that they will be participating in a study aimed at learning more about how people form impressions of other individuals, and that their task was to form an impression of a person that was named Tim. The students were all randomly selected and assigned. In order for the students to answer the questionnaires, one half of an independent sample of sixty (twenty-five male and twenty-five female) students were asked to generate a list of statements describing typical gay male physical appearance while the other half were asked to generate a list of statements describing typical straight male appearance. The results were combined into a list of fifty statements. A second independent group of sixty (twenty males, twenty females, twenty gays) college students were asked to rate each of the fifty statements, with half of the group had to rate the extent to which each statement described typical gay physical appearance, the other half had to rate the extent to which each statement described typical straight male physical appearance. The physical characteristics were grouped into three categories, gay, straight, or neutral statements. Each packet represented one of six different combinations of either typical male gay and male neutral behaviors, or typical male straight and male neutral behaviors. For the final questionnaire, sixty college students answered the formed statements. Statistical Design Independent t-tests were performed to statistically separate the sixty statements into three lists of male stereotypes. In the final step, combinations of stereotypes selected from each set of male stereotypes were used to create six independent groups of ten stereotypes each. To test the overall differences between the six experimental groups, a 2 (type) by 3 (degree) Multivariate Analysis of Variance was conducted on the likelihood that Tim is gay, as well as the likelihood that he is straight.

Results and Discussion The average age of the sample was eighteen (18). All of the participants were straight male and female. The majority of the participants were born in Muntinlupa City. To test the overall differences between the six experimental groups, Multivariate Analysis of Variance was conducted. Results of the analysis indicated a significant main effect of type of stereotype (gay or straight) on the likelihood that Tim is gay, as well as the likelihood that Tim is straight.

Figure 1. Mean impression ratings as a function of the type and amount of stereotype on the likelihood that Tim is gay. The stereotypes of the students change depending on the given information. It matched the study of Elliott, in the year 2000, saying that stereotyping the gays is not under generalization. It depends upon the given information. As illustrated in the graph, participants were less likely to perceive Tim as gay when low (M =4.53) or moderate (M =5.07) amounts of gay information were present than they were when a high amount (M =5.48) of gay information was known. Moreover, the participants were more likely to perceive Tim as gay when a low amount (M =5.27) of straight information was present than they were when moderate (M =4.78) or high (M =4.80) amounts of straight information were known.

Stereotype Info Low Moderate High

Gay M= 4.53 , N= 10 M= 5.07 , N= 10 M= 5.48 , N= 10 N=30

Straight M= 5.27 , N= 10 M= 4.78 , N= 10 M= 4.80 , N= 10 N=30 N=20 N=20 N=20 N=60

When the straight information was given, the respondents created a perception that Tim is straight. In line with the same situation when the gay information was given to them. The respondents also created a perception that Tim is gay. The results seemed to be already close to a neutral position. But, from the said experiment and from the graph shown from the results, respondents were able to perceive more that Tim is more likely to be gay. When the straight information was given, respondents perceived more that Tim is straight. But, notice that the amount of straight perception from the straight information is lower than the straight perception from the gay information. Yet, in the gay information, even if the straight perception is high, the gay perception is higher. Meaning to say, Tims tendencies are more to be gay. The good thing about the study is that most of the participants in the present study were identified as straight in their sexual orientation, but they were keenly aware of the stereotypes of gay and straight men, and did not hesitate to use that awareness to make judgments about Tim's sexual orientation. This is surprising because Woolery (2007) argue that it is gay and lesbian, and not straight men and women that are motivated by and "schooled" in the task of building the skills needed to identify and interpret the social and cultural cue of the gay and lesbian subculture. Results from this investigation suggest otherwise. The results just showed that the amount of information affects the amount of stereotype F(2, 88) = 6.76, p<. 05. But, no matter how information can be really affective, still, some stereotypes remain strong, as inclined to the study of Elliott (2000) saying that there are differences between peoples societal stereotypes and personal beliefs when assessing stereotypes of groups. Conclusion and Recommendation The study presented limited support for the idea that perceptions of a mans sexual orientation are formed using stereotypes, this experiment influenced college students perceptions of Tims sexual orientation. Students confidently formed the perception that Tim is gay after showing them the information about Tim that was similar with gay male behavior. But when presented with information about Tim that was similar with straight male behavior they confidently formed the perception that he is straight. Support was found to suggest that the relationship between the type of information and the amount of information influenced student perceptions, but only to the point of forming the perception that Tim is gay. Therefore, stereotype itself is not a strong basis on perception of the sexual orientation and status. Still though, it is such an influence, only that it cannot stand alone. The study fell short in terms of providing a strong support about the predicted outcome but it is a good contribution to succeeding studies. It is reasonable that the study lacked enough power to produce the predicted outcome, since the results varied upon the given information to the respondents. Likewise, it is reasonable that the amount of stereotypes used across the six experimental conditions was not that enough to influence perceptions of male sexual orientation beyond the limited interaction observed in the data. The strong point is that, it still showed that if stronger amount of information was given, there could be higher possibility to come up with a strong result. And also, since they were 1st year college, they are more likely to be influenced by
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the amount of information since they are still on the stage of following some norms, and some are already trying to make their own stand by being not affected and keeping their opinions stand. For the future researchers who will end up with a study having similarities with this study, it is a good idea to consider the genders of the respondents. Will they be all girls or boys? Because it could be better and could have stronger tendencies to end up with a predicted outcome since it will be condensed into a closer group, it could have a more focused investigation. References American Psychiatric Association.(2011). Sexual Orientation.Healthy Minds.Healthy Lives. Retireved March 14, 2012 from http://healthyminds.org/More-InfoFor/GayLesbianBisexuals.aspx American Psychological Association.(2008). Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality. Retrieved March 14, 2012 from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/sexual-orientation.aspx Atwell, A. (2008). "The Effect of Gay Visual Exemplars on Issue Perceptions in Newspaper Reports."Communication Theses.Paper 40. Retrieved March 15, 2012 from http://digitalarchive.gsu.edu/communication_theses/40 Berger, R., & Kelly, J. (2001). What are older gay men like? An impossible question? Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 13(4), 55-65. C.K., Hillegass (2011). Gender Stereotypes. Retrieved Sept 17, 2012 from http://www.cliff.com/study_guide/Gender-Stereotypes.tArticleId-257,articleId-26896.html Devine, P. (2000). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(1), 5-18. Diamond, 2007. Definition of Terms: The Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients. Retrieved September 17, 2012 from http://www.apa.org/pi/lgbt/resources/definitions.pdf Elliott, A. (2000). Revised Edition: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.21(11).11391150. Francis, O. (2001). The role of facial masculinity/femininity in the attribution of homosexuality. Sex Roles, 23, 157-167. Gorrindo, T. (2010).Supporting Gay Youth as a Way to Prevent Suicide. Retrieved March 14, 2012 from http://apahealthyminds.blogspot.com/search/label/sexual%20orientation Jones, B. (2001). Is having the luck of growing older in the gay, lesbian, and transgender community good or bad luck? Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 13(4), 13-14.
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Rogers, R. (2000). Sex Role Stereotypes: Developmental Aspects and Early Intervention. Retreieved March 14, 2011 fromhttp://books.google.com.ph/books?id=jqEtxb7sgcC&pg=PA130&lpg=PA130&dq=Fler x,+Fidler+%26+Rogers+2000 Rees, A. (2005). Sexism and Sexual Prejudice (Homophobia): The Impact of the Gender Belief System and Inversion Theory on Sexual Orientation Research. Manuscript submitted for publication. Schope , R. (2005). Whos Afraid of Growing Old? Retrieved March 15 from http://sageatl.org/docs/perceptions.com Madson, L. (2000). Inferences regarding the personality traits and sexual orientation of physically androgynous people. Psychology of Women Quarter, 24, 148-160. Rudman, L. A. & Fairchild, K. (2004). Reactions to counterstereotypic behavior: The role of backlash in cultural stereotype maintenance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 157-176. Papa, J (2011).Types of Perception in Communication. Retrieved March 15, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/about_53930_types-perception-communication.html Williams, J. E., & Best, D. L. (2000).Measuring sex stereotypes: A multination study. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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A She or a He: Attitude towards Transsexuals among Filipino Young Adults


Aldrin Almodovar Maida Natiola
This study explores the views and the attitudes of young Filipino adults towards transsexuals. The study surveyed 200 randomly selected participants. The one sample T-test showed a significant values t=5.660. with a p value 0.006, the results indicate that there are significant differences in perception between male and female Filipino young adults towards their attitude to transsexuals using an alpha value of p<.05.

Transsexualism has become a controversial issue in almost all parts of the globe nowadays. Issues such as sexually transmitted diseases and same sex marriage are now linked with them, thus giving the public a different perception and attitude towards them. Antoszewski, et al., (2008) defined transsexuals as people who have undergone hormone treatment and surgery to attain the physical characteristics of the opposite sex. For some, it is one of the gender identity disorders where psychological sex is opposed to anatomical sex and in turn leads to a discrepancy between the preferred social gender and the biological sex. In the same study done by Antoszewski et al., (2008) about the acceptance of transsexualism, Polish university students from three different universities in Ld showed that accepting a transgender as their co-worker has not been a problem to them. Transsexualism is indeed a sensitive issue in todays society. What are the views of Filipino young adults about transsexuals nowadays? Will the views imposed by todays society influence their attitude towards transsexuals? How does this branding influence bias of character? How will these views affect how young adults deal with transsexuals? Do these attitudes have an effect in making their future decision? These are questions that this study would like to find out and clarify whether if its correct or not. Related Literature Transsexualism Most studies today regarding the issues about transsexualism were more related on diseases such as HIV, AIDS and other Sexually Transmitted Diseases. There are also studies regarding the acceptance of transsexuals, which states that transsexualism is only one of the gender identity disorders that lead to a discrepancy between the preferred social gender and the biological sex (Antoszewski et al., 2008). In another study, psychosocial issues of LGBT youth were explained (Kreiss & Patterson, 1997). It was stated that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transsexual youth are at risk for a multitude of physical, emotional, and social health problems. Kreiss & Patterson (1997) pointed out that during the past decade it has been well documented that these youth have higher-than-average rates of depression, suicide attempts, substance abuse, sexually transmitted diseases, school failure, family rejection, and homelessness.

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A research in Canada done by Taylor & Peter (2011) that studied the Canadian human rights discourse and high school climate for LGBT students found that schools were neither safe nor respectful for sexual and gender minority students. Moreover, it was argued that ongoing exposure to this situation undermines students' respect for the Charter of Rights and their faith in adults (Taylor & Peter, 2011). Acceptance In the same study of Antoszewski et al. (2008), it was found out that majority of their participants knowledge is similar and does not differ from a foreign students knowledge. Based on the results of their study, the students accept and are willing to have transsexuals as their coworkers. In a study about the experience of familial acceptance-rejection among transsexuals (Koken, Bimbi, & Parsons, 2009), it was found out that many transsexuals were rejected by their own family. Because of the bad treatment they receive from their family, many of them chose to leave their homes thus increasing their risk of homelessness, poverty, and associated negative consequences. In another study conducted by Ryan, et al. (2010) it was found out that family acceptance of LGBT adolescents and young adults predicts greater self-esteem, social support, and general health status; it also protects against depression, substance abuse, and suicidal ideation and behaviours. In a research done by Horn (2007) which investigated tenth- and twelfth-grade adolescents judgments about the acceptability of same-sex peers who varied in terms of their sexual orientation and their conformity to gender conventions or norms in regard appearance and mannerisms or activity, adolescents conceptions of the acceptability of their peers are related not just to sexual orientation but also to conformity to gender conventions. Discriminating LGBTs The transsexual people have become more visible in last decade but remain one of the most underserved populations in the society and have largely been ignored in the higher education literature (Beemyn, 2003). A study about the potential impact of discrimination fears of older LGBTs in long-term health care settings done by Jackson Johnson & Roberts (2008) wherein compared perceptions of LGBT persons and individuals. According to this study, most of the respondents believe that LGBTs do not have equal access to health care and social services. In a survey done in University of Georgia about the LGBT students safety and acceptance, Hill, et al., (2002) found that there was an unequal right given to the LGBT students. Nearly half of respondents had experienced prejudice, and half of the respondents said that they did not feel safe on campus. The findings suggest that the University treats anti-gay behaviour as an inevitable fact of life and places the blame on the LGBT person rather than educating those doing the harassing.

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Knowledge & Attitudes In a research done by Sanchez & Rabatin et al., (2006), which investigated the medical students attitude to LGBT patients, it was found out that medical students with greater clinical exposure to LGBT patients had more positive attitude thus increasing their ability to care for LGBT patients. In addition Polat, et al.s (2005) study which focused on the family attitudes toward transgendered people in Turkey, an Islamic country, showed that people with gender identity disorder is stigmatized and isolated from society. The family largely reflects and reinforces these negative views because gender crossing poses a threat to the normatively sanctioned gender classification. The majority of families tried to conceal the situation from their immediate environment and one-third did not even inform their closest relatives. Synthesis According to Antoszewski and his colleagues (2008), transsexuals are caused because of a discrepancy between their preferred social gender and their biological sex. Additional studies suggests that transsexual youth are at risk of a multitude of physical, emotional, and social health problems (Kreiss & Patteson, 1997). A study by Taylor and Peter (2011) revealed that schools in Canada were neither safe nor respectful for transsexuals. A similar study by Hill, et al., showed that Universities believe that discriminatory behaviour against gender minority is a natural part of life, and that these universities have a tendency to blame the transsexual instead educating their harassers. Family acceptance is also very crucial to their well being according to several studies. A study by Ryan, et al. (2010) found that family acceptance of LGBT adolescents and young adults predict greater self-esteem, social support, and general health status. It is very unfortunate since a study by Koken, Mimbi, and Parsons (2009) revealed that many transsexuals were rejected by their own family, and that these transsexuals would leave because they were treated badly. Similar cases in a study focused on family attitudes by Polat, et al., (2005) showed that transsexuals are stigmatized and isolated from society. A study by Jackson Johnson and Roberts (2008) most respondents believe that most LGBTs do not have equal access to health care and social services. A 2006 study conducted by Sanchez et al., found that medical students with greater clinical exposure to LGBT patients increased their positive attitude toward LGBTs. This research seeks to further previous findings on the related literature. This research will also address the need to study what Filipino young adults perceptions determine their attitude towards transsexuals. Method Design The research design was quantitative and descriptive in nature. Descriptive method is designed to gather information about present existing conditions. Descriptive research is defined as involving collection of data in order to test hypotheses or to answer questions concerning the current status of the subject of the study. The main goal of descriptive research design is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied (Richley & Klein, 2007).

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Participants A total of 200 young Filipino adults in Las Pinas City were selected through purposive sampling. Respondents were between the ages, 18 to 24, males and females. Instrument The tool used in this study is a survey questionnaire using the Likerts Scale. The test questionnaire used in this study was constructed by the by the researcher. The survey questionnaires consist of a 25-item questionnaire in which the participants were asked about their willingness to become affiliated with a transsexual. The survey consists of questions with choices in a scale from 1 to 4, 1 being most disagree and 4 being most agree. (*Appendix A) The reliability of the the test used by the researcher has achieved a reliable Cronbach Alpha score of 0.98. This means that the Likerts based test that was used in this study is reliable. Procedure The 200 participants for this study were selected with the use of simple random sampling within the Las Pias area and were given a test questionnaire. After answering the given test questionnaires, the researcher then tabulated the total scores of the participants in table of results. After tabulating the result of the test the researcher then imputed them into the SPSS program which was the instrument for computing the gathered data. After getting the total mean score of the tests it was then analyzed by the researcher. Statistical Analysis The scores on the test were compared using a T-test. A T-test is used to evaluate differences between two groups. For this experiment, the T-test for independent groups were used. T-test can be used for samples even as small as four. The T-test can find the p-value that gives the likelihood that the difference between the scores of the two groups occurred by chance. If there is less than 5% that the difference occurred by chance, there is a significant difference. The researcher used SPSS Statistics 17.0 for the comparison of the scores between groups. Results and Discussion The values represent the impact of internal and external influence on a persons view regarding transsexuals. Some questions are tailored to measure internal influences (such as questions one to five) while some are based on external influences (such as questions six to ten). This questions are established to be either internal or external based on related literature. Based on these influences absorbed by the person, views on the subject may be positive or negative. A persons view towards transsexuals can be shaped by a variety of factors. As stated, these factors can be external or internal. External factors include social and media influences. Internal factors include the judgment developed from the persons conclusion based on the external factors.

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The attitude is the willingness of the young adults to accept transsexuals at work, in school, etc. Knowledge on the other hand, refers to the familiarity of the participants to transsexuals. The tables below show the results of the survey from the 200 Filipino young adults in Las Pias City, which also includes the survey items used under the categories that this study aims to identify using the proposed method. Table 1: Views of young Filipino adults about transsexuals.
1

Transsexuals offend me. Gender does not affect my sexual preference. Transsexuals have a good fashion sense. It disgusts me to see a transsexual. Transsexuals make me laugh.

2.30 2.66 2.79 2.24 2.95

According to Beemyn (2003), the transsexual people have become more visible in last decade. Table 1 proves that Beemyn was correct since even Filipino young adults have gained a diverse view about the topic, some accept transsexual into society yet some are still reluctant to welcome them. Table 1 shows the total mean scores of the survey items based on the answers of the respondents. Item number 5 has the highest mean score of 2.95 which shows that most of the respondents were actually amused to transsexuals and that they do not have negative views about transsexuals. And with a mean score of 2.24, item number 4 shows that there are young adults nowadays that do not accept transsexuals. Table 2: Societys influence on the attitude of the Filipino young adults towards transsexuals.
6

Im willing to have a transsexual in the family. It bothers me if a transsexual sends me a text message. Transsexuals are good at making people smile. It bothers me when a transsexual sits beside me.

2.50 2.44 3.02 2.46 2.69

10 I find transsexuals mainly for entertainment.

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According to a research done by Sanchez & Rabatin et al. (2006), peoples exposure to transsexuals affect their attitude towards them. Table 2 supports that, people who have been exposed to transsexuals mainly yield a positive outlook. Table 2 shows the total mean scores of the item numbers 6 to 10 of the survey from the respondents. Item number 8 have the highest total mean score of 3.02 which reflects effect of the societys influence on the respondents attitude towards transsexuals. For most of the respondents, transsexuals are good at making people smile. Table 3: Branding influencing bias of character.
11 Transsexuals are overly excited. 12 Transsexuals should be taken seriously. 13 Im willing to partake in an activity involving a transsexual. 14 People tolerate transsexuals. 15 Its annoying when a transsexual is around.

2.79 2.58 2.82 2.66 2.17

Table 3 shows the total mean scores of item numbers 11 to 15, which is about the branding that influence the biases of the young adults towards transsexuals. The mean in item numbers 11(2.79) and 13 (2.82) indicates that more people are willing to participate in an activity with a transsexual and slightly less people perceive transsexuals to be overly excited. Table 4: Views affecting how young adults deal with transsexuals.
16 Im willing to share utilities with a transsexual. 17 I enjoy a transsexuals company. 18 I feel comfortable sharing a dressing room with a transsexual. 19 Im comfortable sharing a public restroom with a transsexual. 20 Sleeping in the same room with a transsexual seems OK with me.

2.58 2.82 2.20 2.22 2.24

Table 4 shows the total mean scores of item numbers 16 to 20 based on the data gathered which tackles the views that affects the Filipino young adults on how they deal with transsexuals.

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A total mean score of 2.82, item number 17 have the highest score under this category, which shows most of the respondents view about transsexuals. Table 5: Attitudes that have an effect in making future decisions.
21 Im willing to have a transsexual neighbor. 22 Im willing to befriend a transsexual. 23 Im willing to have transsexual boyfriend/girlfriend. 24 Im willing to have a transsexual boss. 25 My bias about certain topics changes if I learned that they were

2.79 2.83 2.02 2.72 2.49

supported by transsexuals. Table 5 shows the total mean scores for item numbers 21 to 25 in the survey which aim to identify the attitudes of Filipino young adults that have an effect in making their future decisions. The Table shows that the item number 22 of the survey questionnaire has the highest total mean score of 2.83. The mean between item numbers 21 and 22 indicates that slightly more people are willing to befriend transsexuals but draw the line with transsexuals living near them. This table also support the finding of the research done by Horn (2007) which found out that nonconforming straight individuals was rated less acceptable than either the gay individual who conformed to gender norms or was gender non-conforming in choice of activity. Table 6:

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Table 6 shows the results by computing the data gathered using the formula of Onesample T-test. The computed T value in the statistical T-Test was 0.000 for the males and 0.006 for the females which are both less than the alpha level of 0.05. It also shows the difference between the total mean score of the males and the females according to their responses in the survey. The total mean score for the male is 65.2679 which is higher than the 62.6250 total mean score for the female. Conclusion According to the data which was acquired in the study and portrayed in the tables as the results of the research, the researcher discovered that the perception of Filipino young adults has a significant effect towards their attitude in accordance to transsexuals. These views of young adults towards transsexuals, although shaped by a wide variety of external and internal factors, showed minute differences on the total mean scores. This stipulates that the perceptions and behavior of Filipino young adults towards transsexuals, regardless of them being positive or negative, still relies upon what diverse kinds of influences they shall project. Recommendation The researcher suggests that future researchers of this type of study should gather more than 200 respondents. Studies such as these may demand a better method and statistical tool if one wishes to have better result and outcome. The researcher recommends future studies to broaden the scope in terms of geography and more importantly include LGBTs, such as elderly homosexuals, to explore the different varieties of the homosexual community. Also the researcher recommends to broaden the age range of the participants. The researcher also recommends that a reverse study be made in which transsexuals will be asked about their perceptions on straight or heterosexual people.

References Antoszewski, B., Kasielska, A., Jedrzejczak, M., & Kruk-Jeromin, J. (2008).Acceptance of transsexualism among university students. Psychiatria Polska. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18567410 Antoszewski, B., Kasielska, A., Jedrzejczak, M., & Kruk-Jeromin, J. (2008).Acceptance of transsexualism among university students. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18567410 Beemyn, B. (2003). Students, Serving the Needs of Transgender College. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education . Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J367v01n01_03 Hill, R., Childers, J., Childs, A., Cowie, G., Hatton, A., Lewis, J., et al. (2002). In the Shadow of the Arch: Safety and Acceptance of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer Students at the University of Georgia. Horn, S. (2007). Adolescents Acceptance of Same-Sex Peers Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Expression. Journal of Youth ad Adolescence .
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Jackson, N., Johnson, M., & Roberts, R. (2008). The potential impact of discrimination fears of older gays, lesbians, bisexuals and transgender individuals living in small- to moderate-sized cities on long-term health care. Journal of Homosexuality . Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18825868 Koken, J., Bimbi, D., & Parsons, J. (2009).Experiences of familial acceptancerejection among transwomen of color. Journal of Family Psychology . Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20001144 Kreiss, J., & Patterson, D. (1997). Psychosocial issues in primary care of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth. Journal of Pediatric Health Care , 266-274. Retrieved from http://www.jpedhc.org/article/S0891-5245(97)90082-1/abstract Polat, A., Yuksel, S., Discigil, A., & Meteris, H. (2005). Family Attitudes toward Transgendered People in Turkey: Experience from a Secular Isslamic Country. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine . Retrieved from http://baywood.metapress.com/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,5,9 ;journal,30,167;linkingpublicationresults,1:300314,1 Richley, R. C., & Klein, J. D. (2007).Design and Development Research.Routledge. Ryan, C., Russell, S., Huebner, D., Diaz, R., & Sanchez, J. (2010).Family Acceptance in Adolescence and the Health of LGBT Young Adults. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing . Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.17446171.2010.00246.x/full Sanchez, N., Rabatin, J., Sanchez, J., Hubbard, S., & Kalet, A. (2006).Medical Students Ability to Care for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered Patients. Fam Med . Retrieved from https://www.stfm.org/fmhub/fm2006/january/nelson21.pdf Taylor, C., & Peter, T. (2011). "We are not aliens, we're people, and we have rights." Canadian human rights discourse and high school climate for LGBTQ students. Canadian Review of Sociology . Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22214043 Mallon, G. P. (2009). Social Work Practice with Transgender and Gender Variant Youth. 26. Retrieved from http://www.google.com.ph/books?hl=en&lr=&id=AvqDUacsb34C&oi=fnd&pg=PA53&dq= factors+affecting+views+towards+transsexuals&ots=-qFVLPXQ4z&sig=VB4ErRy-AdL10UDkFk1dXe7kZ4&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

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Attribution of Success or Failure in Academics amongPsychology Majors


George Ambas Fatima Bullecer
The study explores the attribution of success and failure of psychology majors in their academics. The research surveyed 82 Psychology majors with a 30-item researcher constructed instrument. The results showed that the respondents attribute their success to their effort, motivation, confidence patience and lesson comprehension. The results showed that it is consistent with the previous studies which says that students attribute their success to effort and ability, doing their assignments, learning strategy and motivation. The respondents are uncertain if procrastination, lack of motivation, lack of long term goals and anxiety, peers, professor and family cause their failure in academics, the present studies showed inconsistent results with the previous studies.

Attribution as defined by Dizon (2003) is the perceptions of the cause of a persons behavior. There are two kinds of attribution, internal attribution also known as personal attribution, it is any explanation that locates the cause as being internal to the person such as personality, mood, abilities and effort. Another kind is external attribution it is any explanation that locates the cause as being external to the person such as the actions of others, the nature of the situation, social pressures, or luck(also known as situational attribution). (Crisp &Turner , 2010). Studies regarding the attribution in academic performance show that academic performance is correlated with multifarious factors, such as faculty performance, school facilities, school environment, family background and others. Morisano(2010) has a study that has shown that there are 25 percent of students who are enrolled in universities never finish and precipitating early departure include poor academic progress and lack of clear goals and motivation. Siegel (2010) discussed that educators and parents must recognize the important role that interest play in student achievement. Interest is one of the predictors of high performance in a variety of talent necessary to reach high levels of academic rigor, they must be either interested in the topic or find the task meaningful. The study is important for various reasons. The findings, conclusions and recommendation as well as academic interventions will help students with poor academic performance in particular and Guidance and Counseling to be specific there can be remedial programs conducted by the faculty members and they can also harness high performing students for peer teaching. These areas covered in the study will enhance further studies of attribution of success or failure in academics. Furthermore, the research will add to the depth of local literature on the subject. From the findings, new contributions may be uncovered. The results will also interest further studies and contribution to Educational Psychology. This study explores the attribution of success or failure in academics of Psychology majors. Specifically it aims to answer the following questions: What factors do Psychology majors attribute their success in academics? What factors do Psychology majors attribute their failure in academics? Does the internal attribution of the student affect the attribution of success or failure? Does external attribution affect the attribution of success or failure?

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Review of Related Literature Most of the studies that had been completed in the past regarding the topic is mostly in the educational setting and is mostly foreign. Another common trend is that most of the researchers used students as participants for the study and these students are mostly college students and another common trend is the use of questionnaires in the previous studies but in the local setting this research has not been studied thoroughly. Goals and Motivation Morisano (2010) conducted a study in setting, elaborating and on personal goals improves academic performance in four year universities, 25 % never finish. Precipitating causes of early departure include academic progress and lack of clear goals and motivation. Seok (2010) attempted to determine the relationship between learning motivation and enrolment valence, selfefficacy, goal orientation and attribution for success and failure of learners in bachelors degree course at junior colleges. Major conclusions of this study were as follows: This characteristics or enrolment valence, self- efficacy, goal orientation and attribution for success and failure were positive in aspect of learning motivations. On the other hand, learning motivation will be low if the learner has a tendency to avoid performance than others. In a related study, Grigorenko (2009) conducted a study to predict academic success in the highly competitive environment of a private preparatory school, Choate RoseMary Hall. The results indicated the importance of taking into account aspects of self-regulated learning (SRL), such as academic self-efficacy, academic motivation, academic locus of control, and measures of the WICS (Wisdom, Intelligence, Creativity, Synthesized). The results of this study examined the utility of using quantified indicators other than middle-school GPA and standardized test scores for making admission decisions. When it comes to the way students attribute their success or failure, Mcclure et al.(2011) wherein he gathered data from 5333 secondary students (European, Asian, Maori, Pacific) rated four common attributions ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck and three social influences (teachers, peers, and family) for their best and worst marks. Motivation orientations were also measured. The results showed that effort attributions motivate achievement but also support the benefits of a self-serving bias. Gender Del Siegel(2010) revealed although there are several explanations for why one succeeds or fails, efforts and ability are the major causes of the students report. The purpose of this study was to measure the perception of 149 college freshmen enrolled in an university honors program about their in 15 talent areas. There was a positive relationship between students interest in a talent area and their assessment of their skill in that area. The strongest relationship tended to be in non-academic areas. Males placed stronger attributions on the role that natural ability played whereas females indicated that personal effort contributed to high levels of performance. Participants implicit theory of intelligence did not appear to influence this perceptions of the importance of ability in academic performance. Tirri and Nokelainen(2011) studied the influence of self-perception of abilities and attribution styles on academic choices of Finnish Olympians or Pre-Olympians. Results showed that there is a positive correlation between perceived ability
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and achievement. Gifted girls tend to underestimate their abilities in mathematics and perceive their abilities higher in language arts even when they perform equally in both domains. Effort and Ability Mori (2011) conducted a study in attribution tendency and its relationship with actual and perceived themselves as high proficiency perceived proficiency. The findings showed that high proficiency learners attribute their success to their own effort and ability more than mid and low proficiency learners. On the other hand, when it comes to failure experiences, high proficiency learners and those who regarded themselves as having high proficiency showed a stronger tendency to ascribe their unsuccessful. While Law (2009) discussed the role of attributions, beliefs, motivation and strategy use in Chinese fifth-graders reading comprehension. Findings suggest that the Chinese Children who considered intelligence and ability controllable were more likely to be intrinsically motivated to learn to read and to use various reading strategies to tackle problems when constructing meaning from text, resulting in a better understanding of that. Caution should be exercised in generalizing the findings of the present study to all Chinese primary students. Hawi( 2010) made a study about the Causal attributions of success and failure made by undergraduate students in an introductory-level computer programming course in the computer science department at Notre Dame University, Louaize. He used narrative interviews in order to get the perception of the male and female computer programming students which will be used as data for the research. After gathering the data needed the results show that most of them attribute their success or failure to the following factors: learning strategy, lack of study, lack of practice, subject difficulty, lack of effort, appropriate teaching method, exam anxiety, cheating, lack of time, and unfair treatment. Personal Variables Lee (2010) conducted a study a variables that demonstrate direct empirical links to academic at the K-12 level. Empirical findings showed particular relationships between the reviewed personal contextual factors and academic achievement, mainly in the areas of reading and mathematics. The research proposed an integrated perspective that students personal factors in the domains of behaviour, affect, attitude and cognition as well as their social-contextual environment have to work in concert to produce optimal school performance. Empirical findings showed particular relationships between the reviewed personal and social-contextual factors and academic achievement, mainly in the areas of reading and mathematics. The research proposed an integrated perspective that students personal factors in the domains of behaviour, effort, attitude and cognition as well as their social-contextual environment have to work in concert to produce optimal school performance. A local study was done by Licarte and De La Cuerva(2011)the study revealed the factors that influence causal attribution of mathematics performance among engineering at risk students. The highest attributions claimed by the Engineering students at risk are in the family factors, Financial support and moral support from the family show the highest mean. The lowest attribution is on the personal factors. The student respondents gave very high scores on personal assessment. Significant difference in the assessed attributions were found only on family and school among types of high school attended by students. Graduates of public high schools gave the highest attribution scores. Comparative analysis between male and female respondents revealed no significant difference. Another local study that was done by Clores (2010) regarding
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school absenteeism which is an alarming problems for the academe in general through the use of interviews of the absentee students and the use of editing style analysis and a method described by Colainza (1978) it yielded three category schemes of experience of school absenteeism: a.) disempowering circumstances-feelings of helplessness, b.) misguided value system mixed up priorities and c.) pedagogical dilemmas- unappealing academic environment. Li (2010) presented a research in a comparison between Chinese and other international students. The results suggest that the perceived importance of learning success to family, English writing ability and social communication with their compatriots are significant predictors for all international students. As the predominant groups, Chinese students display some distinctive characteristics, a less active learning strategy is observed among Chinese students relative to others, but no evidence has been found that this negatively affects their academic achievement. A study done by Donelson (2009) expounded on how do students conceptualize the causes of their own academic success and failures? Taking a phenomenological approach, students identified the causes of their performance immediately following return of a graded examination. At a practical level, measuring unitary causes proved to be a reliable and valid way of assessing spontaneous thoughts about what causes academic performance. Suarez and Sandiford(2008) made a study on the causal attributions for Success or Failure of Students in College Algebra. They used Causal Dimensions Scale (CDSII) to measure the causal attribution of students and it showed that most of the students attributed their passing or failing to locus of causality, stability, and personal controllability. Sahinkarakas(2011) made a research about the success and failure attributions in language learning using self-assessment papers of 52 young learners studying English. The results show that attributions were linked mostly to internal and unstable factors, with listening to the teacher and doing homework being the most significant. Mkumbo and Amani(2008) studied the perceived University Students Attributions of Their Academic Success and Failure using an attitude questionnaire scale with items on locus of control, stability and controllability dimensions. The results show that most of the students attributed their academic performance to internal, stable and controllable factors. High performing students were more likely to attribute their academic performance to internal and controllable factors than low performing students. Success was attributed to internal and controllable factors, while academic failure was attributed to external and uncontrollable factors. Save for sex, the participants demographic variables did not statistically significantly influence the attribution pattern. Stress and Anxiety Yune (2011) indicates that students with higher scores on coping efficacy and internal attribution tendency and who lower scores in academic stress tend to adjust better academically in designing effective academic adjust programs to improve coping efficacy and internal attribution tendency and reduce academic stress. Furthermore, these findings have important implications for planning learning consultation programs, especially in year one. Putwaina (2010) revealed that supported a model in which cognitive distortions corresponding to the academic domain fully mediated the relationships between two components
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of test anxiety, worry and bodily symptoms, and academic achievement. This finding is consistent with theories attributing the debilitating influence of anxiety to debilitating influence of anxiety to the presence of interfering cognitions and helps to specify nature of these interfering cognitions which that anxiety interventions may target. Group Attribution Santamaria (2010) presented a paper that investigated individual attribution of group performance among university students in Metro Manila. Two methods were used to understand the attributions that individuals make of their group performance outcome after receiving feedback. The open-ended though-listing technique and a structural method. The conclusions from the two methods were the same: in success, attributions were made more towards the team as a whole, while in failure, there was a tendency for individuals to separate themselves from the group. The respondents were predominantly students concerning attribution of success or failure in academics. In foreign studies, majority of the researchers were conducted for tertiary level students. Attribution for success and failure were revealed and interventions were suggested to help underachievers. The most common for success factors are natural ability, proper motivation, moral support from the family. Failure factors are academic stress, coping efficacy and academic adjustment. Local studies expounded that success factors are teamwork, high school graduates of private schools having a better performance than public school graduates. The gender comparative analyses has no significant relationship. On the failure factors, personal factors, personal assessment, family background is significantly related with academic performance. Interventions were proposed to address the problems of failure in academics. Method Research Design A descriptive research design was used in this study. A survey method was used to gather the data needed for the study. The data concerning the enrolment figures of Psychology Majors were gathered from the Registrars Office. Participants The participants of the research are Psychology majors at from a CHED recognized college. The survey covered Psychology majors students using cluster sampling. The age range of 2nd year up to 4th year Psychology students are from 18 years old and above with equal number of male and female students. The reason behind choosing Psychology majors as participants are as follows: The research being conducted can be relevant to their program and among all the courses in the College of Arts and Sciences the Psychology majors have the higher chance of conducting further studies regarding attribution.

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Instrument A 30 item questionnaire was constructed to be used for data gathering. A questionnaire was used to determine the extent to which the difference in the attribution pattern of the college Psychology Students. The items in the questionnaire measured the factors that can be attributed to success or failure and the items and factors are the following: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,11,12.,21,22,23,27,29 for the self(positive) which are items about exerting effort, doing best in responsibilities, ability inherited from parents, motivation to finish college in time. 16,17,24,28 for the self(negative) which are items about lack of effort to study, no long term goals, being lax in studies, test anxiety, having a hard time remembering the lesson in class, lacking motivation to study. Items 4,10 and 18 for the professor/faculty which are about the professors teaching style, the volume of the professors voice and being afraid of the professor because of his/her reputation. Items 7 and 30 for peers, the items are about the peers being a cause of distraction for the student and the tendency to go out with peers instead of study. Item 26 for parents, this item is about the financial problems the students family experienced and Item 13 for environment which is about the noisy environment being a hindrance for understanding the lesson. There are fifteen positive items and there are negative items. In terms of scoring the highest for the eighteen positive items which is the factors that are attributed to success is five and the lowest is one while the twelve negative items which are the factors that can be attributed to failure is the same as success five as the highest and lowest is one. Procedure First the permission of the professors was asked to conduct this study. After the permission was granted, the questionnaires were distributed to the students and this questionnaire was used as the research tool and distributed to psychology majors who were the respondents of the study. The results were tabled, analyzed and interpreted. Results This is the extent to which the attribution of success/failure observed in the three levels were determined. The attribution of success/failure in academics have the following variables: self(positive), self(negative), peers, school environment, parents/family and faculty. Attribution of Success/Failure of the respondents: Average Weighted Mean 1. Self(positive) 2. Self(negative) 3. Peers 4. Environment 5. Family 6. Faculty 3.893 3.187 3.197 3.519 2.552 3.185 Verbal Interpretation To a certain extent Not Sure Not Sure To a certain extent To a limited extent Not Sure

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Table 1 shows the data gathered about the attribution of success/failure of the respondents which are 2nd year, 3rd year and 4th year Psychology students .. The results show that the Psychology students attribute their success/failure to the self(positive) which have items that is about being motivated, exerting effort, and ability. They also attribute their success/failure to the environment which is about how the noise can give them a hard time in concentrating on the lesson or the task given to them by their professor. The least factor where the respondents attribute their success/failure is to their family. While the self(negative) which is about procrastination, anxiety, lack of motivation, having a hard time remembering the lessons show that the respondents are not sure if they have an effect to their success/failure in academics. The respondents are not also sure if their peers play a factor in their success/failure in academics and if the faculty can be the cause of their success/failure. According to Mori(2011) his respondents which are high, mid and low proficiency learners show that high proficiency learners attribute their success to their effort and ability. Based on Mkumbo and Amani(2008) using an attitude questionnaire scale, the results showed by the university students said that they attribute their success in academic performance to internal and controllable factors while they attribute their failure to external factors and uncontrollable factors. Putwaina(2010) showed that test anxiety can affect the coping ability and cognition. Sahinkarakas(2011) had also shown that attribution of success/failure of young learners show high significance when it comes to listening to the teacher and doing the homework while Licarte and De La Cuerva(2011) showed that students show causal attribution of their math performance to their family. Based on the research of Mori (2011), Sahinkarakas(2011) and Mkumbo&Amani(2008) the results showconsistencieswith those past research and the students attribute their success to their effort, ability while the their failure based on Mkumbo&Amani(2008) is attributed to external and uncontrollable factors which can be the professor and peers compared to the past study the present study does not show that the 2nd year, 3rd year and 4th year Psychology students attribute their success or failure in a large extent or limited extent but they find the environment as a big factor in their attribution of success/failure. Based on Licarte and De La Cuerva(2011) family played an important factor while this study being done now has shown that the family does not play a big part in the attribution of the success/failure students. Discussion This is a study which seeks to determine the extent to which the attribution of success/failure in variables such as self(positive), self(negative), peers, environment, family/parents and professor/faculty. Specifically the study sought to answer the following questions on the attribution of success or failure to academics of Psychology majors. It aims to answer the following questions: What factors do Psychology Majors attribute their success in academics? What factors do Psychology majors attribute their failure in academics? Does the internal attribution of success or failure? Does external attribution affect the attribution of success or failure? In terms their successes to themselves (positive) the second year, third year and fourth year psychology students, the average weighted mean of 3.893 which shows that the perception of students in their attribution of success/failure in academics is to a certain extent. In relation with the previous studies from Mori(2011), Sahinkarakas(2011), Hawi, Grigorenko, and Mcclure
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et.al (2011). The past studies show that the students attribute their success to effort and ability ,doing their assignments, learning strategy and motivation. These previous studies show consistent results with the current study. When it comes to attributing their failure on the self, the second year, third year and fourth year psychology, the average weighted mean is 3.178 which shows that the perception of the respondents is not sure if it is the cause of their failure in academics. Studies of Putwaina(2010) and Hawi(2011) which states that for Putwaina, his research states that anxiety is debilitating to the students, while Hawi says that lack of effort and anxiety cause failure. It shows that the result of the current study is not the same as the previous studies In terms of the perception of the respondents on the external factors affecting the attribution of success/failure on peers, the second year, third year and fourth year psychology students attained an average weighted mean of 3.143 revealing that the respondents are not sure if the peers can affect the attribution of success/failure in academics. The study of Mcclure et.al.(2011) peers have little effect in the attribution of success/failure. Based on the results of the present study it shows different results to the previous study because the respondents answers are not sure if they play a factor in the attribution of success/failure while in Mcclures study it shows that peers play a little role in the attribution of success or failure. The perception of the second year, third year, and fourth year psychology students on the external factors that affect the attribution of success/failure in academics in the environment have a weighted mean of 3.519 which reveals that the respondents are not sure if it affects their success/failure in academics. The study of Mkumbo and Amani(2008) which says that external and uncontrollable factors which can be pertaining to the environment affects the attribute on of success/failure of the students. The results show that the current study is consistent with the previous study because based on the results the Psychology Majors is affected by the environment. The perception of the second year, third year, and fourth year psychology students on the external factors that affect the attribution of success/failure in academics towards the family have an average mean of 2.552 which is means that the respondents are affected to a limited extent when it comes to their perception on the external factors affecting the attribution of success/failure in academics. According to Licarte and De La Cuerva(2011) show that family plays a big factor in the academic performance of students while the current study indicates that the family does not play a big factor in the performance of the students. The perception of the respondents on the external factors that affect the attribution of success/failure in professor/faculty have a weighted mean of 3.185 which means that they are not sure if the professor/faculty affects the attribution of success/ failure. The study of Mkumbo and Amani(2008) says that academic failure is attributed to external and uncontrollable factors which can be factors like professors while Hawi(2010) says that teaching style affects the success/failure in academics. The current study shows that the respondents are not sure if it affects them. Conclusion/ Recommendations In the light of the above findings the following conclusions can now be made:
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The extent to which the attribution of success in academics on the self(positive) is to a certain extent on second year, third year and fourth year psychology students. This means that most of the time if the respondents pass the subjects they attribute it to their effort, motivation, confidence, patience and lesson comprehension. The extent to which the attribution of failure which on ones self(negative) is not sure as perceived by the respondents on the second. third and fourth year psychology students . This means that the respondents do not see procrastination, lack of motivation, lack of long term goals, and anxiety as the cause of their failure in academics. The extent to which the internal factors which is self(positive) and self (negative) affect the success of the respondents are to a certain extent on the second year, third year, fourth year psychology students. This means that ones self plays an important factor in success/failure in academics. The extent to which the external factors on the attribution of success/failure are: Peers. The perception of the respondents on the second, third and fourth year is that they are not sure on the factors of the attribution of success/failure in academics on peers. This means that the respondents are uncertain if their peers can be a cause for their success/failure in academics. Environment. The perception of the second year psychology students is that they are not sure while the third year and fourth year are to a certain extent. This means that the second year are not sure if a noisy environment has affected their studies while the third and fourth year are affected by a noisy environment. Family. The perception of the second, third and fourth year psychology students is that they are not sure if their families attribute to the success or failure in academics. In the view of the findings, the researcher recommends that the information gathered in the research should be made known to the school for possible action. Also, further studies should be done on the other factors that affect the attribution of success/failure on academics. References Crisp R. J. & Turner R.N. (2010) Attribution.Essential Social Psychology. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=f1ZkF0DDHU4C&pg=PA44&dq=attribution+theor y+heider&hl=tl&sa=X&ei=gFOkT-iyMc-aiAf7gLmAw&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=attribution%20theory%20heider&f=false Donelson, Story, Kelley, Mcmillan,(2009) What causes failure and success? Students perceptions of their academic outcomes. Social Psychology of Behavior, Volume 12, pages 157-174 Hawi N.(2010) Causal attributions of success and failure made by undergraduate students in an introductory-level computer programming course. Computers & Education, Volume 54, Issue 4, Pages 11271136

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Law Y.K. (2009) The role of attribution beliefs, motivation and strategy use in Chinese fifth graders reading comprehension. Educational Research. Volume 51, pages 77-92 Lee Jihyun& Shute Valerie. (2010) Personal and Social-Contextual Factors in K-12 Academic Performance: An Integrative Perspective on Student Learning, Educational Psychologist, Volume 45, pages 185-202 Lei Chuanping.(2009)On the Causal Attribution of Academic Achievement in College Students, Volume 5, No.8Retrieved from: http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ass/article/view/3444 Li. Chen & Jing (2010), Determinants of International Students Academic Performance: A Comparison between Chinese and other International Students. Volume 14, pages 389-405. Licarte E.R. & De La Cuerva A. R .(2012).Factors that Influence Causal Attribution of Mathematics Perfromance Among Engineering at-risk Students. Retrieved from: ejournals.ph Mcclure J. et al.(2011) . Students attributions for their best and worst marks: Do they relate to achievement?.Contemporary Educational Psychology.Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 7181 McLeod, S. A. (2010). Simply Psychology; Attribution http://www.simplypsychology.org/attribution-theory.html Theory. Retrieved from

Mkumbo K. &Amani J.(2012). Perceived University Students Attributions of Their Academic Success and Failure.Asian Social Science.Vol 8, No 7 Mori et.al. (2011) Attribution tendency and its relationship with actual and perceived proficiency, Gem: Online Journal of Language Studies, Volume 1,1 pages 199-218 Morisanoet.al. (2010). Setting, elaborating and reflecting on personal goals improves academic performances. Journal of Applied Psychology. Volume 95,pages 255-264. Park S.W., Bauer J. J., Arbuckle N. B.,(2009). Growth motivation attenuates the self-serving attribution.Journal of Research in Personality, Volume 43, Issue 5, Pages 914917 Putwaina D.W., Connorsa L. &Symesb W. (2010). Do Cognitive Distortions mediate the TestAnxiety Examination Performance Relationship? Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, Volume 30, pages 11-26 Sahinkarakas S.(2011). Young Students' Success and Failure Attributions in Language Learning. : Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 39, Number 7, 2011 , pp. 879-885 Santamaria J.G. (2010). Individual Attribution of Group Performance Among University Students in Metro Manila: There is an "I" in team, Philippine Management Review, Volume 17, pages 103-120

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Siegel et. al. (2010).Exploring the Relationship of College Freshemen Honors Students' Effort and Ability Attribution, Interest, and Implicit Theory of Intelligence with Perceived Ability. Gifted Child Quarterly ,Volume 54, pages 92-101 Suarez G. &Sandiford R.(2008), Causal Attributions for Success or Failure of Students in College Algebra, Community College Journal of Research and Practice.Volume 32, Issue 4-6,pages 325-346 Tirri&Nokelainen(2010), The Influence of Self-Perception of Abilities and Attribution Styles on Academic Choices: Implications for Gifted Education, RoeperReview.Volume 33, Issue , pages 26-32 Yune S.J., Park K.H., Chung, W.J. and Lee S.Y.(2011), The Effects of Attribution Tendencies, Academic Stress and Coping Efficacy on Academic Adjustment of Medical Students, Korean J Med Education, Volume 23, pages 164-174

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Internet Use and Behavioral Traits Among First Year High School Students
Jennie Asenci Fatima Bullecer
A survey was conducted among 1st year high school students to explore the behavior of teenagers online, to determine the existence of Internet use and any behavioral trait brought about by the internet. Based on the results, more than half of the respondents (63%) may be considered moderately impaired by Internet use. Moreover, teenage boys were more affected by than girls, in terms of social comfort, loneliness/depression, diminished impulsive control and distraction. Correlating the Internet Addiction Test and Online Cognition Scale this study shows that the two instruments were significantly correlated with each other. The four sub scales from the OCS were correlated with each other but depression/loneliness has the strongest relationship to Internet Addiction Test (r= 0.523), followed by Distraction (r= 0.507), Social Comfort (r= 0.362) and Diminished Impulse Control (r= 0.342).

_____________________________________________________________________________ Teenagers can encounter problems with the use of social networking in their everyday lives (Rosen, 2011). Social networking allows the users to share their personal information with other people. In internet they can do blogs and add friend so that they can exchange messages and commitments to their own profile. There are a lot of internet sites that teenagers can use like Facebook, MySpace, Twitter and Tumblr. In these said sites it allows all the users to create and customize their own page and share it to everyone. At present, almost all teenagers would love to share music, videos and their own writing or blogs that let other see it. Status updates on internet sites are a new form of communication (Waters, 2009). Internet affects thousands and even millions of people; this is the new form of communication. It allows people to connect and interact with others. Most teens are using the internet and many things that can come from it. It gives teens the more options to stay in touch with those who live far away from them and can help them in meeting people that share same interests with them (Fioriello, 2012) Collaboration is now made through this kind of medium that is easier for teenagers to get influenced by everything. Teenagers can get information easily by using this whether about school, friends or even about everything around them. These internet sites are widely used by every age group, because just one click and you can get all the information and details that they need to answer all their questions. Use of the internet could affect peoples career, academic, social and physical; health (Anderson et al., 2001) Dr. Ivan Goldberg (1996) was the first to use the term, Internet Addiction Disorder. Later, Goldberg (1997) recommended that the term pathological computer use was more appropriate than internet addiction to describe individuals spending excessive amounts of time online and experiencing negative consequences as a result. It was not only Goldberg(1996) who proposed the definition of internet addiction, pathological internet use or pathological computer use. Pathological internet use is a psychological dependence on the internet (Kandell, 1998). Socializing online can give shy, socially awkward teens a comfortable way to communicate one that is less intimidating than meeting (Stanberry, 2006). As humans, teenagers have the tendency to do what everybody is doing, they all like to be accepted and be in with the crowd and as a result they always bite off more than they can chew. A study shows that some
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individuals are experiencing negative consequence from the time spent online (Anderson et al., 2001). Use of the internet has been linked to poor academic performance (Griffths et al., 2001), low self-esteem (Greenberg et al., 1999), depression (Young and Rogers, 1998), loneliness (Morahan-Martin et al., 2000) and other psychological disorders (Shapira et al., 2000). In relation to that, as a teenager, the researcher has always been interested on what type of behavioral trait does the use of internet gives to the teenagers and to the younger people. From the most subtle to the biggest advertisement we all see today, it makes me wonder why people cant resist it. Even the smartest or the strongest of men can be influence by it, it is more powerful than any weapon imaginable. The researcher believes that ones mind is the most powerful defense that teenagers have on anything, but as anything in this world is, it has its weakness. One thing that amazes the researcher to study the different behavioural traits the teenagers will have when they use the internet too much. This study is limited to first year high school students who are studying in Pacita Complex National High School from ages 11 to 14 years old. The researcher wants to know if internet use has a relationship in individuals behavior. This study assumes that all of the four factors (depression, distraction, impulse control and social comfort) introduced by Davis (2002) that are related to internet use will have an effect to the students behavior and will only differ on which of the behaviors produce higher score and strongest relationship to internet use; Who is more affected by the use of the internet, is it the males or the females, is there any significant differences; What these individuals do when they go online. Review of Related Literature Internet use At the present time people are exposed to new and better technology and gadgets, which can influence the teenagers. Many teenagers spend their time in chatting, texting, surfing the internet and playing computers using the well-developed technologies and through social networking, using these are suspected that it may possibly contribute to a new development which would benefit the teenagers or not. Internet is an online place wherein people can create their own personal network that is connected with other users (Lenhart and Madden, 2007) Several researchers and clinicians have suggested that some individuals may suffer from Internet Addiction (Anderson et al., 2001) or what they call Pathological Internet Use (Davis et al., 2002). In the current research, networking or internet use is defined as behaviors that are aimed at building, maintaining and using informal relationships that possess the (potential) benefit of facilitating work-related activities of individuals by voluntarily granting access to resources and maximizing common advantages (Wolff and Moser, 2006; see also Forret and Dougherty, 2004). According to (Lampe, Ellison and Steinfield, 2006) they estimated that 90% of undergraduates on the majority of college campuses and 90% of high school students use social media sites or what we call the internet, they create profile of themselves and adding other people or users of the same social network to their list of friends.
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According to (Ellison, Steinfield and Lampe, 2007) Internet sites create opportunities for young people to nurture friendship intimacy. Ellison and colleagues (Ellison et al., 2007) found out in their study that the more extremely college and high school students use the internet the more they observed that they were unified into their school community and the more confident they were in their ability to secure support from their old and new friends and even their family members and relatives. According to Govani and Pashley (2005) there is a high risk when someone is exposed in the use of the internet, they can easily connect to people but the information that they share in public are not always safe and private. The more you reveal too much information about yourself the more that it can affect your image and behaviour to the eyes of other people image (Gross & Acquisti, 2005). Goldberg (1997) defined Internet Addiction by stating the following maladaptive pattern leads to significant impairment or distress (1) tolerance, (2) withdrawal, (3) interact is often accessed more often or for longer periods of time was intended, (4) a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control internet use, (5) a great deal of time is spent in activities related to internet use, (6) important social, occupational or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of the internet use, the last one is (7) internet use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical, social, occupational or psychological problems, this is likely to have been cause or exacerbated by internet use. Another researcher who first explored the existence and prevalence of Internet Addiction was Young (1996). According to him an internet user could be classified as dependent of he or she met four or more if the following criteria and those who have less than five of these criteria are classified as non-dependent. The 8 criterias are: (1) feeling preoccupied with the internet, (2) need to use the internet with the up increasing amount of time in order to achieve satisfaction, (3) use the internet to escape from problems or relieving poor mood, (4) lying to family or friends to conceal the extent of involvement with the internet, (5) has jeopardized or risked the loss of a significant relationship or educational because of the internet, (6) after spending too much of money online fees, you still go back and use the internet, (7) withdrawal symptoms are experienced when offline (increased depression, anxiety), (8) staying online longer than originally intended. The present study of Young (1998) was the finding of difficulties reported by students as a result of Internet misuse. Most type of the internet misuse includes surfing unnecessary websites, spending too much time in chat rooms, playing interactive games and sending or checking e-mails. A recent study found that the more time spent online the more likely people get depressed (Agarwal, 2010). According to Morrison (2010) there was a high correspondence between the amount of time spent on the internet and levels of depression. If we look how the dependent people feel they are on the internet that is likely to correspond with how happy or sad they feel. People who are depressed dont want to socialize, but the internet makes it so much easier to do it. The internet itself can make a difference individual feel more "connected" and help them make it through every day with their depression (Grohol, 2010). A new study says that teenagers who use the internet too much are more likely to be depressed or develop depression, than teens that are classified as normal internet users (Hendrick, 2010)

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Cognitive-Behavioral Model Davis (2000) classified two types of Pathological Internet Use, the specific and generalized type. The specific type of pathological internet use refers to the people who are dependent on the internet, these types of people who overuse the internet they access sexual material, gambling and stock trading. The other type is the generalized type of Pathological Internet Use is a multidimensional over use of the internet. These people often waste time online without knowing what the purpose is. Generalized people use chat rooms, online games, email and instant messaging. Obsessive thoughts about the internet, reduced impulse control, lack of ability to stop using the internet and people's belief that the internet itself is something that they could get their support. People also believe that the internet is the only place where they can get positive feelings about themselves and also the outside world. Cognitive Behavioral Theory of Problematic Internet Use Davis introduced a cognitive behavioral theory that attempts to model the etiology, development and outcomes associated with PIU. The cognitive behavioural model states that psychosocial problems such as loneliness/depression, social comfort, impulse control and distraction, affect some internet users to develop cognitions and behaviors in the use of the internet and ultimately result in negative outcomes (Davis, 2001). Cognitive-behavioral theory of problematic Internet use identifies behavioral and psychological (cognitive) symptoms of problematic Internet use (PIU). This model includes four factors thought to define the concept of problematic Internet use: diminished impulse control, loneliness/depression, distraction, and social comfort. The diminished impulse control factor refers to a tendency for individuals with problematic Internet use to lack control over their time spent online and to experience negative cognitions related to their Internet use. The loneliness/depression factor refers to feelings of worthlessness and depressive cognitions related to the Internet. The social comfort factor refers to the extent to which individuals are able to derive support and feel safe in an online setting; this factor is also related to individuals use of the Internet to explore social relationships in a manner that may not be feasible for them off-line. Finally, the distraction factor refers to use of the Internet as a way to escape or avoid One of the key components of the cognitive-behavioral model of PIU is that an individual has negative cognitions about his or her use of the Internet. These cognitions may include excessive thoughts about the self, thinking about the problems that are associated with Internet use. Synthesis There are many effects of the use of the internet like it create opportunities for young people to nurture friendship intimacy but it can also take a high risk for them and it could also affect their behaviour (Affonso, 1999). According to past studies being exposed too much in the use of internet can have negative outcomes (Govani and Pashley, 2005). The purpose of this study is to relate the internet use to the behavioral traits that the teenagers develop. Since most of teenagers are using social network in communicating to the people around them, 73% of teens or the high school students are using social networking or internet sites according to Thomas (2012).

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The researcher found out that the Internet use affects the behaviors of the students. The behaviors that are included in this study is based on Cognitive Behavioral Model of Davis (2000) which are the depression/loneliness, diminished impulse control, social comfort and distraction. Based on the gathered data all those fuor behaviors affect the individuals well-being but the depression/loneliness has the strongest relationship to the Internet use. Males scored slightly higher than the females, this study shows that there was no significant difference between the two sexes. This simply means that both males and females could affect their behavior when using the Internet.

Framework

The figure is based on Davis Cognitive Behavioral Theory of PIU and it shows that internet use is related to the behavioral traits (loneliness/depression; diminished impulse control; distraction and social comfort) of individuals. Behavioral traits can affect the way they that high school students spend too much of their time online. In this study, it will show that using the internet will have an effect on the behavioral trait of an individual. Method Research Design The researcher used survey research design for this study. Particularly, the researcher used a cross-sectional survey design which involves observation of the population, or a representative subset, at one specific point in time. Its role is to collect data that would make this study more complete and to figure out all the facts and data that are needed. Participants The targets of this study were the Selected First Year High School Students of Pacita Complex National High School. The respondents were selected through simple random sampling. A sample of (n= 150) students were selected from a population of (N=500) 1st year high school students from Pacita, Laguna.
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The researcher chose the participants because in their stage, they are very much influenced by many factors that can lead to their poor behavior. And according to the AC Nielsen 2002 survey, there are 1.5 internet users here in the Philippines and almost half or 45% of the total internet users were the youngest group aged 11 to 19. Instruments The researcher used the Online Cognition Scale made by Davis, G.L. Flett, and A. Besser (2002) and the Internet Addiction Testby Dr. Kimberly Young (1998) it has high face validity and it is valid and reliable instrument that may be used in further research on Internet Addiction. (Widyanto and McMurran, 2004) and is one of the most widely used instruments in measuring problematic internet use because it is the first validated instrument to assess Internet Addiction (Ha et al., 2006). The OCS test contains 36 items rateable on a 7-point Likert-type format scale with a possible score ranging from 36 to 252. The OCS is based on a cognitive-behavioral model of PIU. This scale is use to assess the behaviour of individuals toward the excessive use of the internet and it has four factors: loneliness/depression, diminished impulse control, distraction and social comfort. The OCS has a good internal consistency with Cronbach alphas ranging from .49 to .81 of item-total correlations. The Internet Addiction Test based by Dr. Kimberly Young is used to assess the internet usage of individuals. It consists of 20 items using a 5 point Likert type format scale with a possible score ranging from 0 30 classifies as normal users, 31-49 as mild users, 50-79 as moderate users and 80-100 as severe internet users (Young, 1998). The prevalence rate of problematic Internet use will be determined using these criteria. Researcher also asked for their demographic profile, asking their age, gender, what activities they do online and how many hours per day and how many times a week they go online. The researcher used closed-ended questions. Through closed questions, the researcher was able to limit responses that are within the scope of this study. The survey given out to the students was only good for 15 to 20 minutes for them to complete answering everything because the words and all the questions are easy to understand, therefore they can finish it for less than 20 minutes. Procedures The researcher used an Online Cognition Scale and Internet Addiction Test for data gathering process. The researcher sent an electronic mail to the ones who made the test and asked their permission if the tests that they made can be used in the researchers study. The researcher also made a letter about conducting a survey to high school students and sent it to the principal and wait for his approval. When the approvals were made, the researcher set a date and day when to conduct the questionnaire, and give them introduction about the survey. All the respondents were selected through random sampling. This simple random sampling technique is conducted where each member of a population has an equal opportunity to become part of the sample. As all members of all the population have an equal chance of becoming a research participant. Before conducting the survey the researcher asked the principal if she could have the list of all the first year high school students so that the researcher could assign numbers to all the students and select random numbers to complete the number of the participants that would participate in the study.

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The cooperation of the teacher-adviser in the class and the selected high school students is also needed to make this study faster and easier. All the answered questionnaires were collected and the researcher utilized simple statistical tool to determine the factors that affect the behavior of the students. Statistical Analysis Microsoft Excel, Chi-square, P-value and PASW Statistics (SPSS) 18 were used in encoding and processing the summary tables and statistical tests. When applicable, frequencies and percentages or means and standard deviations were used to summarize the data. At 95% confidence level, independent samples t-test was used to compare means, while Pearson Chi-Square test was used to test for relationships between variables. Results and Discussion Demographics Table 1 shows the total of 150 1st year high school students participated as respondents in the study. Their age ranged from 11-14 years old. More than half (56%) were females, while the remaining 44% were males. The most common online activity was web browsing which was cited by majority of the respondents (58%), followed by chatting (24%) and online gaming (16%). Only four (4) mentioned Emails.

Table 2 shows the hours that the average time that the participants use the internet is 4 hours a day and 5 times per week.

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Correlation (IAT and subscale of OCS)

Table 3 shows that the Online Cognition Scale (OCS) consists of four-subscales including (1) Social Comfort, (2) Loneliness/Depression, (3) Diminished Impulse Control, and (4) Distraction. These four sub scales were moderately correlated with Internet Addiction Test (IAT). Among the sub scales, Loneliness/Depression had the highest correlation with IAT (r= 0.523) followed by Distraction (r= 0.507), Social Comfort (r= 0.362) and Diminished Impulse Control (r= 0.342). A large portion (42%) of the population may be considered moderately impaired by Internet use, comparing it to the related literature, Lampe et al., (2006) stated that 90% of high school students use social media sites or what we call the internet. According to Affonso (1999) teenagers use the internet to build friendship and nurture them but they do not know that it can also affect their behavior. Since the researcher did not give a survey to all the first year high school students of Pacita Complex National High School, the result of 42% of the participants of this study shows that almost half of the participants are affected by the use of the internet and this supports by Lampe et al., (2006) saying that a large population of high school students use the internet. Responses on the Online Cognition Scale were generally neutral, males were observed to be more affected in terms of social comfort, diminished impulse control, loneliness/depression and distraction but depression has the strongest linear relationship to the internet use.

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Table 4 shows the biggest percentage of the respondents had moderate impairment based on the Internet addiction scale. Only 11% may be considered normal. 29% registered scores corresponding to severe impairment, while the remaining 31% had mild impairment.

Table 5 shows the respondents logged an average of 63 points (Moderate impairment) in the Internet Addiction Test. While males with 65 points scored slightly higher than females with 61 points, there was no significant difference between the two sexes.

Table 6 shows that grouping the students into four (4) usage/impairment groups based on their IAT scores (Normal, Mildly Impaired, Moderately Impaired and Severely Impaired), no significant difference was found in the proportion of the 4 groups in terms of age and gender. Hence, there was no evidence of any relationship between Internet usage and age and between Internet usage and gender. There are many effects of the use of the internet like it create opportunities for young people to nurture friendship intimacy but it can also take a high risk for them and it could also affect their behaviour (Affonso, 1999).

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Based on this study it was found out that Moderate use of the internet was positively and significantly related to the four behavioral traits but the highest among the four is the lonely/depression. The result is supported by one of the related literature that teenagers who are exposed in the use of the internet are more likely to be depressed or even develop depression, than teens who are normal users (Hendrick, 2010). Morris (2010) explains that internet has a high correspondence between the time spent online and the level of depression. According to the results of this study and supported by the literature given; the researcher proven that there is a relationship between the internet use and behavioral traits. The researcher found out that teenagers are affected by the use of the internet, it affects their behavioral traits based on the Cognitive Behavioral Theory of Problematic Internet Use of Davis(2000) Surprisingly, loneliness/depression has the strongest relationship in using the internet. With all the results gathered and literature presented in this study, the research indicated, teenagers who are moderately using the internet are more likely to be affected, mainly their behavioral traits, while the teenagers who are average users are less likely to be affected compared to the moderate users. Through this study, it will help the teenagers by giving them information and knowledge on how the internet can affect their behavior. It is also important for them to know that the more time you spend online the more likely you will develop depression or you will feel depressed. In relation to this, teenagers can lessen the time that they spend online browsing the internet. Conclusions and Recommendations In this chapter the researchers recommendations for the following statement of the problem and conclusions of the study is also included here. Based from the gathered data of this study, the researcher concluded that behaviors of the first year high school students of Pacita Complex National High School has a relationship to the internet use, but depression has the strongest relationship among the four sub scales of the Online Cognition Scale when correlated to the Internet Addiction Test. In addition, there is no significant differences between the two sexes and their internet usage. The researcher recommends that since age of the students is not a reason to be affected in excessive use of the internet, because even old people also use the internet for some reasons; Students can maintain their positive behavior through minimizing the use of the internet and use this for technology for good purposes; In order to have positive behaviour we must face the hindrance that these negative behaviors given to us. Cutting out the hours and days spent online is a great way of having improvements in our behavior; the use of this new technology is just around us. This paper explores how the internet affects the behaviors of students, therefore they should know how to use and handle problems given to them not just online but also offline in order for them not to have negative behaviors. For following researchers who would like to do future studies in this area, it is recommended to add more participants, not just the first year high school students but also the other year levels and also make a survey from different schools to see their differences. It is also recommended to add more variables related to behaviors to see what other behaviors could affect
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the individuals. The researcher also recommend to try using other types of tests that would help them gather their data, since there are many tests available related to this area. References Davis, R. A., Flett, G. L., & Besser, A. (2002). Validation of a new scale for measuring problematic Internet use: Implications for pre-employment screening, CyberPsychology and Behavior, 331-345 Gross, R., & Acquisti, A. (2005). Information Revelation and Privacy in Online Social Networks (The Facebook Case). Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society . Harris, Kandace (2008). "Using Social Networking Sites as Student Engagement Tools".Diverse Issues in Higher Education skender & Akin (2011). Self-compassion and Internet Addiction. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology July 2011, volume 10 Issue 3, 215-221 Kadushin, Charles. A Short Introduction to Social Networks: A Non-Technical Elementary Primer Accessed: October 29, 2003. Online.Internet. http://construct.haifa.ac.il/~cerpe/papers/kadushin.html Larry Rosen The Psychology of Technology retrieved http://www.psychologytoday.com/experts/larry-rosen-phd (March 11, 2012) from

Lenhart, A., & Madden, M. (2007). Social Networking Websites and Teens.PEW INTERNET & AMERICAN LIFE PROJECT. Payne, Hahn, Lucas (2011). Understanding your Health 11th Edition Raacke, J., & Bonds-Raacke, J. (2008). MySpace and Facebook: Applying the Uses and Gratifications Theory to Exploring Friend-Networking Sites. CyberPsychology & Behavior , 169-174. Social Networking Websites Review, Top Ten Reviews, n.d., http://social-networkingwebsites-review.toptenreviews.com/ (March 8, 2012). Tosun, Leman Pinar, and Lajunen, Timo. Does Internet Use Reflect Your Personality? Relationship Between Eysencks Personality Dimensions and Internet Use. Computers in Human Behavior 26 (2010): 162-167. Watts, Duncan; Dodds, Peter; Newman, M. E. .J. (2002). "Identity and Search in Social Networks". Science 296 (5571): 13021305

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Psychological Techniques for Mental Toughness: The case of Mixed Martial Arts Fighters
Rain Aga Balibalos Theresa Masilungan
This study explores the psychological techniques for mental toughness used by mixed martial arts fighters. The researcher used a qualitative design in order to explore what the psychological preparations that these MMA artists are doing in regard to mental toughness prior to MMA training and competition. Ten fighters participated in the study. Through interviews, similar responses were gathered, and all of the participants apply techniques such as scripting and framing. However, some do not apply othering to their arsenal as a fighter. These techniques have been also found to be applied in everyday life except for Othering which is most commonly used during training and competition.

_____________________________________________________________________________ Mixed martial arts, better known as MMA, is a form of combat sport that involves the use of a mixture of martial art combat techniques to win over the opponent. MMA has become very popular in recent years and MMA championships like the "UFC" or Ultimate Fighting Championships have become very popular (Lui, 2007). MMA began with pitting one martial art technique with another under minimal rules, so that the martial art that would be the most effective in day-to-day life could be found. Modern mixed martial competitions have evolved from such events, but rules are much stricter due to which, the sport has been promoted into acceptance. However, there is no centralized sanctioning authority for mixed martial arts and the rules vary from place to place or organization to organization (Lui, 2007). Today MMA plays a big role in our life as it promotes an increase in physical health specifically in cardiovascular endurance, muscles strength endurance, body composition, and muscular flexibility. Despite the fact that MMA has numerous health benefits to our well being there are certain barriers such as laziness, lack of motivation, fear of physical pain and lack of understanding for MMA that hinder individuals from practicing or trying this sport (Muniz, 2007). Majority involved in MMA believe that the stronger a fighter is mentally, the better off they are. According to Ladd(2010), getting rid of the negativity that holds athletes back via some traditional sports psychology, hypnosis, energy medicine, and meditation (Rousseau, 2009). In addition, Ladd notes that fighters conscious and subconscious minds are not in complete agreement and that they want to be the best more than anything in the world, but at the subconscious level, they are filled with doubt or fear, or any number of negative emotions (Rousseau, 2009). In any given occasion people have their own fears and weaknesses; it is normal for human beings to feel such emotions, unfortunately majority of individuals cannot cope with such intense feelings. With that being said, it is important to study, understand, and adapt to certain methods such as: Scripting, Framing, and Othering which are most helpful to combat fears in our daily life as well as serve as reference for further studies since there are limited literature regarding this topic. However, these may be difficult to comprehend for individuals who are not athletes since these terms are specialized for MMA fighters. The purpose of the author in this research is to study the psychological preparations that these MMA artists are doing in regard to mental toughness prior to MMA training and
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competition. The researcher would also like to discover whether these techniques are applicable to everyday life. Review of Related Literature Mixed Martial Arts Mixed martial arts, better known as MMA, is a form of combat sport that involves the use of striking and grappling which are the two aspects that are used. Striking techniques involve kicks, knees, punches while grappling techniques involve the use of holds, sweeps, and throws. Techniques like eye gouging, biting and fish hooking are considered illegal in most MMA competitions. Other techniques like head butts, spinal locks and elbows may or may not be considered legal in different MMA organizations (Lui, 2007). In MMA competitions, victory is based on the judge's decision, submission or knockout. A competitor's corner man can also decide the outcome of the match and so can the match doctor if the competitor is injured to an extent that he/she can no longer fight properly (Lui, 2007). Competitors participating in MMA have to train themselves in a variety of fighting styles so that they can effectively overcome their opponents. MMA training usually involves stand up, clinch and ground combat. To make the stand up combat effective, boxing and kickboxing are taught. These improve kicking, punching, kneeing and most important of allfootwork. Freestyle wrestling is taught to improve clinching. Additionally, competitors are trained in Muay Thai to improve the striking power during a clinch. Training in Brazilian Jujitsu and Sambo improves ground combat by improving the competitor's positioning. Further, shoot wrestling, catch wrestling and judo are taught to enhance the competitor's ground combat abilities (Lui, 2007). Some of the best competitors are well rounded fighters. However, they all specialize really well in one aspect of mixed martial arts. Sometimes this style is so dominant that it is overwhelming for the other opponent (Lui, 2007). Success in modern martial arts lies in adapting many styles. These styles have to be altered accordingly. Today, MMA competitors do not train in a particular style but train all the styles together. Flexibility plays a very important role in succeeding in MMA competitions. MMA is physically a very demanding sport and being competent is the only key to success (Lui, 2007). Mixed Martial Arts Training Since MMA fighters come from a variety of backgrounds, their training regimens do differ. However, all successful MMA fighters must train to fight both on the ground and on their feet. Further, most practice submission fighting, wrestling, and kickboxing to a significant degree due to their past effectiveness in competition. Another very important aspect to MMA training is conditioning. MMA fighters must be in outstanding shape to fight for what sometimes amounts to 25 minutes over five rounds (Rousseau, 2009).

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Mental Toughness Mental Toughness is a set of skills, beliefs, attitudes and philosophies that enable us to enhance our thoughts, emotions, behaviour and physiology. These skills give us confidence and help us in the pursuit of our aims, objectives and survival. Mental toughness is having a relentless commitment to our goals; it is the ultimate in persistence and focused action. In addition, it is a discipline that we can use in many areas of our lives. Mental toughness is a philosophy for actively engaging in life and living. According to (Pearl, 2010) he believes that at its heart, Mental Toughness is also Existential Toughness; facing the challenges, absurdities and limits of life with courage, in order to find meaning and purpose in existence. It is the ability to consistently sustain ones ideal performance state during adversities in competition. Performing to one's potential requires good technique and mental skills. Difficulties in performance are often directly traceable to psychological vicissitudes. Players who create a special atmosphere within them perform consistently. Mental toughness is learnt, not inherited. The ultimate measure of mental toughness is consistency (Ray, 2003). The mentally tough competitor is self-motivated and self directed. One does not need to be pushed from outside as he/she is controlled from within. The player is in total control of his emotions; an individual is positive and realistic about his/her goals and success. The individual is generally calm and relaxed under pressure situations. The person is also mentally alert, focused, confident and responsible for his actions; one is ready for action, usually energetic and determined (Ray, 2003). Psychological Techniques According to Bergland (2012), these psychological techniques are used to combat fear that you can use to build bulletproof confidence in life or sport. Scripting, describes a method fighters use to solidify their game plan and stick to it. MMA fighters take inventory of their strengths and weaknesses and those of the opponent (Bergland, 2012); Framing- a technique used to shape how you think and feel about a situation. By re-framing big challenges to make them seem commonplace you can mitigate fear (Bergland, 2012); Othering- fighters create a powerful alter-egos or 'Virtual Selves" using this method. In addition, this requires creative thinking and the use of your imagination. Hence, the goal is to create a self-fulfilling prophecy by transforming your reality into what you fantasize it to be (Bergland, 2012). Synthesis The articles above explain that Mixed Martial Arts is a form of combat sport that involves the use of striking and grappling which are the two aspects that are used (Lui, 2007). In addition, Mental Toughness is a set of skills, beliefs, attitudes and philosophies that enable us to enhance our thoughts, emotions, behaviour and physiology. These skills give us confidence and help us in the pursuit of our aims, objectives and survival that (Pearl, 2010) discuss how mixed martial arts practitioners prepare themselves to achieve mental toughness whether for a fight, training or everyday life. Furthermore, Bergland discussed how mental toughness can be achieved with the use of psychological techniques such as Scripting, Framing, and Othering.

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Method Research Design The researcher used the qualitative design to answer the aim of the study. In depth interviews have been conducted to gather data needed for the research. Since these are the most appropriate methods to use for the study. Participants A sample of N=10 male participants who have been randomly chosen by the different heads of the respective teams as correspondents to this study, all participants practice mixed martial arts; N=10 of the correspondents have been interviewed. From the N=10, All are professional fighters, All participants came from different Mixed Martial Arts teams based in Manila, Philippines. In addition, all teams that have been chosen by the researcher have credible affiliations and are considered part of the top MMA teams based here in the Philippines. Ages ranged from 18 - 40 years old with an average age of 29 years. Research Instrument The researcher prepared questions that have been used for the interview of the respondents. Sample questions are as follows: As a MMA fighter how do you prepare yourself mentally for training?, What did you do to prepare yourself mentally for your fight? Does it help your game?, For a MMA competition, do you prepare a game plan? If so, how do you solidify this? Materials The researcher will also have a recording device as the researcher conducts interviews individually. Interviews were conducted with the consent of the participants. The preliminary questions for the interview have been produced by the researcher. here are some of the questions asked . As a MMA fighter how do you prepare yourself mentally for training? and Can you cite examples where these techniques worked in a day to day basis? Procedure With the permission of gym confederates the researcher personally set out to the different MMA gyms located around Manila, the researcher then made sure that the respondents will understand the questions by briefing them. Within one day, the researcher will conduct at least 2 interviews; each person was interviewed for 10-15 minutes. The interviews were conducted before their respective training hours to ensure active responses; the interviews per individual were given once. After the said interview was conducted, the researcher explained to the Team head or Gym owner as to the goal and aim of the research; this was done after to ensure no biases in the answers of the correspondents since the researcher is also a MMA fighter and part of a MMA team. Data Analysis Based on the data collected; which was transcribed every after each interview, the MMA fighters that have been interviewed showed that majority of the practitioners practice
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psychological techniques such as scripting, framing and othering to enhance mental toughness and improve performance during training and competitions; these techniques have also been found to be applicable in day to day life. Results and Discussions Based on the data gathered from the 10 respondents, the researcher found out that given the objectives of his study, which is to know whether these mixed martial arts fighters practice psychological techniques in relation to Berglands psychological techniques for mental toughness in preparation for different aspects of Mixed Martial Arts Competition. Being that the researcher is also a Mixed Martial Artist, he knows how these techniques are not just important as a fighter but also as a person as well. he knows that being a MMA fighter is not a hobby or a job, it is a life style. Mixed Martial Arts Fighters and Scripting Scripting is a method fighters use to solidify their game plan and stick to it. MMA fighters take inventory of their strengths and weaknesses and those of the opponent (Bergland, 2012). An example of this would be that fighter A, with a good striking base will go against his opponent with a good grappling base, fighter A should be aware of these details because if he wants to win he must avoid being put to the ground or in a hold and that is where he must train hard to defend this or train grappling as well. Based on the responses, the researcher found out that 9 out of the 10 participants give importance to Scripting in their structure as a fighter. The participants have all given importance to how forming and applying game plans is important, according to Lui, (2007) competitors participating in MMA have to train themselves so that they can effectively overcome their opponents, this is in accordance to interviewee #3 and #5 who stated that I think a game plan is important because you have to know it, because when you get there, whether its on the ring or a cage, you have to know what youre going to do. So first, like I said, I visualize. I try to set up my training around what I want to do. Try to find a set of moves, techniques that are comfortable for me. and Yes of course a game plan is important. That is why you have to study your opponent and also his moves, his techniques and how he fights, you can also easily know if he is solid when he steps in the ring but you have to soften him. So that you will conquer him and win the fight. According to the participants, Scripting is indeed essential to being a fighter. The researcher discovered that the fighters consider scripting important mainly because it enables them to visualize the training and competition, this discovery was backed up by interviewee #8 as he stated that meron ka ng heads up kung sino at ano ang makakalaban mo (Translated to English you get a heads up on who and what youll be fighting.) The responses show, that 8 out of the 10 participants apply scripting by studying their opponents game. According to interview # 4 My game plan is that, I alwaystry to work on what Im weak at.Moreover, when asked how the interviewee solidifies this, the interviewee responds by simply saying Train hard. Every day. Rousseau (2009)also explains how important it is to not just train in one aspect of Mixed Martial Arts but, others as well. Mainly scripting is applied by training hard and studying your opponents game plan.

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Pearl (2010) believes that at its heart, Mental Toughness is also Existential Toughness; facing the challenges, absurdities and limits of life with courage, in order to find meaning and purpose in existence. It is the ability to consistently sustain ones ideal performance state during adversities in competition. It was discovered that fighters mainly apply this more so by mentally preparing themselves so that their game plans stabilize during the course of training or competition. This is in relation to interviewee #5 who states thatIf you have a game plan, you will do it as you have been told. But game plans, if you stick to one, its hard so you will have to think fast because in every fight, your opponent will read you. So you have to think fast and you have to have a strong mind. the researcher being an MMA fighter, has experienced having to change game plans during the fight and has also experienced following one until the end of the competition, the researcher knows that both scenarios require mental toughness to achieve. The researchers perceives Scripting as a preparation that fighters do, making them aware of situations and details that might be unexpected during the fight. Mixed Martial Arts Fighters and Framing Framing is a technique used to shape how you think and feel about a situation. By reframing big challenges to make them seem commonplace you can mitigate fear (Bergland, 2012). For example, a fighter who did not train for his first fight will most likely be nervous and even afraid, but a fighter who trained will consider his first fight like it was just like in training. The responses resulted in all the participants include framing in their training, These skills give us confidence and help us in the pursuit of our aims, objectives and survival, having a relentless commitment to our goals; it is the ultimate in persistence and focused action. (Pearl, 2010) According to the responses the mental aspect of a fighter is just as important as the physical, according to interviewee # 1 pag naprapare mo yung sarili mo para sa laban mo physically, iba yun sa mentally. Alam naman natin lahat yun.Maganda nga ang galaw mo mahina naman ang puso mo wala ka rin pag dadatingan sa laban mo.(Translated to English if you prepare yourself physically for your fight, thats different from mentally preparing yourself. We all know that. If you move well but your heart is weak you still wont be able to reach anything in your fight.) Fighters tend to also apply framing by thinking that they can do everything as stated by interviewee # 2 Pag ako kasi nag eensayo iniisip ko lang na kaya ko lahat ng mga techniques na ginagawa ko, ganon ko iniisip na ganon ako mag isip sa ensayo kaya ayun okay ako kaya nakukuha ko namang magawa yung mga techniques ko.(Translated to English when I train I only think that I can do everything, all the techniques that I do, thats how I think of myself when I train thats why im okay and why I get to do the techniques im suppose to do.) Even before fights these fighters will meditate to imagine that they have already beaten their opponent, interview #10 mentioned how he thinks about positive things before he fights and even believes that he has already won the the fight. The researcher found out that 8 out of 10 consider competitions as a another day in training as stated by interviewee # 5 When I fight I just think of it as you know, just another day, its just a game, have fun, smile on it, dont get serious too much. this also creates how fighters consider competition as a walk in the park and also framing is applied through motivation by reminding themselves as to how much they want to win which is stated by interviewee #6 and he states that I just think that I want this more than him and im gonna take this from him because hes not gonna give it to me, I have to take it from him because you know, nothing in this world is free you have to take it for yourself. The researcher considers Framing the most used if not
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the most important among Berglands (2012) Psychological Techniques, Fighters as the researcher explains uses this in situations where they are winning and in situations where they are losing. Even through injuries some of these fighters will still go on training or even fighting to show how much mental toughness they have, according to interview #9 ayaw ko intindihin yun, kaya kahit may injury ensayo parin. (translated to English i dont want to think of it, even if i have an injury I still train.) The researcher knows how hard it is to train or even fight through injuries, tolerance to pain has little to do with it but mainly it is that mental toughness you count on when you hear bones cracking. The researcher has experienced this during one of his bouts where he was placed against a much bigger and much more experienced fighter, although with the help of a hard training program, he still considered the fight as a walk in the park even though walking out with a loss. it is always good to be relaxed during your fight, especially when yourebeing hit because you get to think clearer, breath better and you do not panic but most importantly you do not give up. Mixed Martial Arts Fighters and Othering Othering- fighters create a powerful alter-egos or 'Virtual Selves" using this method. In addition, this requires creative thinking and the use of your imagination. Hence, the goal is to create a self-fulfilling prophecy by transforming your reality into what you fantasize it to be (Bergland, 2012). Examples of this is most common with fighters who act like animals or things during their fight. Based on the responses that have been collected, all participants consider Othering very important but only 8 out of 10 include it to their structure as a fighter. According to interviewee #5 There are some people who think its okay but not so for me, although if it gives you a boost or anything good or even gives you motivation then why not. for those who consider this important and also apply it they have stated that it creates a phase for them to boost their mental toughness to a level where they would not be able to achieve on a normal basis. In relation to interviewee #9 he stated thatnakakatulong ng sobra din yun may alter ego kapagka nasa itaas ka ng ring, pansamantala kasing nawawala yung ibang inaalala mo, nakakadagdag siya ng lakas tulad ako na iniisip ko isa akong bolo punch lalo na pag binabasag ko ang depensa ng kalaban ko(Translated to English it helps alot to have an alter ego especially when you are in the ring, because even for a while you let go of all your worries, it also adds strength, like me I think of myself as a bolo punch when im trying to destroy my opponents defense. Personally the researcher believes that Othering is a good boost in confidence while Mental Toughness is achieved through putting yourself in like a trance. You mainly let go all your distractions and that creates an area for you to be relax. Applications for day to day basis As a Mixed Martial Arts Fighter, all participants apply 2 out of 3 of the techniques, specifically Scripting and Framing. However none of them apply Othering in their daily life. In interview # 10 he stated that focus ang talagang nagagamit ko sa day to day, lumakas ang focus ko dahil sa Mixed Martial Arts. (Translated to English focus is what I really get to use on a day to day basis, my focus got stronger because of Mixed Martial Arts.) Also according to interviewee #9 In training I push myself to do better, same thing in work, I push myself to do better also. Adding to this is interviewee #1 who states that It really depends on the discipline
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of a person, MMA is not just for hurting people but also to discipline yourself. This shows how they use these techniques outside training or competition. Pearl (2010) states that it is a discipline that we can use in many areas of our lives. The researcher experienced hardships that he would have not walked through, had not it been for these techniques he has acquired after much dedication and commitment as a Mixed Martial Arts Fighter. Mainly once mental toughness is achieved through all the hardships in life one can persevere. Conclusions/ Recommendations In conclusion, the researcher found out that Scripting is important to Mixed Martial Arts Fighters. According to the participants , game plans are really essential in their arsenal as a fighter. Applying this through rigorous training and by studying their opponent, as well as themselves.Concerning Framing, Mixed Martial Arts Fighters consider training and competition as a challenge that they will not have a difficult time overcoming. This also creates a ground for them to be relaxed and to motivate themselves during the course of training or competition. For Othering, Alter egos are most important to those with ring names (i.e. The Filipino Bolo Punch.) Fighters create these alter egos to somewhat give them an added boost to their game. They also use this to mentally motivate themselves into performing better, and to block out their personal worries during the course of training or competition. These techniques have been used not only inside training or competition but also outside, such as work, school and even at home. These techniques are most helpful for Mixed Martial Artists who approach training and competition seriously. These are not acquired immediately but through rigorous exposure to training and competition. References Bergland, C. (2012). Building Bulletproof Courage. Retrieved from psychology today: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-athletes-way/201201/building-bulletproofcourage Cole, B. (2010). sports psychology. Retrieved from sports psychology: http://www.sportspsychologycoaching.com/articles/MentalToughnessAndTheZone.html Health, B. F. (2010).Body Health and Physical Fitness Articles. Retrieved from Body Health and Physical Fitness Articles: http://bodyfitnesshealth.com/fitness-types-sports-general-health/ Liu, J. (2007). Positivearticles.com. Retrieved from positivearticles.com: http://www.positivearticles.com/Article/Mixed-Martial-Arts---The-Definition/26450 Muniz, K. (2007). Premium MMA unit Kazeka BJJ. Retrieved from Premium MMA unit Kazeka BJJ: http://kazekabjj.com/brazilian-jiu-jitsu/969/ Pearl, P. (2010). mental toughness. Retrieved from mental toughness: http://www.mentaltoughness.co.uk/ Ray, D. S. (2003).http://bharatiyahockey.org/gurukul/class12.htm. http://bharatiyahockey.org/gurukul/class12.htm:
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Retrieved

from

Rousseau, R. (2009). A History and Style Guide of MMA.A History and Style Guide of MMA , 1-2. Rousseau, R. (2009). The New Wave in MMA is Mental Toughness Training. Retrieved from http://martialarts.about.com/od/mmaandufc/a/mentaltoughnessmma.htm

Personality-type and Locus of Control onAcademic


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Procrastination among College Students


Denise Faith Belizario Gladys Lazo
The study examines two independent variables namely: personality-type and locus of control that can affect the academic procrastination among 150 college students in the south, mostly Laguna and Alabang area. First, it aims to know the relationship between academic procrastination and personality-type. Second, the study aims to know the relationship between academic procrastination and locus of control. Results revealed through Chi-square test for independence that there is a significant relationship between personality-type and academic procrastination with a computed value of 78.35 and critical value of 12.59.. (x2co=78.35, x2cm-12.59 , p<0.05, df=6)Results Results revealed that there is a significant relationship between academic procrastination and locus of control with a computed value of 52.30 and critical value of 15.51.(x2co=52.30, x2cm=15.51, p<0.05, df=8) Steadiness or steady personality-type has the highest degree of academic procrastination. External locus of control has the highest degree of academic procrastination.

One of the most critical issues nowadays among students especially among college students is the issue on academic procrastination. It is in fact one of the most studied variables among college students. Several variables have been studied varying from one another in relation with academic procrastination. In this paper two variables are studied as factors that can affect academic procrastination of college students. Procrastination is one of the most unresolved problems among students nowadays. It is important to examine the factors that can affect it so that it will be easily resolved. Generally, procrastination has been defined as a trait or behavioral disposition to postpone or delay performing a task or making decisions (Migram et.al.,1998). Procrastination is when we delay beginning or completing an intended course of action (Beswick & Mann, 1994). From these, a person procrastinates when he/she delays beginning or completing a course of action that is meant. As Steel (2007) stated, procrastination is most often considered to be the irrational delay of behavior in spite of an awareness of negative outcomes and it often results in unsatisfactory performance. This research limits itself to academic procrastination and not general procrastination. Hence, the operational definition of academic procrastination in this research isthat it is the general inclination to always or nearly always put off academic tasks and always or nearly always experience problematic anxiety associated with academic tasks (Rothblum, Solomon, Murokami,1986). We know that procrastination is exceedingly rampant nowadays especially among college students. Today procrastination is a more common phenomenon than ever (Sirin, 2011). And despite the fact that people know that it is an irrational behavior and would produce negative results, why do people still procrastinate then? In fact, many students know that procrastinating to a great extent would result into lower grades in general, and it is already proven in some studies, but still they cant help doing it. They rationalize their behavior. As B.Tuckman (2002) said, The worst procrastinators received significantly lower grades in a college course with many deadlines than did low or moderate-level procrastinators and they were also more likely than others to use rationalizations - such as saying "I work best under pressure" - to justify their behavior in school. This is why procrastination is a very interesting and must-study topic because this problem has been on-going and being more rampant nowadays among students (Sirin, 2011). It is in fact shown in a research in one college in the United States that in a recent
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survey of 101 students 95 percent said that procrastination is a problem for a majority of college students. Of these 95 percent, 91 percent believe procrastination is a problem for students at that particular college. Researchers even have estimated that 80 to 95 percent of college students procrastinate, with as many as 50 percent doing it regularly (Steel, 2007). The most important question to be asked concerning procrastination is why and how. Why several undergraduates have developed the habit of procrastinating? And how is this phenomenon among undergraduates will be best solved? But before knowing the why and the how, it is essential to know first what makes a person procrastinate. But as clich goes, like a comfortable bed "easy to get into, but hard to get out of", overcoming the procrastination habit can be difficult. For the researcher, its really up to the persons determination to get rid of their habit of procrastinating. The main objective of this study was to determine the relationships of personality-type and locus of control on academic procrastination. Specifically, this tried to find out the significant relationship between personality-type based on DISC assessment and academic procrastination of college students. Also, this attempted to determine the significant relationship of locus of control and academic procrastination. First, is there a significant relationship between academic procrastination and personality-type among college students? Is there a significant relationship between procrastination and locus of control among college students? Does a certain kind of personalitytype affect the academic procrastination of college students? Does a certain kind locus of control affect the academic procrastination of college students? Which among the personality-type has the most number of respondents? What type of locus of control do most students have? There are many researches that have already been made concerning this topicprocrastination. All these previous researches tackle the relationship between procrastination and individual differences and self-variables. Self-variables are really the trend in studying ones procrastination because procrastination is a behavior. As mentioned in the review of related literature, it was studied and proven that self-efficacy for self-regulation is the most common predictor of procrastination among undergraduates. It is equally interesting to study a new selfvariable, something that can also be helpful in diminishing procrastination in others by providing new information about procrastination. The end-goal of this study is to make the students realize that they can change their procrastination behavior as they will know if whether their personality-type and/or locus of control affects their procrastination. The assumption that certain personality types and locus of control can affect academic procrastination will be tested and explored in this study. It is with a great desire to diminish procrastination among college students thats why this study has been made. Review of Related Literature Procrastination is exceedingly rampant among college students (Sirin, 2011). All of us have at least procrastinated at one point in our lives. Some even make it their lifestyle. But what is procrastination? In general terms procrastination is simply known as functional delay. It is postponing, delaying, or putting off a task or decision. From this, one procrastinates when one delays beginning or completing a course of action that is meant. As mentioned by Steel (2007), Schraw, Wadkins, and Olafson have proposed three criteria for a behavior to be classified as
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procrastination: it must be counterproductive, needless, and delaying. In addition, as Steel (2007) stated, procrastination is most often considered to be the irrational delay of behavior in spite of an awareness of negative outcomes and it often results in unsatisfactory performance. It is irrational because it involves choosing a course of action despite expecting that it will not maximize your functions. So procrastination can be concluded as a negative behavior. Why do people procrastinate then? And why is it rampant if we are aware that it is irrational to be a procrastinator? Variables studied that affect and predict procrastination In the related literatures gathered in Procrastination, there are many commonalities. First, most studies focused on academic procrastination. Being a student in this generation, the researcher knows that procrastination is really rampant among students. The researcher have personally seen it and experienced it. In fact, it is a very common phenomenon in students nowadays, than ever. We already have this term student syndrome which refers to the phenomenon where a student will only begin to fully apply themselves to a task immediately before a deadline. In the studies that the researcher has gathered, the researcher found out different predictors and/or contributing factors to academic procrastination namely, self-efficacy for selfregulation, self-handicapping, self-compassion, postmodern values, emotional intelligence, adaptability and coping with stress, and general procrastination. The most common is selfefficacy for self-regulation. Self-efficacy in self-regulation What then is self-efficacy and self-regulation? Self-efficacy is person's belief in their own competence. While self-regulation is the selfs capacity to alter its behaviors. These behaviors are changed in accordance to some standards, ideals or goals either stemming from internal or societal expectations (Baumeister&Vohs, 2007). The presence and quality of these actions depend on ones beliefs and motives (Zimmerman, 2000). So, some people procrastinate because they have low self-esteem, so theyd rather do other things that they want before doing the homework, for example, in order for them not to be disappointed with themselves. Since they have low self-esteems, they have lowered their standards as well. While individuals who have high self-efficacy are more eager to learn activities, make more efforts toward activities and may develop more effective strategies against difficulties they encounter. By the way, Bandura has been the first researcher who put forward the relationship between academic procrastination and self-efficacy in 1986. There are lots of research findings in the literature suggesting that as the students beliefs in achieving something decrease, their tendency for procrastination increases, as Steel (2007) quoted. With these results read that self-efficacy for self-regulation is the most common predictor of procrastination, it supports the notion that procrastination is a motivational problem that involves more than poor time management skills or trait laziness. Results reveal that although other self-variables are related to procrastination, self-efficacy for self-regulation is most predictive of procrastination tendencies ( Klassen,et,al.,2007). Personality-type of a person
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One of the factors that make up a person is ones personality-type. The type of personality of a person plays a big role in ones thinking, feeling, and doing in everyday life. Personality-type is a cluster of personality traits commonly occurring together. According to Carl Jung, personality-type is the psychological classification of different types of individuals. Since it plays a big role in a persons totality, including his habits and behavior, there is an assumption that it can be one of the factors that affect the procrastination of a person, thats why the researcher considered it as one of the variables to be studied in this research. In a study of Piers Steel, he said that the act of wasting time can be boiled down to three human traits: the person's confidence, values, and impulsiveness. These traits affect a person's procrastination. In a study of McCown et.al, procrastination was positively correlated with extraversion and curvilinearly related to neuroticism.In a study of Johnson and Bloom(1995), the procrastination scores were inversely related to Conscientiousness and were also significantly correlated with Neuroticism. In a study of Schouwenburg and Lay, procrastination was largely associated with lack of Conscientiousness. It shows here that these types of personality are related with procrastination. Locus of control Locus of control is a theoretical concept designed to assess a person's perceived control over his or her own behavior. It is classified into two, internal and external locus of control. Internal locus indicates that the person feels having control of events. According to psychologist Julian Rotter, who formulated the concept in the 1950s, locus of control is a dimension of personality. It helps explain one's traits and behavior. therefore it is assumed that it can be an explanation to academic procrastination. Rotter also said that people who have an internal locus of control tend to be less influenced by others, more politically active, and more motivated to achieve. On the other hand, external locus indicates that others are perceived to have that control. Hence, a person with an external locus of control is more likely to believe that his or her fate is determined by chance and/or outside forces that are beyond their own personal control. It is conceived as predictor of procrastination in some studies before, also in academic field thats why the researcher chose this variable. Milgram and Tenne (2000), found that personality, specifically locus of control, affects how much a person procrastinates. In a study of Amber E. Hampton, participants that had a higher score as a procrastinator, had scores indicating an external locus of control, and those that have lower scores as a procrastinator scores indicating an internal locus of control. Synthesis: Based on the literatures gathered about procrastination, it implies that procrastination is rampant among students, especially among college students nowadays. According to Sirin (2011), it is a more common phenomenon among students today than ever. Based on many studies, self efficacy is the common predictor of academic procrastination (Ferrari et.al., Klassen et.al, Haycock et.al., C.Wolters). If a person has a low self-esteem in his capacity to do thing, the person is more likely to procrastinate. It was studied and proven in the study of Klassen et.al. that self-efficacy in self-regulation is the most common predictor of procrastination among undergraduates. Now that we already know the contributing factors or predictors of procrastination, it is equally interesting to study something new, something that can also be
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helpful in diminishing procrastination in others by providing new information about procrastination. Therefore, this research is suggested to study or tackle the relationship between procrastination and personality type of college students since it has something to do with the predictors mentioned. It is interesting and equally important to know how this certain variable affects a persons attitude or habit of procrastinating. Although we know that personality-type alone is very broad in its nature or matter but maybe it would be easier yet still helpful to know the effect or how this variable affects procrastination of undergraduates. Another additional variable to be studied as factor affecting academic procrastination is locus of control. It is conceived as predictor of procrastination in some studies before, also in academic field. Therefore, this study aims to prove whether personality-type or trait and locus of control have relationship with academic procrastination among college undergraduates. Procrastination is one of the least understood human miseries. But at least we can somehow make a way in diminishing it in our lives and in others lives by being able to know the factors that make us procrastinate and be able to overcome it. Method Research Design The purpose of this study is to know if the two independent variables, personality-type and locus of control, affect the dependent variable, procrastination. In line with this, this study used a descriptive-correlational method. The purpose of this research design is to discover relationship between the said variables. Participants and Sampling The study required a sample of 150 college students from different colleges in the southLaguna and Alabang area, which is just enough number to cover the purpose of this study. All of these respondents are college students from 1st year to 4th year college students. This study used a non-probability sampling. In this case, a purposive sampling was used. These college students were intentionally from different courses namely Psychology, Accountancy, Communication Arts, Engineering, HRM, B.S. Bio, and I.T. The researcher chose a wide variety of students in order to get a sample of different types of students in terms of their academic procrastination, personality-type, and locus of control. Instruments There are 3 different instruments used in this study, one for measuring the procrastination of the respondents, another for knowing the personality-type of the respondents, and another for knowing the locus of control of the respondents. The instrument that was used to measure the procrastination level of the student through survey questionnaires, the researcher used Procrastination Assessment Scale-Student (PASS), which is originally designed by Solomon and Rothblum (1984, 1988).

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The Procrastination Assessment Scale-Student was designed to assess how individuals approach decision situations, specifically the tendency of individuals to postpone decisions. It is a 44 items test using 5-point ratings. It has sub-scales, including 2 sections. Section I is Assessment of the tendency to procrastinate in six academic areas namely: writing a term paper, studying for an exam, keeping up with weekly reading assignments, performing administrative tasks, attending meetings, and performing academic tasks in general. Specifically, participants are asked to rate the degree to which: 1.they procrastinate in that area (1 = never procrastinate to 5 = always procrastinate) 2.procrastination in that area is a problem for them (1 = not at all a problem to 5 = always a problem) 3.they want to decrease their procrastination in that area (1 = do not want to decrease to 5 = definitely want to decrease). In Section II: Participants are given a procrastination scenario and asked to identify which of the 13 reasons they would procrastinate in that scenario. The first part, items 1-18, is scored through assigning a numerical value to the 5-point Likert-type format Scale for each question such that a=1, b=2, c=3, d=4, and e=5. Then the answers for each question are summed up to get a total score. It was computed by getting the weighted mean of each respondent. A higher score indicates more self-reported academic procrastination. the second part, items 19-44, is scored also by first assigning a numerical value to the 5-point Likert-type format Scale for each question such that a=1, b=2, c=3, d=4, and e=5. The answers were also summed up to get the total score. The weighted mean of each respondent was also computed. A higher score indicates more self-reported academic procrastination. Previous research showed that PASS has high test-retest reliability of .74 for prevalence and .56 for reasons for procrastination. The test-retest correlation for the total score was .80 (Solomon and Rothblum, 1984). To measure or know the personality-type of person, the researcher would like to use the DISC assessment. It is developed by John Geier and others and it is based on the 1928 work of psychologist William Moulton Marston, the original behavioralist Walter V. Clarke, and others. DISC is a personal assessment tool that is said to be used in improving work productivity, teamwork, and communication. The D in DISC stands for Dominance, which is relating to control, power and assertiveness. The I stands for Influence, which is relating to social situations and communication. The S stands for Steadiness, which is relating to patience, persistence, and thoughtfulness. And the C stands for conscientiousness which is relating to structure and organization. The researcher also chose DISC because it meets APA (American Psychological Association) standards for reliability and validity. According to the study of Karin Roodt (1997), there is 99.9% level of confidence that the DISC instrument is reliable with the p-value in all the cases was as low as 0.0001. This indicates significance at alpha = 0.001. And according to that same study by Roodt, based from using the criterion-related validity, the DISC is also valid. Lastly the researcher chose it also because of practical reasons. It covers only 4 types of trait which would be easy to categorize the behavior or personality type of a person and it can be answered in more or less 3-5 minutes only.
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To measure the locus of control, the Rotter Internal-External Control Scale will be used. Higher scores suggest individual empowerment, whereas lower scores tend to suggest a tendency toward feelings of helplessness, or at the extreme, victimization. This scale is a 29 question scale having only two options to answer. It is an old scale, which has had great success over the years, despite its weaknesses. It tends to yield quite high reliability and validity over time, but is less valid with children under about 8 to 9 years. Procedure The study was conducted mainly to college students from different colleges in the south. First, students were asked to answer the Procrastination Assessment Scale-Student (PASS), then the DISC, and then the Rotter Internal-External Control Scale. The Procrastination Assessment Scale-Student (PASS), DISC, and Rotter Internal-External Control Scale will be given at same dates and they are required to answer them successively. The Procrastination Assessment Scale-Student (PASS), DISC, and Rotter InternalExternal Control Scale can be answered through two methods. One would be through an online questionnaire using an online survey tool, specifically SurveyMonkey. This was done so that data gathering from 2nd year to 4th year students could be started early on even before school days start since the questionnaires were too long, the respondents might not answer it seriously if given during school days. The questionnaires will be divided into 6 links due to the limited capacity of the survey tool. Nevertheless, it didnt affect the number of items in the said questionnaires. The respondents were instructed to answer the questionnaires with all honesty and they will be ensured of the confidentiality of their answers. The questionnaires were also collected by answering it in a hard copy for those who preferred a hard copy than that of answering online and to the freshmen students after midterms. Statistical Measurement The variables, personality-type and locus of control, were tested by using chi-square since these variables are categorical data. Chi-square test for independence was used to know if these variables have relationship with academic procrastination, to know whether they are independent of academic procrastination or not. Data was analyzed using SSB (Simple Statistics for Beginners). Results The results of this study were tallied from the questionnaires gathered. The results of personality-type and procrastination were presented through figures as well as the results of locus of control and procrastination.

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It is shown in figure 1 the percentage and number of respondents personality-type. It is shown here how many respondents have this certain personality-type. among the 150 respondents, 33 respondents, which covers 22% of the 150 respondents, have dominance or dominant personality-type, 36 respondents, which covers 24% of the respondents, have influence or influential personality-type, 43 respondents, which covers 29% of the respondents, have steadiness or steady personality-type and 38 respondents, which covers 25% of the respondents, have conscientiousness or conscientious personality-type. In this table it is shown that most of the respondents have steadiness personality-type and the dominance personality-type has the least number of respondents.

In figure 2, the locus of control percentage of the respondents were shown. It is illustrated here the percentage of respondents degree of locus of control. Out of the 150 respondents, 19 of them have a very high external locus of control, 35 of them have mainly external locus of control, 30 of them have both internal and external locus of control, 37 of them have mainly internal locus of control, and 29 of them have very high internal locus of control. the Internal locus of control have the highest number of respondents and very high external locus of control has the least number of respondents.
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In figure 3, it presents the degree of procrastination of the respondents relating to their personality-type. The highest procrastination level is 5 and 1 is the lowest. It shows in this table that the most number of personality- type that procrastinates the most, academically, is steadiness or steady personality-type, while the most number of personality-type that procrastinates the least is conscientiousness or conscientious personality-type. Basically, the dominance and influence stands just at the middle, having moderate procrastination.

In figure 4, it presents the degree of procrastination of the respondents and the degree of their locus of control. The highest procrastination level is 5 and 1 is the lowest. It is shown in this table that the respondents who have low degree of procrastination, also have a high degree of internal locus of control. In the same manner, the respondents who have high degree of procrastination have a very high degree of external locus of control. Also, the respondents who have middle or moderate degree of procrastination have both internal and external locus of control.
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Personality-type vis-a-vis procrastination and Locus of control TABLE 5 Chi-square computed value Chi-square value critical Degrees of freedom interpretation

Personality-type

78.35

12.59

Significant

Locus of control

52.30

15.57

Significant

0.05 level of significance

Finally in table 5, it shows here the final results. It shows here the relationship of the said variables. It shows the relationship between academic procrastination and personality type, and relationship between academic procrastination and locus of control. In procrastination and personality-type, there is a significant relationship between these variables because the chisquare computed value of personality type, which is 78.35, is higher than its critical value, which is 12.59. With regards to procrastination and locus of control, they also have a significant relationship because the chi-square computed value of locus of control, which is 52.30, is higher than its critical value, which is 15.57. Both having a higher computed value than the critical value, it presents that there is significant relationship. Academic procrastination has a significant relationship with personality-type. Academic procrastination has significant relationship with locus of control. It means one is dependent on the other. The personality-type of a person affects their academic procrastination and locus of control of the person affects their academic procrastination. Discussion Present research has found out that there is a significant relationship between personalitytype and academic procrastination. The present research had similarities as well as differences with previous researches with regards to this topic. In previous research with regards to academic procrastination, it says there that procrastination was largely associated with lack of Conscientiousness (H. Schouwenburg & C.Lay, 1995), (D.Watson, 2001). And true enough this study arrived at a result that conscientiousness or conscientious personality-type has the most number of low degree of procrastination. This study agrees with the previous study that says lack of conscientiousness is significantly related with academic procrastination. However, this research didnt arrive at the same result with a previous study which says that procrastination was positively correlated with extraversion (William Mc.Cown et.al., 1987). In this study, it revealed that one of the extraverted personality-types- influence have only moderate degree of procrastination. But another introverted personality-type-steadiness confirmed the previous study because most of the students who have S (steady) personality-type have high degrees of academic procrastination.
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This study also confirms the previous studies that self-efficacy greatly affects ones procrastination. Since the steady personality-type or steadiness is the least competent (in academic terms) personality-type since it is the most lax personality-type. Among the four personality-types, it has the greatest tendency to have low self-esteem, it affects ones degree or level of procrastination. Having low self-efficacy would also imply having low locus of control since you perceive that things arent under your control, but its the circumstances that control your behavior, it then confirms the previous study that a person with low self-efficacy would procrastinate more. Hence, this study confirms a previous study that says locus of control is positively correlated with academic procrastination, specifically external locus of control.High academic procrastinators made external attributions (to context and luck) for their successes, they acknowledge that they do little to contribute in their academic achievements when these things occur (Brownlow,et.al., 2000). This study seeks to find out if the personality-type and locus of control has significant relationship with the academic procrastination of college students. The results of this study reveal that personality-type and locus of control has a significant relationship with academic procrastination. The researchers insights, based on results, suggests that it is necessary for college students to know their personality-type and see whether it affects or greatly affects their procrastination. If a person knows, based on his/her personality-type, that he/she is prone to procrastination, that person then can diminish this weakness (procrastinating) of his/her personality-type. The results of this study also suggests that locus of control also plays a big role in ones procrastinating. High external locus of control indicates high level of procrastination. Hence, the researcher suggests that it is important to make the students aware that they have control over the things that are happening to them, that they shouldnt let the circumstances control them so that this great problem of college students-procrastination would be diminished. There is a need for college students or even yet before entering college of knowing themselves well and knowing if with their personality-type they are prone to procrastinate. There is also a need having set their minds that they are capable and responsible to whats happening to them, and not let circumstances control them by just going with the flow. Conclusion The results of this study validates the hypothesis that personality-type affects academic procrastination, and specifically a certain personality-type affects high level of academic procrastination. It also accepts the hypothesis that a locus of control affects academic procrastination, specifically external locus of control affects high level or degree of academic procrastination. Based on the data gathered and the analysis of this study, the researcher concluded that , Recommendations Future research is suggested to explore other self-variables that can affect the academic procrastination of college students. Upon knowing what other factors contribute to procrastination can help students find ways to lessen and avoid procrastination. Future
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researchers on this topic will benefit from this study because they will now know what other area/s on procrastination they can explore. They can do further research similar with my study exploring other variables. The researcher recommends further researches to have a larger number of respondents, if they are also to use a quantitative method. Future research is also suggested to have a larger number of respondents. It is ideal to get if not the entire population, at least a percentage from the population for more accurate results. The researcher also recommends that a more in-depth study be made with regards to this topic, academic procrastination. A qualitative research is suggested so that appropriate interventions could be done in order to diminish this behavior. References Erkan Faruk Sirin (2011), Role of General Procrastination, Academic Motivation and Selfefficacy. Educational research and reviews.6:447-455. Gery Beswick, Esther D. Rothblum, Leon Mann (1988). Psychological antecedents of student procrastination. Aust. Psychol., 23: 207-217. Joseph R. Ferrari, Steven J. Scher (2000). Toward an understanding of academic and nonacademic tasks procrastinated by students: The use of daily logs.Psychol. Schools, 37(4): 359-366 Karin Roodt (1997). A reliability and validity study on the discuss personality profiling system. Durban Institute of technology: Durban Piers Steel (2007). The nature of procrastination: A Meta-Analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychol.,Bull., 133(1): 65-94. Robert M. Klassen, Lindsey L. Krawchuk, Sukaina Rajani (2007). Academic procrastination of undergraduates low self-efficacy to self-regulate predicts higherlevels of procrastination. Contemp. Educ. Psychol., 33: 915-931

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Perceptions and Experience of College Students on Peer Cyber bullying Krystelle Ann Bracewell Margaret Sanapo
The study aims to find out the different perceptions of students towards cyber bullying and its effect on victims. Fifty (50) Psychology students were selected using purposive sampling to participate in the survey. The result revealed that the most common form of cyber bullying that takes place among students are flaming (75%), harassment (63%) and cyber stalking (58%). Online denegration and outing were considered by the majority of respondents as very upsetting.

What makes cyber bullying so dangerous is that anyone can practice it without having to confront the victim. You dont have to be strong or fast, simply equipped with a cell phone or computer and a willingness to terrorize. (King, 2006) Cyber bullying may be defined as an act of bullying another individual, group of individuals and organizations through the use of the internet. This behavior is generally attributed to children or teens (Mapue, 2006). Minors do experience cyber bullying more often than adult. There are actually different forms of cyber bullying that one individual may experience based on Willard (2004) and these forms are flaming, online harassment, cyber stalking, masquerade, outing and exclusion. Cyber bullying also happens because of some factors involving the family, school and peer group factors such as the frequency and severity of bullying is related to the amount of adult supervision that children receive (Cohn & Canter, 2003). Bullying behavior is reinforced when it has no or inconsistent consequences and children who observe their parents and siblings exhibiting bullying behavior also develop a bullying behavior in any forms possible. Also, Cohn & Canter (2003) stated that when people do any forms of bullying, that person lacks respect for others basic human rights and they are more likely to resort to violence to solve problems without worrying about the potential implications. The Philippines has the highest portion of online users (Social Bakers Global Audience, accessed October 5,2012) and we are actually included in the top 10 largest countries who has the most numbers of users online and it is proved that majority of the most online users are 24 years old and below. This study aims to focus on the perceptions of the students toward cyber bullying among peers. In order to identify this, the researcher conducted a survey that will identify the perceptions of the respondents towards cyber bullying. This study tried to know the perceptions and reactions of the students towards cyber bullying. What are the common forms of cyber bullying that takes place among students and what is their perception and reaction about it? The reaction and perception of the students was measured by asking them questions about what they feel and think about cyber bullying. The more a person is aware of cyber bullying, the lesser they
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will have the tendency to experience it because when on individual is aware then he or she will avoid the tendency of cyber bullying to happen. Therefore, awareness about cyber bullying is very important for each individual. Specifically, the questions that are needed to be answered at the conclusion of the study are as follows: Are the students aware of cyber bullying? What are the common forms of cyber bullying that takes place among college students? This study aims to know the perceptions of the students towards cyber bullying and its different forms that takes place among students. In this study, it is important to know the perceptions and reactions of the college students towards cyber bullying. Knowing the perceptions and reactions of the students will better understand what people really think of cyber bullying. The purpose of this study is to increase the awareness of the students towards cyber bullying and to lessen the negative attitudes of the students towards their peers. This study also aims to empower the readers to increase their awareness of cyber bullying and its different forms that can become a normal experience for the younger generation through irresponsible use of technological tools. Related Literature Cyber bullying simply means bullying through email, instant messaging, chat room exchanges, digital messaging and does involve an imbalance of power, aggression and a negative action that is often repeated. According to a study by Sleglova (2011), cyber bullying experiences lead to detrimental changes in the victims' behavior. Mainly, this is due to the victims creating a cognitive pattern about bullies; consequently helps them recognize aggressive people. Sleglova also states that bullying also provoke feelings of caution which stimulates restriction in the use of risky online sources of threats as victims tries to prevent its recurrence. Critical impacts occurred in almost all of the respondents cases in the form of lower self-esteem, loneliness and distrust of people: The more extreme impacts were self-harm and increased aggression towards friends and family. Cyber bullying has recently emerged as a new form of bullying and harassment (Slonje & Smith, 2008). Apparently, cyber bullying was not of a trend before until certain issues came about with the rise of usage of gadgets and new forms of communication. People felt more freedom expressing themselves. There became an easy access to everyone to anywhere in the world. Unfortunately, limits of privacy and respect has been forgotten and easily violated as people become open and accessible to others. In a study conducted by Li (2004), in an urban city in America, half of the students were victims of traditional bullying and over a quarter of them had been cyber-bullied. Most of the cyber victims were females. The study also showed that victims did not really report their experiences to adults because they were scared of what could happen after reporting the said incidents. Cyber bullying is the use of expertise to harass, threaten, embarrass, or target another person (Nemours, 2012). When an adult is concerned, it may assemble the definition of cyberharassment or cyber-stalking, a crime that can have legal consequences and involve detention time. Cyber bullying also can happen by catastrophe. The impersonal nature of text messages,
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IMs, and emails make it very hard to detect the sender's tone. One person's tale could be another's cruel offense. Nevertheless, a recurring pattern of emails, text messages, and online posts is rarely fortuitous. Cyber bullying Victims Being victimized over the Internet as the most common form of cyber bullying has attracted attention from scholars and practitioners. It has been defined as willful and repeated harm inflicted through the medium of electronic text (Patchin & Hinduja 2006). This negative experience not only undermines a youth's freedom to use and explore valuable on-line resources but also can result in severe functional and physical ramifications (Sameer, 2010). Research involving Internet harassment is still in its infancy and the current work seeks to serve as a foundational piece in understanding its substance and salience. On-line survey data from 1,378 adolescent Internet-users are analyzed for the purpose of identifying the characteristics of typical cyber bullying victims and offenders. Although gender and race did not significantly differentiate respondent results, computer proficiency and time spent on-line were positively correlated to both cyber bullying victimization and offending. Additionally, cyber bullying experiences were also linked to respondents who reported school problems (including traditional bullying), assaultive behavior, and substance use (Ann, 2011). Cyber bullying and Suicide The connection between cyber bullying and suicide occurs, in part, because online harassment Increases effect on the victim as it takes many different forms. In many ways it is not much different than bullying in person, characterized by teasing, name calling, threats, harassment, sending explicit pictures through text message; which is also known as "sexting," and various types of social cruelty towards others. In some cases, the bullying may take place entirely online, without any physical interaction during the day at school or anywhere else (Kids Health, accessed October 6, 2012). In other cases, the bullying may begin in "real life" situations and then continue online. There is no real way to predict this type of behavior but it can all be extremely dangerous and increase the risks of suicide. As cited by Miller (2003), cyber bullying is one form of harassment through social networking sites and this kind of bullying can really be the cause of suicide of the victim. Cyber bullying and Depression According to Carroll (2011), whenever a child or teen is humiliated, discomfited, or blackmailed online, they are placed in a scenario where they become more vulnerable. The more they are bullied, the more they become depressed and that can result to far worse conditions like suicidal tendencies. To support this premise, the American Academy of Child and Adolescents Society (2011) tells us that suicide is among the three most common causes of death in teens and young people aged 15 24. If we try to find out the probable cause of why these young people decide to end their lives all of a sudden, cyber bullying is definitely one of the answers.

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Cyber bullying and Facebook According to Silva (2011), the appeal of these Facebook groups are the anonymous nature. Once people join the sites, they are able to send private messages to the page creator who then publishes the information anonymously. Children nowadays have easy access through their computers and start playing games online. Many are even granted the privilege of owning their own expensive cellular phones and get completely consumed of time sending text messages to their friends and get constantly connected to the internet to browse almost everything they want to without restrictions from their parents. Their knowledge of the digital world can be frightening. They become open to millions of users all around the world who can then impose threats of verbal, physical, emotional and sexual abuse to these innocent children. Facebook is now one of the most popular social networking sites enjoyed by many and therefore becomes a place for cyber bullying to occur. There are many who claim to be victims of cyber bullying with the use of Facebook already. It easily happens here because people can post anything that anyone can view anytime. Unfortunately, some members of this social networking site are insensitive or can merely be irresponsible of what they are posting online. Whether it is intentional or not, the victim can easily access it and be ruined in a matter of seconds. Todays bullying has reached new levels. For example, they can simply take Facebook as a means to conduct their smear campaigns for the whole world to see and remain unidentified all along. In a study by Campbell (2011), the secrecy and lack of personal contact that the Internet affords, people tend to say things that they wouldnt normally say to someones face (Campbell, 2011). Therefore, the Internet and usage of all the fast paced changing gadgets can stimulate cyber bullying whether it was not even the intention of the person in the first place. According to Gerber (2012), cyber bullies can create slam book web pages, send harassing emails or post negative comments on the victim's social networking pages, all with the click of a mouse. Cyber bullying is Dangerous According to Gulan (2010), cyber bullying has many forms that could affect people of all ages. There are very common forms of cyber bullying that can also affect the school-aged children, like being tormented, threatened, harassed, humiliated, embarrassed and maybe when targeted also by another person using the internet or any other digital technologies. Hardcastle (2010) mentioned that cyber bullying is any aggravation that occurs via the internet. Cruel forum posts, name calling in chat rooms, posting fake profiles on web sites, and mean or unkind email messages are all ways of cyber bullying. It is different from the usual form of bullying because it lets a bully remain unidentified (Hardcastle , 2010). It is easier to bully in cyberspace than it is to bully personally. With cyber bullying, he can pick on people with a lesser risk of being caught. Bullies are normal instigators while cyberspace bullies can join the involvement of other students who may be reluctant to bully in the real world. The effects of cyber bullying are extensive and sometimes lethal. Kids feel more empowered to be as mean as they want because the words are not spoken but instead are typed. With just a click, the attacker can post or send harassing and threatening information to multiple
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people. Also disconcerting, the attacks can be unidentified if the aggressor chooses to make a false email address or profile. Attacks can also seem inevitable, and as a result have led to far too many suicides. School and Cyber bullying According to Willard (2004), there are different forms in cyber bullying that has developed through taxonomy and these are harassment, denigration, flaming, impersonation, outing and cyber stalking. There are warnings signs of cyber bullying that are similar to those traditional bullying in terms of emotional effects and however has differences. Different forms of cyber bullying really happen to people. A child may be experiencing cyber bullying when he or she appears to be sad, moody anxious, avoids school, withdraws from or shows lack of interest in social activities, experience a drop in grades or decline in academic performance, appears to be upset after using the computer or any digital technologies and also appears upset after viewing a text message on a cellphone. Here are the different forms of cyber bullying stated by Willard (2004): Flaming which means sending angry, rude, vulgar messages about a person to an online group or to that person via email or other text messaging. Online harassment, which is a repeatedly sending offensive messages via email or other text messaging to a person.Cyber stalking.Online harassment that includes threats of harm or is excessively intimidating.Denigration (put-downs)which means sending harmful, untrue, or cruel statements about a person to other people or posting such material online. Masquerade which is pretending to be someone else and sending or posting material that makes that person look bad. Outing that is sending or posting material about a person that contains sensitive, private, or embarrassing information, including forwarding private messages or images. Lastly is exclusion which means cruelly excluding someone from an online group. Cyber bullying in Males Boys who are being bullied respond by withdrawing and isolating themselves. Because this is typical teenage behavior, parents often dont notice the warning signs. The child may begin to spend extended periods in his bedroom and spend a lot of time on the computer or Playstation (Roome,2010). Conversely, they may become very angry and act upon the anger. This normally takes the form of aggression and hostility. He may try and dominate at home to compensate for what is happening at school. Because male bullies are more physical, the victim may have physical marks such as bruising or ripped clothing. Slightly built males tend to bow their heads and shrink into themselves a subconscious effort to make themselves invisible. Cyber bullying in Females According to Roome (2010), while girls are also guilty of physical bullying, they tend to prefer more emotional means such as verbal abuse, elimination and exploitation. They tend to work in groups and may strategize and plan their next attack on their unfortunate victim. Spreading rumors and gossip is common and they can be quite malicious. Girls normally react with their emotions based on Roome (2010). They may become more sensitive and tearful and react strongly to minor family disagreements. In a similar fashion
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to male victims, she may try and dominate younger siblings. If cyber bullying is an issue, she will often spend a lot of time on her mobile phone or computer although the messages are abusive and degrading. If a daughter shows sudden reluctance to go to favorite places such as a mall or park, she may be avoiding bullies(Roome, 2010). Synthesis Taken together, the researches indicate that there are different forms of cyber bullying that takes place and people can really have different perceptions about it (Willard, 2004). It is also said that cyber bullying was not of a trend before until certain issues came out about the usage of gadgets and new forms of communications arises (Slonje & Smith, 2008). People has felt freedom expressing themselves through cyberworld and with that matter cyber bullying happens. There are actually numerous online resources available that can educate people on this topic like in Cyber bullying research center. Understanding the way bullies work and how people react to it can serve as an alert to people to warning signs. Bullying is never acceptable and it takes a community of people to work together to stamp this out. If in any doubt, ask questions and make careful observations before taking action. Unfortunately, the suspected anonymous nature of the internet often insulates the bully from the consequences of their damaging behavior. This new type of bully can attack the victim any time of the day or night, often without revealing his true identity.Cyber-bullying is making school days even more distressing for many children and some school staff. Bullying in cyberspace is not bound by school hours, school days, or facing the projected bully victim (Ross, 2007). Method Research Design Quantitative design was used through survey method in the data gathering procedure. This design involved questioning the respondents through a survey that helped in gathering data that determined the perceptions of the students towards cyber bullying among peers. This design generated meaningful results within a small number of participants. Participants The participants were 50 college Psychology students. Selection of participants was through purposive sampling wherein majority of the participants came from the 1st year of BAP for they are all minors and they were asked to answer the survey based on their own opinions and based on the choices given as well. BAP was chosen because the researcher has the accessibility to these participants. Purposive sampling can be very useful for situations where you need to reach a targeted sample quickly and where sampling for proportionality is not the primary concern in order to target a particular group of people who experience cyber bullying based on the judgment of the researcher as to which subjects best fit the aim of the study. A total of 50 students were interviewed as respondents in the study. Majority (62%) came from the 1st year level, 16% from the 2nd year, 8% from the 3rd year and remaining 14% came from the 4th year. More than half (54%) were female, while 46% were male.

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Instruments A survey questionnaire entitled Cyber bullying Survey (Willard, 2004), was used in this study. The survey was taken from the Center for Safe and Responsible Internet use. The researcher secured a permission to use the scale from director which is also the author, Dr.Nancy Willard. The questionnaire used two 4-point Likert-type format scales (1-Frequently, 2Occasionally, 3-Never, 4-Dont know ), (1- Strongly Agree, 2-Agree, 3-Disagree, 4-Strongly Disagree). Different forms of cyber bullying were specified in the questionnaire. These forms include, flaming, online harassment, cyber stalking, masquerade, outing and exclusion. Sample questions include (1) How often have you been flamed?, (2)How often do you think students in this school are flamed?, (3) On the following scale, what is your reaction to flaming? The scale was used to determine the experience, reactions, and perceptions of the participants regarding cyber bullying. Additional questions were included to help gather data needed to answer the objectives of the study. Additional questions included the following: (1)How did you feel when you were flamed?, (2) What grade are you in? These open-ended questions were formulated to bring out more detailed reactions from the participants. Procedure The researcher made a letter to the target participants and asked for permission to be part of the study. The researcher waited for the permission of the participants for the administration of the questionnaires made by the researcher in accordance to the study. Upon approval of the participants, the researcher established rapport with the participants to be able to document a good quality of data. Lastly, the researcher conducted the survey purposively. The survey was conducted to the participants until the data needed are complete. Statistical Analysis Microsoft Excel and PASW Statistics (SPSS) 18 were used in encoding and processing the summary tables. When applicable, frequencies and percentages were used to summarize the data. Results Incidence of Cyber bullying Results of the study showed that, only 5 out of the 50 respondents said they have been cyber bullied by a student who attends the school. Out of these five, 3 has been bullied or harassed in person at school. Moreover, 2 of these 5 students who have been cyber bullied have bullied and or harassed the cyber bully in person at school. On the other hand, there were 6 out of the 50 respondents who have cyber bullied other students.

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Total Respondents Year level

Gender Do you use the internet at home? Do you use a cell phone at school?

1 2 3 4 Male Female Yes No Yes No

Frequency 50 31 8 4 7 23 27 48 2 49 1

% 100 62 16 8 14 46 54 96 4 98 2

Incidence of Cyber bullying Only 5 out of the 50 respondents said they have been cyber bullied by a student who attends the school. Out of these five, 3 has been bullied or harassed in person at school. Moreover, 2 of these 5 students who have been cyber bullied have bullied and or harassed the cyber bully in person at school. On the other hand, there were 6 out of the 50 respondents who have cyber bullied other students attending SBC. Frequency Total Respondents Have you been cyber bullied by a student who attends this school? Yes 5 No If you answered yes to item number 1, has he or she also bullied or harassed you in person at school? 44 10 88 50 % 100

Yes No

3 2

60 40

If you answered yes to item number 1, have you ever bullied or harassed him or her at school?

Yes No

2 3

40 60

70

Frequency Total Respondents Have you ever cyber bullied students attending this school? Yes No 6 41 50

% 100

12 84

Frequency and Cyber bullying Activities through the School Network While majority (50%) were not aware of cyber bullying activities through the school network, 36% cited that it occasionally happens, 10% said it frequently happens, while the remaining 2% said it never happens. The most common cyber bullying activity through the school network cited was flaming (75%), followed by online harassment (63%) and cyber stalking (58%). Frequency Total Respondents How often does cyber bullying occur through the school network? 50 1 Frequently Occasionally Never Don't know Cyber bullying through the school network Flaming Online harassment Cyber stalking Outing Exclusion 5 18 1 25 18 15 % 100 2 10 36 2 50 75 63

14

58

10 9

42 38

71

Frequency and Cyber bullying Activities through Cell phones and Other Devices in School Compared to cyber bullying through the school network, there seemed to be more students who were aware of cyber bullying through cell phones or other devices used by students at school. 38% said it occasionally happens and 14% said it happens frequently. However, 8% claimed it never happens. Flaming (61%), cyber stalking (46%) and online harassment (39%) were the most cited activities of cyber bullying. Frequency 50 Frequently Occasionally Never Don't know Flaming Cyber stalking Online harassment Masquerade Outing Exclusion 7 19 4 19 17 13 11 9 9 8 % 100 14 38 8 38 61 46 39 32 32 29

Total Respondents How often does cyber bullying occur through cell phones or other devices used by students at school? Cyber bullying in cell phones or other devices

Frequency of Cyber bullying Involving Students Outside School While more than half (54%) of the respondents were not aware whether cyber bullying involving SBC students occur outside of school, 44% said it does happen (either occasionally or frequently). Frequency Total Respondents How often does cyber bullying that involves students attending this school occur outside of school? 50 % 100

Frequently Occasionally Never Don't know


72

3 19 0 27

6 38 0 54

Witnessing Cyber bullying Incidents 62% of the respondents have occasionally witnessed cyber bullying incidents. 10% claimed they have witnessed cyber bullying frequently, while 26% never witness any cyber bullying incident. The biggest percentage (40%) would watch or look, but not participate. Some would try to help or befriend the victim (29%), while some would report the cyber bullying to someone who can help the victim (24%). There were 16% who would cheer the bully one, while 16% would object to the bully. Frequency Total Respondents How frequently have you been a witness to cyber bullying incidents? 50 % 100

Frequently Occasionally Never

5 31 13 18

10 62 26 40

Response when witnessed cyber bullying

Watch or look, but don't participate Try to help or befriend the victim Report the cyber bullying to someone who can help the victim Cheer the bully on Object to the bully Leave the online environment Object to others, but not directly to the bully Have not been a witness

13

29

11

24

7 7 5

16 16 11

11

11

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Reasons that Hinder from Reporting to Teachers and other School Staff The respondents were almost split on whether they will report a cyber bully to school counselors, teachers or administrators (54% probably yes, 44% probably no, 2% no response). Almost half (47%) believed that cyber bullying is not a big deal and that people should just ignore it. 35% thought that they need to learn to deal with cyber bullying by themselves, while 29% were concerned that the cyber bully would get back at them and may make things worse. Frequency 50 % 100

Total Respondents If someone was cyber bullying you at school or if a student from this school was cyber bullying you at home, would you report the cyber bullying to a school counselor, teacher, or administrator? Reasons why not report cyber bullying at home

Probably yes Probably no Cyber bullying is no big deal. People should just ignore it. I need to learn to deal with cyber bullying by myself The cyber bullying could get back at me and make things even worse I dont think school staff would understand or believe me I dont think the school would or could do anything to stop it. I could get myself into trouble, because I could also be at fault Other students could make fun of me My parents could find out and might restrict my internet access I could get myself into trouble, even if I had done nothing wrong
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27 22 8

54 44 47

6 5

35 29

18

18

18

2 2

12 12

Reasons that Hinder from Reporting Cyber bullying to Parents In contrast to those who would probably report to school staffs, there were less respondents who would probably report cyber bullying to their parents or guardians (40% probably yes vs. 58% probably no). An overwhelming 62% supposed that they should be able to deal with cyber bullying by them. Frequency Total Respondents If someone was cyber bullying you at home, would you tell your parent/guardian? 50 % 100

Probably yes Probably no

20 29 16

40 58 62

Reasons why not report cyber bullying at home

I should be able to deal with cyber bullying myself I could get myself into trouble, even if I had done nothing wrong I dont think my parent/guardian would understand or believe me I dont think my parent/guardian would know how to stop it I could get myself into trouble, because I could also be at fault The cyber bully could get back at me and make things even worse

19

15

15

15

75

Awareness of School Policies that Prohibit Action that may be Considered Cyber Bullying More than half (58%) of the respondents were not aware of any policy that prohibits actions in school that would be considered cyber bullying. Frequency Total Respondents Does the schools Internet policy or other policies prohibit actions in school that would be considered cyber bullying? 50 1 Yes No I don't know 8 12 29 % 100 2 16 24 58

Attitudes Towards Statements AboutCyber bullying Nonetheless, majority would like to create a kinder and more peaceful online environment (54%) and consider it important to tell a responsible adult about cyber bullying (46%). Frequency Total Respondents I would like to create a more kind and respectful online world. If someone is being hurt by cyber bullying, it is important to tell a responsible adult. I would report cyber bullying incidents, if I could do so without anyone knowing it was me. I know of someone who has been really hurt by cyber bullying. Things that happen online should stay online. Adults should stay out of this. 50 27 % 100 54

23

46

10

20

18

8 3

16 6

76

Cyber bullying is a normal part of the online world. There is nothing anyone can do to stop it. I have the right to say anything I want online, even if what I say hurts someone or violates someones privacy.

Frequency of Personal Experience of Being a Victim of Cyber bullying While majority of the respondents have never been victims of cyber bullying, there were some who have experienced it on some occasions. In particular, there were a least 4% who felt victims to cyber stalking, online denigration and exclusion frequently. Frequently Cyber stalking Online Denigration Exclusion Flaming Online Harassment Outing Masquerading 6 4 4 0 0 0 0 Occasionally 26 44 18 44 38 30 20 Never 68 52 78 56 62 70 80

Perceived Frequency of Cyber bullying Among Fellow Students In contrast, the respondents perceived cyber bullying to be more among fellow students than they claim to personally experience. In fact, at least 16% of the respondents believed that each of the cyber bullying activities happen among fellow students frequently. Frequently Flaming Online Denigration Cyber stalking Outing 34 32 20 18
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Occasionally 66 62 69 76

Never 0 6 10 6

Masquerading Exclusion Online Harassment

18 16 16

64 64 34

18 20 50

Reaction to Various Cyber bullying Activities Among the seven cyber bullying activities, online denigration and outing were perceived to be the very upsetting by the most number of respondents (32% and 30%, respectively). Followed online harassment (26%), cyber stalking (24%), flaming (22%) and exclusion (20%). While only 18% found masquerading very upsetting, a massive 40% found it at least upsetting. On the other hand, huge chucks of the respondents do not find online harassment and cyber stalking such a big deal (20% and 24%, respectively).

Very upsetting

Upsetting

No opinion

Learn to live with it 18

No big deal 18

Online Denigration Outing Online Harassment Cyber stalking Flaming Exclusion Masquerading

32

24

30 26

36 36

4 6

22 12

8 20

24 22 20 18

20 34 36 40

8 4 6 12

24 22 24 14

24 18 14 16

Feelings When Fell Victim to Cyber bullying Among the cyber bullying activities, outing and exclusion aggravated negative reactions (suicide and depression) among the most respondents.

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On the other hand, least number of respondents reported feeling negative feelings when they experienced masquerading (14%) and cyber stalking (10%).

I felt like taking my life Outing Exclusion Online Denigration Online Harassment Flaming Masquerading Cyber stalking 2 0 0

I felt depressed 32 30 28

I didn't feel anything 14 24 34

It was okay

I felt happy 12 6 8

26 22 6

0 0 0 0

28 24 14 10

6 26 18 24

40 22 20 30

0 4 22 0

Discussion Cyber bullying can give wrong impressions and perceptions to people. With this study, it will make readers aware on the growing problem of cyber bullying and the urgent need to take personal and legal actions against it as we tackle its relation on the perception of the students towards it. Bullies are just around but technological know-how has given them a whole new raised area for their actions (Albermare, 2010).With everybody trying to keep up with the new trends of technology, we cannot help ourselves not to buy them, learn them and eventually be completely consumed by them. The use of cellular phones is the most common as it has brought communication access to a much more accessible level. Next are the computers which have contributed convenience to implementing school curriculum and to our workplaces' productivity. Moreover, it has become an instrument of leisure and social activities through online games, social networking sites and a lot more. However, with all the said benefits rises an important issue of the threats that these high-technology devices can bring. According to (Nemours, 2012), cyber bullying is not just something that takes place on the internet. People can also be cyber bullied if they get abusive calls and text messages on the mobile phone. Results revealed that females are more likely to be active when it comes to technologies like using the internet and cell phones. Also, Silva (2011) stated that once people
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join the sites, tendencies of sending private messages can happen and the results also revealed that almost all the respondents uses technological tools inside the school or at home. In contrast to Li (2004), indeed females were more likely to be victims of cyber bullying. In fact, a quarter of students in an urban city in America have been cyber bullied and most of these victims were females (Li, 2004). Cyber bullying experiences lead to detrimental changes in the victims behavior and also states that bullying can also provoke feelings of caution which stimulates restriction in the use of the risky online sources of threats as victims to prevent it Sleglova (2011). The results in the study also revealed that students would just watch people being cyber bullied than taking action to it. The results show that bullying does not happen in cyber world only but it can also happen in reality. Also, cyber bullying is defined as willful and repeated harm inflicted through the medium of electronic text (Patchin & Hinduja 2006), therefore, cyber bullying can be really experienced by people inside and outside the school. Unfortunately, cyber bullying is detrimental to a person's well being to the point that it can lead to depression and suicidal tendencies of the victims. The sky is the limit to how much damage can be done even if some things do not seem so hurtful at all. We all have different perceptions and threshold of pain, especially the emotional pain other people can cause us. Sometimes, when people do something they know is wrong, they provide excuses or rationalizations for their behavior. Common rationalizations include: He started it, Everybody does it, Nobody ever gets caught and I was just playing around. It is a lot easier to rationalize wrong behavior online because of the perception of invisibility and the lack of tangible feedback.

Conclusion Based on the survey results, there seemed to be poor awareness of cyber bullying and its various forms among the students, hence the underreporting or high percentage of dont know response when asked about any known incidence of cyber bullying: 50% of the students are not aware of the cyber bullying happening in the school while 36% said that cyber bullying occasionally happens when 10% said that it happens frequently and lastly 2% said that cyber bullying never happens. Higher incidence of cyber bullying, however, were revealed when respondents were probed further and briefed about the different activities that may be considered cyber bullying. The most common form of cyber bullying that takes place among college students are flaming with 75%, harassment with 63% and cyber stalking with 58%. Online denegration and outing were the most number of respondents as very upsetting. Further, an alarmingly large percentage of students would probably not report a cyber bullying incident and dismiss the issue as something that is they should deal with by themselves.

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Recommendations The researcher recommends that students must avoid cyber bullying their peers in any form because it is not helpful, instead, cyber bullying does affect individuals perception towards it and develops negative feelings when experienced. Cyber bullying should be limited for it may be fun to do but not all the time. It can affect ones being like the development of self-esteem might decrease. Cyber bullying has a lot of forms but its different forms can still have an effect on any individual when encountered. Students nowadays are apparently fond of making fun of each other but limitations like with cyber bullying must be observed for it can harm the feelings of your peers. People should be made more aware about cyber bullying and its different forms. People can be creative and come up with various awareness programs and support groups. The researcher can also suggest follow up research to track the progresses of cyber bullying issue in the future. References Campbell, S (2011). Cyber bullying leads to depression. Mental Health Directory. Retrieved from http://www.mentalhealthdirectory.org/cyber-bullying-leads-to-depression/ Carroll, G (2011). Linking depression to cyber bullying.Ezine articles. Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?Linking-Depression-and-Cyber-Bullying&id=6118337 Gerber, C (2012). Teen Depression Caused by Cyber bullying. Demand Media Inc. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/about_5399647_teen-depression-caused-cyberbullying.html Hardcastle, M (2010). What is Cyber bullying? Teen advice. Retrieved from http://teenadvice.about.com/od/schoolviolence/a/cyberbullying1.htm Li, Q (2004). New bottle but old wine: A research of cyber bullying in schools.Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 23, Issue 4, July 2007, Pages 1777-1791 Miller, B (2003).What Is the Connection Between Cyber Bullying and Suicide?. Psych Central Online Patchin & Hinduja 2006.Cyber bullying Victim. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01639620701457816 Roome, D (2010). The Difference between Male and Female Bullying. Inter-child Relationships. Retrieved from http://debbieroome.suite101.com/the-differencesbetween-male-andfemale-bullying-a218187 Ross, M (2007-2009). Cyber-bullying incidents have quadrupled. Most students dont tell their parents. Kamaron Institute. Retrieved from http://kamaron.org/Cyber-BullyingArticles Facts Silva, K (2011).Cyber bullying: A Growing Trend in the Mallee. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com.au/news/local/news/general/cyber-bullying-a-growing trend-in-the-mallee/2231380.aspx

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LGLOV, Veronika - ERN, Alena.Cyber bullying in Adolescent Victims: Perception and Coping. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, Brno, FSS MU. ISSN 1802-7962, 2011, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 1-33. Zehnder, M (2010). Cyber bullying: A Dangerous Trend. Care2 Healthy Living. Retrieved from http://www.care2.com/greenliving/cyber-bullying-a-dangerous-trend.html Willard, Nancy (2004). Violence Prevention Works. Common Forms of Cyber bullying. Retrieved from http://www.violencepreventionworks.org/public/cyber_bullying.page

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Parenting Style and Child Discipline of Filipino Women Marriedto Americans


Nadine Comprado Margaret Sanapo
The aim of the study is to identify the parenting style of Filipino women married to an American in terms of childdiscipline. The researcher would like to classify the cultures and practices that dominate in the parenting behaviour an, the cultures that remain in raising the child/ children in a Filipino-American family, and the parenting style they apply in child discipline. There are nine couples of Filipino women married to American contributed in data gathering. They were selected through Snowball sampling. The study used qualitative research design in which in depth interview will be conducted to gather sufficient data from the participants. Based from the gathered data these are the top 5 Filipino values that their children practice: (1) showing high respect to elderly; (2) doesnt talk back; (3) share what they have; (4) put high value on education; and (5) use po and opo when talking to elderly. The study revealed that Filipino women that are married to Americans explain the rules that are strictly imposed and communicate with their children to be able to understand their thoughts and feelings. As characterize by Diana Baumrind (1971), they apply authoritative parenting style in disciplining their children. __________________________________________________________________________________________

Based from data gathered by the Census of United States there are about 3.4 million Filipinos in U.S as of the 2010, making them the second largest Asian American group. The Philippines is also one of the major sources of immigration into the United States and making the Philippines one of their own. Because of the relationship between Filipinos and Americans have, mixed marriages between the two parties is ordinary to the public. Nowadays, it is common to see or encounter Filipina marrying foreigners and building their families. There will be a mix of cultures this could retain the culture of Filipinos and its parenting style or there will be a change of parenting style. Through this mix of cultures, the researcher will find out if the culture and parenting style of Filipinos will dominate the other culture or not. Somewhat, if the parenting style of Filipinos dominated one factor is that Filipinos has a good sense of parenting and managing their children. Filipino-American families tend to be based more on equality than hierarchy. Family culture allows for affection and closeness, and parents act as protectors of children, particularly daughters. Filipino American family relationships are interdependent and family members depend upon each other for support. These relationships are based on the concept of utang ng loob (reciprocal relationships). This is a debt of gratitude you have for others. Parents also teach pakikisama. This refers to getting along with otherseven if it conflicts with ones own desiresto create group harmony. (Van Campen, 2010) There are many ways on how children are brought up. Some parents adopt the style their own parents used. Others get advice from friends. Some read books about parenting. Others take classes, seminars, or workshops offered in the community. This will decide on how parents want his/ her children grow up as a person. There are four different ways of deciding who is responsible for what in a family. First is the authoritarian, in this parenting style, parents are making rules that should be followed by their children strictly. Failure to do so will be given punishment. Second is the authoritative
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parenting. Parents expect their children to follow the rules they made. They are willing to listen to questions and when their children fail to meet their expectation, they are more forgiving than punishing. Third is the permissive. Parents have very few demands to make of their children. These parents rarely discipline their children because they have relatively low expectations of maturity and self-control. Lastly, an uninvolved parenting style is characterized by few demands, low responsiveness and little communication. (Baumrind, 1971) Filipino American children feel strong obligations to support the family. They provide daily help to maintain the household and take care of siblings. Families also use hiya, which refers to shame or sense of propriety, as a means of creating conformity. Hiya occurs when one fails to meet expectations or acts in ways that meet with disapproval from family members or others. (Van Campen, 2010) Parenting styles may differ from one culture to the other. Both husband and wife share financial and family decision making. Filipino parents are naturally authoritative in relation to the culture we have. Filipino American women are the primary caretakers of children. There are always rules to be followed and when not met, there is a punishment equivalent to it. Some of the rules that Filipinos exercise are no watching of television during weekdays, after school hours go straight home, you are not allowed to date until you graduated, etc. The study will focus on Filipino women married to Americans. The aim of this study is to examine the experience of Filipino women married to Americans when it comes to child discipline. Specifically, the study would answer the following questions: What are the cultures that dominate in the parenting behavior? What Filipino cultures that remains in raising child/ children in a Filipino-American family? What parenting style do they apply in child discipline? Review of Related Literature Mixed couples and their children are increasingly visible in the public eye. Knowledge about these families, and particularly about the perspectives and experiences of mothers and fathers in bringing up their children, however, is less evident. (Caballero, Edwards, & S., 2008) According to Chan, Bowes, & Wyver (2009), Parenting styles are widely recognized as the cornerstone of young childrens socialization. Understanding the major influences of parenting styles is important in the advancement of research in many areas, including research examining individual and cultural differences and research attempting to identify effective strategies for changing parenting practices. Parenting Style The principal role of parenting involves the promotion of nurturing, balanced relationships or, contrastingly, the exacerbation of stress-prone, hostile exchanges between parents and children (Abidin, 1992; Brooks-Gunn & Markman, 2005; Katz & Woodin, 2002; Thakar, 2008). Baumrind (1971) classified four parenting styles, as cited by Garcia & Gracia (2009) First is the authoritarian. In this style of parenting, children are expected to follow the strict rules
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established by the parents. Failure to follow such rules usually results in punishment. Authoritarian parents fail to explain the reasoning behind these rules. If asked to explain, the parent might simply reply, "Because I said so." These parents have high demands, but are not responsive to their children. These parents are obedience and status-oriented, and expect their orders to be obeyed without explanation. The second is authoritative parents, those with an authoritative parenting style establish rules and guidelines that their children are expected to follow. However, this parenting style is much more democratic. Authoritative parents are responsive to their children and willing to listen to questions. When children fail to meet the expectations, these parents are more nurturing and forgiving rather than punishing. Baumrind suggests that these parents monitor and impart clear standards for their childrens conduct. They are assertive, but not intrusive and restrictive. Their disciplinary methods are supportive, rather than punitive. They want their children to be assertive as well as socially responsible, and selfregulated as well as cooperative. The third one is permissive parents, sometimes referred to as indulgent parents, have very few demands to make of their children. These parents rarely discipline their children because they have relatively low expectations of maturity and selfcontrol. According to Baumrind (1971), as cited in Garcia & Gracia (2009), permissive parents are more responsive than they are demanding. They are nontraditional and lenient, do not require mature behavior, allow considerable self-regulation, and avoid confrontation. Permissive parents are generally nurturing and communicative with their children, often taking on the status of a friend more than that of a parent. And lastly, an uninvolved parenting style is characterized by few demands, low responsiveness and little communication. While these parents fulfill the child's basic needs, they are generally detached from their child's life. In extreme cases, these parents may even reject or neglect the needs of their children Based from Thakar, (2008), Baumrinds longstanding classification of parenting styles is well established in the parenting literature and includes three categories of parenting styles: authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and uninvolved. (Baumrind, 1971) Found that children whose parents were coercive and lacked warmth (authoritarian) were obedient towards their parents, but were emotionally withdrawn and lacked self-esteem, while parents who used styles that are more permissive had irresponsible and impulsive children. Studies that are more recent also support the finding that coercive parenting styles are predictive of poor peer relations, a greater number of conduct problems, and lower levels of school achievement in children. Filipino Parenting Style Based on a study done by Miralao, (1997), Familism and personalism are all-pervasive in Philippine society. Filipinos typically try to make their friendships into family-like relationships that are mutually supportive. They prefer to have smooth interpersonal relationships with one another and go out of their way to create an atmosphere in which the people around them feel comfortable and accepted. Filipinos generally try to avoid confrontations and make use of indirect speech and mediators in situations of potential conflict. As elsewhere in Asia, there is a strong concept of face in the Philippines. This means that Filipinos are taught to be sensitive to other people's feelings and, generally, do not say words that may embarrass or shame a fellow human.

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Filipino parents consider it their duty to provide for the material and educational needs of their children. Children, in turn, are expected to obey and respect their parents and to take care of their parents when they grow old. Also, older children, until they marry and have families of their own, are expected to help younger siblings with school, and to assist them in getting a job after graduation. (Miralao, 1997) In a previous study of Mendez and Jacano (1979), as cited in Liwanag, et.al (1999), Filipino mothers and fathers act differently even when both are exercising their child-rearing responsibilities. The mother is ranked as primary caretaker of the children. Filipino women tend to their children might give you the impression that they are spoiling their kids. They are disciplinarians, too, and they instill discipline when necessary. And Filipino women are emotionally strong so it's not surprising to see their family leaning on them for support. (Summers, 2012) According to Licuanan (1979), as cited in Liwanag, et.al (1999) the Filipino fathers main role is that family provider. Their role as a child caretaker is considered only secondary. Fathers affection towards their children is limited to carrying them, talking, and playing with them. According to Legaspi (2011) Filipino parents from the new generation are most likely listen to their children, understand their thoughts and use this as their instrument to be good and better parents. Filipino children are trained to be loyal to their parents and elders by blindly obeying their authority and the conditions they impose within the family. They are taught that family and kinship is the foundation of their existence and purpose in life. American Parenting Style Hill, (2011) States that, American Parents of different races and ethnicities all faces and challenges in fostering their childrens emotion, maturity, security, and competence while protecting them and keeping them safe but due to historical circumstance, the challenges for African American parents are specifically great. African American unique history of enslavement and their going experiences of prejudice and racism have pervasive effects on their parenting and child-rearing experiences. Thus African American parenting must considered through a historical and cultural lens that takes these experiences into account (Garcia Coll et. al., 1996; Garcia Coll & Patcher , 2002). According to Myers, (1994) Americans are devoted to individualism. They are trained from childhood to make their own decisions in life and to have their own opinions. A person beyond the age of twenty or so, still living with his or her parents is said to be 'tied to mothers apron strings' and looked upon as immature or abnormal. Americans assume others to conceive of themselves as individuals too, and have difficulty understanding those of other cultures who seem excessively concerned with tradition, the opinions of their parents, or fulfilling obligations to others. They assume such people are weak not having the opportunity to do their own thing. American parents do not push their children so hard to succeed, though some do. Americans place an emphasis on creativity, the arts, literature and reading over hard sciences.

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Indeed, many Americans believe in play and letting children evolve to whatever skill they naturally are best at, not putting too much undue pressure on them. (Chu, 2011)

Child Rearing Ainsworth, et al (1985) states that, an infant develops a secure emotional attachment to the caregiver when that adult consistently and continuously behaves sensitively and appropriately to meet the needs of the child. From an infants emotional point of view, sensitive and appropriate mean that the caregiver observes and understands the needs expressed by the behavior of the young child. Sensitive and appropriate also mean that a caregiver responds to the infants needs in ways that please and satisfy the child. A caregiver who fosters a childs secure attachment meets needs soon after the child begins to show distress or cries. The caregivers behavior is always tender and affectionate. The child-rearing behaviour allows an infant or toddler to feel secure. These behaviours also build a foundation of social harmony between child and caregiver. The caregiver enjoys being with the child, and the child enjoys being with the caregiver. The way an infant reacts to his or her primary caregiver reveals whether or not the child feels the adult has met his or her needs and done so in ways that is pleasing. Contrary to popular belief, this kind of care giving will not spoil a child. In fact, spoiled, dependent, clingy, whiney, and demanding children are created when caregivers consistently violate these child-rearing practices (Isabella & Belsky, 1991). Children are more than the object of their parents' attention and love; they are also a biological and social necessity. The human species perpetuates itself through children; cultural, religious and national groups transmit their values and traditions through children; families maintain their lineage through children; and individuals pass on their genetic and social heritage through children. The ultimate value of children is the continuity of humanity. (Arnold et al. 1975) According to the Boston University School of Education, Child rearing can be both difficult and rewarding at the same time. The goal of every parent is to have your child grow up to be a respectable and resourceful adult in society.

Child Discipline Child discipline is one of the most important elements of successful parenting. Discipline (or training) might simply be defined as a process to help children learn appropriate behaviours and make good choices. In addition, loving, effective discipline aids a child in exercising selfcontrol, accountability, and mutual respect. Through proper discipline, children learn how to function in a family and society that is full of boundaries, rules, and laws by which we all must abide. With it, children gain a sense of security, protection, and often feel accomplishment. Without proper discipline, children are at risk for a variety of behavioural and emotional problems.
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According to Strauss (1994), Parental or adult discipline of children should be designed to help children engage better with others and to modify or control their behaviour. Providing appropriate discipline to children is one of the most essential responsibilities of a parent. And providing consistent and positive discipline helps children grow into responsible adults.As part of their natural development, children sometimes challenge or test parental and adult expectations and authority. Sometimes, children simply choose to misbehave in order to gain something (e.g., attention, an object, power, peer approval). This is a significant part of the growth process of children, yet it should not be without consequence. Discipline is how children learn right from wrong, acceptable from unacceptable. According to the Committee for Children (2004), the purpose of discipline is to encourage moral, physical, and intellectual development and a sense of responsibility in children. Ultimately, older children will do the right thing, not because they fear external reprisal, but because they have internalized a standard initially presented by parents and other caretakers. In learning to rely on their own resources rather than their parents, children gain self-confidence and a positive self-image. According to Strauss, et al.(1997), Disciplining children by spanking does not facilitate learning. Instead, it may halt the unwanted behavior only while the child is in the adults presence, or it may scare a child into submission. While it may teach a child what not to do, it fails to teach a child what is expected of him or her and what is an alternate behavior. Additionally, physical discipline is most often used when the parent is frustrated or without other resource. Spanking in these circumstances may lead to an unintentional injury or more serious abuse. Discipline is one of the building blocks of child rearing. Discipline is different from abuse. Abuse is wrong and consists of physically and mentally hurting your child. Effective discipline involves punishing with a loving heart and being persistent about the consequences of right and wrong, according to the All about Parenting website. Discipline plays an important part in child rearing, because it helps the child develop an understanding of right and wrong behavior.

Synthesis According to Chan, Bowes, & Wyver, (2009), Parenting styles are widely recognized as the cornerstone of young childrens socialization. Understanding the major influences of parenting styles is important in the advancement of research in many areas, including research examining individual and cultural differences and research attempting to identify effective strategies for changing parenting practices. There are four parenting styles that according to Baumrind (1971), as cited in Garcia & Gracia (2009) classified: authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and uninvolved. She found that children whose parents were coercive and lacked warmth (authoritarian) were obedient towards their parents, but were emotionally withdrawn and lacked self-esteem, while parents who used more permissive styles had irresponsible and impulsive children. More recent studies also support the finding that coercive parenting styles are predictive of poor peer relations, a greater number of conduct problems, and lower levels of school achievement in children (Garcia & Gracia, 200).
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This compilation of studies helped the researcher come up with the study on parenting style of Filipino women married to American because it paved way to seek the importance of each culture in a mixed marriage. The researcher would identify in a mixed marriage if what certain practices or cultures remains and what parenting style is being applied to their children. Method Research Design The researcher used qualitative design for this study. In depth interview was conducted to the participants to gather enough data. This design helped the researchers gather data in a complex manner wherein there was a relationship between the researcher and participants because they shared their words, thoughts, and experiences. They were empowered to share their words and they were not represented by mere numbers. This generated meaningful results within a small number of participants.

Participants The researcher interviewed nine married couples. The target participants of the researchers are married Filipino women married to an American that have children. They are living either in the Philippines or abroad. Selection of participants is through Snowball sampling wherein the participants were referred to the researcher. Instruments The data that are needed in the study were collected through the use of an interview. The researcher prepared a number of 19 self-made guide questions consisting of open-ended questions. The researcher also prepared a letter of consent to the target participants before conducting the interview. Here are some of the questions that was asked: (1) what is discipline? (2) How important is discipline to you? (3) What is punishment? (4) Do you have rules at home that should be followed? (5) What are the rules that you imposed?

Procedure In order to conduct the study and gather the necessary data, the researcher went through the following procedures: First, the researcher wrote a letter (consent letter) for the target participants asking permission from them to be part of the study. This included the distribution of the said consent letter to the target participants. Second, the researcher waited for the approval of the participants if they are willing to provide information needed by the researcher in accordance to the study. Third, upon approval of the participants, the researcher had an initial "kamustahan" with the participant so that the researcher can introduce herself and give some personal background to the
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researcher. The researcher established rapport with the participants to be able to document a good quality of data. Finally, the researcher conducted the interview personally and if not possible through technologies. The interview was conducted to the participants twice or trice until the data needed were gathered. The word document that consists of the questions prepared by the researcher were sent to the referred participants that are living abroad. The researcher waited for the response of the participants until they have successfully answered the questions. Data Analysis The researcher used qualitative research design to collect data that are needed for the study and the interpretation of the gathered data was done also by the researcher. To interpret the data the researcher should first, analyze the focus of the study. The response of the participants in connection with purpose of the study will be reviewed by the researcher. Second, the researcher will sort out the responses of the participants according to the similar characteristics of experiences and parenting style being done. Third, the researcher will summarize and categorize the responses of each couple to what parenting style they apply. Last, the researcher will give the conclusion and recommendation based on the dominant parenting style came up.

Results The researcher conducted an interview with the use of guide questions to nine couples consisting of Filipino women that are married to an American. The Filipino mothers are aged 2945, while the American fathers are aged 31-52. One of the nine couples has three children, five has two children, and three of them have one child. All of them live in the United States of America; three of them are living in Virginia, three from Arizona, two from Florida, one from Chicago, and one from New York. These couples have been married from the range of years of 9-22. The study focused on how these couples discipline their children. This study will identify cultures and behaviour that dominate in a Fil-American family in terms of discipline in child rearing. Importance of Cultures and Values to Filipino-American Families In talking about child rearing, culture and values are on top of the list in terms of raising a child especially in two different cultures. It is important that parents obtain their best teacher through their experiences to help them and guide them in raising their children. According to the gathered data they give much importance to their culture, most especially on what they have learned from their parents and what they have experience from them. Most of the responses that the researcher got from the participants are similar to what participant AM stated that My culture and values helps me lot, for me it was my best experience and knowledge from my parents and grandparents and participant IM stated that They help in
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a way that I want what Ive become so Im looking on how my parents raised me so then thats how I want my child to be raised They use their culture and experience in shaping their childs character and future. Culture and values has a big part in terms of child rearing. It is their pattern and guide for them to be a good example to their children. Parents believe that the values and culture they inherited from their parents has great effect on them. They want this values and culture from their parents to pass it on to their children. Based from the gathered data these are the top 5 values that their children practice: (1) showing high respect to elderly; (2) independence at early age; (3) sleep at own room and social life at early age; (4) doesnt talk back, share what they have, and put high value on education; and (5) use po and opo when talking to elderly. But some see it differently, they said that culture and values dont have much importance to them for some reason they want to raise their children on their own and unique way, like what participant FF reported believe it or not, it doesnt matter to me what culture I am from, I try to make my own unique way of raising my children as I see it fit for them, I dont just adapt certain values just because it is customary. There are several respond I get from the participants think similar to what participant FF stated, they want to raise their children not to follow how their parents raise them but to make their own legacy on how to raise their children with two different values and cultures.

Importance of Discipline in Child-rearing Most of the responses the researcher gathered from the given questionnaires said that discipline is an act of responsibility and love to their children. It is the responsibility of the parents to guide them and some to show them care and love. As what participant AM said that Discipline takes a lot of effort. As a mother it is very important to show discipline to them and to myself. For them discipline is not always for the sons and daughters, parents should also have their own discipline in order to acts as a good example to their children. Participant GF said that Basically discipline is very important. Its your legacy to your children. Racing them and implementing good discipline makes them a better person when they grow up. Discipline is very important especially when it is applied at home. And like what participant FF said that discipline is ultimately the basis of my everyday living, without discipline one will irrelevantly be misguided in the right path to take in life. They believe that discipline should always be in the first line it is the shepherd of a person who wants a better life a head of him/her. Participant GM said that Discipline is what I want my kids to have. Participant AF also stated that Discipline is very important, mainly because its the best way to teach an individual on how one should live his/her life, until the day he/she decides to choose a path for him/her

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Most of the responds talks about how discipline will shape an individuals character and how it will help a person to build its own responsibility. Participant DM stated Discipline is important because it teaches a person to be responsible, respectful, and make smart decisions. If there was no discipline, people would do what they wanted and make mistakes without putting the consideration of others first Some said that discipline is an instrument to control or enforce power like what participant BF stated that it is a practice order to gain control or enforce obedience Participant HF said that Parents ability to make their children obey or fallow them. They do this just for them to make their children fallow what they want them to do. Punishment in Relation to Discipline In conversing about punishment it is usually anchored to discipline, they assume that punishment is way of teaching their children what is right from wrong. Base from the results that the researcher gathered 7 out of 9 Filipina mothers and 5 out of 9 American fathers from the Participants reported that punishments are compensations for wrong actions; it is given to someone who breaks a rule; This is to teach them or tell them what they did is wrong. Some explain it different from the other participants like participant GF reported that I dont really like to punish my children and contrary to that participant AF stated that punishment It is mainly used out of anger. One response is above all that participant EF reported, Punishment is a way of saying I care for you in a different perspective. Parent and child relationship in response to discipline Parents implement rules to help them discipline their children, rules that are imposed to gain sense of responsibility, respect, setting of priorities, and good decision making. They imposed rules according to their culture and what they think is right for their children. These are some of the rules that they cited: (1) Be home before curfew; (2) No TV or video games until school work is done; (3) Follow the distribution of chores; (4) Respect mom, dad, and siblings; (5) Listen and communicate to one another; and (6) Eat breakfast, lunch, and dinner together. They have imposed rules but there will come a time that children might consciously or unconsciously disobey these rules. There are reasons behind why children tend to disobey the rules of their parents imposed. All of the respondents proclaim that they pay attention to their childs excuses when they fail to follow the rules. Participant EM stated For me to be a good speaker you need to be good listener In parent child relationship, communication is important for them to feel that they are listened to. Like what participant FM stated that Of course because not every time parents are always right, parents obligations is not just giving rules they also need to listen to their Son/daughter to avoid conflicts and misunderstanding, and AM also stated Of course. I need to know everything that comes in to his mind. As a parent I should be the one to understand them even it is not correct. Base on their responses, punishing their children after they have explained why they disobeyed the rules still depends upon the weight of the disobeyed rules, explanation and situation. Parents are more likely use punishment to teach their children what they have done
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wrong. Like what participant CM stated It depends on their explanation if I will punish them or not. But if I do punish them, it will be about something related to the rule they broke. It is good to know that 16 out of 18 respondents explained to their children why they given such punishment. Most of responds are similar to the respond of participant IM that Yes, of course its for them to understand the consequences of what theyve done wrong and for them to possibly avoid doing it again. In talking about punishment affecting their relationship to their children most of them said that punishment affect their relationship with their son/daughter, how? They stated that Probably immediate, but any long term dents in the relationship will be overcome by the maturity of my child when he comes of age, Yes. It can either have a positive or a negative effect on our relationship. It depends on how I reacted to their explanation and how I carried out the punishment. But some said that their relationship doesnt affect by what punishment theyve given to their children and this are what theyve said I dont think so. I always explain why I gave them punishment,No, I think Im proud to say that my daughter is matured enough to understand everything Im doing.

Discussion Filipino-American family has a lot of things to consider in terms of culture, values, discipline, and parenting behaviour. These are the common things to consider in child-rearing in a Filipino-American family. The Filipino and American culture might complement nor contradict one another. This is to be further discussed by the researcher. Culture and values plays a big role in child- rearing. Majority of the participants said that their cultures and values is very important on how they were raising their child/ children. Their cultures and values that they have learned, practiced, and inherited helped them a lot most especially when they have felt that what their parents instill in their minds and hearts affected their lives in a positive manner. In 2 different cultures, they should be able to give way to one anothers differences. As what the researcher has observed in the responses of the Filipino mothers and that of the American fathers, the Filipino mothers focuses on their relationship to one another. They give high respect to elderly like using po and opo, pagmamano to elderly, call their elder brother/ sister ate or kuya, call their aunt/ uncle tita or tito, and they doesnt talk back. These values are uniquely Filipino. Preserving this kind of behaviour helps a child to treat other people the way they want to treat them. Using this kind of Filipino values helps their children to show respect not just to the elderly but to all the people around them. Like what Campen (2010) stated about Filipino Families, Family culture allows for affection and closeness, and parents act as protectors of children, particularly daughters. Filipino family relationships are interdependent and family members depend upon each other for support.Parents also teach pakikisama. This refers to getting along with otherseven if it conflicts with ones own desiresto create group harmony. and According to (Miralao, 1997), familism and personalism are all-pervasive in Philippine society. Filipinos typically try to make their friendships into family-like relationships that are mutually supportive. They prefer to have smooth interpersonal relationships with one another and go out of their way to create an
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atmosphere in which the people around them feel comfortable and accepted. American fathers focuses on independence. They want their child to stand on their own. They allow their child to go to sleepovers, join campouts, learn to socialize at early age, and sleep at their own room. They give importance to individualism. They are taught to stand on their own and most especially in their decision-making. As stated by Myers (1994), They are trained from childhood to make their own decisions in life and to have their own opinions. A person beyond the age of twenty or so, still living with his or her parents is said to be 'tied to mothers apron strings' and looked upon as immature or abnormal. They assume such people are weak not having the opportunity to do their own thing. Based on the researchers perspective to Filipino women married to American, which Filipino culture will most likely dominate in terms of child rearing and discipline. Based on the researchers experience and other typical Filipino families, Filipino mothers stay at home with their children and focuses on taking good care of them while their fathers is working to earn money for financial support. Like what Liwanag, et.al (1999) cited that, Filipino mothers and fathers act differently even when both are exercising their child-rearing responsibilities. The mother is ranked as primary caretaker of the children. In a Filipino-American family wherein the Filipino is the mother, she will be able to apply it in her own family like what she had experienced with her parents. She will be the primary caretaker of their child/ children. In that sense, the child/ children will be able to adopt the values and practices that the mother is projecting. For example, using po and opo when talking to elderly. Filipinos practice using po and opo since they started to talk. Parents talk to every member of the family with po and opo so that their children will learn using it too as a sign of respect. There is a Filipino saying that Kung anong ginagawa ng matanda, syang ginagaya ng bata. Filipino parents dont just dictate what their children should do/ follow but they practice what they preach so that their children will imitate what they are doing. This observation of the researcher doesnt mean that Filipino culture is superior to the American culture. The researcher is trying to assess how Filipino mothers influence their children through Filipino cultures as the primary caretaker of their child/ children. Child discipline is a vital part of raising a child in a Filipino-American family. Studies show that Child discipline is one of the most important elements of successful parenting. Discipline (or training) might simply be defined as a process to help children learn appropriate behaviours and make good choices. It is a parents sense of achievement when they are able to plant discipline to their child/ children. Like what the participants said that discipline is what they want their children to have. It is a long-term process that should be pervasive in a person to be able to act accordingly to every circumstances and decision making. A participant stated that discipline in a parents act of showing love for their children. Discipline is not just to deprive your child/ children to all pleasurable things in this world, but this is to teach them to manage, control, and limit themselves to do what is appropriate. This is to shape ones thinking and character in knowing what is right from wrong and the consequences of their action. Punishment comes along when rules that are imposed by the parents were disobeyed. Parents have their own way of giving punishments to their children. Majority of the participants said that the punishment depends on what rules they disobeyed. If it is tolerable, they just lecture or sermon to their child/ children. They make sure that when they give punishments that is
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related to the rule that was disobeyed. Some of them give punishment such as taking away their toys, grounding them from playing video games, and going out with friends. Those who said that they dont punish, they just try to compromise to their child/ children and cannot stand seeing the child being punished. The previous study of Sanapo and Nakamura (2010) on Filipino children's attitudes towards physical punishment stated that, Majority (61.1%) had experienced physical punishment at home. The most common punishment children received was pinching (74.5%), followed by beatings (49.7%). Mothers were found to be the most frequent users of physical punishment. The researcher observed that the Filipino mothers that were interviewed do not apply physical punishments like pinching nor beating their child. In the researchers perspective, the Filipino women that were interviewed may be different from the typical Filipino mothers because they might be giving way to the culture of their husbands. They discourage the use of physical punishments in disciplining their children. As stated in the American Humane Association, Disciplining children by spanking does not facilitate learning. Instead, it may halt the unwanted behavior only while the child is in the adults presence, or it may scare a child into submission. While it may teach a child what not to do, it fails to teach a child what is expected of him or her and what is an alternate behavior. Additionally, physical discipline is most often used when the parent is frustrated or without other resource. Spanking in these circumstances may lead to an unintentional injury or more serious abuse. A total of 16 out of 18 said that they impose rules at home. These rules were imposed for their child to gain sense of responsibility, respect, setting of priorities, and good decision making. When their child/ children fail to follow the rules, they listen to their explanation why they disobeyed the rules. Participant EM stated For me to be a good speaker you need to be good listener In parent child relationship, communication is important for them to feel that they are listened to. Like what Participant FM stated that Of course because not every time parents are always right, parents obligations is not just giving rules they also need to listen to their Son/daughter to avoid conflicts and misunderstanding, and AM also stated Of course. I need to know everything that comes in to his mind. As a parent I should be the one to understand them even it is not correct. It still depends upon the situation if they are still going to punish their child but when they so they make it a point to explain to their children why such punishment is given to them. Like what participant BM gave as an example, extended computer usage for gaming purpose, he will be banned for using the computer the other day. Participant AF said that No I dont punish, I compromise. The participants give much importance to communicating with their sons or daughters because for them as a parent, they wanted to know what their child is thinking to be able understand their feelings and thoughts. It is important for parents to also listen to their children for their child to learn to listen to their parents too. According to Baumrind (1971), Authoritative parents, those with an authoritative parenting style establish rules and guidelines that their children are expected to follow. However, this parenting style is much more democratic. Authoritative parents are responsive to their children and willing to listen to questions. When children fail to meet the expectations, these parents is more nurturing and forgiving rather than punishing. Based on the responses of the participants in connection to Diana Baumrinds proposed Parenting Styles, the researcher assumes that Filipino women that are married to an American (Filipino-American parents) apply Authoritative parenting style. The responses of the participants matched the description Baumrind (1971) stated.

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Authoritative Parenting is said to be the most effective parenting. According to Cherry (2012), Authoritative parents are also flexible. If there are circumstances that needed to be explained, they will allow the child to explain what happened and adjust their response accordingly. Parents show good emotional understanding and control; children also learn to manage their own emotions and learn to understand others as well. Authoritative parents also allow children to act independently, which teaches children that they are capable of accomplishing things on their own, helping to cultivate strong self-esteem and self-confidence.

Conclusion and Recommendation The researcher concluded that the Filipino culture that dominated is the sense of respect of the Filipinos, while the American culture that dominated is their individualism. There top 5 Filipino values that remains in raising their children and what they still practice: (1) showing high respect to elderly; (2) doesnt talk back; (3) share what they have; (4) put high value on education; and (5) use po and opo when talking to elderly. To sum up the responses of the participants, the researcher categorized their parenting style in terms of child- discipline as Authoritative parenting. The researcher recommends a more in depth interview for future researchers who wish to delve on the same topic. Future researchers may explore other factors of child rearing other than their cultures and values. The future researcher may also take in to consideration the place they live at, the span of time that they were living in that area, and the other factors that can be considered. The researcher also recommends that future researchers would also explore different race not just Filipina women married to American, but also to other nationalities. References Baumrind, D. (1971). Effective Parenting During the Early Adolescent Transition. 127-130. Caballero, C., Edwards, R., & S., P. (2008). Parenting mixed children: negotiating difference and belonging in mixed race, ethnicity and faith families. Josephine Rowntree Fooundation . Chan, S., Bowes, J., & Wyver, S. (2009). Chinese parenting in Hong Kong: links among goals, beliefs and styles Chinese parenting in Hong Kong: links among goals, beliefs and styles. Chinese parenting in Hong Kong: links among goals, beliefs and styles , 849.Committee for Children.Retrieved January 28, 2004. Eisenberga, N., Changa, L., Yue, M., & Huanga, X. (2009).Relations of parenting style to Chinese children's effortful control, ego resilience, and maladjustment. Developmentand Psychopathology . Garcia, F., & Gracia, E. (2009). Is Always Authoritative the Optimum Parenting Style?Evidence From Spanish Families. Adolescence , 101-103.

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Hill, N., E. (2011). African American Children and Mental Health. California: ABC-CLIO, LCC. Liwanag, M.A., de la Cruz, A., and Macapagal, M.E. (1999). How We Raise Our Daughters and Sons: Child-Rearing and Gender Socialization in the Philippines.United Nations Childrens Fund and Ateneo Wellness Center. Miralao, V. (1997).The Family, Traditional Values and Sociocultural Transformation of Philippine Society.Philippine Sociological Review , 189215. Netter, S. (2006). Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles in Adolescents: Associations with SelfEsteem, Depression and Life-Satisfaction. Sanapo, M. S. and Nakamura, Y. (2011), Gender and physical punishment: the Filipino children's experience. Child Abuse Rev., 20: 3956. doi: 10.1002/car.1148 Straus, M.A., Sugarman, D.B., & Giles-Sims, J. (1997).Spanking by parents and subsequent antisocial behavior of children. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 151, 761767. Strauss, M., A. (1994).Beating the devils out of them: Corporal punishment in American families. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Lexington. Thakar, D.A. (2008). Parenting Style Discrepancies: A Comparison of Inter-Ethnic and Intra Ethnic Couples. Van Campen, K. S. (2010). Cultural differences in parenting practices: What Asian Americanfamilies can teach us. Frances McClelland Institute for Children

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Delinquency Tendencies of Male Teenagers from Intact and Broken Families


Jeano Louis Esquilona Fatima Bullecer
The purpose of this study is to know if family structure plays a role in delinquent behaviors among 100 male teenagers that was equally divided into two types of family structure mainly the intact family and the broken family and residing in San Pedro, Laguna and to know who has the higher tendency of committing delinquent behaviors. Results revealed through Chi-square test for independence that both intact family and broken family have relationship in producing delinquent male teenagers. The computed chi square value of 40.75 and 24 as the value of the degree of freedom with an alpha of = 0.05, the researcher got a tabular value of 36.4. As a result, it rejected Ho because 40.75 is greater than 36.4 (for alpha = 0.05). Also, results suggest that in 5 types of offenses such as, status offenses, authority conflict offenses, over behavior offenses, covert behavior offenses and internet related behavior offenses, male teenagers coming from the broken families got the highest percentage of committing these offenses rather than those who came from intact families

Family is a very important part of our everyday life. It helps us in improving our personality. It also helps us in shaping our life. It teaches us the value of love, affection, care, truthfulness and self-confidence and provides us tools and suggestions which are necessary to get success in life. It is a place where you can be yourself. It helps you survive through tough times and bring joy and happiness into life (Strauce, 2009). An intact family is defined as one in which the parents have been continuously married since the birth of the child. (Booth & Shanahan, 2000).Family is the basic unit of society made up of man and woman joined in marriage, and their children (Joseph & Najmabadi, 2003). This is the most important component of a country. A home is where a family lives. It may be alternated to the word house but a house is more appropriately referring to the material structure, whereas home refers to the intangible things that bind together the family members. The most important role of the family in society is to care for and socialize their young. The family serves as a natural support system and a barrier against outside forces attempting to negatively influence children (Pardeck, 2002). The term broken family is defined as one wherethe parents (mother and father) of a child or children have split up and no longer share a single family home as a family unit. This is also known as a broken home (Maitiri S.P Chand, 2008). Due to lack of guidance either from maternal or paternal figure, teenagers do things that cause them to be considered delinquents. Juvenile delinquency is defined as behaviour that is a violation of the criminal code and committed by a youth who has not reached adult age. The specific acts that constitute juvenile delinquency differ from state to state (Regoli, Hewitt, & Delsi, 2009). Delinquency is defined as the action; course or conduct that deviates from the acts approved by the majority of people. It is a description of those acts that do not conform to the accepted rules, norms, and mores of the society. Delinquency, therefore, is a general term for any misconduct or misbehaviour that is tantamount to felony or offense. It is, however distinct from crime in the sense that the former
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may be in the form of violation of law, ordinance or rule but it is punishable only by a small fine or short term imprisonment or both. The legal definition of juvenile delinquency is found in state juvenile codes and statutes. Generally, the specific acts that constitute juvenile delinquency differ from state to state. Delinquency cases are acts defined in the statutes of the state as the violation of a state law or municipal ordinance by children of juvenile court age of for conduct so seriously as to interface with the rights of others or to menace the welfare of the delinquent himself or the community (Regoli, Hewitt, & Delisi, 2009). The Republic Act. No. 9344 or Juvenile Justice and Welfare of 2006 of the Philippines covers the different stages involving children at risk and children in conflict with the law from prevention to rehabilitation and reintegration. According to the law, children who are at risk are those who are vulnerable to and at the risk of committing criminal offenses because of personal and family circumstances. The topic of interest in this research is to know if family structure plays a role in delinquent behaviour. In addition, to know if family structure, intact family and broken family, has a relationship in producing delinquent behaviours among male teenagers of ages 15 to 18 years. This study assumes that both type of family structure has a relationship in producing delinquent behaviours and will only differ on which of this family structure produces higher delinquent behaviours. By exploring this topic, the researcher is hoping to get a better understanding of juvenile delinquency facts and trends as well as see what issues play a role in this behaviour. Review of Related Literature The researcher have gathered different related literature about delinquency tendencies of male teenagers from intact and broken families through journal articles, books, and previous researches. Related literature will help the researcher understand the topic better and it will support the researchers findings with the findings of other similar studies. Juvenile Delinquency Juvenile delinquency has become an increasing concern to society; aggressive behaviors are particularly harmful. This study examined parent and youth behaviors and personality types that may influence delinquent and aggressive behaviors. Youths were referred by the court to an intervention program; ratings of delinquency and aggression were derived from parent reports, self-report, and court referral data. Results showed that high parent ratings of youth aggressiveness were related to high turmoil in the home and to youths' positive opinions of delinquent peers, while high aggressiveness of the youths' referring offenses was related to lax punishment. Developmentally, this suggests that in adolescence both the peer group and home influences are important in shaping different aspects of the youths' aggressive and delinquent

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behaviors. Relationships between father's occupation, delinquent peer association, tendency to neutralize, and self-reported delinquency are explored in a path model(Farrington, 2000). Self-reported delinquencies are categorized into Minor, Predatory, and Aggressive delinquency. The effect of this division is analyzed among Mexican-Americans and Anglo college students (N =694). The structure of the resulting path models remained similar across these sub samples, although there was some variation in the strength of the relationships. The effect of father's occupation was minimal. The strongest relationships were between neutralization and delinquency, controlling for delinquent peers and for father's occupation, which decreased as the seriousness of the delinquency increased. Additionally, 26neutralization was more strongly related to delinquency among Anglos than among Mexican Americans, explaining 39% of the variation in delinquency among Anglos, but only 28% among Mexican Americans. Association with delinquent peers, however, was more strongly related to delinquency among Mexican Americans (Farrington, 2000). Social Factors of Juvenile Delinquency There are many social factors that can contribute to juvenile delinquency. One that has risen to the forefront has been the role the family plays in delinquency. It has become increasingly obvious that a child's family can have a significant impact on the child's level of deviance (Matherne & Thomas, 2001). In fact, research has shown that children with strong parental ties are less likely than their peers without these ties to become delinquent. However, this is only the beginning. Parents obviously play the largest role in a child's development. Naturally, the more time parents can spend with their children, the more of a positive influence the parents can have. One study has shown that children who lack parental supervision after school hours run a higher risk of engaging in delinquent acts. Above all of these, the best indicator seems to be family type and status. Status refers to the makeup of the family. Children that come from single parent home are significantly more likely to become delinquent. It has also been found that communication, cohesiveness, and adaptability within the family can also impact delinquency. These fall under the family type category. Unquestionably, the family can play a huge role either positive or negative on the delinquency of their children. There are a few strategies that can be adopted to ensure that the family is a positive influence on a child so that their risk of delinquency is reduced. It obviously starts with the family itself. Parents must be willing to engage in all 30 aspects of their children's lives. Parental supervision, effective communication, and simple closeness can all help to reduce a juvenile's chance at becoming delinquent. Parents must work to see that these issues are addressed. Community and law enforcement can also take up the mantel when a parent needs additional help (Matherne & Thomas, 2001).

Juvenile Delinquency: Contributing Factors, and Intervention Juvenile delinquency is a complex social problem that significantly impacts all members and processes of a social structure. Delinquency refers to a set of behaviors that are not in line with the collective practices and/or ethics of the dominant social group. Essentially, these behaviors deviate from societal norms and more specifically they violate established criminal
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codes and laws. Juvenile delinquency incorporates not only general criminal activity but conduct that is only unlawful for youths such as running away from home and skipping school. Numerous risk factors have been identified as indicators or predictors of juvenile delinquency and those factors represent dysfunction at several levels, specifically within the structure of the offenders family. Some of these factors include conflict within the family, a lack of adequate supervision and/or rules, a distinct lack of parent-child attachment, instability, poor home life quality, parental expectations, out-of-home placements and inconsistent discipline (Shumaker, 1997). Social service professionals who frequently come into contact with children must be especially vigilant in order to detect the presence of any of the possibly contributory conditions mentioned above and to refer families to appropriate sources of assistance as early as possible (Shumaker, 1997). Single Parenting Single-parent families are generally categorized by the sex of the custodial parent (mother-only or father-only families). Mother-only families include widows, divorced and separated women, and never-married mothers. In the case of divorce, mothers are usually given custody in the United States and other developed countries. In Italy, in 2000, for example, 90 percent of children whose parents divorced went into the custody of their mothers. Since the vast majority of single parents are mothers, most of the research focuses on female-headed families. However, regardless of sex, single parents share similar problems and challenges. In the past, father-only families formed as a result of widowhood, desertion by the mother, or wives refusing custody. There has been a 25 percent increase in the number of single fathers in the United Statesfrom 1.7 to 2.1 million. In 2001, Canadian fathers received sole custody in 11 percent of the cases and joint custody in 28 percent. The increase in father-only families is due, in part, to the efforts of fathers to obtain custody of their children. Although most fathers in the United States do not request custody during divorce proceedings, about one-half to two-thirds of those who do are awarded custody. 2.5 million U.S. children resided with a single father, an increase from 1 percent of children to 4 percent. Single fathers in the United States are twice as common in white families (16%) as compared with black families (8%). Although single fathers are slightly better educated than single mothers, on average, both groups are less likely to be college graduates and more likely to have dropped out of high school than married parents (Ponzetti, 2003). There are an estimated one million noncustodial mothers in the United States, with 75 percent voluntarily giving up custody. The primary reasons women give up custody include: inadequate financial resources, child's preference for living with the father, difficulty in controlling the children, threats of legal custody battles, and physical or emotional problems experienced by the mother. Almost all (97%) noncustodial mothers actively maintain a relationship with their children. Fathers increase their chances of getting custody when they pay child support, when the children are older, and when the oldest child is male. Single fathers report that they feel competent as primary parents and, in taking responsibility for the activities of care giving usually assigned to mothers, are able to develop intimate and affectionate relationships with their children. Other factors supporting their transition into primary parenthood include financial security, prior involvement in housework and child care during the
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marriage, satisfaction with child-care arrangements, and a shared sense of responsibility for the marital breakup (Ponzetti, 2003). Male-Female Delinquency in the Philippines Self-report data were obtained from male and female students in a coastal city in the southern Philippines. Analyses reveal higher rates of delinquency among males. Delinquency is regressed on several independent variables, including peer relations, social bond measures, age, and father's occupation. Peer relations and attitudinal constructs are significantly associated with delinquency, particularly among males. Interestingly, sons of higher-status fathers are more delinquent than are juveniles from lower-status backgrounds. Among girls, the collective influence of the independent variables is negligible. The results of the study are discussed relative to various theoretical explanations but with an emphasis on Philippine social structure and values. Attention is given to the family context and to the influence of peer groups, or the barkada, on delinquency, especially among middle-class males. The lack of explanation of female delinquency in this data set is addressed relative to the status of women in Philippine society and the need to focus on the contextual factors that affect the lives of juvenile females (Shoemaker, 1994). Synthesis Based on the data gathered, previous researcher found out that there are many social factors that can contribute to delinquency. But, family has the biggest impact on the childs level of deviance. The researcher found out that teenagers with strong parental ties compared to those without these parental ties are more likely to have a tendency to become delinquent. It is stated that research has shown that children with strong parental ties are less likely than their peers without these ties to become delinquent. However, this is only the beginning. Parents obviously play the largest role in a child's development. Naturally, the more time parents can spend with their children, the more of a positive influence the parents can have. One study has shown that children who lack parental supervision after school hours run a higher risk of engaging in delinquent acts (Matherne & Thomas, 2001). Generally speaking, the relationship between family conflict and delinquency is significant. There are many types of family conflict but the absence of communication and the inability to solve problems are two of the most fundamental forms relative to future delinquency. Structure is very important in the life of a developing child. Most of that necessary structure is provided by the parents/family. Rules or guidelines are inherently part of that structure and careful parental supervision is essential to the derivation and implementation of those rules. It has been proven in the given related literature of this study that family structure is associated in producing delinquent behaviors. This study is trying to know the gap if the results from the related literature given would be the same as to the results of the researchers study. Since, most of the related literatures were from foreign countries and that the result might be different from the Filipino culture.

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Method Research Design The research design was quantitative and descriptive in nature. Descriptive method is designed to gather information about present existing conditions. Descriptive research is defined as involving collection of data in order to test hypotheses or to answer questions concerning the current status of the subject of the study. The main goal of descriptive research design is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied (Richley & Klein, 2007). Through descriptive research design, it will answer the research problem whether family structure plays a role in producing delinquent behaviors among men or not. Furthermore, to describe if family structure has a relationship in producing delinquent behaviors and to be able to know whether male teenagers coming from an Intact family has a lower tendency in committing criminal offenses compared to male teenagers who come from a broken family and vice versa. Participants The participants of this study were male teenagers with ages ranging 15 to 18 years old from San Pedro, Laguna. To gather the sufficient amount of data, the researcher used a snowball sampling method, wherein the population required for the fulfillment of the research is rare, and in order for the researcher to gather 100 (N=100) participants, it relies on referrals from initial subjects. The total participants (N=100) were divided into two categories, 50 male teenagers coming from an intact families and 50 male teenagers from broken families. In this study, intact families defined as families in which both biological parents are present in the home. Whereas, broken families defined as families in which parents separated and no longer share a single family home as a family unit.

Instruments All in all, the research was intended to describe if male teenagers coming from an intact family and male teenagers from broken family are associated in producing delinquent behaviors. The research also wants to know if family structure has a relationship in producing delinquent behaviors. The basis of data collection in this research was a 25-item Self Report Delinquency Scale created by the researcher. The questionnaire will capture whether or not the participant committed certain delinquent behaviors divided according to status offenses such as tried going home late and break curfew rules, run away from home as a means of avoiding rules and regulations from parents, skipped class/school without excuse, dropped out of school, answered back or yelled at people older than you and lied about your age to go somewhere or get something.

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Authority conflict offense ever threatened somebody with a weapon or threatened to beat them up to get money or other things from them, thrown objects at people, attacked person with intent to hurt, participated in a group fight in school or outside, ever sold or used any drugs Overt behaviour offense taken vehicle without owners permission, tried vandalizing on street walls, tried setting something on fire with the intent of destroying it, ever damaged something on purpose, trespassing, been drunk in a public place, covert behaviour offense ever stolen something from a store, stolen someones purse/wallet, tried stealing for more than thrice, ever avoided paying for things,ever engaged in sexual intercourse with a female under 18 years of age and internet related behavior offense ever sent email messages intending to harass or frighten other people, ever done any hacking, bullied someone over the internet. For each type of delinquent act, the participant is asked whether he ever committed it. In order to test the validity and reliability of the questionnaire used in the study, the researcher tested the survey questionnaire to 20 respondents to validate the effectiveness of the instrument, and the value of the questions to elicit the right information to answer the primary research question in. These respondents as well as their answers were not part of the actual process and were only for testing purposes. The researcher used the Kuder-Richardson 20 or the KR20 to obtain the internal consistency reliability of the test. The Kuder Richardson Coefficient of reliability (K-R 20) is used to test the reliability of binary measurements to see if the items within the instruments obtained the same binary results over a population of testing subjects (Kuder & Richardson, 1937). The researcher input the data in a matrix. The columns represented by questions or items in a batch of tests, and the rows were represented by the testing subjects. Each cell contains either 1 or 0, representing a yes or no answer. The KR20 gave the researcher a 0.97 coefficient which means the internal consistency reliability of the test is excellent based on the rule of thumb. The researcher did not eliminate any questions since the reliability is high. Procedure The researcher provided a Self-Report Delinquency scale that consists of questions answerable by yes or a no in describing delinquent activities of the participants who came from an intact or broken family. The researcher gathered a total of 100 participants through snowball sampling method to answer the questionnaire. The participants were divided based on their family status, the intact family and the broken family. It will be 50 male teenagers from intact families and 50 male teenagers from broken families. The participants took only 1 type of questionnaire. The researcher used Self-Report Delinquency scale for data gathering. The researcher explained to the participants that everything will be confidential so that they will answer in full honesty. The questionnaires were gathered right after the participants have completed answering.

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Statistical Analysis Chi Square test for independence was used in the study to determine the relationship between two variables of a sample. With this, it will be able to answer if family structure, the intact and broken family, has an effect in producing delinquent behaviors. Moreover, a simple percentage analysis was also used to show the number of yes and no answers between male teenagers from intact and broken families in determining who committed the most offenses. Results and Discussion

Results were presented through figures and table that male teenagers from broken families have higher tendencies to become delinquents rather than those male teenagers from intact families and a relationship between family structure, both intact and broken family, in producing delinquent behaviors among male teenagers.

Figure 1 Status Offense It is shown in figure 1 the percentage of respondents who have committed status offenses such as; tried going home late and break curfew rules, run away from home as a means of avoiding rules and regulations from parents, skipped class/school without excuse, dropped out of school, answered back or yelled at people older than you and lied about your age to go somewhere or get something.

The total score of 173 yeses from the intact family and 246 yeses from the broken family, it is shown that teenagers coming from the broken families got the higher percentage of committing status offenses rather than teenagers coming from the intact families.

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Figure 2 Authority Conflict Offense It is shown in figure 2 the percentage of respondents who have committed authority conflict offenses such as; ever threatened somebody with a weapon or threatened to beat them up to get money or other things from them, thrown objects at people, attacked person with intent to hurt, participated in a group fight in school or outside, ever sold or used any drugs. The total score of 94 yeses from the intact family and 180 yeses from the broken family, it is shown that teenagers coming from the broken families got the higher percentage of committing authority conflict status rather than teenagers coming from the intact families.

Figure 3 Overt Behavior Offense


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It is shown in figure 3 the percentage of respondents who have committed overt behaviour offenses such as; taken vehicle without owners permission, tried vandalizing on street walls, tried setting something on fire with the intent of destroying it, ever damaged something on purpose, trespassing, been drunk in a public place.

The total score of 124 yeses from the intact family and 208 yeses from the broken family, it is shown that teenagers coming from the broken families got the higher percentage of committing overt behaviour offenses rather than teenagers coming from the intact families.

Figure 4 Covert Behavior Offense It is shown in figure 4 the percentage of respondents who have committed covert behaviour offenses such as; ever stolen something from a store, stolen someones purse/wallet, tried stealing for more than thrice, ever avoided paying for things, ever engaged in sexual intercourse with a female under 18 years of age. The total score of 83 yeses from the intact family and 142 yeses from the broken family, it is shown that teenagers coming from the broken families got the higher percentage of committing covert behaviour offenses rather than teenagers coming from the intact families.

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Figure 5 Internet related Behavior Offense It is shown in figure 5 the percentage of respondents who have committed internet related behaviour offenses such as; ever sent email messages intending to harass or frighten other people, ever done any hacking, bullied someone over the internet. The total score of 62 yeses from the intact family and 94 yeses from the broken family, it is shown that teenagers coming from the broken families got the higher percentage of committing internet related behaviour offenses rather than teenagers coming from the intact families. In figures 1,2,3,4 and 5 that showed the percentage of teenagers who committed status offenses, authority conflict offenses, overt behavior offenses, covert behavior offenses and internet related behavior offenses, illustrate that male teenagers from broken families have the higher tendency to become delinquent rather than teenagers from intact families. These results have been supported by one the studies that delinquents are far more likely than non-delinquents to come from broken homes. The famous studies of Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck of Boston delinquents, found that delinquents were about twice as likely as nondelinquents to come from broken homes (65% vs. 35%). Also, a study by Rankin sheds some light on this subject. This was based upon National Survey of Youth (self-reports of running away, truancy, fighting, vandalism, auto theft, etc.). It was discovered that running away, truancy and auto theft were all strongly related to the type of broken home where both biological parents are missing. Studies came to these conclusions about the relationship between broken homes and delinquency. First, delinquency in broken homes is about 10-15 percent higher than in intact homes. Second, the correlation is strongest for minor offenses. Third, the impact of broken homes is about the same for both males and females and black and white youths (Wells & Rankins, 2001).
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Based on the results and supported literature given, the researcher realized that teenagers can be easily influenced by what type of family structure they have. In addition, it is clear that one major cause of delinquency among teenagers is the breakdown of families including lack of parental control over teenagers. These teenagers are not strictly overseen by their parents and rarely know what they are up to or what they are doing. Parents play a particularly influential role in teenagers life and it is up to them to make sure that they are leading these teenagers in the right directions.

Table 1 Chi Square Test of Independence

In table 1, it shows the final result that family structure is associated in producing delinquent behaviours. Both intact family and broken family have relationship in producing delinquent male teenagers. The computed chi square value of 40.75 and 24 as the value of the degree of freedom with an alpha of = 0.05, the researcher gets a tabular value of 36.4. As a result, it will reject Ho because 40.75 is greater than 36.4 (for alpha = 0.05). In analyzing the results given, the researcher have formulated a null hypothesis that family structure, both intact and broken families, are not associated in producing delinquent behaviors and an alternative hypothesis that family structure, both intact and broken families, are associated in producing delinquent behaviors. The findings reveal that family structure is associated in producing delinquent behaviors having a chi-square value of 25.22 from intact families and 15.53 from broken families. The computed chi-square value of 40.75 making it higher than the tabulated value of 36.4 made the null hypothesis rejected. The result of this study is supported by one of the related literature that children who lack parental supervision have a higher risk of engaging in delinquent acts. Above all of these, the best indicator seems to be family type and status. Status refers to the makeup of the family. Children that come from single parent home are significantly more likely to become delinquent. It has also been found that communication, cohesiveness, and adaptability within the family can also impact delinquency. These fall under the family type category (Matherne & Thomas, 2001). Based on the results and supported literature given, the researcher have proven that the link between family structure and delinquency are associated to each other. The researcher has realized that both type of family structure, whether intact or broken family produces delinquent

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behaviors among teenagers. However, broken homes have the higher tendency in producing delinquent teenagers. With all the results and literature presented in the study, the research implied that teenagers who receive adequate parental supervision are less likely to engage in criminal activities. It was further discussed that the family is the foundation of human society. Teenagers who are rejected by their parents or who are inadequately supervised are at the greatest risk of becoming delinquent. Through this study, it would be able to help the society in such a way that it will give readers the knowledge about the role of the family especially the parents in shaping the behaviors of their children. The parents must show love towards their children by spending time with them and building intimate, personal relationships. In addition, it can lessen the number of crimes committed caused mostly by the delinquent behaviors of male teenagers and give ways in preventing delinquency in the society.

Conclusion/ Recommendations Based from the gathered data and analysis of this study, the researcher concluded that teenagers delinquent behaviours have a relationship to what type of family structure they come from. On this basis, the way a parent handles a teenager determines whether the child will engage in delinquent behaviour or not. Delinquency is fostered by lack of parental interaction. It has been shown in figures that both family structures have an effect in producing delinquent behaviours. The researcher recommends that by spending time with a child as a family, it will not only provides the necessary supervision for being aware of the whereabouts of the child, how the child is functioning emotionally, and how he is doing as an adolescent but it also creates positive interaction with the parents that is needed for a healthy upbringing of their children. Parents who care responsibly for their children will help them avoid the other causes of delinquency. These parents will restrict their children the access to media violence, monitor their peer groups, explain and inform them of the negative effects of substance abuse, prevent their access to firearms, provide them with a stable family life, free of violence, discipline them with love and consistency and most importantly, teach them the basic values of life - respect for others, respect for authority and respect for themselves. By means of these recommendations, it will lessen the percentage of teenagers who will violate status offenses, authority conflict offenses, overt behaviour offenses, covert behaviour offenses and internet related behaviour offenses. This paper seeks to prove that family life affects the behaviour of teenagers. What they learn from the very early age has a great deal to say about the person they will eventually become and the life they will lead. For following researchers who would like to do future studies in this area, it is further recommended to add more variables not only the type of family structure but also other risk factors that may cause teenagers act as delinquents. Different parenting styles can also be added as a variable for future study. It is suggested also to use a qualitative research in order to make an appropriate intervention that triggers a child to commit delinquent behaviours and the effects that
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they get from committing a delinquent behaviour. It is also recommended to have more number of participants coming not only from one place but in different places and consider females as another category of participant.

References Akers, R. L. (2009). Social Learning and Social Structure: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance.Transaction Publishers. Anderson, A. L. (2002). Individual and contextual influences on delinquency: The role of the single-parent family. Journal of Criminal Justice 30 , 575-587. Booth, A., & Shanahan, M. J. (2000).Transition to adulthood in a changing Economy: NoWork, No Family, No Future? Greenwood Publishing Group. Estrada, A. C. (2006). Criminal Law. Manila: Rex Bookstore, Inc. Farrington, D. (2000). Explaining and preventing crime: The globalization of knowledge.The American Society of Criminology 2003 presidential addresses. Joseph, S., & Najmabadi, A. (2003).Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures: Family, law and politics.Brill Academic Publisher. Kuder, G. F., & Richardson, M. W. (1937).The theory of the estimation of test reliability. Psychometrica. Maitiri S.P Chand, M. S. (2008). Exploring the Stable and Changing Beliefs of Middle Class [urban] Hindu Couples in New Delhi about Marriage.ProRequest. Matherne, M., & Thomas, A. (2001).Family environment as a predictor of adolescent delinquency.Adolescence , 655-656. Matherne, M., & Thomas, A. (2001).Family environment as a predictor of adolescent delinquency.Adolescence , 655-656. Pardeck, J. t. (2002).Family Health Social Work practice.Greenwood Publishing group. Ponzetti, J. (2003). International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family.The Gale Group Inc. Regoli, R. M., Hewitt, J., & Delisi, M. (2009).Delinquency in Society.Jones & Bartlett Learning. Regoli, R., Hewitt, J., & Delsi, M. (2009).Delinquency in the Society.Jones & Barlertt Learning.

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Richley, R. C., & Klein, J. D. (2007).Design and Development Research.Routledge. Shoemaker, D. J. (1994). Male-female delinquency in the Philippines: A comparative Analysis. Youth &Society , 299-329. Stangor, C. (2010). Research Method for Behavioral Sciences. Cengage Learning. Strauce, S. (2009).The High Definition Family.Xulon PRess.Wells, L. E., & Rankin, J. H. (1991). Families and Delinquency: A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Broken homes.

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He Said, She Said: Gender Differences on Disciplinary Practices of Filipino Parents


Cristine Flores
Margaret Sanapo
This study explores the differences in disciplinary practice of a Filipino mother and father towards child rearing. A total of 17 purposively sampled participants consisting of 9 mothers and 8 fathers participated in the study. Qualitative design is used in this study, which used an open-ended questionnaire to gather the data for the participants. Based from the data gathered, Filipino parents use verbal warnings a disciplinary practice before resulting to punishment, such as spanking. Comparing mother and fathers disciplinary styles there results shows there were no difference. Filipino parents share the same perspective on discipline.

Discipline is an act of guidance to a childs moral, emotional and physical development that would enable the child to take responsibility on his own as he grows older (Holden & Wissow, 2002). It involves teaching a child the boundaries of what is acceptable and what is not and it makes a child aware of the different values and actions that are acceptable in the family and society. Discipline can either have a positive or negative effect on the child (Smith, 2006). An effective discipline helps a child learn to control his behavior so that he can act according to the idea of what is right and wrong and not because he fears to be punished. Physical punishment is one form of discipline parents use to correct their child (Oates 2011). According to Telep (2009), basically there are four kinds of punishment and these are physical punishment, verbal punishment, withholding rewards, and penalties. The purpose of parents for disciplining is to stop a child from doing what is wrong by using an unpleasant approach to call his attention. Parents disciplinary methods serve as a strong model to a child that teaches and prepare him how to deal with challenges that life has to offer. The National Association of Social Workers (2012) believed that it is important for the parents to show appropriate behaviors to their children because they themselves serve as role model to their young. According to Protaciode Castro (2005) in the Philippine setting, parents and adults in the family associate child rearing with discipline. In addition, the most familiar method used is physical punishment stated by Ong, et al., (2008). Physical punishment is supported by Philippine Law such as: Parents are allowed to physically punish their children as a formation of good character of the child as reflected in Article 45 of Presidential Decree No. 603, known as The Child and Youth Welfare Code (Article 45, PD 603). The purpose of this study is to determine the different disciplinary practice Filipino parents apply in disciplining their children. Specifically, this study seeks to answer the following questions: First, what are the different methods parents use to discipline their children? Second, who is being feared most when it comes to giving the discipline at home- the father or the mother? Lastly, is there a difference between the father and the mother when it comes to giving disciplinary methods to their children? It is assumed that females have a higher tendency to apply physical punishment to discipline their children than males, due to the longer time spent by the child with the mother.

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This study will prove to be beneficial to future researchers who are willing to know more about the disciplinary strategies of Filipino parents. This could also benefit the Philippine policy makers to be guided if parents have gone too far with how they discipline their children. This may also serve as a guide to parents regarding what is acceptable as physical punishment. Review of Related Literature Previous research has suggested that the use of punishment is widely endorsed in the American society (Straus, 2000; Straus & Stewart, 1999). This is supported by the study of Lansford et al. (2010) which had 17% of parents believed that the use of physical punishment as a disciplinary method was necessary to rear the target child. A study from Afifi, Brownridge, Cox, & Sareen (2006), defined that physical punishment, as a means of disciplining children, may be considered a mild form of childhood adversity. Baumrind (1996) believed that a parent could influence how children do in school, relate to others, and whether or not they develop the personal strengths which help them to thrive and be able to best deal with lifes stresses. As sited by Sanapo (2011), in her study, according to Proctacio-De Castro (2005) explains that parents and adults in the Philippines equate childrearing with discipline; the most common method used by Filipino parents is physical punishment. Physical punishment at home is reinforced by Philippine law which allows parents to physically punish their children as may be necessary for the formation of his good character. There are cultural factors and life situations that could possibly affect how parents discipline their children. And experiences, in turn, affect the way you discipline your own children. Punishment is acceptable when it is properly measured and supports the intrinsic worth of people as moral agents (Seifried, 2008). What HE Says The father acts as the strong base of the family, his responsibility is to mold and prepare his child to become strong and would have to stand on their own. The more involved the father in his fathering, the more positive direct effect this has on the role of mothers (Shuler, 2002). How is a Filipino father similar from those of the other countries? A father serves as the protector and provider of the family. Fathers perceived themselves as using more controlthrough arousal of guilt and anxiety (Cohen, Dibble, Grawe, 1977) which explains that fathers must take charge of the situation and gives the physical punishments. Males perceived punishment as more appropriate than females (Kelder, McNamara, Carlson, Lynn 1991). A father can occasionally beat his son when it is deemed necessary to discipline in a boy (Rydstrom, 2006). Boys were more frequently to receive a physical punishment than girls (Lansford et al. 2010). Child Protective Services (CPS) generally cited that fathers are the abuse perpetrators, abused boys and girls often reported experiencing physical maltreatment from both parents according to Sunday et al. (2008). What SHE Says Mothers perceived themselves as being profoundly morechild centered (Cohen et al., 1977). Her responsibility is to nurture, support and love her child unconditionally. But what happens when discipline enters the picture? Mothers were found to be the most frequent users of physical punishment according to Sanapo (2011). As she being able to witness every step her
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child makes, she is also the first to correct those mistakes. Mothers have a higher tendency to use physical punishment as a disciplinary method because she spends more time with her child than the childs father. Lansford et al. (2010) affirmed this issue that state that mothers use corporal punishment more frequently than fathers do. Based on the observational and self-report method of Arnold &O'Leary (1997) mothers were more over-reactive in their discipline than fathers. But the research done by Sunday et al. (2008) showed that mothers were perceived as more caring and less controlling; were reported to have a closer relationships with their children, and were less likely to use harsh punishment than do fathers. What THEY Say Children share the same basic needs for safety, health, nurturance, and dignity (Paintal, 2007). Mothers use physical punishment much more than fathers do, although it was fathers whom the children feared most because of his strong build (Guttmann, Lazar, Makhoul 2009). A mother and father are two unique individuals, a reflection of the difference between men and women. According to Bunting, Webb, Healy (2010) parents are often ambivalent about physical discipline, they do not view it as an optimal method of behavior management and are more prone to smack when stressed or angry. Parents may express the same things differently, but the reasoning behind the method is usually the exact same thing. Mother and father differences include culture, personality, family size, parental background, socioeconomic status, educational level and religion. According to McKinney, Milone, & Renk (2011) parenting styles and discipline are both correlated with emerging adult emotional adjustment, for females but not males when examined simultaneously with perceived discipline. Findings of Rinaildi & Howe (2012) revealed that mothers' and fathers' parenting styles have a 44% of the variance in a child externalizing behavior, particular in a permissive parenting by mothers and authoritarian parenting by fathers. Synthesis According to Afifi, Brownridge, Cox, & Sareen (2006), defined that physical punishment, as a means of disciplining children, may be considered a mild form of childhood adversity. Fathers perceived themselves as using more controlthrough arousal of guilt and anxiety (Cohen, Dibble, Grawe, 1977) which explains that fathers must take charge of the situation and gives the physical punishments. Males perceived punishment as more appropriate than females (Kelder, McNamara, Carlson, Lynn 1991). Mothers were found to be the most frequent users of physical punishment according to Sanapo (2011). As she being able to witness every step her child makes, she is also the first to correct those mistakes. Mothers have a higher tendency to use physical punishment as a disciplinary method because she spends more time with her child than the childs father. Parents may express the same things differently, but the reasoning behind the method is usually the exact same thing. Compilation of studies guided the researcher to come up with the study of gender difference on disciplinary practices of Filipino parents to seek the commonly used approach on discipline and if there is a difference from a father and mother in terms of disciplining their child.

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Method Research Design This study will use a qualitative design. A structured interview using an open-ended questionnaire especially formulated for the study will be utilized. The questions will be derived from conversational encounter with parents and observations from relatives with children aged 112. Participants Employees of a large educational institution with children aged 1-12 were recruited for this study. Participants were chosen using purposive sampling based on the age of their children. Instruments This study will use an open-ended questionnaire as a guide to the interview. Basic information such as age, number of children and marital status are asked in the questionnaire. For the deeper conversation of the interview, information that will be asked: Experiences that he/she had experiences growing up? How do your parents discipline you as a child? Do you apply the same method to your child now? The following are some questions that will be asked to each participant. Procedure The study was conducted in large CHED recognized college. The researchers asked some employees to help in gathering the data for the said study. Since there is no specific age required to qualify as a participant, as long as he/she has a child aged 1-12. When the set of participants are already chosen, a cover letter was attached in the instrument asking for their approval to be a participant of the study. After, handing out the instrument the researcher will give time for the participants to answer the questionnaire. A 16-item open ended questionnaire was given to the participants. They were given ample time to answer the questionnaire to ensure an honest response. But with participants who request to return it the next day, it will be followed and respected. Data Analysis Qualitative design is being used by the researcher to gather data that is need in this study and the researcher would be responsible to interpret all the given data. In interpreting the results researcher must first, evaluate the purpose of the study. Responses of the participants would be analyzed and be connected on the purpose of the study. Second, the date would be sorted out according to the similar response and point of view of the respondents. Third, would be summarizing and categorizing the data gathered by the researcher that answers the objective of the study. And lastly, conclusion and recommendation will be constructed.

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Results The following findings came from responses of 17 parents who participated in the study. There were 9 mothers and 8 fathers. Originally, there were 21 respondents identified to participate in the study, however, four (4) of them did not return the questionnaire. All of these respondents have children whose age ranges from 1-12 years old at the time of the data gathering. Discipline Discipline as defined by parents in the study is any action that would mold the child to be a good person and an act of teaching the child to be responsible. Both mothers and fathers viewed discipline alike. They both considered it as important. In fact one father said thatFather1: Personally, there are many aspects of discipline. Some of these are emotional, spiritual, financial, social, and the commonly used is physical. Discipline is important for us parents. It emphasize that parents are the authority at home, not the children. One mother also said Mother7: Discipline must put into practice regulations, restraints, authority and or punishment if needed. That will serve as a guide also to my children. A child must learn to experience good discipline at home before experiencing it with others or even in the society, like one mother said Mother 5: Discipline should come from parents before anyone else like teachers or grandparents and must be taught early. One mother quoted Mother 9: Discipline must be love with limits Actual Disciplinary Practices of Filipino Parents Whenever children violate a rule at home, parents do not implement punishment right away. According to most of them, verbal warning is done first before anything else. If the child repeats the same violation, it will result to grounding the child, giving extra household chores or the commonly used punishment which is spanking. In fact one father statedFather1: As a father, I discipline my kids through verbal warnings, if they repeatedly fail to listen its time for me to get my sinturon to punish them. And one mother saidMother7: I confer first the child what really happened then point out the consequences of what the child had done and let them realize the consequences and lastly implement punishment depending on the severity of the mistake. Another disciplinary practice was said to be somehow influenced by their parents. Most of the respondents avoid applying the same method their parents used on them when it comes to punishing their children. One father said Father1: My mother is the only disciplinarian in our home. As I have observed, it will be more effective if the father is the one who discipline his child. Reading successful family stories and learning from it teaches me on what disciplinary method I should implement on my kids. Generation of kids today is different from before, which makes parents careful on the methods they use to discipline their children as one mother saidMother2: No, I dont apply the same methods, thats why disciplining your child is very critical because as parents, you have the tendency to do the same thing. Times have changed. Then, we were not able to voice out or speak up when we did something wrong, were just punished and listen to the unending scoldings. Now, with my two kids, since we have encouraged them to voice out how they feel, you have to level up with them.

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Parents also observe equal and fair attention in disciplining their children, but the age of the child is considered like mother saidMother8: My daughter is 2 years old and my son is 7. I give appropriate punishment and consider their age. Attitude towards discipline Applying punishment to a child should depend on how heavy the mistake or misbehavior the child did. 6 out of 9 mothers answered that a child should experience physical punishment to learn a lesson but the punishment must depend on the level of the misbehavior, the age of the child is considered on what punishment should be given. According to one of the mothers said Mother8: Yes, until age 7 because they need to feel something concrete and real in terms of consequence. But it is usually done when he tends to do a wrong behavior too much. Another mother answered Mother2: Yes, but not all circumstances that you have to apply it. It depends on the level or weight of the misbehavior. Today, it is important that you talk with your child and as parents, you have to discuss how you will give punishment, more importantly how you will discipline your child/children. Most of the fathers do not agree with physical punishment on their children, unless it is necessary. One father answered Father3: No, because its effective but now a days it seems that children spanked by parents dont remember the lesson that are being forcibly taught, and instead remember the pain. It doesnt mean that all parents who have crossed the line from discipline to abuse should be put in jail. Another one said Father4: No, I believe it would cause a negative notion to the child and might have a perception that discipline is physical punishment. Another aspect is that parents follows the teachings in the Holy Scripture in applying discipline, in fact one father said Father1: As a Christian and father, I hold the teachings of the Holy Scripture that we should not uphold the punishment to our children. It is my duty to physically punish my children if they are fighting each other (inisan) through non-sense, quarreling and arguing. An important practice Filipino parents do is having an open communication towards their children. Parents attitude on explaining the consequences of the actions and letting the child understand why he/she received such punishment. Like one mother said Mother8: Its the processing that matters. If the spanking is the experience, the process is the remembered event. A father stated that Father1: Depending on the offense they make most of the time they already knew why I disciplined them, common sense on their part. Feeling after giving punishment Giving punishment to a child is an example of tough love. No parent wants to see his/her child in pain but punishment is needed to help mold the character and the senses of responsibility of the child. All respondents felt bad every time they will punish their children, especially when the child starts to cry. In fact one mother said Mother 8: Life is harder and ruthless. If this will remind them that making a mistake may lead to painful consequences. I will do it until a certain age like 7 years old. One father also stated Father5: Sometimes you cant get positive response especially when my child was hurt. You need to wait for a while for him to realize that he was wrong. He would simply say sorry for what he did.
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Discussion Parenting is a path which does not allow any turning back and it is a trial and error process in terms of raising a child. It also takes a lot of effort, patience, love and understanding. It is parents obligation to mold a good character of his/her child and to teach them the sense of responsibility. By doing so, parents are preparing their children for a better future. To help parents accomplish their obligation they must apply discipline at home. Results of the study revealed that parents use different strategies in disciplining their children. One of them is verbal warning and another is the use of physical punishment. These strategies are shared by other parents in other parts of the world (Straus, 1994; Straus & Stewart, 1999). Parents in the study view discipline as a significant aspect of child-rearing. In fact, from their responses one could infer that they assume it to be sole responsibility of parents. This belief in the importance of discipline is consistent with what Beazley, et al. (2006) found in the review of literature in the Philippines. According to Beazley, et al. (2006), Filipino parents would even feel guilty if they dont discipline their children. Discipline, in the context of the study, refers to punishment as well. Filipino parents who participated in the survey, view discipline and punishment as one. This findings support Protacio-de Castros (2005) claim that parents and adults in the Philippines equate discipline with punishment. Parent in the study may have the same purpose why they punish their children, but they differ on how they administer the punishment. When they were asked what happens when the child doesnt follow the rules at home and when the child is mischievous, results showed that most parents warn the child first to get the his/her attention. Some parents would allow even up to three warnings while others would just warn once and if they were ignored, they will use physical punishment on the child. The majority mentioned spanking as the alternative to verbal warnings. From parents responses, it seemed like the use of physical punishment is inevitable in rearing a Filipino child. This finding is consistent with the perception of 17% of parents in the study of Lansford et al. (2010). According to these parents, the use of physical punishment as a disciplinary method was necessary to rear the target child. In addition, this result is not different from previous studies in the US. Straus (2000) and Straus & Stewart (1999) indicated in their research that the use of punishment is widely endorsed in the American society. This seemed to imply that parents in different culture agree to the use of physical punishment only if the purpose is to discipline the target child and if non-physical form of punishments were explored first. A study conducted by Afifi, Brownridge, Cox, & Sareen (2006), on the other hand, indicated that physical punishment may be considered a mild form of childhood adversity. Therefore, its use on children must not be tolerated. When responses of fathers and mothers were compared with regards to the type of physical punishment given to their children, results revealed that there seemed to be no difference because both fathers and mothers in the study reported that they give warnings first before punishment. However, some fathers in the study seemed to imply that they thought they
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were the one who should discipline the child given their role as head of the family. One father even mentioned the Holy Scripture as justification for using physical punishment on his child. This result supports findings of Cohen, Dibble, Grawe (1977) which suggested that fathers must take charge of the situation and give the physical punishment when necessary. From responses of fathers in the study, it seemed like they perceived the use of physical punishment as appropriate. This is consistent with what Kelder, McNamara, Carlson, & Lynn (1991) found in their research. However, in the study conducted by Sanapo & Nakamura (2011) in southern Philippines, mothers were found to be the most frequent users of physical punishment. The discrepancy in the findings could be due to the fact that in this study both fathers and mothers have regular jobs where they work from eight in the morning to five oclock in the afternoon, whereas in Sanapo & Nakamura (2011), only fathers seemed to have jobs and mothers were full-time housewives. Therefore, mothers in the study conducted Sanapo & Nakamura (2011) spent more time with their children than do fathers while in this study both mothers and fathers spend relatively the same number of hours with their children. The role of parents in instilling the right values to the children is important. Imposing disciplines to children differ from one family to the other but the main objective is to inculcate among the children what are the right values. Conclusion and Recommendation The researcher concluded that in the Philippine culture, the context of discipline refers to punishment as well. Filipino mothers and fathers share the same purpose why they punish their children. Filipino parents use warnings as a disciplinary practice to call the attention of the child then if the warning is ignored, spanking follows. The fear of the child towards punishment depends on the authority giving the punishment. Lastly, Filipino mother and father has no difference when giving disciplinary action, parents share the same method, such as warnings first before anything else. The researcher recommends this study to focus on the different aspects why parents punish their children, besides misbehavior there are other reasons why parents give punishment. Future researchers could also look into the effective approach of discipline in a childs perspective. Another aspect is that researcher could focus on the family, involving both father and mother and their child on how discipline works inside their home. References Afifi, T.O.; Brownridge, D.A.; Cox, B.J.; Sareen, J. (2006). Physical Punishment, Childhood Abuse and Psychiatric Disorders: Child Abuse & Neglect: The International Journal, v30 n10 p1093-1103 Oct 2006. Retrieve: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2006.04.006 Arnold, E.H., OLeary, S.G. (1997). Mothers and Fathers Discipline of Hard-to-Manage Toddlers: Children & Family Behavior Therapy, v19 n3 p1-11. Retrieve: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/recordDetails.jsp?searchtype=keyword& pageSize=10&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=disciplinary+styles+of+fathers&eric_dis playStartCount=1&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=kw&_pageLabel=RecordDetails&ob jectId=0900019b8011be1a&accno=EJ562301&_nfls=false

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Bunting, L., Webb, M., Healy, J. (2010). In Two Minds?--Parental Attitudes toward Physical Punishment in the UK: Children & Society, v24 n5 p359-370 Sep 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1099-0860.2009.00245.x Guttmann, J., Lazar, A., Makhoul, S. (2009). Physical Punishment in Christian Arab Families in Israel: Attitudes and Behaviour : Children & Society, v23 n6 p430-441 Nov 2009. doi.org/10.1111/j.1099-0860.2008.00199.x Hess, C.A, Gray, J.M, Nunez, N.L. (2012). The Effect of Social Dominance Orientation on Perceptions of Corporal Punishment: J Interpers Violence. 2012 Feb 10. PMID:22328652 Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22328652 Kelder, McNamara, Carlson, Lynn. (1991) Perceptions of Physical Punishment: The Relation to Childhood and Adolescent Experiences. doi: 10.1177/088626091006004003 J Interpers Violence December 1991 vol. 6 no. 4 432-445 Lansford J.E, Alampay L.P., Al-Hassan S., Bacchini D., Bombi A.S., Bornstein M.H.,. . . Zelli A. (2010). Corporal Punishment of children in nine countries as a function of child gender and parent gender: Int J Pediatr. 2010;2010:672780. Epub 2010 Sep 23. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20976255 McKinney, C., Milone, M.C., Renk, K. (2011). Parenting and Late Adolescent Emotional Adjustment: Mediating Effects of Discipline and Gender: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, v42 n4 p463-481 Aug 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10578-011-0229-2 National Association of Social Workers (2012).Physical Punishment of Children. Retrieved: http://www.naswdc.org/resources/abstracts/abstracts/physical.asp Ong M, Domingo J, Balanon F. 2008. Corporal punishment in the Philippines. In A Time for Change: Ending All Corporal Punishment of Children. Save the Children Sweden: Quezon City. January 31, 2009 Retrieve from: http://www.pstcrrc.org/docs/CorpPunishment_Book_2.pdf Paintal, S. (2007). Banning Corporal Punishment of Children: An ACEI Position Paper: Childhood Education, v83 n6 p410 Aug 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.acei.org/ Protacio- de Castro E. 2005. Negotiating Trust and Power: Parenting in the context of conflict resolution. Psychosocial Trauma and Human Rights Program, Center for Integrative and Development Studies, University of the Philippines; Quezon City: Save the Children. March 27, 2007 Retrieve from: http://web.archive.org/web/20060823191315/www.child protection.org.ph/monthlyfeatures/mar2k5b.doc Rinaldi, C.M., Howe, N. (2012). Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Styles and Associations with Toddlers' Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behaviors: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, v27 n2 p266-273 2012. Retrieved: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2011.08.001

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Rydstrom, H. (2006). Masculinity and Punishment: Men's Upbringing of Boys in Rural Vietnam. Childhood: A Global Journal of Child Research, v13 n3 p329-348 2006. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/090756820606635 Sanapo, M., Nakamura, V. (2011). Gender and physical punishment: the Filipino childrensexperience. Retrieved:http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/car.1148/abstract Seifried, C. (2008). Examining Punishment and Discipline: Defending the Use of Punishment by Coaches. Quest, v60 n3 p370-386 Aug 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.humankinetics.com/QUEST/viewarticle.cfm?jid=xzzCVs2vxbdRXyTpxhhL Dy88xhnUR3kmxnuCH6zaxsyEQ8&aid=16035&site=xzzCVs2vxbdRXyTpxhhLDy88x hnUR3kmxnuCH6zaxsyEQ8 Shuler, S. (2002).Parenting Styles: The Importance of Father. Retrieve: http://www.familylifeworks.ca/Files/The%20Importance%20of%20Fathering.pdf

Smith, A. (2006). The state of research on the effects of physical punishment. Retrieved: http://www.msd.govt.nz/about-msd-and-our-work/publicationsresources/journals-andmagazines/social-policy-journal/spj27/the-state-of-research-on-effects-of-physicalpunishment-27-pages114-127.html Sunday, S., Labruna, V., Kaplan, S., Pelcovitz, D., Newman, J., Salzinger, S. (2008). Physical Abuse during Adolescence: Gender Differences in the Adolescents' Perceptions of Family Functioning and Parenting. Child Abuse & Neglect: The International Journal, v32 n1 p5-18 Jan 2008. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2007.03.025 Telep, V. (2009). Discipline for young children-Discipline and Punishment: What is the difference? Retrieved: http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/350/350-111/350-111.html

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Instructor-made Videos and the Mathematical Performance of Elementary Pupils


Darius Immanuel Guerrero Gladys Lazo
The traditional method of teaching children while using printed handouts have been more so used than any other medium. However, because of the low academic performance of the Philippines compared to other countries, it is important to seek alternatives. Comparing the effectiveness of this method with instructor-based video method is the focus of this paper. A quasi-experimental design was used and 20 participants in Grade 3 were assigned to two matched groups: video group and printed group. The researcher designed a math test in collaboration with a Grade 3 teacher to collect data from both groups. Descriptive statistics and an independent sample t-test were used to analyze the data. Independent sample t-test showed significant values: t(18)=2.169, p=0.044. Using the standard alpha level of p<0.05, the results indicated that the users of the instructor-made video performed significantly better than the users who used the traditional method of studying with printed handouts.

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The researcher has observed many instances that a child is not able to learn properly. The researchers brother, aged 8, is unable to understand mathematical lessons written in the textbook. An adult, particularly the mother or the researcher himself, has to show how the steps and how the computations are done. The same is true for another child observed, this time aged 9. It seems that written instructions are not enough to make children learn. The Philippines was ranked a poor 112th in math and science for primary education in 2011 (De Leon, 2011). It is important to note that the Philippines spend 1100 minutes per week for math as compared to 360 minutes spent by Malaysia, which is higher in rank. Guillermo M. Luz, co-chairman of the National Competitiveness Council (NCC), has said that one of the possible solutions to address this problem is to integrate technology in education. One of the reasons to shift away from the usual printed material for teaching is because it is prone to mistakes. Despite the longer hours allotted for math and science, the Philippines has been unimpressive in rank for math and science in primary education. The researcher believes that alternatives to the traditional textbook style mentoring should be studied and taken into consideration. The researcher hypothesizes that an instructor-made video serves as a supplemental learning tool that could better enhance the learning experience and the performance of a learner. This tool could benefit the child greatly when it comes to studying lessons at home. Imagine the teacher asking a child to watch a video at home instead of reading a printed material. It could lessen the childs apathy for the lesson. This research is important because it could provide alternatives for the usual textbook style learning. This research could serve as additional reference for organizations looking for ways to address the problems in Philippine education. The researcher purports to answer what is the level of math performance for students using video and for students using the traditional method. Is there a significant difference in the performance of the students using video and the students using the traditional method? If so, is

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an instructor-made video a more effective approach for learning mathematical lessons for children, or is it the traditional mode of written instructions? Review of Related Literature The studies in the review of related literature attempt to demonstrate and support the hypotheses that video as an instructional strategy has a favourable effect in learning. Theories on how videos enhance learning Video is a powerful learning tool because it can capture and present information in a non-textual way. It provides a multi-sensory environment that may improve the ability of the learner to retain information (Syed, 2001). Clark and Mayer (2002), theorized that video learning works because in order for information to be part of long term memory, one of the processes is dual encoding. Dual encoding is a theory that content communicated with text and graphics is encoded by the brain as a verbal and visual code, giving the brain a higher opportunity to learn as opposed to learners using text by itself only. One statement of the study makes the hypothesis Working memory has two substorage areas one for visual information and one for phonetic information. One way to stretch the capacity of working memory is to utilize both of these storage areas. According to Gholson and Craig (2006), videos support constructive thinking and help deepen comprehension during vicarious learning, which is a form of learning that does not physically interact with the source of the content to be mastered. The video encourages constructivist learning because the learner will have to give meaning and interpret the information observed on the video on his own. Another reason why videos work is because they usually provide worked examples. Work examples are instructional devices that help the learner study by providing experts solutions to problems. An effective instruction employs multiple examples (Atkinson, Derry, Renkl, & Wortham, 2000). Additional studies by Mayer, this time joining with Moreno (2002), has brought about the theory that even though the learners know the computers are inanimate, the act of conversing with the computers stimulate the ingrained unconscious social conventions that helps the learner have an enhanced learning experience. This is because even if learners consciously have the awareness that the computer providing the video is inanimate, learners want to listen in order to satisfy the unconscious need to respond appropriately like it is a real social person. Video as a Teaching Tool In a study conducted on 3rd and 8th grade pupils comparing the pupils who received video instruction to those who did not, it was revealed that the students who received the video scored higher. Admittedly, the researchers recommended that the difference may not entirely be related to the video itself, and suggested further trials (Boster, Mayer, Roberto, Inge & Strom, 2006).

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In a similar experiment but with accounting majors as its participants, it was revealed that the experimental group using the video also scored higher than the control group. The study cited that the learning styles, preparation and prior knowledge between the two groups are not significantly different. It is not definitive but it is most likely that the video is responsible for the difference (Balslev, De Grave, Muijtjen, & Scherpbier, 2005). Similar results are not limited to classroom settings. Paul Van Mele headed a study in Africa wherein women farmers from different villages were participants. His team wanted to test the effectiveness of video as a learning tool by teaching the women farmers to parboil rice by steaming it instead of boiling it so it would be easier to mill. Some villages were invited to attend workshops while some villages were invited to watch a video. The results indicated that 72 percent of the women farmers who watched the video accepted and used the parboiling technique as opposed to the 19 percent who attended a regular workshop with a scientist or government worker (Zossou, Van Mele, Vodouhe &Wanvoeke , 2009). Meanwhile, a research by Isiaka (2007) in Nigeria determined that children taught agricultural and environmental issues performed as well as the traditional group. The author suggested that videos should be used to teach various subjects to children and adults in the formal school system. The author recommended to the state schools management board that there should be a department procured that is in charge with video production. Visualizations in the video may be what gives it an edge over purely written work. Research findings suggest that if 3-year old children were instructed to visualize a solution to a problem, they would succeed. One group of children was asked to visualize the ball rolling down the tube before they made their predictions, a second group was given identical instructions without being asked to use visual imagery, and a third group was given no instructions. Children in the visualization condition performed significantly better than those in the other conditions, suggesting that encouraging young children to use visual imagery may help them to reason through difficult problems (Joh, Jaswal, & Keen, 2011). However, in this study the experimenter giving instructions could have been giving cues or affecting the predictions of the children. The study is also limited to 3-year olds and this study could have benefited more if they tried to find out what age visual imagery is not necessary for this exercise. Visual aids are also effective as a teaching approach. In fact, according to Coles (2011), videos and clips can sometimes be more effective than classroom discussions. However, when teaching spatial tasks, it could be disadvantageous because it encourages shallow performance strategies and little exploration (Yuviler-Gavish, Yechiam, & Kallai, 2011). Improvements to the learning tool In another study by Mayer and Moreno (2000) also stated that videos would be more effective if it adhered to four design principles. These four principles are modality, contiguity, coherence, and redundancy. Modality means that it is better to present two modes of presentation than just one, meaning that learners who view a video while listening to a narration will learn better and faster. Continguity means that children understand if words and pictures are shown simultaneously in the same time frame of the video rather than separately. Coherence principle means that an effective video shows few rather than many words and pictures. The redundancy principle means that repetitive information in the video should be avoided because it hurts learning. This is because repetitive information increases the demand on working memory, making it difficult for the learner to integrate it with other sources of information.
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Students have a positive attitude towards video as a learning tool, and even more if the instructor is part of the video. Based on research by Rose (2009), videos made by instructors to assist lessons are perceived positively by learners. The studys objective was to examine learners perception about instructor-made videos that provided explanations of course assignments and discussed weekly topics in both online and face-to-face courses, the learners surveyed expressed satisfaction with the method. Open-ended questions revealed that students feel more connected to the instructor. In the question of who should be the model shown in the video to teach lessons, McCoy and Hermansen (2007) said that all models are effective, but some models are more effective than others. If the model is familiar to the learner, the more effective the video is to vicarious learning. Video as a learning tool would be more efficient if the child has an ability to manipulate a video as one could with regular text instruments. The same way a child can flip through pages as one studies, a video would provide comparable benefits if the child were provided with videos that could be stopped, paused, forwarded and browsing the video. This study states that video is at least as efficient as text-based learning (Merkt, Weigand, Heier, & Schwan, 2011). A similar result was produced in a study by Zhang, Zhou, Briggs, and Nunamaker (2006), wherein students who were given the power to manipulate the video achieved better understanding and higher learner satisfaction, while those whose videos were not interactive did not have a better result than the traditional method. Synthesis Taken together, the results indicate that video may have a hand in enhancing performance. Although researchers (Balslev, De Grave, Muijtjen, & Scherpbier, 2005; Boster, Mayer, Roberto, Inge & Strom, 2006) are not definitive about it, they postulate that the video is most likely the cause of increases in performance. It also seems that people are more likely to accept information from a video than from traditional methods, (Zossou, Van Mele, Vodouhe &Wanvoeke , 2009). On how the video works as a learning tool, Clark and Mayer (2002) theorizes that it is because they provide the learner more opportunities to retain the information. According to Mayer and Moreno (2000), an effective video is adhering to the principles of modality, continguity, coherence and redundancy. Studies also suggest that learning would be more effective if learners could manipulate the video like they could when flipping pages in a handout, (Merkt, Weigand, Heier, & Schwan, 2011; Zhang, Zhou, Briggs, and Nunamaker, 2006) and if the instructor is present in the video (Rose, 2009). The researcher seeks to further the studies of previous similar experiments on the related literature. There is a lack of research on whether instructor-made videos will enhance the learning experience of a mathematics tutorial at home. Method Research Design The researcher made use of a matched groups quasi-experimental design. This design separates experimental groups for each particular treatment, but relies upon matching every subject in one group with an equivalent in another. The idea behind this is that it reduces the
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chances of an extraneous variable such as the differences between groups affecting the result. However, it could not be a full experimental design because the researcher was faced with limiting conditions that prevented the possibility of conducting the study with equal settings for all participants. In this case, the researcher used this design to avoid a scenario where one group is filled with kids that are more mathematically gifted and the other group was not. Participants The participants consisted of 20 Filipino children. They were aged 7-9 and studying in Grade level 3 at a particular private school in Bacoor, Cavite. They must not be mentally handicapped and must be able to read, write, understand English and already has a basic knowledge of math. Materials The first instrument was a printed handout that showed the steps involved in order to solve for multiplication of two-digit by two-digit numbers. These were printed in 3 pages of short bond paper. The next instrument was a video created by the researcher to explain how to multiply two-digit by two-digit numbers. The instructor has appeared in the video to create a stronger connection with the instrument and the learner (Rose, 2009). The video was an informational equivalent with the handout that it covered the same steps and same order of conceptual information on how to solve for the product of two-digit by two-digit numbers. The video included a narration by the researcher and animation showing the process and adheres to Mayer and Morenos principles for multimedia learning (2000). The test questions were mathematics questions created by the researcher and validated by a grade school mathematics teacher. There were 15 items, with questions about multiplying twodigit by two-digit numbers. Procedure First, the researcher approached the school wherein the participants were currently enrolled to ask for a list of grades, assistance for making the test, and the possibility of conducting the study within the school. The researcher was denied the list of grades and the classroom to be used as a setting but the mathematics teacher for Grade 3 agreed to help in the creation of the materials. The researchers little brother was enrolled in the same school and grade level. The researcher asked his brother for assistance in going to the different houses of the Grade 3 students of the school. The researcher then went to parents of qualified participants asking for the participation of their child. After the researcher has confirmed 20 participants, the researcher inquired each of them or their guardians in their households what their final ratings were for their 2nd grade math subject by looking at their report cards. The researcher then used the grades to create a matched two groups design with rank-ordered matching to distribute the respondents according to their ability. The basis for matching the children were their grades in their Grade 2 math subject. The researcher made use of a coin flip to randomly determine which member of each pair would go to treatment A and treatment B.
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The members of the first group used a printed hand out. The participant could repeat and manipulate the pages however they want to. Along with the handout is guidance by the researcher. Members of the second group watched a video on laptop teaching the same lessons. Part of the video is the very same guidance by the researcher. The participant could forward, pause and rewind the video however they wanted to. After the participant felt ready, the researcher administered a mathematical test. The test was developed by the researcher through test try outs and collaboration with the grade school teacher of the participants. The final version of the mathematical test has been validated by the grade school math teacher. The scores on the test were measured. After obtaining the data, the researcher used statistical analysis to compare the scores of the two groups. Statistical Design The scores on the test were compared using a T-test. A T-test is used to evaluate differences between two groups. For this experiment, the T-test for independent groups were used. T-test can be used for samples even as small as four. The T-test can find the p-value that gives the likelihood that the difference between the scores of the two groups occurred by chance. If there is less than 5% that the difference occurred by chance, there is a significant difference. The researcher used SPSS Statistics 17.0 for the comparison of the scores between groups. Results Scores were tallied from the mathematics test. Descriptive statistics were used to quantitatively describe the main features of the collection of scores. The central tendency was obtained using mean analysis and the dispersion was analyzed with standard deviation. Levenes test was used to measure the variance of the two groups. An independent sample t-test was used to determine if there is a significant difference between the two groups and that the differences were not a product of chance. Table showing the participants scores in the mathematics test. Video Group Participant Learner A Learner B Learner C Learner D Test Score Print Group Participant Learner K Learner L Learner M Learner N Test Score

8 7 10 12

6 4 11 5

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Learner E Learner F Learner G Learner H Learner I Learner J Mean Score: Standard Deviation

11 12 6 8 9 12 9.5 2.224

Learner O Learner P Learner Q Learner R Learner S Learner T Mean Score: Standard Deviation

7 9 8 5 10 8 7.3 2.312

An independent samples t-test was used to compare the scores of the group that received the video treatment and the group that did not. Analyzing the results with SPSS 17.0 group statistics revealed that the group that received the video as treatment with a population of ten (N=10) obtained an average score of 9.5 (SD=2.224) and a standard error mean of 0.703. The printed group with a population of ten (N=10) obtained an average score of 7.3 (SD=2.312) and a standard error mean of 7.31. The standard deviation is the indicator of the spread of the distribution. This means that the scores of both groups were generally close to the mean and only 16% of the video group got a score higher than 11.724 and only 16% of the printed group got higher than 9.612. There was a difference not only in the mean but in the extremes of the scores as well. The video group received a 2.2 higher mean than the printed group. The significance level for Levenes test is 1.00 which means the two groups had equal variance on the dependent variable. This means the two groups had their scores spread out similarly. This is because the two groups had a small and similar standard deviation. Independent sample t-test showed significant values: t(18)=2.169, p=0.044. This means that the scores of the participants who received the video as an instrument in their learning are significantly higher than those who did not. Specifically, this means that when people use video to help them learn math, their performance on tests increases.

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Discussion These result confirms the previous studies (Boster, Meyer, Roberto, Inge & Strom, 2006; Balslev, De Grave, Muijtjen, & Scherpbier, 2005; Zossou, Van Mele, Vodouhe &Wanvoeke , 2009) that video may enhance the instructors intended performance of the learner. However, this cannot discredit the studies of Isiaka (2007) that video is only just as good as the traditional method because these results reported only a 2.2 difference in the mean of the video group and the mean of the printed group. The video may have been effective because it follows the four principles of design by Mayer and Moreno (2000). Modality is observed because a text accompanied by narration is part of the video. The video was coherent because the graphics were not complex and only showed the solutions. The continguity principle is also followed because the example of the solutions was shown simultaneously with the explanations. The video was not redundant because it did not show the same example again and again but different examples that are of widely different values. The researcher has observed that the children who were presented with the video displayed more enthusiasm than those who used a regular printed handout for studying. The appearance of the instructor on the video has brought a smile to the learner. This reflects the results of the study (Rose, 2009) that videos with the instructor in it creates a stronger emotional connection for the learner. This also reflects the research done by McCoy and Hermansen (2007) that if the model is familiar, the video will be more effective. The researcher has also observed the children pausing, rewinding and exploring the video. This is because of the benefits of viewing the video on a laptop on their own. According to a study by Merkt, Weigand, Heier, and Schwan (2011), this makes the video more efficient and encourages the child to self-regulate his/her learning. This is also a similar result in the Zhang, Zhou, Briggs, and Nunamaker (2006) study that learners get higher satisfaction from manipulating the video. This encourages constructivist thinking and self-directed learning (Gholson and Craig, 2006). The learners also display private speech behavior, as they talk to themselves while watching the video which might be a sign of the theory that the learners may unconsciously think that the inanimate object teaching them is really a social person conversing with them (Mayer & Moreno, 2002). Conclusion and Recommendations The results of the study accept the hypothesis that instructor-made videos are more efficient than printed hand outs. A higher average of scores was obtained by the group using video to learn multiplication of 2-digit by 2-digit numbers. Decreased apathy towards the lesson was observed in children who were using the video as treatment. Studies have shown that the learners display a positive attitude towards this method. Providing the child with the ability to control and manipulate the video, using audio, speech, and the appearance of the instructor enhances the learning experience of the child. Related studies also state that video also gives the learners more opportunities to retain the information. The results of the study can be of help to instructors. The outcome of the study revealed that video could make learning more retentive to the learner and increase their performance. Using this study, instructors can formulate strategies to make video a very useful supplement in education.
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However, some participants of the printed method have scored higher than their matched pairs in the video group. This might be because matching the two groups by their grades may not have resulted in the two groups being similarly adept at mathematics. Extraneous factors such as previous knowledge, participation of the child, and time of day could have affected the study. The researcher recommends that future researchers attempt to replicate the experiment. Future researchers may use this study as a guide for conducting future experiments. Using this study as reference data, future researchers may be able to work on experiment that attempt to cover variables that this study did not include. Instead of going to households and tutoring the child with video or print, it is suggested that future studies be done in a school environment. The researcher suggests that future studies be done with one whole class watching the video instead of individually, and another class learning traditionally. With the advent of virtual classrooms, and online courses, it is beneficial for more research to be done to test if instructor-made videos still yield the same results in this settings. Variables such as age, gender and lesson topics can also be used in future studies. The researcher also recommends that future researchers consider the time of the day when conducting the experiments because of its affects on the energy levels of the learners and their performance. The month is also a possible variable since the enthusiasm of the learner for academic related activities may change throughout the year. Furthermore, the researcher suggests that future researchers collaborate with a DepEd mathematics consultant to determine the proper difficulty of the test to be constructed. References

Atkinson, K., Derry, S. J., Renkl, A., & Wortham, D. ( 2000). Learning from examples: Instructional principles from the worked examples research. Review Educational Research,70, 181 214.

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Balslev, T., De Grave, W. S., Muijtjens, A. M. M., & Scherpbier, A. J. J. A. (2005). Comparison of text andvideo cases in a postgraduate problem based learning format. Medical Education, 39, 1086-1092. Boster, F. J., Meyer, G. S., Roberto, A. J., Inge, C., and Strom, R. (2006).Some effects of video streaming on educational achievement. Communication Education, 55, 46-62. Clark, R.C. and Mayer, R.E. (2002). E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning Coles, A. (2011). Using Video and Film.Mathematics Teaching , 33-36. De Leon, M. (2011, June 14). Philippine education ranked poor. Business Mirror.Retrieved from http://www.businessmirror.com.ph/home/top-news/12476- Philippine-educationranked-poor. Gholson, B., & Craig, S. D. ( 2006). Promoting constructive activities that support vicarious learning during computer-based instruction.Educational Psychology Review, 18, 119 139.
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Proven

Isiaka, B. (2007). Effectiveness of video as an instructional medium in teaching rural children agricultural and environmental sciences.International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology, 3(3), 105-114. Joh, A. S., Jaswal, V. K., & Keen, R. (2011). Imagining a Way Out of the Gravity Bias: Preschoolers Can Visualize the Solution to a Spatial Problem.Child Development , 744-750. Mayer, M., & R., R. (2000). A cognitive theory of multimedia learning: Implications design principles. Multimedia Learning , 1. for

McCoy, K. & Hermansen, E. (2007). Video modeling for individuals with autism: A review of model types and effects. Education and Treatment ofChildren, 30, 183-213. Merkt, M., Weigand, S., Heier, A., & Schwan, S. (2011). Learning with Videos vs. Learning with Print: The Role of Interactive Features. Learning And Instruction, 21(6), 687704. Moreno, R. & Mayer, R.E. (2002). Verbal redundancy in multimedia learning: When helps listening. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94 (1), 156-163. reading

Rose, K. (2009). Student perceptions of the use of instructor-made videos in online and face-to-face classes.MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 5(3). Syed, M. R. (2001). Diminishing the distance in distance education. IEEE Multimedia, 8(3), 18-21. Yuviler-Gavish, N., Yechiam, E., & Kallai, A. (2011). Learning in multimodal training: Visual guidance can be both appealing and disadvantageous in spatial tasks. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies , 113-122. Zhang, D., Zhou, L., Briggs, R., & Nunamaker, J. (2006). Instructional video in e- learning: Assessing the impact of interactive video on learning effectiveness.Journal Information and Management, 43(1), 15-27. Zossou, E., Van Mele, P., Vodouhe, S., &Wanvoeke , J. (2009). The power of video trigger innovation: rice processing in central brain. International Journal Agricultural Sustainability, 7(2), 119-129. doi: 10.3763/ijas.2009.0438 to of

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Predictors of Production Operators Safe Work Behaviour


Rackee Lu Jaquilmo Butch Dela Cruz
Using the total population (N=150) of Production Operators in a particular Manufacturing Company, this study tested Safety Locus of Control, Safety Compliance and Gender as a Predictor of Safe Work Behavior as well as the Relationship of Safety Locus of Control and Safety Compliance of Production Operators. Self- administered tests, such as Safety Locus of Control (=.753) and Safet y Compliance ( =.720) were used to predict Safe Work Behavior. Present research shows that Safety Locus of Control and Safety Compliance are moderate positively correlated and have significant relationship (r= .404 , p< 0.01) and the Analysis of the Variance (ANOVA) presented that the independent variables such as Safety Locus of Control, Safety Compliance and Gender are significant to Safe Work Behavior which is the Dependent Variable at a p<.05 level. In connection, using the Linear Regression it showed that only Safety Compliance (= .129, p<.05) and Gender (= .231, p<.01) have significant relationship on Safe Work Behavior. However, Safety Locus of Control has no significant relationship with Safe Work Behavior.

For safety is not a gadget but a state of mind. ~Eleanor Everet Safety in the workplace is the joint responsibility of the entire workforce, both of the employer and the employee. Workplace safety is of prime importance since there are workers exposed to imminent danger of high risks while at work, the consequence of an accident could turn out to be fatal. It is very important for workers to understand how to identify hazards and to provide control of such hazards into acceptable level of risk before doing the job. To mention people working in high risk works such as mines, truck-drivers, power line workers, pilots, factory workers etc., who face far graver threats at work? For an employee to work effectively, one should also consider the safety implementations that a company provides and be aware and comply with it. Safety in workplace is the responsibility of the management, which involves making the workplace safer for the employees. The employees also should do their part by complying with the companys safety implementations and rules. Workplace safety ensures that an employee can feel secure about undertaking his routine tasks with complete determination and confidence. But it is also responsibility of employees to religiously follow all safety guidelines and procedures established by employer this undertaking surely attain zero accident and illness to workforce. According to the International Labor Organization, as of 2007 there have been a total of 115 fatal cases and a total of 20, 269 non fatal cases of Occupational injury in the Philippines. 53 cases of fatal injuries were reported in the Manufacturing setting and 12, 373 cases of non fatal injuries. In terms of the rates of Occupational injuries in the Philippines, data gathered from International Labor Organization shows that per 1,000,000 hours of work they have reported 0.02 frequency rate of fatal injuries and 5.21 frequency rate of non fatal injuries in the Manufacturing setting in the Philippines. Frequency rates are generally calculated as the number of new cases of injury during the calendar year divided by the total number of hours worked by workers in the reference group
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during the year, multiplied by 1,000,000. Incidence rates are calculated as the number of new cases of injury during the calendar year divided by the number of workers in the reference group during the year, multiplied by 100,000. (Cited from International Labor Organization) International Labor Organization also gathered data about the Days Lost due to Occupational injuries and it showed that as of 2007, a total of 139,191 working days had been lost and 80,375 coming from the Manufacturing setting. It is obvious with the data gathered above that Occupational injuries happen most likely in the manufacturing setting, garnering almost more than half of the total number of non fatal and fatal injuries as well as to the number of working days lost. This research is conducted for the benefit of the workers in their work settings. Also, for the benefit of employers, at a practical level, improved safety saves money thru quality of workmanship, reduces absenteeism, lessens the employees turnover and improves organisation relationship and prestige. Regardless of what kind of Job, Safety is one of the primary expectations of the workers. This research is expected to determine the relationship of Safety Locus of Control, Safety Compliance and Gender on Production Operators Safe work behaviour. Therefore, this study seeks to answer questions such as; Does Safety Locus of Control of individuals predicts Safe work behaviour? Does Safety Compliance Predict Safe Work Behavior? Does high internality in Safety Locus of Control of workers show that they are high in Safety Compliance? Does Gender predict Safe Work Behavior? Review of Related Literature For a successful and sustainable business, Safety compliance of workforce is an essential element. Companies should provide a safe workplace for their employees and improve their health through better work practices and lifestyles. Safety Compliance involves adhering to safety procedures and carrying out work in a safe manner (Karuppiah, 2011) Safety in the workplace is an important feature of human resources and facilities management. Safety responsibilities should be taken very seriously and the company should have specific processes in place. One of the branches sprouting in the field of Psychology is Industrial Safety or Safety Psychology. Though, Safety is not a well-known application of Psychology.Many organisations are safety compliant: they meet legal requirements and have good systems and processes. But theyre left with a rump of accidents which, when investigated, seem to be caused by people. Typically managers say: If only they followed the rules wed be OK. The safety professionals who know the technical issues how to operate a nuclear reactor or design a train signalling system just cant understand why people are willingly taking risks. Safety psychology addresses these human dimensions of a safe working environment (Marsh, 2010). Thus, there has been a new psychological construct sprouting in Locus of Control which is the Safety Locus of Control. Locus of control is a much studied individual characteristic (Ng,
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Sorensen, & Eby, 2006), which describes the extent to which one believes that the consequences of their behaviours are controlled by themselves (i.e. internal locus of control) versus the environment and others (i.e. external locus of control) (Rotter, 1966). In the occupational safety context, safety-specific locus of control refers to workers beliefs or perceptions about who controls safety events at work. Workers with internal safety locus of control (i.e. internals) tend to believe that they are responsible for their safety and can prevent accidents and injuries. Unlike them, externals tend to believe that accidents and injuries are due to forces outside their control, such as chance, fate, or bad luck (Jones & Wuebker, 1985, p. 152). Safety Work Behavior

From the study conducted by Brown, Willis & Prussia (2000) they included Safe Work Behaviors as a predictive variable in their study about Predicting safe employee behavior in the steel industry: Development and test of a sociotechnical model. Cited that Safe work behaviors and, thus, their reciprocal, unsafe behaviors are important because of their widely acknowledged link with workplace accidents (Mottel et al., 1995; Thompson et al., 1998). Smith (2011) stated the theory that unsafe acts cause most industrial accidents grew out of research conducted from 1931 to 1950 by H.W. Heinrich, considered by many to be the father of modern industrial safety. Heinrich worked in the safety department of Travelers Insurance, where he investigated thousands of industrial incidents and injuries. He concluded that a workers failure was at the heart of accidental injuries and that methods of control must be directed toward that failure (Heinrich, 1950, pp. 2, 10). Heinrich said that 85% of industrial accidents were the direct result of workers unsafe actions. Safety management has focused its effort to prevent accidents on fixing worker behaviours ever since. The focus on changing workers behaviors as the way to improve the quality of any safety program opened the door for psychology to enter the field of safety management. In the 1960s, the dominant psychological theory in American academics was behaviorism. It was not difficult to link behaviourism with Heinrichs theory. The marriage of these ideas provided a simple solution to the complex problem of accident prevention. Safety Compliance In connection with Smith and Heinrichs study, (Cooper, 2009) conducted a study about Behavioral Safety Interventions. The purpose of a behavioral safety process is to reduce incidents triggered by unsafe or at-risk behaviors. To achieve this, specific behavioral problems are identified by focusing on incidents that result from the interaction between people and their working environment. This could include the presence, quality and functioning of various management systems (safety and nonsafety), the quality- of leadership, resources available (financial and nonfinancial) and the overall safety culture (Cooper, 2000). His study found out that large effect sizes show that behavioral safety processes positively affect behavior and reduce incident rates. In addition, according to (Sukys, Cyras, & Sakenaite, 2011) Research on Economic Losses (consequences) due to Failure to Ensure Occupational Safety and Health Requirements in the Construction Sector was conducted by the order of the Ministry of Social Security and
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Labour in Lithuania. The conducted scientific analysis shows the state of occupational safety and health at work in the construction sector, estimates economic consequences for accidents at work, indicates the economic benefits of investment for occupational safety and health and presents the results of research, findings and recommendations. The results said that for the period 2002-2009, in the construction sector, 4136 workers were injured, 413 of which seriously and 193 were killed. During this period, the major part of the accidents occurred due to falls from height and made 839 cases. The main reasons for the accidents are noncompliance with requirements for legal regulations and inappropriate work planning. Other significant reasons cover a lack of knowledge and training as well as understanding safe implementation of the assigned work and the carelessness and negligence of workers. Unsafe behaviour is one of the factors leading to accidents at work and this shows a poor safety culture in a company. The biggest economic losses are stemming from falls from height (about 22%, 2006), the violation of safety and health acts at work (about 73%, 2007), the insobriety of workers (about 11%, 2003 and 2004) and short work experience (one year) (about 53%, 2007). This affects a lack of discipline, a lack of workers' control in organizations and minimum investment in improving working conditions. Moreover, Othman (2012) conducted a study of the causes and effects of contractors non-compliance with the health and safety regulations in the South African construction industry. One of its findings was; respondents to the questionnaires stated that the causes of noncompliance to H&S (Health and Safety) regulations are: 48% due to negligence and carelessness of labourers, 24% due to labourers not wearing their PPE and fall protection equipment, 15% due to unskilled labour who have not been educated on safe procedures to be adopted and 13% due tolack of supervision. In addition about workers Safety Compliance, a study by Cuming, Rocco & McEahern (2008) stated in their study about Improving Compliance with Occupational Safety and Health Administration Standards that Employers and Employees must remain current with workplace safety requirements, including use of personal protective equipment. Also, employees, like employers, have a duty to remain current with workplace safety requirements. Safety Locus of Control There is a study about Development of an Aviation Safety Locus of Control by Hunter (2002) which states that LOCUS OF CONTROL (LOC) refers to the degree to which a person perceives that the outcomes of the situations they experience are under their personal control. Individuals with an internal locus of control orientation perceive that they can exert control over the outcome of the situation, while individuals with an external locus of control attribute outcomes to external factors, such as luck or the actions of other persons. Itwas hypothesized that pilots would exhibit higher levels of internality than externality on this new scale. Their research results say that pilots exhibited substantially higher internality than externality. Also, correlation of the subscales with the measures of resignation and involvement in hazardous events supported the construct validity of the scale. In his discussion he stated that differences exist among pilots on the Aviation Safety Locus of Control scale that may be associated with increased accident risk. In its present form, the new scale might be employed as a self-awareness exercise for pilots or as a covariate in research investigating the effect of other factors on accident involvement (Hunter, 2002).
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In connection, Hunter (2002) cited in his study how Jones and Wuebker (1985) described the development and validation of the Safety Locus of Control scale, derived from the Rotter LOC scale, to predict employees accident and injuries. With the study conducted by Wuebker (1986) about Safety Locus of Control as Predictors of Industrial Accidents and Injuries it was stated there that in order to better understand the personality traits that contribute to accidents, Jones (1983) developed the Safety Locus of Control Scale, a paper-and-pencil inventory designed to identify those employees at risk for accidents, injuries, and unsafe behavior in the workplace. The scale is based on a personality construct called "locus of control," which reflects the degree to which an individual perceives that the consequences of behaviour and life events are in his or her control. On a continuum ranging from internal to external, internally oriented individuals expect a contingent relationship between personal behavior and consequences. Moreover, the study concluded that the Safety Locus of Control Scale is a new instrument designed to improve understanding about the personality influences on safety behavior. As with any new instrument, extensive research is necessary to revise and improve the scale. The studies reviewed above suggest that a new psychological construct, labelled "safety locus of control," can be assessed and used to predict behavior. The implications of such a scale are particularly pertinent to industry. One application may be that employers can use the scale to identify employees and employment applicants at high risk for causing industrial accidents. In line with the aforementioned study, Wuebker and Jones (1993) conducted a similar study about Safety Locus of Control and Employees Accidents. Their result suggests that Employees exhibiting a high level of safety consciousness (i.e., internal scorers) are typically involved in fewer accidents and injuries at work compared to employees exhibiting a low degree of safety consciousness (i.e., external scorers). The Safety Locus of Control Scale can conceivably provide industry with a standardized measure of safety consciousness. Gender According to the research done by Aderaw, Engdaw & Tadesse (2011) about Determinants of Occupational Injury: A Case Control Study among Textile Factory Workers in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia, Studies done in developed and developing countries reported that men had a higher risk of occupational injury than women in manufacturing industries [19, 20]. According to this finding, male workers (N= 57) were about 2.5 times more likely to report occupational injury than female workers (N=43) (AOR: 2.54, 95% CI 1.58, 4.07). This can be explained due to the following factors high willingness of male workers are more inclined to engage towards risk-taking behavior than female workers [22]. In line with the previous results, according to an article by Trentini (2002) in the European Industrial Relations Observatory On-line with the title Statistics highlight gender aspect of workplace accidentsit is stated that in July 2002, the National Workplace Accident Insurance Institute (Istituto Nazionale per l'Assicurazione contro gli Infortuni sul Lavoro, Inail) issued a report on workplace accidents in Italy during 2001. This is an important document because it provides detailed analysis of the phenomenon, while also furnishing a large amount of quantitative data on the accidents reported. The Inail report shows that gender is a major differentiating variable as regards workplace accidents. During 2001, accidents were
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significantly more common among men than among women: the former accounted for around 784,000 accidents (76% of the total) and the latter for 250,000 (24%). Compared with 2000, whilst the male accident rate remained substantially stable (up 0.1%), the female rate increased by 5.4%. Synthesis Research on Safe Work Behavior by Smith (2011) cited that, according to Heinrich (1950), the Father of Modern Industrial Safety, 85% of industrial accidents were the direct result of workers unsafe actions . Lack of knowledge on Safety Precautions cause accidents in work place and this may result to negative output not just to the company or the employers business but also to the workers well-being and morale. Also, studies show that with proper precaution, workers performance increase (Sukys, Cyras, & Sakenaite, 2011). Obviously, this positive outcome will not just benefit businesses but also their workers. Much of the studies conducted about Safety of workers were only conducted in North America and Europe and rarely in Asian settings. Researches dont show factors such as Culture and Personal Conflict that may affect the behaviour of the workers in the work setting. Methods used in researches were also done thru data collection and observation. A study by Aderaw, Engdaw & Tadesse (2011) and an article by Trentini (2002) also prove that Males are more prone to industrial accidents than females. In terms of Locus of control, there has been a new psychological construct sprouting in Locus of Control which is the Safety Locus of Control, only few studies had been conducted regarding this and some of it was conducted in an aviation setting. There has been no Safety Locus of Control study has been conducted in Asian and manufacturing setting as far as the related literature of this study is concerned. Method Research Design The research design was quantitative and descriptive in nature. The researcher provided self- administered tests that consist of questions concerning Safety Locus of Control and Safety Compliance of participants, while exploring and then describing their work behaviour. All in all, this research aim to determine the relationship of Safety Locus of Control and Safety Compliance and If Safety Locus of Control, Safety Compliance and Gender are Predictors of Safe work behaviour. Participants Participants of this study are Production Operators from a Manufacturing Company. According to the International Labor Organization, Manufacturing setting is most likely prone to occupational injuries and Production Operators in a Manufacturing Company are the ones exposed to the hazards caused by the production of goods, materials, etc. A Nonprobabilty Sampling, specifically Purposive Sampling was used where the researcher chooses which population is appropriate for the study. In this case, the researcher looked for participants who are exposed to machinery accidents in a particular company which are the Production Operators. The researcher gathered (N=150) which is the total number of employed Production Operators in the Manufacturing Company.

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Instruments There were two instruments that were used in this study one for the Locus of Control and other for Safety Compliance. The instruments that were used in Safety Locus of Control were patterned in the items used in different studies about Safety Locus of Control. First was from the instrument used by Hunter (2002) in his study about the Development of an Aviation Safety Locus of Control, Another from the study of Loosemoore and Lam (2003) about the locus of control: a determinant of opportunistic behaviour in construction health and safety and also from the original study about Safety Locus of Control which is the Safety Locus of Control as Predictor of Industrial Injuries and Accidents by Wuebker (1985). All of the studies mentioned patterned their modified Safety Locus of Control Scale with Rotters Scale of Internal - External Locus of Control Scale. The modified Safety Locus of Control Scale consists of 14 questions; 7 externally oriented items and 7 internally oriented items. On the other hand, the Safety Compliance Test consists of 12 questions in accordance to the rules and regulations implemented in the said company. The basis of data collection in this research was Rotters I-E Scale (1966), which, despite its age, is still the most widely used instrument to measure the locus of control in a range of adult occupational settings (Carlopio et al., 2001). It is a Rotter Internal-External Locus of Control Scale that was rewritten in a Production Operation context.All items were written to measure safety related locus of control beliefs. Seven externally oriented and seven internally oriented items were included. There are items made reference to industrial accidents and items made reference to accidents in general. A five-point Likert-type format scale, ranging from "Strongly Agree" to "Strongly Disagree," was used for each item in the Safety Locus of Control Scale. Item scores will also be weighted - 1, 0, or +1 based on a median split for each item. Specifically, item scores below the median in the external direction will be scored - 1, item scores above the median in the internal direction will be scored + 1, and item scores at the median will be scored 0. Therefore, scores on the scale can range from - 14 to +14, with higher scores indicating more internality. For the Safety Compliance Scale, it was designed in relevance to the safety rules and regulations imposed in the Production setting of the said company. Also, it was a 15 item test where the questions provided were from the Safety Engineer of the Company. Moreover, a question regarding Safety Behavior was also provided and can be answered by YES or NO. (Have you encountered an event where you almost had an injury or accident in your facility during work?). Scores will vary as Yes( 0) No (1). The scale for Safety Compliance was also in a 5 point Likert-type format Scale ranging from "Always" to "Never". Same as for the Safety Locus of Control but revised so as to be related to Safety Compliance, item scores were also weighted - 1, 0, or +1 based on a median split for each item. That is, item scores below the median in the Low Safety Compliance were scored - 1, item scores above the median in the High Safety Compliance were scored + 1, and item scores at the median will be scored 0. Hence, raw scores on the scale can range from - 12 to +12, with higher scores indicating High Safety Compliance.

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Demographic information such as Gender and Age were also included in the scales. Given that Gender is one of the predictor variable of this study such information are scaled as 0 for Male and 1 for Female. Reliability The reliability of the self-administered scales used in the Safety Locus of Control has a Cronbach alpha = .753 N=50. On the other hand, with the Safety Compliance Test it obtained a Cronbach alpha = .720 N=50. Validity The Safety Locus of Control Scale and Safety Compliance Scale have Concurrent Validity and Content Validity. Supporting that the self- administered test have Concurrent Validity which is defined as if test scores are obtained at about the same time that the criterion measures are obtained, measures of the relationship between the test scores and criterion provide evidence of concurrent validity (Cohen et.,al, 2009). In this case, both Safety Locus of Control Test and Safety Compliance Test obtained a correlation of p= .404 or moderate positive correlation. Moreover, both tests are Content Valid as it was examined and highly recommended for undergraduate research by an expert in the field of Industrial Safety, specifically a Safety Engineer accredited by Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) and a member of Safety Organization of the Philippines (SOPI). Procedure Through Purposive Sampling, the research took place in a Manufacturing Company in Laguna. The researcher sent a cover letter to the Company requesting their cooperation. As soon as the approval of the company has been received, the researcher collaborated with the Safety Supervisor of the Production Facility to disseminate the questionnaires to their Production Operators. This was due to security purposes of the Company that unauthorized person such as the researcher is not allowed to enter the facility. However, with the collaboration of the Safety Supervisor and the researcher and with the use of deception the Production Operators were not aware that the tests they were answering were for undergraduate research. Thus, what they were aware of was that they should answer the scales in full honesty as they were deceptive that answering the questionnaires was part of the safety implementations of their company. A total of 300 scales were administered to the Production Operators of the Company, 150 tests for Safety Locus of Control and another 150 for Safety Compliance. Participants of this research were given two different scales; One for Safety Locus of Control and another for Safety Compliance. The tests were gathered right after the participants have completed answering. Statistical Analysis It is given that this research was descriptive, regression and correlational. To solve for its statistics, SPSS or Statistical Package for Social Science version 17.0 were used. Linear Regression was used to quantify one of the research problems which was, If Safety Locus of Control of individuals toward Safety Compliance affect their work safety behaviour. Safety Locus of Control, Safety Compliance and Gender served as the predictor variables and Safe Work Behavior was the criterion variable.
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On the other hand, Pearson correlation were used for quantifying the research problems regarding the relationship of Safety Locus of Control and Safety Compliance. The main result of a correlation is called the correlation coefficient (or "r"). It ranges from -1.0 to +1.0. The closer r is to +1 or -1, the more closely the two variables are related. If r is close to 0, it means there is no relationship between the variables. If r is positive, it means that as one variable gets larger the other gets larger. If r is negative it means that as one gets larger, the other gets smaller (often called an "inverse" correlation). Results Using Descriptive Statistics, average showed that with regards to Safety Locus of Control, majority of Production Operators are high in internality (M= 5.19, SD= 4.02). Almost all of the Production Operator are Safety Compliant (M= 8.86, SD= 1.89). Most of Production Operators are Female (M=.593, SD= .493). Most Production Operators Behaves Safely at work (M=.673 SD= .471) There are N=150 observations with regards to the results. (M=Mean SD= Standard Deviation)

Fig. 2 Safety Locus of Control Bar Graph

Fig. 2 shows that most Production Operators obtained a positive score ranging from 114. This scores indicate that Production Operators display Internal Locus of Control. Fig. 3 Safety Compliance Bar Graph
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Fig. 3 shows that most of the Production Operators are Safety Compliant. All of them obtained positive scores ranging from 4-12 that indicate High Safety Compliance. Fig. 4 Gender

Fig. 4 shows that 60 % of Production Operators are Female equivalent to a score of 1. On the other hand 40 % of them are Male indicating a score of 0. Fig. 5 Safe Work Behavior
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Fig. 5 indicates that more than 60% Female Production Operators manifest Safe Work Behavior than Males with a percentage of more than 30%. Results obtained using SPSS version 17.0 or SPSS show that Safety Locus of Control and Safety Compliance are moderate positively correlated and have significant relationship (P= .404 , p< 0.01). Fig. 6 Scatter plot of Safety Locus of Control and Safety Compliance

Analysis of the Variance (ANOVA) show that the independent variables such as Safety Locus of Control, Safety Compliance and Gender are significant to Safe Work Behavior which is the Dependent Variable at a p<.05 level (see Appendix). In connection, using the Linear Regression it showed that only Safety Compliance (= .129, p<.05) and Gender (= .231, p<.01)
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have significant relationship on Safe Work Behavior. However, Safety Locus of Control has no significant relationship with Safe Work Behavior. Fig. 3 Summary Table of the Safe Work Behavior Coefficients

Predictors Safety Compliance Safety Locus of Control Gender

.129 -.004

SE .018 .009

B .517 -.031

T 7. 007* -.415

.231

.065

.242

3.552 **

Note. *p<.05 **p<.01

Discussion The main goal of this research is to find out whether Safety Locus of Control, Safety Compliance and Gender predict Safe Work Behavior as well as the relationship of Safety Locus of Control and Safety Compliance. Safe work behaviour in this research strictly involves only of accident/ injury involvement or near encounter of Production Operators during work. Supported with a question of (Have you encountered an event where you almost had an injury or accident in your facility during work?). Results show that Safety Locus of Control and Safety Compliance are moderate positively correlated. Blau (1993) found out that locus of control is positively related to compliant performance based upon Spector's (1982) conceptual work, locus of control showed a negative relationship to initiative performance and a positive relationship to compliant performance. Research found that Safety Compliance is one of the predictors of Production Operators Safe Work Behavior. Cited that Safety Compliance is adhering to the rules and regulations implemented in the Manufacturing Company with regards to Safety or core safety activities that need to be carried out by individuals to maintain workplace safety. Majority of the respondents are Safety Compliant and manifests Safe Work Behavior. In relation to Safety Compliance as predictor of Safe Work Behavior, the purpose of a behavioral safety process or implementations of behavioral safety is to reduce incidents triggered by unsafe or at-risk behaviors. To achieve this, specific behavioral problems are identified by focusing on incidents that result from the interaction between people and their working
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environment. Cooper, (2000) found out that large effect sizes show that behavioral safety processes positively affect behavior and reduce incident rates. Moreover, other significant reasons of accidents cover a lack of knowledge and training as well as understanding safe implementation of the assigned work and the carelessness and negligence of workers. Unsafe behaviour is one of the factors leading to accidents at work and this shows a poor safety culture in a company (Sukys, Cyras, & Sakenaite, 2011). Othman (2012) suggested that causes and effects of contractors non-compliance with the health and safety regulations. One of its findings was; respondents to the questionnaires stated that the causes of non-compliance to H&S (Health and Safety) regulations are due to negligence and carelessness of labourers, due to labourers not wearing their PPE and fall protection equipment, due to unskilled labour who have not been educated on safe procedures to be adopted. Another predictor of Production Operators Safe Work Behavior is Gender. Present research found that Females most likely exhibit Safe Work Behavior than Males. This is supported by studies done in developed and developing countries reported that men had a higher risk of occupational injury than women in manufacturing industries . According to the finding, male workers were about 2.5 times more likely to report occupational injury than female workers. This can be explained due to the following factors high willingness of male workers are more inclined to engage towards risk-taking behavior than female workers . (Aderaw, Engdaw &Tadesse , 2011)

In line with the previous results, according to an article by Trentini (2002) Statistics show the the National Workplace Accident Insurance Institute (Istituto Nazionale per l'Assicurazione contro gli Infortuni sul Lavoro, Inail) report shows that gender is a major differentiating variable as regards workplace accidents. During 2001, accidents were significantly more common among men than among women: the former accounted for around 784,000 accidents (76% of the total) and the latter for 250,000 (24%). Present research found that Safety Locus of Control has no significant relationship with Production Operators Safe Work Behavior. The researcher observed that results of respondents vary from internal and external Locus of Control though most of the respondents manifest safe work behaviour. The result can be influenced by Individual Differences that are overwhelmed by environmental factors and there are factors of personality that may affect the respondents answers such as anxiety and mood. According to Dr. E. Scott Geller Ph.D, Injury proneness is a trait rather than a state. This could provide increased awareness and understanding of the diversity of individual differences related to injury prevention, and inform the development of interventions to improve safety-related attitudes and behaviors. In addition, certain situations can activate an anxiety state and increase the probability of the kind of thinking and behavior that puts people at risk for personal injury. This change in state would presumably affect every participant in that setting and not be considered injury proneness as a unique personality factor. This study aims to prove that Safety Compliance does not automatically predict Safe Work Behavior, logically. Thus, present research shows that though Safety Compliance is a
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predictor of Safe Work Behavior it just obtained a moderate positive relationship. With regards to the Safety Locus of Control having no significant relationship with Safe Work Behavior, Hunter (2002) discussed in his study that differences exist that may be associated with increased accident risk. Also, result is in contrast with the result of Wuebker and Jones (1993) that suggest Employees exhibiting a high level of safety consciousness (i.e., internal scorers) are typically involved in fewer accidents and injuries at work compared to employees exhibiting a low degree of safety consciousness (i.e., external scorers). Conclusion Present research used three variables such as, Safety Locus of Control, Safety Compliance and Gender in predicting Safe Work behaviour of Production Operators. Previous research suggests that Safety Locus of Control is a predictor of Safe Work behaviour and in contrast with the finding of this present research. However, Safety Locus of Control and Safety compliance have significant relationship. All in all, present research conclude that personality trait such as Locus of Control is not a predictor of Safe Work Behavior and that it is moderate positively correlated with Safety Compliance. Safety Compliance on the other hand is a moderate predictor of Safe Work Behavior as well as Gender. Recommendation Safety is one of the greatest challenges that faces Manufacturing Industry. Future research can include Safety Culture as one of its variable. Standardized test regarding Safe Work Behavior can be used to obtain more quantifiable data. The use of Safety Locus of Control as cited is not commonly used in studies with regards to Industrial Psychology or Safety Psychology. Therefore, different setting such as Mining, Construction or Office environment can be a preferable setting for studying Safety Locus of Control. This research presented that Safety Locus of Control is no longer a predictor of Safe Work Behavior since original study regarding this was from the year 1993 and the test used was patterned in Rotters Locus of Control Scale (1986) and from an Aviation Safety Locus of Control Scale. Given that Safety Locus of Control and Safety Compliance are moderate positively correlated, it is recommended that it can be used to screen applicants for the position of Production Operator but it will not be the basis of recruitment.

References Aderaw, Z., Engdaw, D., Tadesse, T. (2011) Determinants of Occupational Injury: A Case Control Study among Textile Factory Workers in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia, Journal of Tropical Medicine (2011) 1-8, Article ID 657275, doi:10.1155/2011/657275 Brown, K., Willis, G., Prussia, G. (2000) Predicting safe employee behavior in the steel industry: Development and test of a sociotechnical model, Journal of Operations Management (8) 445-465, Retrieved from www.elsevier.com Cohen, R., Swerdlik, M. (2009) Psychological Testing and Assessment: An Introduction to Tests & Measurement (7thed). New York City, USA: McGraw-Hill.
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Cooper, M. (2009) Behavioral Safety Interventions. Professional Safety, 54(2), 36-4, Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com Cuming, R., Rocco, T., McEachern A. (2008) Improving Compliance With Occupational Safety and Health Administration Standards, AORN Journal, 87(2): 347-60, DOI 10.1016/j.aorn.2007.09.011, Retrieved from www.ebscohost.com Geller, E.S. (n.a) Personality and Industrial Safety: The Search for Practical Connections, ISHN, Safety Performance Solutions, Retrieved from http://www.safetyperformance.com/PersonalityandIndustrialSafetyTheSearchforPracticalConnections.pdf Griffin, M., Neal, A. (2000) Perceptions of Safety at Work: A Framework of linking Safety Climate to Safety Performance, Knowledge and Motivation, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 5(3), 347-358, Retrieved from http://griffin.zydec.net.au/publications/Griffin_Neal_JOHP.pdf Hunter, D. (2002) Development of an aviation safety locus of control scale. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 00, No. 0, Retrieved from http://www.avhf.com/html/library/Tech_Reports/ASEM_Aviation_Safety_Locus_of_Co ntrol.pdf Jones, J., Wuebecker, L. (1993) Safety Locus of Control and Employee Accidents, Journal of Business and Psychology 7(4), 449-457, Retrieved from www.ebscohost.com Karuppiah, M. (2011) Investigating the influence of work safety scale (WSS) on safety behavior: Studies among the employees of a utility company, Universiti Utara Malaysia, http://lintas.uum.edu.my:8080/elmu/index.jsp?modul... Retrieved July 17,2012 Othman, A. (2012) A study of the causes and effects of contractors non-compliance with the health and safety regulations in the South African construction industry, Architectural Engineering and Design Management (2012), 8: 180-191 doi.org/10.1080/17452007.2012.683242 Ng, T., Sorensen, K., Eby, L. ( 2006). Locus of control at work: A meta-analysis, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27: 10571087. Retrieved from International Labor Organization http://www.ilo.org/global/lang--en/index.htm March, 13, 2012 Smith, T. A. (2011) Safety Management: A Personal Development Strategy. Professional Safety, 56(3), 58-68. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com Sukys, R., yras, P., & Saknait, J. (2011) Economical Loss Due to Non-Compliance with Requirements Personnel Safety and Health in Luthanian Construction Sector Journal Of Civil Engineering & Management, 17(2), 168-176. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com

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Trentini, M. (2002) Statistics highlight gender aspect of workplace accidents, Retrieved August 30, 2012 from European Industrial Relations Observatory On-line, web site: http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/eiro/2002/09/feature/it0209304f.htm Wuebecker, L. (1986) Safety Locus of Control as a Predictor of Industrial Accidents and Injuries, 1(1) : 19-30. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com

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Spare the rod and spoil the child: Filipino Parents likelihood to use Corporal Punishment
Laurice Anne Labrador Margaret Sanapo
The purpose of this study is to determine which variable may be highly related to the likelihood of Filipino parents to use corporal punishment, these variables includes; gender, income and experienced corporal punishment. Data was gathered from a total of 120 Filipino parents, which was divided into (2) two categories, the low income group (N=56) and middle income group (N=64). The results revealed that Filipino mothers, those who belong in the low income group, and have experienced corporal punishment will be more likely to use corporal punishment.

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Parenting is not an easy task; there are temperaments, issues, emotions, developmental changes often occurring simultaneously. The process of parenting takes a totally dependent infant to an independent adult, and while the process can be incredibly enjoyable, it is not without come extremely challenging periods, especially when involving effective parenting and discipline, congruent to that is corporal punishment, which is a disciplinary technique that is a contentious topic among parents and also researchers. Growing up in a family which practices corporal punishment such as spanking to impose discipline as a parenting style is just an ordinary scenario seen at homes, primarily in the Philippines. The norm suggests, ang bata kailangan pinapalo para matuto, a culture that is evident in the past up until in the present generation. Filipino parents of today had adopted this, since in the Philippines, parents were allowed to physically punish their children as may be necessary for the formation of his good character, in accordance to Article 45 of Presidential Decree No. 603, also known as The Child and Youth Welfare Code. According to a local research, Filipino parents who use corporal punishment noticed that their children have actually become distant, dazed, afraid and stunned, but the use is still prevalent (Castillo, 2011). Debate over appropriate and effective parental disciplinary technique frequently focuses on questions about corporal punishment. However, parents also have a debate on this matter, with an overwhelming number of them supporting its use. Research suggests that 94 % of parents have used corporal punishment on their children before they reached the age of 4 (Straus & Stewart, 1999). Supported by Gershoff, 2002; Grogan-kaylor, 2004, that many parents have spanked their child/children at some point. Furthermore, parents who support the use of corporal punishment in specific situations are aware of the limited effectiveness of the method, yet feel that some instances justify its use. The definition used in this study is; corporal punishment is the use of physical force with the intention of causing a child to experience pain but not injury for the purpose of correction or control of the childs behavior (Straus, 2011). Thus, the statement, Pain but not injury distinguishes corporal punishment from abuse. Though there is a strong conflict to the use corporal punishment in our society and the academic area, not all opposed the usage of corporal punishment. The American Psychological Association made a resolution against corporal punishment; however, in a random sample of 1,000 psychologists, 31% recommend corporal punishment to parents (Kaplan, 1996).
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Conceptual Framework

This conceptual framework illustrates that gender, income and experienced corporal punishment is related to the likelihood of parents to use corporal punishment. Mothers have been reported to use corporal punishment more than fathers (Mohoney, Donnelly, Lewis & Maynard, 2000). On the other hand, past research suggests that children living in poverty receive corporal punishment more frequent than those who has a stable living, thus, parents who has lower income will be more likely to use corporal punishment (Giles-sims, Straus, Sugarman, 2001). Furthermore, with individuals who had experienced corporal punishment when they were still young; according to Straus (1999), they are more likely to use the same disciplinary technique used by their parents. This study aims to find out what variable (i.e., gender, income and experienced corporal punishment) may be highly related to the likelihood of Filipino parents to use corporal punishment, thus, the problem statements are as follows; (1) Do Filipino mothers use corporal punishment (CP) more than the fathers? (2) Do Filipino parents who belong to the low-income group more likely to use CP than those who belong to the middle income group? (3) Do Filipino parents who have experienced CP more likely to use CP than those who do not have history of received CP? The researcher hypothesized that Filipino mothers, Filipino parents who belongs in the low income group, and has experienced corporal punishment will be more likely to use corporal punishment which is constant with past researches. In addition, several foreign studies have been conducted concerning predictors of corporal punishment use, however not much research has been developed locally regarding this matter, and with this, future researchers may use this study as a reference for conducting new
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studies in relation with corporal punishment. The study will also use this guide for conducting future data gathering. Aside from that, future researchers can use it as a cross reference to help facilitate a more comprehensive study. Review of Related Literature Corporal punishment is always a debatable topic among parents, researchers and even advocates opposing it, and there are well documented literature regarding variables that are related to its use. Corporal punishment Corporal punishment is the use of physical force with the intention of causing a child to experience pain but not injury for the purpose of correction or control of the childs behavior (Straus, 2011). Moreover, the use of corporal punishment may be understood as part of a constellation of behaviors relating to parenting style. Past researches cite negative effects such as aggression and externalizing behaviors (Gershoff, 2002). Corporal punishment has been suggested to influence antisocial behavior (Mouradian, 1998), higher levels of aggression, lower levels of internal moralization (Gershoff, 2002) and negative emotional effects (Violato, 2004). Nevertheless, there are still too many methodological limitations to determine causal relationships between these negative effects and corporal punishment (Larzerlere, 2008). Limitations to the study of corporal punishment also include its definition and distinctions from abuse (Gershoff, 2002; Larzerlere, 1993). Gender and use of corporal punishment Mothers decisions on whether or not to employ corporal punishment are associated with their childs behavior (Parke, 2002). According to past studies, mothers are more frequent and likely to spank their children more than fathers (Giles-Sims, 1995; Mohoney, Donelly, Lewis and Maynard (2000). However, some studies found no difference in the rate of corporal punishment between mothers and fathers (Wissow, 2001). In addition, researchers suggested that maternal use of corporal punishment creates higher emotional distress than paternal use of corporal punishment (Harper, Brown, Arias, & Brody, 2006). To support that statement, corporal punishment use by fathers and found that it is actually associated with less emotional distress in boys than other paternal parenting behaviors like psychological control (Nelson & Coyne, 2009). Income and use of corporal punishment According to Dietz (2000), parents who had lower financial resources were more likely to use corporal punishment. Consequently, children of these parents who are living in poverty more frequently experience corporal punishment (Giles-Sims, Straus, Sugarman, 2001). A recent study also suggests that having lower family income were correlated with more frequent spanking at ages 1, 2 and 3 (Berlin, 2009).
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Experienced corporal punishment Adults whose parents used corporal punishment as a primary disciplinary technique when they were still young are more likely to use corporal punishment with their own children (Straus, 1999). Congruently, Gershoff (2002) stated that the usage of corporal punishment is most common on parents who are younger and who experienced corporal punishment themselves. To support that statement, studies have also indicated that spanking is most commonly used by parents who were themselves spanked (Holden, Miller & Harris, 1999; Straus & Stewart, 1999). Synthesis The effects of corporal punishment are well documented in past researches. There are also studies regarding the likelihood and causes of corporal punishment use. However, there is not much body of studies which documents the demographic predictors of the use corporal punishment. The demographic variables that this study wants to explore are mainly, gender and income. In which, Mohoney, Donelly, Lewis and Maynard (2000), suggested that that mothers uses corporal punishment more frequently than fathers do. In another study, Berlin (2009), found out, having lower family income were correlated with more frequent spanking. Furthermore, another variable that is included in the study is experienced corporal punishment of parents, and thus may result to more likelihood to use corporal punishment. Method Research Design This study is focused on which variable (gender, income, and experienced corporal punishment) is highly related to Filipino parents likelihood to use corporal punishment. In line with this, the researcher used a descriptive-correlational method of research to be able to describe the data gathered and determine the relationship between genders, income, experienced corporal punishment and corporal punishment use. Participants & Sampling A total of 120 participants were gathered through a purposive sampling method, which the desired population is Filipino parents ages 25-45 yrs old with child/children below 12 yrs old, since children of this age needs firm and consistent rules that is usually incorporated with intense discipline and makes parents vulnerable to use corporal punishment. The participants from a Village in Paranaque City, were referred to as the middle income group in the succeeding parts of this study, since the average monthly household income of the said participants is 30,000-34, 000 and above, this is much higher than the average monthly household income of families living in the National Capital Region (Php18, 418.00) based on the Family Income and Expenditure Survey (National Statistics Office, 2006), while the participants from a depressed area in Paranaque City, which earns an average monthly household income of below 5,000 which is much lower than the average (Php18, 418.00), were referred as the low income group. The said locations in this study are not named for confidentiality purposes.
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Table 1: Table of the distribution of the participants Income group and Gender Income Group Middle Income Group Low Income Group Total Father 32 28 60 Mother 32 28 60 Total 64 56 N=120

Table 3: Table of participants Age Age 25-30 yrs old 31-35 yrs old 36-40 yrs old 41-45 yrs old Total Instruments The main means of gathering data is through a self-administered questionnaire, which contains of 13 items and was translated into Filipino for the purpose of making it accessible for the low income group, since the desired sample for this group is from a depressed area. The first part of the questionnaire comprises of questions regarding the demographics; gender, age, number of children and total combined monthly household income, while the second part is comprised of questions about their experienced corporal punishment and selfreported use of corporal punishment. Middle Income Group 7 (11%) 16 (25%) 18 (28%) 23 (36%) 64 (100%) Low Income Group 12 (21%) 26 (46%) 13 (24%) 5 (9%) 56 (100%) Total 19 42 31 28 N=120

Procedure As an initial procedure for gathering data in the middle income group, the researcher went to the Secretariat Office of the Village where the middle income group was accumulated , in order to determine the total number of households of the said area; and its has (N=554) occupied households, which is divided into 5 divisions (Phase I-V), and in order to have a specific area to conduct the survey, the researcher picked randomly Phase II, which has 138 households, however, only 32 households were included, since not all households has Filipino parents ages
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25-45 yrs old with child/children below 12 yrs old, which is the desired sample of this study. The same procedure was done for the accumulation of the low income group, wherein the depressed area comprises of (N=167) occupied households, likewise, not all households has the desired criteria, thus, only 28 households were included. The gathering of data for the middle income and low income group was through a doorto-door survey method, which has better quality and level of response, as it allows a greater level of personal interaction. With the help of an officer from the Association of the Village where the middle income group resides, the researcher had an overview on which household has the criteria of the desired sample for the middle income group, while for the low income group, an employee from the Urban Poor Office of Paranaque City Hall, helped the researcher to have a general idea on which households to include. The participants were first given informed consent before participating; each household was given 2 questionnaires, since both parents were asked to participate. A total of 60 households (32-middle income group; 28-low income group) were included in this study. All data gathered is then encoded in SPSS Statistics 17.0 for analysis. Statistical Design The data gathered was measured through chi square analysis and cross tabulations. The chi square analysis is used to test the statistical significance of the observed relationship in the cross tabulation of two variables (Lani, 2009), this helps the researcher to determine whether or not an appropriate relationship exists between variables. Cross tabulations was also used, which is used in taking up 2 (two) variables and tabulating the results of one variable against the other variable. For encoding and data analysis, SPSS (17.0) was used. Results and Discussion Results showed that 59% (N=120) of the overall participants in this study used corporal punishment to discipline their children. Mothers, parents from the low income group, and those who experienced corporal punishment from their own parents were likely to use corporal punishment. Gender The results revealed that there were more mothers (68%) who used corporal punishment than fathers (50%), (2= .045, p< .05). Results also suggests that in terms of when do they use corporal punishment; majority of mothers (38%) and fathers (30%) use corporal punishment when their child/children did something wrong, subsequently, on why do they use corporal punishment; there were 28% of mothers who believes that their child/children will not learn from their mistakes, if they will not use corporal punishment, and 22% of fathers believes that in order to discipline their child/children, they have to use corporal punishment. Spanking was the most frequent type of corporal punishment used (40%-mothers; 30%fathers), in addition, more mothers (40%) uses objects in administering corporal punishment than fathers (35%), and slippers is the most frequently used object by mothers (33%), while fathers equally uses belt and stick (27%) in administering corporal punishment.
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Income There were two (2) categories regarding income, the middle income group and the low income group. Results suggests that Filipino parents who belongs to the middle income group (35%) are less likely to use corporal punishment than those who belongs in the low income group (75%), (2= .045, p< .05). It was also showed that most parents who belongs in both income groups, uses corporal punishment when their child/children does something wrong (23%middle income group; 46%-low income group). Also, in terms of why do they use corporal punishment, most parents in both income groups believed that their child/children will not learn from their mistakes, if they will not use corporal punishment (17%-middle income group; 32%low income group). Spanking is also the most frequent type of corporal punishment used by both income groups, wherein 33% of parents in the middle income group and 38% in the low income group used spanking as corporal punishment. It is also evident in the results, that more parents in the low income group (54%) uses objects to administer corporal punishment than those in the middle income group (23%), subsequently, slippers is the most frequent used object by parents in both income groups. Experienced Corporal Punishment 90% of Filipino parents who experienced corporal punishment from their parents used corporal punishment on their own children, (2= .045, p< .05). Fathers (77%) reported to have experienced corporal punishment more than mothers (75%). Also, fathers (43%) were punished more often than mothers when they were children (35%). Lastly, the most frequently experienced type of corporal punishment showed in the results was spanking (43%). The results above suggests and supports the hypothesis that mothers, Filipino parents who belong in the low income group, and have experienced corporal punishment will be more likely to use corporal punishment, and such results are consistent with past studies (Mohoney, Donelly, Lewis and Maynard, 2000; Giles-Sims, Straus, Sugarman, 2001; Straus & Stewart, 1999). Mothers were more likely to use corporal punishment than fathers; this is particularly constant with past studies, which considers that mothers have been shown to use corporal punishment more than fathers (Mahoney, Donnelly, Lewis, & Maynard, 2000; Giles-Sims, 1995). A probable explanation for which is that, mothers may spend more time with their child/children than fathers do, thus, they are more likely to use discipline, whether with or without the use of corporal punishment. On the other hand, the participants, who were included in the middle income group, were found less likely to use corporal punishment than those who belong to the low income group. Thus support the concept, that people with limited resources is more likely to receive and use corporal punishment, since they are stressed out of their situation; they tend to have more stress in terms of rearing their children (Giles-Sims, Straus, Sugarman, 1995; Dietz, 2000).

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Surprisingly, 90% of parents who experienced corporal punishment from their parents used corporal punishment on their own children; this finding is also consistent with prior research (Gershoff, 2000; Holden, Miller & Harris, 1999; Straus & Stewart, 1999). Perhaps, parents who have received corporal punishment themselves adopted it and believed in its effectiveness as it was used to them by their own parents. The corporal punishment use and experience of Filipinos is possibly a paradigm, thus, the set of experiences and beliefs towards corporal punishment was acquired by those who experienced its use when they were still young, and consequently use it in their own children. Conclusions/Recommendations This study had provided a broad overview of the common variables associated with the likelihood of Filipino parents to use corporal punishment and thus, have supported existing studies about corporal punishment use. In line with this, which have shown that gender, income and experienced corporal punishment is independently related to the likelihood of corporal punishment use, future studies may involve factors that may be related to each variable, for an instance; parents individual characteristics, parents attitude towards corporal punishment in general, and other variables under the socioeconomic index, other than income (e.g., education and occupation). As well as, considering the childrens gender, age, individual characteristics and observed behaviors to determine what variables may be related to their experienced corporal punishment. It is further recommended that, future studies may consider having a more in-depth look on corporal punishment, consequently, a qualitative study may bring a deeper context on the attitudes and beliefs of Filipino parents about the use of corporal punishment, thus, this may point out other variables in the likelihood of its use and provide more useful information for other researchers. References Dietz, T. L. (2000). Disciplining children: Characteristics associated with the use of corporal punishment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24(12), 1529-1542. Ellis-Christensen, Trisia (2003). Difference between Punishment andConsequences Gershoff, Thompson (2002). Corporal Punishment by Parents and Associated ChildBehaviors and Experiences: A Meta-Analytic and Theoretical Review. Psychological Bulletin, 539579 Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew, & Otis, Melanie. (2007). Predictors of corporal punishment: a tobit analysis. Family Relations, 56(1), 80-91 Kaplan, J. P. (1996). Psychologists' attitudes towards corporal punishment Kaufman, Joan & Zigler, Robert (1987). Do abused children become abusive parents? American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57, 186192. Koch, Randy (2011). How to Raise Socially Healthy Children That find it Irresistible to be Home
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Larzelere, R. E. (2008). Disciplinary spanking; The scientific evidence. Journal ofDevelopmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 29(4), 334-335. Luster T, Kain EL. (1987) The relation between family context and perceptions of parental efficacy.Early Child Development and Care. 1987;29:301311. Mahoney, A., Donnelly, W. O., Lewis, T., & Maynard, C. (2000). Mother and father self reports of corporal punishment and severe physical aggression toward clinic referredyouth. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29(2), 266-281. Morgan, Amanda (2011). Parenting with Positive Guidance: Tools for Building from the Inside Out Muller, Robert (1993). Shame and aggressive behavior in corporal punishment. doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing. Discipline

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O'Leary, Daniel., Malone, Jean & Tyree, Andrea. (1994). Physical aggression in earlymarriage: Prerelationship and relationship effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 594602. Sanapo, Margaret, & Nakamura, Yasuhide. (2010). Gender and physical punishment: theFilipino childrens experience. Wemberly, Ed (2003). A Parents Guide to Raising Great Kids

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Experiences of Filipino Parents withtheir Stay-at-Home Adult Child


Jastine Joy Ledesma Margaret Sanapo
The study explored the experiences of Filipino parents in dealing with their adult child. A total of 25 purposively selected parents participated in the study through the use of semi-structured interview. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 mothers and 7 fathers from 18 families whose adult child still lives with them. Results of the study showed that indeed Filipino families are close. One of the reasons that came out why adult children still live with their parents is attachment of parents to their children and vice-versa. In fact, many parents in the study mentioned that although its difficult to parent an adult child, they accept it because of the love and attachment they have for their children.

______ "Once the realization that even between the closest human beings infinite distances continue, a wonderful living side by side can grow, if they succeed in loving the distance between them which makes it possible for each to see the other whole against the sky." Rainer Maria Rilke In Filipino families, having an extended family is common. In fact, as long as their son or daughter wants to stay with his/her parents is can be or is allowed, that even if you already have a family of your own. Especially if you are a boy or the youngest boy in the family, once you get married, you can have a choice of bringing your wife into your house or you will get your own house for your own family. It is also part of the culture of the Filipinos that the youngest man in the family will automatically get or will inherit the house of his parents. And the youngest girl in the family will be the one who will take her parents wither. So most of the time, in Filipino families is experiencing or having an extended family because of their obligations or more of a return for all the deeds of their parents for them. So in some extent, the parents are still interfering in their son or daughters life, especially when there is a grandson/granddaughter connected or concerned. Filipinos highly value the presence of their families more than anything. Regardless of the liberal influence they have gotten from the west, the family remained the basic unit of their society (Philippine Culture, 2006). In a traditional Filipino family, the father is considered the head and the provider of the family while the mother takes responsibility of the domestic needs and in charge of the emotional growth and values formation of the children. They both perform different tasks and being remarked separately by the children. Children see their mothers soft and calm, while they regard their fathers as strong and the most eminent figure in the family (Philippine Culture, 2006). Because of this remarkable closeness, parents sometimes have difficulties letting go of their children and thus results to having them stay for as long as they want (Philippines Country, 2006). Even after finishing school, Filipino children are not obliged to get out of their homes unless they want to. In fact, most of them keep their close relationship to their parents by staying
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at least before they get married. Leaving them happens only when they really have to, but usually, at least one child, depending on his willingness and financial capabilities, stay even after marriage to support and look after their aging parents (Philippine Country, 2006). The parents themselves want to be the one who is rearing their child that even you are already an adult person, still your parents are pampering some of your needs. Being a parent is always there, no matter how old your son or daughter is, and no one can take that away from you. A parent whos loving, caring, and being always concern to their kids is natural. Parenting style has a profound effect on the kids brain. It is one of the major influences on a childs future well-being. The parents style of managing their kids affects their academic achievement, self-confidence, aggression, psychological strength, and capacity to cope with reallife challenges and the brain is molded by how parents treat their kids. It used to be that getting away from Mom and Dad was the number one priority of teenagers and young adults. But new figures reveal that the number of young people aged between 23 and 37 who still live at home with their parents has leapt by 20 per cent since 1997. According to the Office for National Statistics, there were nearly three million young adults living with a parent or parents last year up half a million in little more than a decade. This is despite the fact that the number of people in the 23 to 37 age bracket has remained largely unchanged. The trend to stay close to the family bosom is stronger among young men than women, todays figures also reveal. One in three men and one in six women still live at home. However, the stats also show that the percentage of young people still living with their parents decreases steadily with age so while 64 per cent of 23-year-old men and 46-per cent of 23-year-old women are at home, by the age of 40 this drops to seven per cent of men and two per cent of women. This is partly due to increasing wages, as young adults progress through their twenties and partly due to the increased likelihood of moving in with a partner 65 per cent of 31-year-olds either cohabit or are married. One of the most relevant perspectives in the study of relationships between parents and children is parenting. In this study, parents who are living with their children whose age are 35 and above is the main focused. The researcher also desire to discover information about the personal parenting experience of parents who have or deals with adult children. The significance of the present study will be beneficial to family context of Filipinos. It will also provide a lot of learning, knowledge, information and insights. The results from the present study will benefit to Filipino families and to future researchers. The present study can be a guide for the future or next researchers who will discuss parenting among adult sons and daughters whose aged are 35 years and above. This research aims to contribute, not only to the parents but also to their sons and daughters that once a parent will always be a parent, no matter how old your parents are, or no matter how old your child is, being a parent is always there.
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Parents perhaps may give more attention and guidance to his/her childs development and help in maximizing their fullest potential, even if their child is already an adult. The present study would help them to build a harmonious relationship with their children allowing them to build a stronger relationship. The present study will be helpful in generating new researches related to the topic and may serve as their reference. The present study intends to answer the following; what are the experiences of respondents on parenting adult children? Do they want their son/daughter to move out or live his/her life by himself/herself? How do parents communicate with their adult child? And, do parents still discipline their adult child? Review of Related Literature The researcher gathered different data that will support the researchers findings. And to better understand the study. Parenting Adults When adolescence is over, what comes next and how does parenting alter. Adolescence ends in the early to mid twenties when a young person becomespsychologically, socially, and economically independent. Psychologically, there is an authentic sense of individual identity - assuming one's fitting definition of self. Socially, there is a sense of autonomy - determination to adhere to one's own beliefs and follow one's own agenda. And economically there is the reliance on financial selfsupport - commitment to earn one's way without the need for parental assistance (Pickhardt, 2010). When adolescence is over, then young adulthood begins. Roughly spanning the early twenties to about thirty, this period ends when the young person becomes anchored in adulthood in at least three ways. He or she has played with enough independent freedom to want to settle down. There is an emerging sense of occupational or career future to work for. And there is the desire to find a committed partner with whom to share the journey of adulthood (Pickhardt, 2010). No matter how grown up, how much older they become, these adult offspring forever remain your children just as you forever remain their parent. And the relationship is always challenging because, like the rest of life, parenting demands constant change and accommodation (Pickhardt, 2010). According to Pickhardt (2010), there are several adjustments for parents must take that makes this accommodation hard, and these are, (1) to tolerance, (2) to reversal, and (3) to demotion. Start with Tolerance. If you are in "the sandwich generation," positioned between having older parents and adult children, you can understand how your children sometimes still struggle
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to get along with you by how you sometimes still struggle to get along with your parents (Pickhardt, 2010). And adjusting to reversal can be challenging as well. When children are young, the task is to get them to fit into our lives, to learn what parents think is important, and to fulfill parents agenda for what needs to happen. When they become adults, however, to a significant degree our roles reverse. Now, the task for parents is to fit more into their lives, to understand what they believe is important in their lives, and to respect their agenda for what needs to happen in their lives (Pickhardt, 2010). Finally, there is demotion for parents to get used to. When youre adult child becomes established in the world, preoccupation with managing this separate life can take precedence over involvement in the lives of parents (Pickhardt, 2010). According to Pickhardt (2010), there can be the demotion from devoted to dutiful attention, when the weekly phone calls or occasional visits or remembering special occasions from an independent adult child sometimes feel more obligatory than heartfelt. But as one mother put it: "If dutiful is the best I can get, then I'll take it. Lesser caring is caring none-the-less." Loss of traditional influence can be hard for some parents. When they still domineer adult children who still consent to submit to this dominance, not daring to displease or challenge parental authority, it often takes bold acts of independence, sometimes waiting until the young person's thirties, to break this dependency. Then the adult child stubbornly embraces a new life path, adopts a new lifestyle, or selects a new life partner that parents disapprove. And now that old observation rings true: In the struggle over independence, parents never defeat their grown children; grown children always defeat their parents.' (Pickhardt, 2010). The last reversal of the adult child/parent relationship plays out during the parents' older age when responsibility is dramatically shifted, when dependency is reversed. At the beginning of childhood, the old care-take and take charge of the young; but at the end of parental lives, the young care-take and take charge of their old. According to Pickhardt (2010), when the adult child marries, you become less important than this new partner. And when adult child and partner become parents, you become less important than this new child. Less important doesn't mean less loved, only less of a priority. It is the blessing and the curse of doing their job well: when parents succeed in growing their children to independence, now these adults will act more independently of them. Concept of Filipino Family Filipinos have been described as family-centered and families have been observed to be closely-knit. In addition, children are regarded as the center of the family (Ong, 2001). According to Medina (2001), nuclear family is still the basic building block of most Filipino families. A person can belong to ones family orientation and family of procreation. She also described as well compound or composite families which are formed when nuclear families are combined. While for the extended family, there is recognition of kin relations beyond that of husband, wife and unmarried children, shared responsibilities, and maintenance of expressive and emotional relations beyond the nuclear family.

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In psychological perspective, Carandang and Sison (2004) described a Filipino family as a system and highlighted the resiliency of Filipino children stemming from their early experiences of being nurtured. The work of Carandang and colleagues (2004, 2007, and 2008) indicated that the family situations and structure of Filipino families change as time passes by. What may be true years ago may not necessarily apply to current situations. In parent-related issues, studies on various child-rearing practices (Domingo, 1977; Liwag, dela Cruz, and Macapagal, 1998; Umali-Razon, 1981) emphasized the important role of parents in training their children to be responsible and independent individuals. Family context in the Philippines, the fathers are seen as the breadwinner while the mothers are seen as the nurturers. Children felt the duty to care for their elderly parents. For Filipinos, children were seen as precious gifts from God and were thought to bring family happiness, companionship, love and comfort in old age. Children were expected to be obedient and dependent. Filipino Parenting Cognition is important in shaping parents socialization practices, and consequently, how they deal with their children. Some parents perceive themselves as having more control or responsibility over child care situations. This is consistent with other studies reporting Filipino parents beliefs that their role is to mould or shape a passive child to develop proper reason and self-control. That parental action or responsibility is elicited more in negative than in successful child outcomes also suggests that parental factors may be less imperative or called upon when the childs well behaved, but are crucial when the child misbehaves (Alampay & Jocsons, 2011). According to Alampay and Jocsons (2011), others were more likely to espouse progressive attitudes such as granting children more agency and independence and encouragement to express themselves. This may be because mothers have more current information about childrearing, given that they spend more time managing the child and the home. In contrast, father having relatively fewer experiences with and knowledge of children, may likely have different views and explanations from their spouses, who interact more with children in various childcare scenarios. In addition, according to Alampay and Jocsons (2011), higher adult control has been associated with less punitive and abusive child rearing strategies, compared to families where adults perceive themselves as having less control relative to children and other factors. And in terms of similarities and differences within families, ideally, mothers and fathers should convey to children a solidarity, consistency, and predictability in parenting attitudes and behaviors. According to Jocano (2011), however, makes the observation that despite supposed differences, Filipino families do share common parenting elements. One of them is the practice of always having the child be accompanied by an elder, whether a relative, a trusted family friend, or the traditional yaya. The latchkey child phenomenon that is prevalent in the US is pretty rare here, he points out. Even single-parent households will find a way to make sure that the child is never alone.
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In addition, Jocano (2011) believes that this sense of closeness cultivated at an early age is the key to the Pinoys strong interpersonal culture. We place a great emphasis on our kin and family who provide help in times of trouble. We learn to get along with people and tend to put their interests ahead of ours. And even when the child grows up and works, he continues supporting his parents. While for Aguila (2011), the reverse can also happen. Aguila says, Our protectiveness encourages children to be dependent, emotionally and/or financially, on their parents until adulthood. Even if the children get married, they still defer to the parents. According to Cora Llamas (2011), protectiveness, when overdone, can weaken a childs emotional, psychological, and perhaps even moral backbone. Life-fulfillment for Adults According to Frith (2008), in adult years being able to get through proper advancement in life is something that will be very important. Life fulfillment for adults should consider figuring out what should be doing for your career, your health and your finances. And by considering these factors for your life fulfillment, you can find that it will be easier to figure out what you should be doing with your life.This is important, to have a better idea of what you should be doing in your adult life. In considering your career, it involves figuring out whether or not you are working towards the right career. Developing your career can be a good option but in some cases going in another direction with your life may be the best option. Also, health is important too. It involves being able to feel good about one's body and about one's health. While finances are also important in advancement in life. This is something to think about in that you should consider how much money is enough and what you really need for your life (Frith, 2008). Another major factor is your relationship with other people who are close to you. It is best to look into working on making relationships with others in your life more positive. And tithe last of these life fulfillment factors for adults is that of your time management. You will need to figure out why you don't have to time to do everything that you want to do in your life and to figure out what you should do to correct this problem in the future (Frith, 2008). Adults In young adults, as children become young adults their personalities show the result of successful or unsuccessful parenting. Especially it is noticeable when young adults make their independent life decisions about their education, work and choosing mates for friendship or marriage. And in middle age and old age, parenting doesn't stop when children grow up and age. Parents always remain to be parents for old children. Their relationship continues developing if both parties want to keep it or improve. The parenting issues may include the relationship with grandchildren and stepchildren (Henig, 2010).

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Family Considerations Some families whose children are highly scheduled may also suffer. Adults who may already be burdened by work responsibilities and maintaining a household find themselves sacrificing their downtime because they need to arrange activities and transport children between appointments. In addition, because of the pressures they feel to meet every one of the needs they perceive (or are told) their child requires to excel, they this group of disadvantaged children remain beyond the may feel inadequate and ultimately have less personal satisfaction in parenting. Most importantly, parents lose the opportunity for perhaps the highest-quality time with their children. Some of the best interactions occur during downtimejust talking, preparing meals together, and working on a hobby or art project, playing sports together, or being fully immersed in child-centered play (Ginsburg, 2011). As parents prepare their children for the future, they cannot know precisely which skills each will need for the workforce. With added anxiety over their inability to adequately predict the future, they become susceptible to the promises of success and full preparation offered by all of the special enrichment programs and vulnerable to the belief that if their children are at least exposed to everything, they will have the best chance to be prepared. Although no one can be sure what skills will be needed, certain character traits will produce children capable of navigating an increasingly complex world as they grow older. These traits include confidence, competence or the ability to master the environment, and a deep-seated connectedness to and caring about others that create the love, safety, and security that children need to thrive. In addition, to be resilientto remain optimistic and be able to rebound from adversityyoung people need the essential character traits of honesty, generosity, decency, tenacity, and compassion. Children are most likely to gain all of these essential traits of resiliency within a home in which parents and children have time to be together and to look to each other for positive support and unconditional love. Many families are successfully navigating a wide variety of commitments without sacrificing high-quality parent-child time, but some families ability to maintain essential parent-child time may be compromised by this hurried lifestyle. In these families, over scheduling may lead to less emotionally competent, well-buffered children. Synthesis According to Pickhardt (2010), there's one thing about parenting, it never stops. Once you become a parent you remain a parent the rest of your life. So the end of your child's adolescence is not the end of parenting, it only marks the transition to a new set of changes and challenges. Parents remain mindful of their primal roles. Parental attention, interest, and approval, needs the adult child never really outgrows. When parents continue their roles as emotional supporter, as rapt audience, and as tireless cheerleader, what they have to offer their adult child never goes out of style, never loses lasting value. The parents goal is to find a way to provide that gentle push their child might need in order to successfully leave the nest, while still extending a hand for support when they needs it. Parents want to help their newly matured child to feel secure and loved, and to know he/she always has a place in their home, while encouraging his/her to step further and further into full adult autonomy.

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As their child is moving off into his/her own life, parents are also beginning to build a life, one that is no longer centered on his/her needs. And, however mature he/she may think he/she is, he/she will be sensitive to this change in you.

Method This chapter includes research design, research respondents, research instruments, data gathering procedures and data analysis. Research Design The researcher used qualitative design for this research. The researcher decided to use qualitative research to discover information about the personal experiences of parents who have adult children still living with them. The researcher used interview method, and gather data through the use of purposive sampling. Purposive sampling was used and the criterion for selecting respondents was having an adult child living with them. Participants The participants of the study were 25 parents whose adult child, aged 35 years old or above is still living with them. It consisted of 18 mothers and 7 fathers. They come from 18 families. The participants were all residents of Christianville Subdivision Las Pias City. They were chosen because of accessibility. Instruments The researcher used an interview method to gather data needed for the study. The researcher used semi-structured interview, allowing new questions to be brought up during the interview as a result of what the interviewee says. And all the questions were guided by the objectives of the study. The researcher used interview method in order to get sufficient data of experiences from the participants. In the present study, the researcher used voice recorder for the documentation of data from the interview with the consent of the participants. Voice recorder was used in the present study to have a continuous flow of conversation and to make sure that exact information were gathered from the participants. The preliminary questions were produced by the researcher. The interview was consisted of sample questions such as; (1)what are you experiences in parenting your adult son/daughter? (2) How was it having your adult son/daughter still lives with you? (3) Is it totally ok with you or not? (4) Are you aware that your son/daughter is already an adult? (5) Do you still interfere in his/her life when it comes to decision making? (6) Do you still communicate with your son/daughter in some matter? (i.e., sex, family, work, love or relationships, peers), (7) How do
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you discipline your son/daughter? (8) Do you feel pressure having your son/daughter still living with you? (9) Do you insist to him/her to move out from your house or have a family of his/her own? (10) What do you think are the factors or reasons that your son/daughter still lives with you? Procedure The researcher used purposive sampling in gathering participants. And the researcher surveyed for possible participants in Christianville Subdivision Las Pias City. During the interview, the researcher also asked follow-up questions from the responses of the participants to explore and gather more data that will support the study. In conducting the interview, the researcher was able to build rapport with the participants to easily gather enough information, and to avoid response bias. The researcher conducted interview limited only to those participants who are willing to answer the questions. Prior to that, the researcher assumed its participants the confidentiality of the interview. The interview last for 1 hour to 1 hour and 30 minutes. And the interview was conducted in the house of the participant. Data Analysis/Statistical Reference The researcher used qualitative design in gathering the data. After gathering data from the interviewed participants, the researcher interpreted the data. In interpreting the data, the researcher analyzed and identifies the focus of the study and reviews the results of the data. After determining the main focus, the researcher seeks differences and similarities of the responses from the participants. The research summarized similar and difference findings. The researcher also includes suggestions from the participants.

Results and Discussions The present study intends to answer the following; (1) to be able to know how Filipino parents do parenting with their adult child, (2)also to be able to know how parents communicate with their adult child, and (3) do parents still discipline their adult child. Based on the gathered data from the participants, somehow answered the objectives of the present study set by the researcher. The present study focused on the experiences of Filipino parents on parenting adult child. Data from mothers and fathers from 18 families was analyzed. The participants of the study were 25 parents whose adult child, aged 35 years old or above is still living with them, from birth up to adulthood. It consisted of 18 mothers and 7 fathers. They come from 18 families. The participants were all residents of Christianville Subdivision Las Pias City. Andthey were chosen because of accessibility. Experiences of parents on parenting their adult child Based on the gathered data from participants, most likely the participants described their experiences as a parent was hard but fulfilling in the end, especially when they see their child graduated from college or succeeded in life. This feeling of pride and fulfillment could be
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attributed to the regard Filipinos give to children in the family. According to Ong (2001), the child is the center of the family in the Philippine society. In rearing a child, there are ups and downs, but being a parent is the best experience for them. As one parent had mentioned: There are ups and downs but very fulfilling especially when you see your son succeed in life. It was tough initially when he was still studying but very rewarding when he graduated. For parents, it makes them whole or completes their personality. (Parent #1). Another respondent had given the same opinion, saying that being a parent is fulfilling in itself.Ang pagiging magulang sa mga anak ko at pagpapalaki sa kanila ay isang malaking fulfilment sa buhay. (Parent #4). Raising a child also helps them shape their personality as a person. Through parenting, they not just teach their child the dos and donts or to follow norms, but also, they learn from their child as well. Molding their child to be a better person also helps them become a better person. Most of them indicated thatthe hard times they had endured in raising their children were replaced with a sense of fulfillment and pride upon seeing them achieve or receive awards in school, especially when they know that their children grew up to be a good person. One of them even said that: As a mother of my four children I admit na hindi talaga madali magpalaki ng apat na anak, kasi ang daddy nila ay seaman at lagi namang wala dito kaya nung nagbubuntis ako sa pangalawa kong anak ay mahirap kasi nag iisa ako. Pero habang nakikita ko na lumalaki ang aking anak ako ay natutuwa kasi siya ay lumalaki na masipag, masunurin at matalino. (Parent #2). In addition to the sense of pride and fulfillment, being a parent also makes them feel so lucky. Maswerte ako at siya ay masipag lalo na sa pag aaral, marami siyag nakuhang awards noong bata siya at naging scholar siya noong college siya kaya lahat ng hirap ko sa kanya noon ay napalitan naman dahil lumaki siya ng maayos. And also the parent 14 said, maswerte ako at siya ang naging anak ko, daig pa yung feeling ng nanalo sa lotto. (Parent #10) This only implies that Filipino parents seemed to be attached to their children. It confirmed Medinas (2001) argument that Filipino families are closely-knit. In fact, she had pointed out that the nuclear family is still the basic building block of most Filipino families. This nuclear family came into being because there were adult children who still stay with their parents even when they get married. Connection between Parents and Adult Child According to respondents of the study, although their children were already adults they still cannot help themselves from fretting over them. They even mentioned that parenting adult
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children were even more challenging because of the many problems adulthood brings. This is consistent with previous research on parenting adults. According to Pickhardt (2010), being parents to adults involves several adjustments which include tolerance, reversal, and demotion. This makes it difficult for parents to deal with adult children. For most parents in the study, they find this period as the time when they do some of their best work. Their goal this time, according to most parents of the study is to find a way to gently push their child to leave home and find their own place while still extending a hand for support when they need it. Parents want to help their mature child to feel secure and loved, and to ensure they know that they always have a place in their home, while at the same time encouraging them to step further into full adult autonomy. One of the respondents even said, I feel better knowing that I can still see him. (Parent #3). According to Domingo (1977), Liwag, dela Cruz, and Macapagal (1998), and Umali-Razon (1981) parents have important roles in training their children to become independent and responsible individuals. The fact that adult children were still living with parents in this study somehow implies that the participants were not able to inculcate the value of independence to these adult children. Parenting adult children requires a very delicate balance between being strict and loving at the same time. According to Pickhardt (2010) role reversal is sometimes difficult for parents to handle. The child who was once obedient of their parents may have their own mind this time and may assert themselves. One of the parents said, It depends. If he wants my advice, I give it to him. Also, if the situation calls for my opinion. I can see that he is able to handle them anyway. (Parent#3) For most parents of the study, they wanted to encourage their children to be independent now that they are adults but at the same time they didnt want their children to feel that they were being driven away. Ideally, according to Alampay & Jocson (2011), both mothers and fathers should convey to their children solidarity, consistency, and predictability in parenting attitudes and behaviors. One of the parents mentioned, oo naman, inaalam ko ang mga decision ng aking anak at pinapaalam naman niya sa amin ng kanyang daddy para mas aware kami at gusto niya din malaman ang aming mga opinion about sa kanyang decision sa buhay kasi alam niya na mas makakatulong kami at alam namin ang tama para sa kanya. Pero hindi naman kami laging na ngingialam sa kanyang mga decision tulad ng sabi ko nasa tama na siyang edad para alamin ang tama at mali at malaki ang tiwala namin sa kanya, kaya alam namin na hindi niya hahayaan na mapahamak siya. (Parent#7) Moreover, parents in this study also mentioned that as their children were moving off into their own lives, parents too were beginning to build a life, one that is no longer centered on their childrens needs. For many of the participants, this building a new life excluding their children proved to be difficult and indeed challenging. This is because for Filipino families no matter how old the child becomes he/she remains to be a big part of the family, thus Filipinos are known to have closely-knit families (Ong, 2001; Medina, 2001).

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Kahit ang aking anak ay nasa tamang edad na at alam ko na malaki na ay hindi ko siya hinayaan na mapahamak sa mga bagay, nag aalala pa din ako sa kanya tuwing siya ay wala sa bahay kapag late na, tinatawagan ko siya at inaalam lagi kung nasaan, kasi hindi na mawawala sakin yung pag alala. Kapag napapansin ko na meron siyang mali na ginagawa siya ay sinasabihan ko para hindi siya mapahamak.(Parent#14) This only shows that being a parent will never change no matter how old your child is Which is also according to Pichkardt (2010) that, no matter how grown up, how much older they become, these adult offspring forever remain your children just as you forever remain their parent. Encouraging adult child to move on Based on the gathered data, parents have conversations about goals, and where theyre adult child is going. They also set time limits for their children to accomplish these goals. Most of the parents dont insist that their child move out from their house if the latter is not ready yet. They let their child have the initiative to move out. On the other hand, some of the parents also subtly encourage their adult child to be on their own. Theirs child is no longer a minor. As what Carandang and colleagues (2004, 2007, & 2008) had mentioned in their papers, the family situations and structure of the Filipino families have changed. Filipino children are no longer as docile and submissive as before. For some of the parents, it is better if they are closer to each other. But for some, they insist to their mature child to move out from their house and have his/her own place. One of the parents said, As a parent kung gugustuhin niyang humiwalay at matuto na mabuhay mag isa ay ayos lang naman sa amin kasi alam naming na malaki na siya at nasa tamang edad na at alam naming na alam na niya ang mga tama at mali. (Parent #2) In addition, some of the respondents said that seeing and having their adult child stay at their home had never been a problem to them. In fact, one of them said that It has never been a problem that he lives with us since he makes our house a better and safer place to live in. (Parent #3) Factors that keeps adult children to stay with their parents Based on the gathered data from participants, there are some factors they think that keeps their adult child under their feather. These factors include the following: the closeness of the adult child to their parents, their economic status, and also the marital status of the adult child. Single adult child are more likely to be staying with their parents than do children with their own families. Unemployment status of the child and influences of peers (who also stay with parents) also contributed to the adult child living with parents. Closely-knit Family For some of the participants, the closeness of their family contributes to their adult child staying with them. As what parent #7 had reported: Feeling ko kaya di nya kami maiwan ng
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tatay nya kasi sobrang lapit talaga naming sa isat isa, parang magkaibigan nga lang rin kami eh. This only proves Ong (2001) and Medinas (2001) contention that Filipino families are indeed close to one another and that children and parents have close relationships. Economic Status Also some participants said that their economic status affects their child to over-stay with them. As what parent #18 answered: Di naman kami mayaman, kaya siguro di rin kami maiwan ng anak ko, siya lang rin kasi yung sumusuporta sa amin. This was supported by parent #8: Ok lang sa akin na nandito siya sa amin, wala rin naman siyang sariling bahay na malilipatan, at di ko rin siya pinipilit bumili ng sariling bahay, lalo na sa panahon ngayon na pagkaka-mahal na ng mga bahay. And also the parent 13 said, yung sinasahod naman ng anak ko sapat lang naman sa pang araw-araw namin, di naman ganun masyadong kalakihan, ipapa-bukod ko pa. Expectedly, rocketing house prices are believed to be responsible. The average price paid by first-time buyers increased by 40 per cent between 2002 and 2011, pricing many young people out of the market entirely, or forcing them to live with their parents for longer in a bid to save money to afford a first deposit (FamilyGP, 2011). Marital status Most of the participants said that the marital status of their child is one of the major factors that keep their son/daughter to them. As parent #5 said: Single naman kasi anak ko, so di naman nya kailangan umalis sa puder namin. Conclusions Results of the study showed that indeed Filipino families are close. One of the reasons that came out why adult children still live with their parents is attachment of parents to their children and vice-versa. In fact, many parents in the study mentioned that although its difficult to parent an adult child, they accept it because of the love and attachment they have for their children. In addition, the results of the study also showed that parents still do parenting with their child, even though their child is already an adult. The study also confirmed what Pickhardt (2001) had found out regarding the many challenges that parents of adult children encounter. Parents of the study had mentioned that they had many difficulties as parents of adults because the situation had changed a lot - from parenting an obedient child (back when this child was still a minor) to that of an individual who had their own sense of self. However, one thing emerged out of the experience of these parents. They still felt a sense of pride and fulfillment for being parents. Recommendation In the completion and with the findings of the study, the researcher has come up with the following recommendations;
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For further studies, include more parents in the study in order to gather more data that will explore further on the experiences on parenting an adult child.And the researcher also suggests for the future researchers, to include the adult child, as a respondent in an interview consisting a different questions that will describe the possible factors keeping them in their parents, in whom it can see the sights more of the Filipino family context. Also, for the future researchers, the researcher suggests to gather more participants not limited only to a particular place in order to collect more data that can describe the full details of Filipino parenting. While for parents whose adult child still lives with them, keep in mind that even though your child has achieved adulthood, there will still be plenty of opportunities for you to do some good parenting. Your adult child can become your buddy, resist the urge as strongly as you can, your child needs your support, not your control.And for adult child, who still stays with their parents, remember that once a parent becomes a parent, and it is always there, it never stops, no matter how old or grown-up you are, andbe more responsible. References Alampay and Jocsons (2011).Parenting: Science and Practice. Retrieved from http://ls.ateneo.edu/module.php?LM=articles.detail&eid=1317625421191&id=1200 71298441. Oct. 3, 2012. Carl Pickhardt (2010). Parenting After the Adolescent Becomes Adult. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/surviving-your childs adolescence/201006/parenting-after-the-adolescent-becomes-adult. Carlson, Neil R. (2010). Psychology: the Science of Behaviour - 4th Edition. Toronto, Ontario: Pearson Education Canada. Cora Llamas (2011).Parenting Pinoy Style.The commonalities across the regionsand the challenges modern dads and moms face. Retrieved from http://www.healthtoday.net/FamilyWellness/2011/05May/ParentingPinoyStyle.aspx. Feb. 13. 2013. Davies, Martin (2000). The Blackwell encyclopedia of social work.Wiley-Blackwell.p. 245. Fletcher, A. C.; Walls, J. K., Cook, E. C., Madison, K. J., Bridges, T. H. (December 2008). "Parenting Style as a Moderator of Associations Between Maternal Disciplinary Strategies and Child Well-Being". Journal of Family Issues29 (12): 17241744. Kenneth R. Ginsburg, MD, MSEd."The Importance of Play in Promoting Healthy Child Development and Maintaining Strong Parent-Child Bonds".American Academy ofPediatrics.Retrieved from http://life.familyeducation.com/youngadult/parenting/51065.html.

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McCarthy (2011). The Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/12/10/number-of-adult-americans-living-with their-parents_n_795185.html C. Frith (2008). Life-fulfilment for adults. Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?Life- Fulfillment-Factors-For-Adults&id=1508176. Oct. 5, 2012.

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Tarroja, Maria Caridad H. (December 2010). Revisiting the Definition and Concept of Filipino Family, p. 177-192.Philippine Journal of Psychology Vol. 43.

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Engagement in Social Network Sites and Level ofNarcissism among First Year College students
Martha Lopez Margaret Sanapo
This study explores whether time spend on social network sites is correlated to levels of narcissism. The researcher gathered N=195 first year college students. The respondents were selected by stratified random sampling. All respondents in this study have social network accounts and they were given the Narcissistic Personality Inventory questionnaires by Raskin and Terry (1988). The questionnaires also asked what specific social networking sites they use and how much time they spent on each site. Results of the study showed that the Pearsons r for the correlation between average hours spent on social networks and the NPI scores are significant at r= 0.765, p < .01.

Social networking websites have drawn millions of users especially young adults. Sixtytwo percent of adults worldwide now use social media as of May 2012 (Ping, 2012). Basically, people engage in social networks for personal purposes. These social networks allow the users to publicly show information and updates about themselves. These networks may also serve as ones tool for self- promotion through posting photos or changing status which can be viewed to the public. Since social networks are designed to allow easy promotion of one-self, has it indirectly promoted narcissism? This study investigates whether narcissism is apparent in social networking sites. It also investigates if too much engagement in social networks could also mean higher level of ones narcissistic traits. Previous surveys claim that narcissism becomes trendy nowadays (Kelley, 2011). In a work environment, there tends to be higher levels of stress with people who work with or interact with a narcissist, which in turn increases absenteeism and staff turnover. Narcissism refers to a personality trait reflecting an extravagant self- concept. It is associated with using relationships as an opportunity of forum of self- enhancement. In the article of Namka (2005), it is stated that neglected or suppressed feelings in the early life could result to narcissism. Narcissistic attitudes serve as an ego defense to hide the deep shame and fractures that came from being hurt in the early life. So they think highly of themselves and try to become involve in material things, vanity and are shallow developing excessive lifelong interest in things. They are also considered as the truly empathically challenged (Kreger,2010). They are often envious of others or they believe that others are envious of themselves too. In an article by Neuharth (2005), people with narcissistic personality disorder lack a healthy emotional core. They are driven by a moment-to-moment monitoring of their worth. Since they find it difficult to provide self-worth, they seek it from external sources. They must be "right" or the center of attention; their relationships, possessions, or careers must be "the best" and "special." This kind of personality is becoming rampant nowadays. According to the author of Generation Me, Tenger (2006), baby boomers from 1970- 2006 or those in the age of seven to thirty-six are sometimes called Me generation. He said that our generation would always focus on their needs and these needs should always come first. Todays young peoples expectations
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are very high just as the world is becoming more competitive. therefore, conflicts may occur between their expectations and reality. A survey has been conducted among college students according to Kelley (2009), ten percent of the population at the age of twenties have already experienced symptoms of narcissistic personality disorders. Narcissists often place unrealistic demands on others to make them feel better. They cannot tolerate negative emotional distress and turn it on others and blame them instead of looking within to see their own part of the problem (Namka,2005). This research intends to explore the relationship between social network sites engagement and the levels of narcissism among college students. Specifically, what is the level of social network sites engagement among first year college students? The level of social network engagement is defined as the amount of time spent on such social networks. And what is the level of narcissism among first year college students? The level of narcissism would depend on the scores obtained from the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, the higher the score would reflect a higher level of narcissism. The objective of this study is to know whether there is a correlation between level of social network sites engagement and level of narcissism. The hypothesis of this study is that the correlation between the level of social network engagement and the level of narcissism is significant. Review of Related Literature Social networking sites are becoming epidemic especially among college students. According to many studies, the level of narcissism is now higher than the previous generations. The following researches discuss the possible basis of how social networking contributes to individuals narcissistic trait and whether the two variables are correlated. Narcissism and Social Networks In one survey of college students, more than half of the respondents claim that they use social networking such as Facebook and Twitter for self- promotion, narcissism and attentionseeking (Jayson, 2009). Researchers also believe that our young generation today is the most narcissistic generation of all. When narcissism is present, then lack of sensitivity and empathy follows. Previous studies have noted that narcissists do, in some cases, experience benefits (Evans, 2008). It becomes a healthy narcissism for those who belong to the young generation now. Narcissism can build confidence among the young generation thus they can express themselves rather than keep things to themselves. Social Relationship Quality According to Peters (2011) the quality of a relationship could depend on how the selfinterest of a person is. If a person is too arrogant, it could negatively affect the social relationship quality. Base on its survey, the social relationship quality is correlated with social desirability and self peer-reported humility and other personality dimensions. The findings of the survey prove that the humility could be an important trait with regard to interpersonal relations. The
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relationship quality that could really harm is a relationship with a narcissistic parent and their children. In the article of Namka (2005), the negative effect of narcissism happens to a child when his emotional needs are not met. In other relationships they test others with controlling, ugly behavior. Then, if their partner leaves, they conclude that the partner was not good enough, and seek a replacement (Neuharth,2005). In an article (Bowler,2011), certain people are hard wired that causes personal relationships problematic. Art of selfishness Our society today has unfortunately given selfishness a bad name when it can be a positive aspect of our life. Self-interest is efficient since you are able to meet your own needs rather than hope that someone else does. It is also a basis for survival of the fittest. Children need to progress from immature selfishness to a more moderate, mature selfishness that incorporates the interest of others. (Sims, 2010). In another study, those who are self- absorbed handle trauma best. In this study, those who showed self-enhancement traits reported fewer post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and were simply happier and better adjusted over time than most others. (Szegedy-Maszak, 2005) Generation Me There were researches conducted regarding the issue. Psychologist Frederick Stinson and his colleagues conducted face-to-face interviews with 34,653 adults and found that men are more narcissistic than women across the lifespan. Male and female narcissists both share a marked need for attention, the propensity to manipulate, and a keen interest in charming the other sex (Kauffman, 2011). While in another article, in any group of people about 20 percent are likely to be self-enhancers (Szegedy-Maszak, 2005). Fifty- seven percent of the respondents admitted that social networks make them more narcissistic (Twenge, 2006). These social networks often encourage people to highlight only narcissistic parts of their personality. People rarely talk about world or historical events and instead they take pictures of themselves or the events that they go to. They always emphasize on their personalities (Lyon, 2009). Social Networks are not an Indicator of Narcissism In a recent psychological research, there is no tie between narcissism and social networks. Shawn Bergman, an assistant professor of organizational psychology at Appalachian State University in Boone, N.C., claims that the level of narcissism is now higher than the previous generations. This rise of narcissism has corresponded with the thriving of Facebook but Bergman stated that the usage of social networking sites is not an indicator of narcissism but rather a product of the times (Conger, 2011). Social networks have become universal and a cultural norm in our individualistic society and therefore it is now acceptable to promote oneself. According to Bergman, psychological research claims that ones personality can be established by the age of seven. Since Facebook policy does not allow users under age thirteen,
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the personality traits of users are fairly well established by the time they get on social networking sites (Conger, 2011). Facebook as a mean to detect Narcissist In a journal in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, researchers Laura Buffardi and Keith Cambell conducted a study on social networking sites and narcissism. 129 undergraduates ranging from 18 to 23 years old respondents participated in the study. The researchers found that the number of Facebook profiles of the respondents showed traits of narcissism. Using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, it was found that the test scores were related to narcissistic characteristics including self promoting pictures, provocative pictures and information listed about self. (Buffardi & Campbell, 2008) According to Keith Campbell, narcissists may appear to be charming at first but eventually they hurt the people around them eventually. Narcissists use social networks for self promotion and therefore they usually have a large amount of friends linked to the Facebook page. Their relationships with the friends in their Facebook pages are frequently shallow. Redefining Narcissism in Social Networks Lynne Kelly and Robert L. Duran of The University of Hartford conducted a study recently published in the newest volume of Communication Research Reports. The study is on how much time is spent on social networking sites by 233 college students and whether their usage showed characteristics of narcissism. The researchers found that the respondents use social networks in order to share updates about themselves to their friends. This does not necessarily mean that social networks are used to inflate their ego. (Kelley, McKinney, & Duran, 2012) Synthesis Narcissism is described as someone who seeks external source to make themselves feel more special. People nowadays actually use social networks as mediums to provide them self- worth (Szegedy-Maszak, 2005). Social networks give the individual the opportunity to express themselves and broadcast their ideas (Lyon,2009). Individuals who engage in these networks usually demand other to give attention to their posts. Therefore, people rarely talk about other issues such as history or other important events and instead they are more concerned with their own image. Narcissism is an issue in our society because it affects the quality of social relationship (Namka, 2005). Social networking sites have been expanding exponentially. Some researchers believe that social networks do not only promote narcissism because it may serve as a tool for keeping in touch with acquaintances. While some researchers believe that engaging in social networking sites is the cause why there is narcissism epidemic in the present generation. The purpose of this study is to relate whether the time spent of an individual in social networks could only enhance ones narcissistic traits (Ciarrochi, 2006).

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Method Research Design The researcher utilized the study with a quantitative research design wherein a survey form was used. Since this study is about the engagement in social network and level of narcissism, it would be better to get information on people who engage in social networks. Cross- sectional survey design will be used to gather first hand data from the respondents. Participants This research aims to know whether social networking, such as Facebook, Twitter,and Instagram motivates the young generation, specifically the first year college students to become narcissists. There are 592 total first year college enrollees for the year 2012.Using the stratified random sampling, each course were considered as the sub group or strata. Then a simple random sample is done in each stratum. The researcher made sure that proportionate stratified sampling is done in order to get the same proportion for each stratum. A total of 35% of the population (N=207 respondents) were selected to make up the sample. The researcher excluded 12 respondents since they do not own any social network accounts. Therefore, a total of 195 respondents remained for the analysis (male: 92, female: 103). Table 1 shows the distribution of participants among all courses. Table 1: Distribution of Respondents

Research Instruments For measuring narcissism, a revised version of Narcissistic Personality Inventory by Raskin and Terry (1988) will be used (Port, 2007). It is a 40-item questionnaire with paired statements wherein respondents must choose which of the two statements they most agree with. The NPI exhibits construct validity and Internal consistency is reported as high (.83), for alternate forms reliability was found to be .72 and for split-half reliability, the result was .80.
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Each range of scores are labeled, 0-12= 1 (low), 13-15=2 (average), 16-20= 3 (mid average) and 21-40= 4 (highly narcissistic). The questionnaire also require the respondents demographics, what specific social networks they use and the number of hours spent on each of the social network given. Research procedure The researcher utilized the study with a descriptive research design wherein a survey form will be used. Since stratified random sampling is used, the list of first year enrollees was provided by the office of the registrar. Each survey questionnaire has name of the selected respondent via MS Office Excel random selection. The first year class presidents were given the questionnaires with the name of the students that belong to their class. This procedure was done during class break. Written introduction qualification will ensure that the participants understand the nature of the questionnaire and its use for the research, making the survey items easy for them to accomplish. The respondents were not asked to take their time in answering the test in order to avoid any extraneous variable that could affect the result. The class presidents were instructed to gather the questionnaires as soon as the respondents finish. As soon as data surveys are gathered, analysis of data in relation to the research hypotheses will follow. Data Analysis Descriptive statistics was used to describe the basic features of data in this study. This will provide simple conclusion about the sample. The means for each factor would then be computed and be used to tabulate the data. Scores will be computed by Pearson correlation. SPSS will be used to analyze the data gathered from the respondents. Results The first objective of this study is to know the level of engagement in social network sites which refers to the time spent on social networking by the respondents. Descriptive statistics section showed the mean, standard deviation and number of observation (N) for each of the variables time spent and Narcissistic Personality Inventory scores data showed that the hours spent per day by the respondents has a mean of 3.37 (SD = 3.543). In regards to the level of narcissism which refers to the NPI scores, respondents have low narcissistic traits (M = 1.87, SD = .986). There were N = 195 observations for each of the variables Results showed that most of the respondents use both Facebook and Twitter (39.5%, n=77). While 33.3% (n=65) use Facebook alone. There were 19.5% (n=38) of the respondents use Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. Those who use Twitter alone consists of 1.5% (n=3) and this tallies with the amount respondents using both Twitter and Instagram. Also only 1.5% (n=3) use Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and other kinds of social networks. Figure 2 shows which social networks are used by the respondents.

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Figure 2

It is shown in table 2 the specific number of respondents per course who use social networks. Table 2: Use of Social Networks per Course

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The second objective of this research is to know the level of narcissism of the respondents which can be shown through the respondents Narcissistic Personality Inventory scores. Result shows that most of the respondents have low narcissistic traits (48%, n = 94). While 25% (n = 49) range in the mid average. Respondents who scored average in the test consist of 19% (n = 37) and lastly, only few respondents are considered to have high narcissistic traits (8%, n = 15). Table 3 shows the amount of respondents in each range of NPI scores. Table 3: Narcissistic Personality Inventory Scores

The third objective of this study is to know whether the level of engagement in social network sites and the level of narcissism are correlated. Using the Pearson correlation the researcher correlated the NPI scores with the average number of hours spent in social networks in order to prove that the two variables are correlated. In conclusion, results showed that the two variables are significant at r= .765, p < .01. This implies that the longer the hours spent in social networking sites, the higher the tendency to be narcissistic. This result is interpreted by using the
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scatter plot seen in figure 3. Base on the scatter plot, as the number of hours increases, the NPI scores increases as well. Therefore, there is a linear correlation.

Figure 3: Scatter plot

Discussion Present research shows that there is a significant relationship between level of engagement in social network sites and level of narcissism. This research corresponds and contradicts previous researches concerning this topic. In a previous research regarding narcissism in social networks, social network sites are not an indicator of narcissism (Conger, 2011). According to another previous study, majority of its respondents use social networks in order to share stories to their friends but it does not necessarily mean it can inflate their ego (Kelley, McKinney, & Duran, 2012). On the other hand, the present research is supported by previous researches. A number of Facebook profiles were found to be showing traits of narcissism (Buffardi & Campbell, 2008). It was also mentioned in another study that majority of people use social network sites for selfpromotion (Jayson, 2009). With all the results gathered and literature presented in this study, respondents who spend longer time using social networks were narcissistic. This maybe because they spend more hours promoting themselves. The implications of an individual with high narcissism would be spending more hours on social networks since self- promotion is apparent in social network sites. Since the two variables are correlated, one variable can predict the other. Narcissism or having self love could benefit a person because it may highlight their selfesteem as well (Evans, 2008) . But too much narcissism also has its unfavorable effects. It is
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necessary to know whether college students have high narcissistic traits since it could negatively affect quality of relationships towards others. Being self- conceited is not an asset especially in socializing because the individual cannot be sensitive enough towards others needs. they have the inability to form healthy relationships because they are so focused on themselves. The guidance counselors may use this study as a source of information whether the new batch of college students may have the tendency to have trouble in their quality of relationships. Narcissism can also be considered as a positive trait since it could build confidence. Since majority of the respondents scored low narcissism, we can say that the freshmen needs to boost their self confidence in order to share their thoughts to be more participative in class rather than to keep it to themselves.

Conclusion and Recommendations This research aims to examine how narcissism can be given emphasis through social networks. It was mentioned on this research that social networks serve as tools for selfpromotion which is a trait for a narcissist. Since majority of the respondents from first year SBCA claim that they spend fewer hours using social networks, it was also revealed that respondents have low level of narcissistic traits. The researcher was able to prove that the correlation of the two variables is significant. The result of the study corresponds to its hypothesis. For the following researchers who would like to study further on this topic, one may use qualitative research method since the main problem in this research is finding the specific respondents base on the stratified random sampling. Researcher may view each respondents social network profiles. In that manner, the researcher may seek whether the content of each social network account of the respondent is for self-promotion. References Bowler, A. D. (2011).How to Deal with Narcissistic People. Retrieved December 2011, fromsquidoo:http://www.squidoo.com/how-to-deal-with-narcissistic-people Buffardi, L. E., & Campbell, K. (2008, July 3). Narcissism and Social Networking Web Sites. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin , pp. 1303-1314. Ciarrochi, D. J. (2006).Acceptance and Commitment Process measures of potential relevance to ACT , 56. Therapy.Measures Package.

Doble, R. (2006, August 26). Self-centered behavior: A commoncharacteristic of abusive people Retrieved December 2011, from abusive love: http://www.abusivelove.com/2006/08/selfcentered-behavior-common.html

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Fox, M. (2011, April 28). 10 self-confidence booster. Retrieved March 2012, from The Power of Productive Living: http://michellemariefox.com/2011/04/28/10-self-confidence-boosters/ Jacobs, T. (2011, March 17). Study Linkc Facebook Use with Narcissism. Retrieved February 2012, from Miller-McCune: http://www.miller-mccune.com/culture-society/australianstudy-links-facebook-use-with-narcissism-29129/ Kauffman, S. B. (2011, July). How to Spot a Narcissist. Retrieved December 2011, from Psychology Today: http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/201106/how-spotnarcissist Kelley, L., McKinney, B. C., & Duran, R. (2012, July). Redefining what it means to be narcissistic in a social media world. Science Daily . Kelley, R. (2009, April). Generation me. Retrieved December 2011, from The Daily Beast:http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2009/04/17/generation-me.html Kreger, R. (2010, April 10). Narcissistic Personality: The truly Empathically Challenged.Retrieved December 2011, from Psychology Today: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/stop-walking-eggshells/201004/narcissisticpersonalities-the-truly-empathically-challenged Kristy. (2009, May).How social media can build self confidence. Retrieved March 2012, from janes-list: http://janes-list.com/kirsty/2009/05/how-social-media-can-build-selfconfidence/ Lyon, L. (2009, April 21). Narcissism Epidemic: Why there are so many narcissist now.Retrieved December 2011, from Health US News: http://health.usnews.com/healthnews/family-health/brain-and-behavior/articles/2009/04/21/narcissism-epidemic-whythere-are-so-many-narcissists-now Namka, L. (2005). selfishness and Narcissism in Family Relationships. Retrieved December 2011, from Angries out: http://www.angriesout.com/grown17.htm Neuharth, D. (2005). Self-centered People. Retrieved December 2011, from secrets we keep:http://www.secretswekeep.com/Self-Centered%20People.htm O'Dell, J. (2010, August 28). Survey says Facebook Feeds Narcissism. Retrieved March 2012, from Mashable :http://mashable.com/2010/08/28/facebook-narcissism/ Petere, A. e. (2011, June).Associations Between Dispositional Humility and Social Relationship Quality. Retrieved December 2011, from Scietif ic Research. Ping, C. (2012, May 10). 99 New Social Media Stats for 2012 . Retrieved August 1, 2012, from the skinny social: http://thesocialskinny.com/99-new-social-media-stats-for-2012

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Port, T. (2007, September 2). Assessing Narcissistic Personality. Retrieved March 2012, from Psychiatric Disorders: http://tami-port.suite101.com/assessing-narcissism-a30351s Raskin, R., & Terry, H. (1988).A principal-components analysis of the Narcissistic PersonalityInventory and further evidence of its construct validity.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 890902. Schock, D. (2010, October 10). Adolescent's Narcissism on Facebook. Retrieved January 2012,from Schock Md: http://www.shockmd.com/2010/10/26/adolescents-narcissism-onfacebook/ Sims, T. D. (2004). Art of Selfishness. Retrieved December 2011, from My Sacred Journey:http://www.mysacredjourney.com/articles/art-of-selfishness-article.htm Szegedy-Maszak, M. (2005, June 23). Self-Absorbed handle trauma best. Retrieved January2012, from Health US News: http://health.usnews.com/usnews/health/articles/050623/23balance.htm Tucker, J. H. (2010, November 2). Study of Facebook users connects Narcissism and Low selfesteem. Retrieved March 2012, from Scientific American: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=status-update-im-so-glamorous Twenge, J. (2006). Generation Me. Retrieved January 2012, from Generation Me: http://www.generationme.org/aboutbook.html

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Experiences of Filipino Familiesin caring for their childrenwith Autistic Disorder


Francis Angel Mabato Theresa Masilungan
The present study explored how Filipino families give care for their children with Autistic Disorder. The researcher used qualitative design in order to describe and explore the experiences of the Filipino families; ten families participated in the study through semi-structured interview different responses were gathered. The researcher found out that three of the families have not enough knowledge of the childs condition, while the others did a research to understand the nature of Autistic Disorder. Participants stated that love, understanding, and patience with the children are the most valuable characteristics that help to increase the childs confidence to live. Moreover, money, education, home, religion, social support and community are considered the needs of the family members to give proper care for the children with Autistic Disorder.

______________________________________________________________________________ In recent years, there is a dramatic increase in the incidence of autism from 1970s through 2008. This incidence increased from one in 10,000 before the 1970s to one in 150 in the year 2008 (Ghanizadeh, Alishahi, and Ashkani, 2009). This indicates that a considerable number of parents are directly involved in caring of the children with autism and emphasizes that children with autism should not be separated from their own families. These data notify that the family has a big role in this scenario. Obviously, large numbers of parents are directly involved in caring of the children with autism. Autism is also considered as a lifelong disorder. For that reason, family members have to live and care their children on their own forever (Ghanizadeh, Alishahi, and Ashkani, 2009). At the present time, every parent viewed the discovery that his or her child has autism as a life-altering event. All of the families experienced despair, sadness, denial, confusion, and anger (Altiere & Kluge, 2009). A child with autism may be a severe stressor on the family for many reasons, including the ambiguity of diagnosis, the severity and duration of the disorder, and the childs lack of adherence to social norms (Bristol, 1984) (as cited in Altiere & Kluge, 2009). Family can be defined as any group of people wherein they are related to each other biologically, emotionally, or legally. Family is the one who addresses the needs of its member for physical and emotional safety, health, and well-being (McDaniel, et al., 2005). On the other hand, the researcher defines family as the foundation of our personality, gives positive and negative feedback in times of trouble, serve as a counselor in giving advices, and as a friend that can give priceless help in times of need. In connection with the researchers statement, it molds the identity of an individual, gives background if the actions are good or bad, sets as the first school, and from your family you have learned the importance of love (Kanade, 2011). Shinde (2011) stated that family gives safety needs, and psychological needs. In terms of security for
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financial support, gives and teaches us unconditional love and boosts confidence to survive in the reality of life. Filipino family has a strong value of Pagpapahalaga sa Pamilya this characteristic helps the relationship of the Filipino family connected to each member, they consider first their family members before anything else, put high regards and concerns of its family members. For that reason, the researcher intended to focus on the role of the family on how they support their child with autism. There are many terms used to label autism, as a result the researcher decided to use Autistic Disorder to avoid ambiguity. Children with autism have low social functioning, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviours or interests. Prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders is reported to be as high as 60 cases per 10,000 children in the United States (Fombonne, 2003,) (as cited in, Altiere & Von Kluge, 2009). Autism is considered by many to be the most severe childhood behavioural disorder with the most complex developmental pattern (Newsom & Hovanitz, 2006) (as cited in, Altiere & Von Kluge, 2009). By definition, the onset of Autistic Disorder is before the age of 3 years, although in some cases, it is not recognized until a child is much older. Also, Autistic Disorder can be found four to five times more frequently in boys than girls. Girls with Autistic Disorder are more likely to have more severe mental retardation (Sadock & A. Sadock, 2007, p. 1192). According to the text revision of the 4th edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR), these are the criteria for Autistic Disorder qualitative impairment in social interaction, qualitative impairments in communication, restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities, as well as with of delays or abnormal functioning in social interaction, social communication, imaginative play. Some researchers believed that the causes of A.D. are based on environmental, genetic, immunological, perinatal, neuroanatomical, biochemical, psychosocial and family factors. Moreover, there are no sufficient evidences that provide information on how to cure Autistic Disorder (Sadock & A. Sadock, 2007). It may be particularly maladaptive if parents blame themselves for their childs autism. The idea that parental Psychopathology is the cause of autism is often attributed to Kanner (1943); however, his original explanation included both nature and nurture (DeMyer, 1979; Kanner, 1943, 1992, originally published in 1971). There are still parents who self-blame, believing that their own behaviour caused their childs autism. Some of these parents think they are being punished (Furnham & Buck, 2003; Gray, 1995) (as cited in (Altiere & Von Kluge, 2009). In the Philippine setting there are 187 total patients of Autistic Disorder 83% of them are males at Philippine Children's Medical Center (PCMC) from 1987-1997. In Philippine General
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Hospital (PGH ) the data stated that since 1990-2005 there are 417 patients of Autistic Disorder and 86% of the cases are male. On the other hand, from 1991-2008 Private clinics have 1914 patients of Autistic Disorder and 84% of them are male. The data were gathered by psychologists, speech therapists, and occupational therapists. Based on the gathered data of Reyes, he stated that data were not obtained the whole population of Autistic Disorder here in the Philippines because the data from private practitioners who own private clinics are not included in his study (Reyes, 2008). Based on the gathered data of Reyes (2008), the Philippine setting needs improvement in handling children with Autism, however there are some treatments that can be somehow helpful for the development of children with autism, but the problem those treatments are not suitable for Philippine setting because its based on Westernized standards. For that reason, there is a big need in developing treatment that can fit the Autistic Disorder cases in the Philippine setting and more improvement in the involvement of the family members in handling children with autism. This study is focused on how the Filipino family handles their child with A.D., what are the things to be considered to achieve a good relationship with their child with A.D. such as financial support, social support, educational support, and personal support. The researcher is also wanted to discover the perspective of the Filipino families toward A.D. In addition, the researcher seeks positive and negative points that participants have received and experienced in dealing this problem, and positive effect of knowledgeable caring towards a child with Autistic Disorder. The researcher decided to determine the different treatments or therapeutic techniques that the family members and children with A.D. receive in order to maintain good health, to cope with stress-related behaviors, to develop childs capability to be independent individuals and to be able to describe the dynamics among family members of which one is diagnosed with Autistic Disorder. The study will benefit those families, who are experiencing difficulties in taking care of their child with Autistic Disorder, and it will somehow give them information for proper techniques and treatments on how to handle their child. The study also aims to give hope for families and to be patient in caring their children. This study will also help future researchers to provide some information on how Filipino families handle their with Autistic Disorder, so in the near future they can be able to contribute more sufficient data. For the psychologist, the study will help them to develop new therapeutic programs or treatments that might help to improve the quality of life (social interaction, communication skills) and somehow eliminate abnormal behaviors of children with A.D.

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Review of Related Literature The researcher gathered different data that will support the study, based on the gathered data it describe the roles of family in caring children with A.D., factors that somehow affect parents in giving care to the children with A.D., and different experiences of families both positive and negative that became a factor to give care to the children with A.D. Also, there are data that describe how families cope with different struggles that they had experienced while having a children A.D., and there are literature that discussed the background of A.D. in the Philippines. Roles of Family The researcher gathered data that focus on the area of family, based on the gathered data it is shown that published studies were focused on the roles of family and how the characteristics of the family affect the members of the family. Family experiences and social support are important in the development of an individual (Gayman et al., 2010). Using a sample of young adults in Miami-Dade County, Florida (N = 1,267) involving longitudinal data spanning 8 years, Sabatier and his colleagues evaluated the importance of early adolescent family experiences (socioeconomic status, family structure, family support, family pride, parent derogation) on perceived family and friend support in young adulthood. Results indicated that early family experiences, especially negative experiences, were associated with lower perceived family and friend support in young adulthood. Moreover, these associations were independent of early childhood-adolescent behavioral disorders (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder), psychological disorders (Major Depression, Anxiety), Substance use disorders, and lifetime social adversity. Parents of children with autism depend on family support networks and not only offer support and encouragement but also to provide care for their child with autism. These conclusions are supported by participants in the current study. The fact that study participants chose their spouse or partner as their most helpful support system is consistent with findings of Tunali and Power (2002). Increased stress levels have been reported when a spouse or partner is absent in the lives of parents of children with autism (Gray, 2003) (as cited in Hall &Graff , 2010). In addition, Ghanizadeh, Alishahi, and Ashkani (2009) found out that the role of siblings within the family has big role in helping their family member with ASD particularly to improve its social interaction skills. However, siblings of these children may have more social and behavioral adjustment problems that last long for older ages. The siblings of the children are facing precocious responsibility, feeling sorry, observing, and involving in scary behaviors.

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Even, their relationships with their friends are affected. Also, the risk of developing internalizing behavior problems is higher in them. Carothers & Taylor (2004) stated that everyone is involved in the lives of children with autism and it should collaborate to provide consistent, appropriate training in the areas of Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization. Factors involve in taking care of a child with Autistic Disorder In the economic perspective, Ghanizadeh and his colleagues (2009) stated that families of children with ASD have lower level of income. It is because most of the families income is used to provide the basic needs of their children with ASD such as medical care. Ghanizadeh and his team also found out that families of children with ASD have more likely financial problems. Usually families are sacrificing their work in order to care of their children. Moreover, the religiosity of the family considered as a positive factor in order to achieve higher life satisfaction (Sabatier et. al, 2011). In connection, with Sabatier study on religiosity of the family, religion affects the parent perspective on how to deal a child with autism they wanted to raise their children as normally as possible, incorporating them into ordinary social, linguistic, and religious practices at home and in the community (Jegatheesan, Miller, & Fowler, 2010). In connection with the Sabatiers study, families with ASD children benefit more from religious/cultural community support. In general, areas with the lowest results in terms of satisfaction with the family quality of life domains were obtained for financial status, support from others (social) and career. As for opportunities, they also recorded the lowest values in the fields of financial status and support from others (social). The most important predictors for the overall assessment of family quality of life are; family, support from others, career and financial status domains. The significant predictors for the overall satisfaction regarding the family quality of life are family, career and support from services domains. (Sipos, Predescu, et al., 2012) (p.7) In contrast with Sabatiers study, parents have contradictory opinions about support groups and are not always interested in becoming involved. Previous data suggest parents may choose to isolate themselves from such social meetings (Gupta & Singhal,2005; Sivberg, 2002), especially if the parents have decided the meetings offer no benefit for their families (Symon, 2005). Hall and Graff (2010) suggested that giving parents opportunities to express their likes and dislikes about support networks can lead to identifying how support networks can be more effective and accessible to parents and families.

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Based on the study of Solomon and Chung (2012), parents who are frequently reporting when they received the diagnosis, they were sent off with very little hope and very little information. In addition, they found out that sleeping pattern, meals, toileting, play, travel, education, and work may be affected by taking care of a child with autism. Family adjustment and environment of the family were also studied based on the gathered data, Nugent and his colleagues (2011) were conducted a research about the influence of family environment on dissociation in pediatric injury patients. The present investigation prospectively examined the influence of family environment on dissociative symptom course in 82 youths (818 years) who experienced accidental injury. The primary caretaker reported on six-week family environment (including family cohesion and adaptability) and on youth symptoms of dissociation prior to injury at six weeks and at six months; dissociation prior to injury was assessed via a retrospective parent account at the six-week time point. Adolescents (aged 1118) also reported on their own dissociative symptoms at six weeks. Latent growth modeling indicated that youth in more cohesive family environments evidenced decreased symptoms of dissociation at the six-week intercept (z = 2. 80). Furthermore, parent income was negatively related to symptoms of dissociation at intercept (z = 1. 96) and parent education was associated with a decrease in youth dissociation symptoms over time (z = 2. 57). The present findings provide support for the importance of the acute family environment in pediatric postinjury adjustment and further highlight the importance of parent resources, including income and education, in post-injury adjustment. Peek, Morrissey Marlatt (2011) stated that parental and child adjustment trajectories are dynamic and may vary over time. On the other hand, Pantea (2011) conducted a research about the environment of the family which has parental migration, it's shown that different stages of the migration cycle, different levels of authority and freedom occur. In addition, the article suggested that parents migration is simultaneously empowering and burdensome for young people. It can be increased the ability to negotiate, but may also create discriminatory dynamics of roles among siblings. Weiss and Lunsky (2010) found out that parents of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often experience stressors associated with caring for their child. These stressors can cause considerable distress for families, which at times can develop into full blown crisis, and it is important that professionals are able to quickly identify when families are approaching or are in crisis to respond appropriately. The current study presents an initial attempt at measuring the subjective experience of crisis in 164 caregivers of people with ASD through a single item instrument, the Brief Family Distress Scale. The BFDS was negatively correlated with helpful coping mechanisms (family hardiness, and parent empowerment), and positive adjustment (caregiver quality of life and positive parenting experiences), and positively correlated with known stressors (severity of aggressive
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behaviour, negative life events) and problematic coping and outcomes (caregiver burden, worry, mental health problems). As expected, caregivers at marked levels of distress (approaching or in crisis) were significantly different from caregivers at lower levels of distress in nearly all of the dependent variables. Having a quick way of measuring where families are in terms of distress and crisis can be helpful for researchers and clinicians alike. The researcher was also interested in the issue of family on how they take care of a child with autism; based on the gathered data the researcher found out that having a child with autism was difficult. Rao and Beidel (2009) were conducted a study about the impact of Children with High-Functioning Autism (HFA) on parental stress, Sibling adjustment, and family functioning. It is studied that parents of children with HFA experience significantly more parenting stress than parents of children with no psychological disorder, which was found to be directly related to the characteristics of the children. The study further shows that the higher intellectual functioning in children with HFA does not compensate for the stress associated with parenting children with autism spectrum disorders. On the other hand, Higgins, Bailey, and Pearce (2005) found out those parents/caregivers of a child with ASD was conducted to examine the relationship between ASD characteristics, family functioning and coping strategies. Having a child with ASD places considerable stress on the family. Primary caregivers of a child with ASD from a regional and rural area in Victoria, Australia (N = 53) were surveyed concerning their child with ASD, family functioning (adaptability and cohesion), marital satisfaction, self-esteem and coping strategies. Results suggest that these caregivers had healthy self-esteem, although they reported somewhat lower marital happiness, family cohesion and family adaptability than did norm groups. Coping strategies were not significant predictors of these outcome variables. Results highlight the need for support programmes to target family and relationship variables as well as ASD children and their behaviors, in order to sustain the family unit and improve quality of life for parents and caregivers as well as those children. In connection with the Higgins, Bailey, and Pearce study, parents in 16 families of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Down syndrome participated in a qualitative study examining family (i.e., all caregivers in the home) belief systems. All families had children who had recently entered elementary school or who were in the early years of high school. As a result of their experiences, families reported becoming more certain about what matters. Families adopted perspectives of optimism, acceptance, and appreciation, and of striving to change the environment or to meet their children's needs as well as possible. These perspectives provided families with a sense of hope, meaning, and control over their situations. The findings indicate the strengths and resilience of families in the face of life's adversities (King, Baxter, et al., 2011).

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Furthermore, Blair and his colleagues (2011) conducted a study in the more experimental manner. Multiple baseline design across three young children with autism was used to assess the impact of individualized behavior support, implemented through familyschool collaboration, on the childrens appropriate and problem behaviors and adultchild interactions. A positive behavior support process was used to promote familyschool collaboration and to design the individualized intervention. Data indicated that the childrens target behaviors improved with the intervention during circle time at school and play time at home, and their behaviors generalized to nontargeted center time at school and play at the community playground. Teacher and mother positive interactions with the children increased while negative interactions decreased. Social validity indicated that the interventions provided through familyschool collaboration were acceptable and effective. In addition, Schaaf, et al., (2011) studied the impact of sensory-related behaviors of children with autism affected family routines. In order to gather data semi-structured interviews were conducted with four primary caregivers regarding the meaning and impact of their childs sensory-related behaviors on family routines that occurred inside and outside the home. Findings indicated that sensory behaviors are one factor that limited family participation in work, family and leisure activities; and that parents employed specific strategies to manage individual and family routines in light of the childs sensory-related behaviors. This information has important implications for professionals who work with families of children with autism to decrease caregiver stress and to increase life satisfaction for the child and family. Research has suggested that parental stress is strongly correlated, not with the childs level of impairment, but with the childs level of negative behavior (Estes, et al., 2009) (as cited in Solomon & Chung, 2012). Struggles of families Every parent viewed the discovery that his or her child has autism as a life-altering event. All of the families experienced despair, sadness, denial, confusion, and anger after this finding. Every parent wondered if his or her child would ever lead a normal life (Matthew & Von Kluge, 2009). In addition, members of one couple from their study developed high blood pressure because of the stress associated with raising their child. A child with autism greatly altered their support networks (Matthew & Von Kluge, 2009). Parents quickly discovered that raising a child with autism is a 24-hour, 7-day-a week task. This was an upsetting reality for parents, as most of their time was spent helping their child. Therefore, they had less time for friends, extended family, other children, and their spouse (Altiere & Von Kluge, 2009).

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Altiere and Von Kluge (2009) found out that some of the parents of children with autism experience of losing touch with some of their friends, unable to rely on social support when they needed it most. Moreover, there are cases that indicated that they lost the support of their church, and stopped attending their Catholic Church because the congregation and the pastor did not accept their sons disability. The other family broke ties with their Lutheran Church because of similar circumstances. They reported receiving dirty looks from members of the congregation when their child misbehaved (Matthew & Von Kluge, 2009). Altiere and Von Kluge, (2009) found out in their study that almost all of the mothers stopped working after they discovered that their child has autism. Although the families are middle class, they still suffered financially because of the income lost from mothers employment and the annual expenditure of thousands of dollars on evaluations and treatments. Based on the study of Altiere and Von Kluge, (2009) even if all of these parents reported that their other children have helped tremendously in caring for their child with autism, it is clear that the siblings were experiencing significant stress levels. Moreover, the study of Altiere and Von Kluge (2009) found out that is considered as struggle for families of children with autism and one of the respondents stated that his side of the family has ignored them for several years. In the study of Altiere and Von Kluge, (2009) they said that some couples reported symptoms of anxiety and depression. Another family described psychological struggles in a more provocative manner. Every parent worried that his or her child would not improve and lead a normal life. The emotional loss and pain are evident in one fathers unfortunate revelation. Despite the initial loss of hope for many parents like this father, hope eventually returned to parents as they began searching for solutions to improve their childs situation. After their child receives a diagnosis of autism, parents recognize that their child may not have a carefree childhood, may never go to college, get married, or lead a typical life. Instead of independence, growth, self-fulfillment, and differentiation, a family may see only despair, dependence, and social isolation (Seligman & Darling, 1997, p. 11) (as cited in (Altiere & Von Kluge, 2009). Coping strategies of families Gray stated that fathers primary coping strategy came from their work outside the home, also professional resource network and family supports are most helpful coping strategies. On the other hand, Gray found out that fathers admitted that even though they pride themselves in

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being able to hide their true feelings, this strategy often results in them losing their temper (as cited in Hall & Graff, 2011). Parents discussed reading and joining support groups as coping strategies (Hall & Graff, 2010). Parents most helpful coping strategies involve professional resource networks and family supports (Gray). Parents connect with other parents of children with autism and used the Internet to locate health care providers who are knowledgeable about autism (Hall & Graff). Because Socialization often appears as the lowest adaptive functioning level, educational institutions should provide professional, not paraprofessional, teachers for children with autism (Anderson, Moore, Godfrey, & Fletcher-Flinn, 2004). Children with autism have difficulties relating to peers and adults and deserve the highest trained professionals available to assist with alleviating their socialization deficiencies. Provost, Lopez, and Heimerl (2007) further maintain that when children with autism are allowed to participate in free-play with typically developing children, they will learn and have the opportunity to practice age appropriate play and socialization skills. According to Altiere and Von Kluge, (2009) because of the process of searching for solutions to their childs problems, parents became effective researchers and advocates. Parents were active at autism conferences, support groups, and with advocacy work at local and state governments. Parents researched the possible causes of autism, in addition to treatments, to determine if the answer to their conundrum resided in the etiology. Every couple in the study wanted to gather as much knowledge as possible about autism. In addition, coping mechanism is a helpful tool for the family; some of the parents used their religious beliefs and emotion-focused strategies in order to cope. Moreover, some of the parents are acquiring social support in order to cope, and it should be encouraged. Treating a child with autism means working to minimize the impact of the autism on the child and working to maximize the childs potential (Solomon & Chung, 20l2). Parents reported that it is important to find friends who accept their childs disability and help them lead a normal social life (Gray, 2002) (as cited in Hall &Graff ,2010). In order to have consistent support for a child with A.D. Solomon and Chung (2012) suggested that parents may need support identifying and making use of self-care activities which can provide much needed sanctuary and a break from worry. If is not possible to have a behavioral consultant they suggested to have family therapists that can work behaviourally with parents to address negative behaviours like tantrums and rituals. However, family therapists are most likely not in a position to directly treat the symptoms of autism; those treatments are typically provided by specialists like physicians, special education teachers, occupational

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therapists, speech-language therapists, developmental/play therapists, and behavior consultants (Solomon &Chung, 2012). Positive experiences Altiere and Von Kluge (2009) asked their participants on their positive experiences that they received from raising a child with autism. Participants viewed life with a child with autism as a priceless experience. Five couples agreed that they now appreciate life more in general or no longer take things for granted because of their valuable opportunity. Others described enhanced personal characteristics such as patience, compassion, and acceptance, especially of others with disabilities. Indeed, eight couples believed their patience increased due to the difficulties related to raising their child. Half of the couples noticed an increase in compassion and empathy towards each other. Altiere & Von Kluge (2009) one of the participants stated that the whole process has been a positive learning experience. Altiere and Von Kluge (2009) found out that most of their participants received personal improvement, friendships, strengthening of the family, and love of their child. Improved coping mechanism, one couple declared that they stopped using alcohol and nicotine after they discovered their child had autism. One mother expressed her surprise that she and her husband coped successfully with this stressful experience. Two couples reported that their spirituality significantly improved (Altiere & Von Kluge, 2009). Based on the gathered data, Altiere & Von Kluge (2009) discovered that friendships improved while raising a child with autism. Some of these couples indicated that established friendships improved during the course of raising their child. Other parents indicated that true friendships grew and friends who did not accept their child gradually disappeared. However, one couple made a conscious decision to eliminate particular friends from their life, because their friends responded badly when they discovered their situation (Altiere & Von Kluge, 2009). Altiere and Von Kluge (2009) discovered that parents met new friends through support groups and other activities related to autism. Parents admitted that they would not have met these kind and caring individuals if they had not had a child with autism. Two couples with older children reported that they enjoyed the opportunity to help other parents through their struggles. One couple described the extraordinary support that they received from their church congregation. They indicated that their church raised money to send them on a vacation, and the church members remodelled a portion of their house while they were away. They reported that their church continues to provide generous financial and emotional support. Altiere and Von Kluge (2009) found out that their participants also described positive experiences that occurred within their extended and immediate family. Nine couples indicated
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that support from extended family members increased, which was something they valued and cherished. Further, 15 couples noted that different aspects of their immediate family improved as a result of having a child with autism. They indicated that their family united to support each other during the course of raising their child with autism. Four couples reported that working with their child strengthened their marriage. Two couples suggested that they are better parents because of their child with autism. Although feelings of resentment are possible because of less attention directed to other children in the family, parents indicated that their other children have been supportive and helpful (Altiere & Von Kluge, 2009). In addition, some of the couples expressed that they had increased opportunity to spend time with all of their kids. Other couples noted that the entire family was more likely to appreciate time spent together. Couples felt that their family gained the confidence to handle any challenge after conquering the difficult task of raising a child with autism, as part of the hope and patience learned from raising their child, parents stated that they were extremely excited about minor improvements in development that would have gone unnoticed in other children (Altiere & Von Kluge, 2009). On the other hand, Altiere and Von Kluge (2009) found out that only one couple had difficulty responding to the question, and it is likely that this was because they had discovered that their child has autism only a few months before the interview. In addition, the couple stated that There are none (valuable learning experiences) yet, we are still in shock. However, this couple stated that they were becoming more tolerant of children with special needs. Autism in the Philippines At the present time, Carandang (2008) stated some issues regarding on Autism, one of the issues revealed that there is no National Center or Institute for diagnostic and procedures here in the Philippines. Secondly, there is no suitable treatment for Filipinos to evaluate autism because most of the treatments are based on Western countries, and limited to medical and behavioral approaches. Thirdly, the task of the psychologist in handling autism it seems not recognized here in the Philippines. The different approaches that can somehow help an individual with autism such as play therapy, group therapy, music and movement, and art therapy are not put in the mainstream. Fourthly, the Autism Society of the Philippines that run by parents of children with ASD is not integrated with the medical professions in a systematic manner. Finally, the importance of the whole family in handling children with ASD that can give a helpful impact of the development of the child is not given recognition. In addition, Carandang (2008) suggested future perspectives, in handling children with ASD it needs more comprehensive approach in the treatment, and should include non-medical practitioners and form a multi-Disciplinary team in solving problem such as developmental
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pediatricians, clinical psychologists, speech therapists, occupational therapists, SPED teachers, and parents. The parents should play a big role in the development of the children with ASD, and all the members of the family even the extended family members should share their time. Moreover, the Autism Society of the Philippines has also a major role in handling children with ASD and creative therapies (Aside from medical- purely behavioral) can be incorporated and integrated in the total approach. Based on the gathered data, the researcher wanted to focus the study on how family gives care a child with Autistic Disorder, to determine the basic needs of the family to optimize care to their child, and to discover positive points that receive by the family despite of having a child with Autistic Disorder. Because most of the studies based on the gathered literature are more focused on the experiences of the family either positive or negative, family involvement of the members of the family, and effect of parent on the development of the child. Moreover, they also studied on how family adjusts in unfortunate situations and how they cope with those certain events. Researcher observed that most of the studies used an interview, and survey to gather data, while other studies used naturalistic observation and intervention for the improvement of the family. Moreover, the researcher found out on how the family members understand the situation of having a child with autism and positive features of their child with autism that help them to improve the relationship of their family and as an individual. Synthesis Based on the gathered data, past researches found out that family has a big role in the development of children with A.D. The recent studies focused on the role of the family members in caring children with A.D. Most of the studies described family experiences, the family environment and social support that affect the development of children with A.D. (Miller & Fowler, 2010), (Ghanizadeh, Alishahi, and Ashkani, 2009), (Altiere & Von Kluge, 2009). Also, the researcher found out that the religiosity of the family is considered a factor in order to raise normally a child with autism (Jegatheesan, Miller, & Fowler, 2010), (Sabatier et. al, 2011), (Altiere & Von Kluge, 2009) . In line with gathered data, there are insufficient data on the basic needs that support the development of children diagnosed with A.D. For this reason the researcher aims to explore new knowledge on how Filipino families taking care of their children with A.D., and to identify the current setting on how Filipinos perceive A.D.

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Method Research Design The researcher used qualitative design to gather data, and decided to use qualitative research because the researcher has a desire to describe and explore information about the personal experiences of the families with a child diagnosed with Autistic Disorder. The researcher used interview method. The interview questions are semi-structured; all the questions are guided by the objectives of the study. The researcher also asked follow-up questions based on the responses of the participants to gather more data. The researcher used this method to elaborate on the experiences of the families. Participants The researcher intended to focus on the 10 Filipino families with a child diagnosed with Autistic disorder. The diagnosis can be based on the assessment of a Clinical Psychologist, Developmental Psychologist, Pediatrician, or other qualified specialist. The children with A.D. must be between ages of 4-13, male or female. The participants of the study should either be a family member, friend of the family with a very close relationship with the child or caregiver. The researcher allowed for up to 2 representatives from the families to participate in the interview. A total of 15 participants from 10 Filipino families were interviewed by the researcher consisting of siblings of the children with A.D., and their parents. The researcher gathered the participants through the use of purposive sampling. Table A Families participated in the study Family A Family B Family C Family D Family E Family F Family G Family H Members of the family participated in the study Mother Sister Father Mother Auntie Cousin Mother Mother Mother Mother Father Mother
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Age

47 29 40 36 49 17 34 23 42 31 48 45

Family I Family J

Father Mother Mother

40 41 41

Table A shows the demographics of the participants participated in the study Table B Families participated in the study Family A Family B Family C Family D Family E Family F Family G Family H Family I Family J Age of the Child with Autistic Disorder 11 11 8 5 5 11 6 10 13(Twin) 13 (Twin) 9 Gender of the Child Male Female Female Male Male Male Male Male Male Male Male

Table B shows the age and gender of the children with Autistic Disorder.

Materials The researcher used a voice recorder and camera for the documentation of data from the interview with the consent of the participants. The researcher produced the preliminary questions for the interview. How does your family understand the concept of Autistic Disorder? What are the reactions of your family when they discovered that there is something different with your children? Procedure The research used Purposive sampling. The researcher disseminated letters to SPED schools asking and seeking assistance for the study. The role of the SPED schools is to help the researcher find families suited for the study and willing to share their experiences. The researcher also accepted referrals from people who have contact with families having children with A.D. The researcher went to the participants home to conduct interview, and while other participants were interviewed at school. Each participating family signed a consent form.They were also assured that their responses remain confidential.

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During the interview session, the researcher was able to build rapport with the participants, 2 families were interviewed at the school of the children with A.D. and the other 6 families were interviewed at their home. The interview lasted for about 30 minutes up to 1 hour and 30 minutes. The interview was limited only to those participants who are willing to answer the questions, Based on the responses of the participants, the researcher asked follow-up questions to clarify and gather more information. The researcher allowed a Developmental psychologist to conduct the interview of 2 of the 10 families due to families request for anonymity. Data Analysis The researcher will be using qualitative design to gather data, and also the researcher will be interpreting the data. In order to interpret data, firstly, the researcher will identify the focus of the study; will review the results of data and the purpose of gathering information based on experiences from the participants. Secondly, after the researcher determining the main focus of the data, the researcher will seek the differences and similarities of the responses from the participants. Thirdly, if the participants responses are similar in a certain question the researcher will summarize all these findings, as well as the differences of the responses in a certain item from the interview. Fourthly, if there are outlying responses and suggestions from the participants, the researcher will also include these in presenting the data, for the reason that it could somehow contribute information to support the study. Lastly, the researcher will make a conclusion and recommendation based on the categorizing responses which are the differences and similarities of the responses, and the outlying responses. Furthermore, the researcher will make the outline of the results.

Results and Discussion The researcher has given five objectives on his study, first is to find out on how Filipino families view Autistic Disorder, second to know how Filipino families handle a child with A.D., third is to discover the basic needs of the Filipino families to properly take care for their child with Autistic Disorder. Fourth, to be able to know what Filipino Families have learned from having a child with A.D. lastly is to describe the dynamics among family members of which one is diagnosed with A.D. Based on the responses of 10 families who were participating in the study, the researcher got data that somehow answer the objectives of the study. Description of Participants Family A, family B, family C, and family E are considered as a low income family because of their income is lower than the average income of families (PhP 18,418.000) based on
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the Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES) (National Statistics Office, 2006). Family F, family G, family H, and family J are in the middle income because of their income is lower than the average income of families (PhP 18,418.000) based on the FIES (National Statistics Office, 2006). On the other hand, family D and family I are considered as a high income family because their income are much higher than the average monthly income of families ) based on the FIES (National Statistics Office, 2006). Family E is a single-mom and the youngest mother who participated in the study. Family D is the only participant that her husband is working abroad. She has difficulty in caring of their child with A.D. because of the absence of her husband. Family I have twin children with A.D, while family C is the only participant that adopted a child from their relative. Moreover, family A, and family B lived as informal settlers and only the father of the family has consistent monthly income. How Filipino families view Autistic Disorder? Genetic, immunological, perinatal neuroanatomical, biochemical, psychosocial, family, and environmental factors are considered as causes of Autistic Disorder (Sadock & A. Sadock, 2007). The researcher discovered that all the participants of the study had little hope when they discovered that their children have Autistic Disorder. However, this realization made them better persons and effective parents for their children, the condition of their children became motivation to work hard in order to provide the needs of the children and to give more attention to the children. Similar to the study of Solomon and Chung (2012), parents who are frequently reporting when they received the diagnosis were sent off with very little hope and very little information. Based on the responses, the researcher found out that the Filipino families have different perspectives on how they view the concept of A.D., three of the families do not totally understand the nature ideas of A.D., there are four families who did a research to learn more about the ideas of A.D., Family J stated that We have a very good understanding of ASD. We learned about by attending conferences, reading books and frequent meetings with the doctors and teachers. On the other hand, some of the families are helped by other people to refer their child to a clinician to check if the child has symptoms of A.D. and while others are recommended that the child has A.D. by Developmental pediatrician and SPED teachers. Altiere and Von Kluge, (2009) stated that in the process of searching for solutions to their childs problems, parents became effective researchers and advocates. In trying to understand
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A.D. parents were active at autism conferences, support groups, and with advocacy work with local and state governments. Parents researched the possible causes of autism, in addition to treatments, to determine if the answer to their conundrum resided in the etiology. Every couple in the study wanted to gather as much knowledge as possible about autism. The researcher also found out that the most common symptoms of A.D. are problems in speech and social skills of the children based on the responses of the families. Family D stated that Delayed speech nag-brought samin para magpakita sa devt pediatrican. Family F said that Difficulty with socialization, obsession with something he likes, repetitive speech, slow in learning. But all in all somehow they have the correct view of what A.D. is all about. Because, most of the families responses fit the DSM IV-TR criteria for A.D. which include qualitative impairment in social interaction, qualitative impairments in communication, restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities, as well as with of delays or abnormal functioning in social interaction, social communication, imaginative play. The researcher realized that some of the parents were in denial stage when they discovered the childs condition; the father of family B said that Dami nagsasabi para raw siyang mongoloid..... Maraming sinasabi sa kanya, ako hindi ko na lang pinapansin, kasi anak ko nga.....While, the family D said that Ako kasi parang nag-in denial na ganun siya, sabi ko hindi naman siguro. Family E said that Of course it was weird, because in our family this is the first instance that someone is special, and then they compared my child to me because I was a toddler back then..... So they took it negatively at first when we consult a doctor and we had to accept it they treated it like me na, they are more patient and more understanding. Similar to the response of family B and family E, Altiere and Von Kluge, (2009) stated that extended family is considered as struggle for families of children with autism, they found out that one of the participants related that his side of the family has ignored them for several years. The researcher felt that even if there are criticisms received by the family members, they become stronger and bonded. The family members just accept all the negative statements that they received from other people and continue to live contentedly with the child with A.D. On the other hand, Gray said that it is important to find friends who accept their childs disability and help them lead a normal social life (Gray, 2002) (as cited in Hall &Graff ,2010). The researcher found out that there is no certain age when the families found out the symptoms of A.D the families have different period when they discovered the childs condition, some of them said that the child was 8 years old, while others discovered it earlier they said the child was 8 months. Furthermore, there are different reactions from the family members and

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other people when they discovered the child has A.D. some of the reactions are negative and the others are positive. However in the end they learn how to deal with the child, accept that the child has A.D., and understand more the childs condition. In addition, the researcher observed that the participants are still happy despite one of the members of the family has A.D. According to Baxter and his colleagues (2011), families adopted perspectives of optimism, acceptance, and appreciation, and of striving to change the environment or to meet their children's needs as well as possible. These perspectives provided families with a sense of hope, meaning, and control over their situations. The researcher found out that family H is confused about of the condition of their child. Family H does not know the persons should follow, if it is the teacher who said that their child is Down Syndrome or the Developmental pediatrician who diagnosed that the child has A.D. This instance showed that family H has no deep understanding about the nature of A.D. In the researcher own opinion, majority of the participants are not knowledgeable in the nature of A.D., even though some of them had a research about the concepts of A.D. For the reason that all of their responses are not fitted with the Sadock & A. Sadock (2007) study that the average age of diagnosis of A.D. children is around 3.1 years old. Only one family responded that their child was diagnosed around 3 years old. For the researcher, having a family member with A.D. is a very challenging task for the parents as well as for the siblings of the children, you will encounter negative reactions from the community and the distressing part also some of the family members have biases to the children with A.D. However, acceptance and understanding are the best values of the family members that will help them to be intact with one another. In addition, for the researcher the idea of Autistic Disorder here in the Philippines are not yet fully understand by the Filipino community, because most of the participants of the study have difficulties in explaining the nature of A.D. and they said that there is a misconception between A.D. and Down Syndrome. Therefore, the role of the psychologists to teach the nature of the A.D. to the parents of children with A.D. and community are needed to avoid biases to those families have children with A.D. and help the Filipinos to have knowledge about the nature of A.D. How Filipino families handle a child with Autistic Disorder? Carandang (2008) stated that the parents should play a big role in the development of the children with ASD, and all the members of the family even the extended family members should share their time.

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Based on the data gathered, the researcher found out the role of the family members and caregiver of the children with A.D. in giving support for the development of the children. The children needed emotional support, physical support, and mentally support from their parents and caregiver without the help the child has no tendency to live better and to learn being independent individual. Some participants taught their children with some Filipino values such as saying Po and Opo, bless to the elders, and being respectful to them Based on the results of the study, there are no parents who underwent therapeutic program in order to learn ideas on how they handle child with A.D. In contrast with the Solomon and Chung (2012), statement that parents may need support identifying and making use of selfcare activities which can provide much needed sanctuary and a break from worry. If it is not possible to have a behavioral consultant they suggested having family therapists that can work behaviourally with parents to address negative behaviors like tantrums and rituals. Some of the children had experienced in receiving therapeutic program, family D, family F, family G and family H said that their children received Speech therapy and Occupational therapy in the past few years, but at the present time the children have already stopped in receiving therapies and then only the teachers of their children who are teaching and assisting them to be competent. While, family E stated that the children received behavioral therapy, according to the mother the goal of the therapy is to Make him still and concentrate. Ahm usually the goal was to make him understand how to pick up things, fix his own litters, pack up his toys. Just like that. And eye contact which he got it naman. At the same time similar to the family D, family E, and family F, the therapy session has already stopped, and her child is attending classes in public SPED-school. In connection with the researchers study, Blair, Lee (2011) found out that that the childrens target behaviors improved with the intervention during circle time at school and playtime at home, and their behaviors generalized to nontargeted center time at school and play at the community playground. The teacher and mothers positive interactions with the children increased while negative interactions decreased. Social validity indicated that the interventions provided through family-school collaboration were acceptable and effective. Moreover, the participants handle their child through understanding the childs special needs especially when the family members having conflict with the child, giving food, teaching educational activities, and allowing the child to experience socialization with other children. One family said that they use sign language to communicate with their child because it has hearing problems. Family E and stated that the child has own nanny and a grandmother to take care of the child while they are working at the office.

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Furthermore, the mother helps her child to be independent by training the child to do toilet activities independently, and she bought flash cards and educational toys that help childs cognitive development. The researcher observed that the participants really value their children despite the childs condition, sometimes parents sacrifice their time at the workplace in order to focus their attention to the child and they also taught some cultural values of Filipinos such as being polite and respecting to the elders while in the conversation by saying Po and Opo. In contrast with the situation of the families participated in the study, family I has unique condition they have twin children with A.D. Family I stated that it is difficult and tiring for them to take care of their children with A.D. because of their situation. Family I also stated that they did study and research about different therapies and concepts of A.D. in order to optimize and attain the potentials of their children. Filipino values such as being family oriented and respectful are the best qualities that the family members could share for the good development of the children with A.D. For the researcher, time is most important and critical need in handling children with A.D. Moreover, the role of the teachers of the children with A.D. is also important, teachers are considered the second family of children with A.D. if they are at school, so the care and love that the teachers are needed to bring development. In the researchers perspective, giving knowledgeable seminars and trainings about handling children with A.D.not only for the teachers, as well as for the parents of children with A.D. will help them to have new ideas in giving out proper care for the children. The researcher also suggested that the teachers must attend conferences that will discuss different treatment such as Play-Therapy and Speech-therapy to improve the teachers competence in giving out therapy for the children with A.D. and to enhance the childrens skills. Basic needs of the Filipino families to properly take care for their child with Autistic Disorder In connection with the study of Solomon and Chung (2012), they found out that sleeping pattern, meals, toileting, play, travel, education, and work may be affected by taking care of a child with autism. The researchers discovered that money, education, family support, religion, community, and social support are important factors to support the childs needs. These factors help the family members to give proper care for their children and to achieve the highest potential of the children.

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Money Based on the experiences of the families, they considered money as a necessity because without money they could not send their children into school, could not provide healthy food, and could not able to give medication for the children. A mother from family E responded to the researcher that its hard to provide the needs of the children as being a single-parent, the participant said that Thats kinda hard, because being a single mom its gonna hard to provide. Actually, this is kinda stressful for me to think that I cant take my kid back to the private school when he was from, but then I feel that you know you have to sacrifice so just need to believe to the teachers in the public schools that they will do the job properly. Moreover, from the experiences of family B money is important because it will provide the childs wishes such as food, however if the childs wishes are not met there is tendency that a child will be mad at them. Similar to the response of the participant, Altiere and Von Kluge, (2009) found out in their study that almost all of the mothers in stopped working after they discovered that their child has autism. Although the families are middle class, they still suffered financially because of the income lost from mothers employment and the annual expenditure of thousands of dollars on evaluations and treatments. Based on the responses of the families, of course food is a necessity for their children, food gives energy and satisfies childs hunger. Family A said that Mahalaga, ang pagkain, kasi kain siya nang kain.Kapag nagugutom siya nanghihingi, ng pera.Ginigising kami kapag nagugutom siya.Also, one participant said that her child with A.D. is picky on food, according to her it is a big hindrance for the family, and the participant has difficulty in giving the right food for the child, because if the child does not want the food the child would not eat. Also, through the use of money they could buy educational toys for their children that will help to develop the childs mental ability. The researcher believed that money can totally help the childrens capacity to be a better person and could increase the support of the family members to give more care for their children with A.D. Also, the researcher have observed that in the interview sessions with the families, some of the participants are really sad if they could not give the demands of their children and some of them wanted to bring their children to the hospital for checkups, but because of financial difficulties they failed to ask assistance from the doctors. In connection with the study of Ghanizadeh and his colleagues (2009), they stated that families of children with ASD have lower level of income. It is because most of the families income is used to provide the basic needs of their children with ASD such as medical care.

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Education All of the participants wanted to send their children into school either private or public, as long as it will help the children to be more productive enough and learn how to be an independent person. Family B said that Mahalaga siya samin kasi nga gusto naming siya matuto, para maging maayos siya kasi kung papabayaan lang namin siya walang mangyayari. In addition, family D responded Oo yun yun purpose ko kaya inenroll ko siya dito kasi sana nakapagsalita na siya edi sana magdederetso na siya he can learn the usual na makakapagtapos siya hoping na makaktapos siya sa regular school. Also, one family believed that the therapy will help the child to learn basic actions such as toilet activities, and learning how to write and read. The researcher had realized that the all families believed that sending their children in school could somehow boost the confidence of the children to live with other kids and learn skills that could help them to be more independent people Also, the researcher has observed that all of the family members are hoping that the child will improve communication skills and learn how to socialize with the whole family. Home Some of the participants said that they need to have a larger home because they wanted to maximize their childrens capability to have social skills and learn to play around with other members of the family. Home gives relaxing feelings for the children as well as for the whole family, family B said that Para sakin mahirap kasi maliit, kasi kapag lumalaki sila kelangan na namin ng malaking bahay. Kasi masikip mahirap mag-ayos kapag gabi.In connection with study of Solomon and Chung (2012), they found out that sleeping pattern may be affected by taking care of a child with autism.Also, one family responded that the family has plan to build own playground at their home to develop childs physical fitness, and to have a playground at their community for the child with A.D. to learn to interact with other kids. Based on the interview sessions, the researcher had recognized that there are some families having difficulties in providing comfort and care for their children, because some of the families are composed of five or seven members, but the size of their houses could accommodate only three members of the family. This instance hinders the family members to give comfortable environment for the children. But the participants are still happy that they can provide food for their children with A.D. and the members of the family have good relationships with their children, and they feel that the child is happy with their lovable atmosphere at home. Family Support All the participants of the study responded that the role of family members especially the parents are critical because the presence of the family members give inspiration for the children with A.D. They said also that the giving love, understanding, and patience with the children are the most valuable characteristics that help to increase the childs confidence to live. Treating a
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child with autism means working to minimize the impact of the autism on the child and working to maximize the childs potential (Solomon & Chung, 20l2). In addition, some of the parents believed that the siblings of the child with A.D. would be the one in-charge of giving care to the child with A.D. if the parents are not already capable in giving support, and they also said if they died, the siblings would be the next parents of the child. In addition, family B and family G have stated that the sibling of the child with A.D. has a big role in caring of the children with A.D., Family G said that His younger sister takes care of him. Ginawang younger brother sya nung sister nya. Pero ang tawag pa rin nya, Kuya. Mapagmahal itong kapatid nya..... The researcher had realized that the love is the core value of being intact of the whole family and the child with A.D. without this characteristic the child will not feel the acceptance and support of the family members. Also, the parents give sacrifices for the child such as spending more time to at the workplace in order to get more income to provide food and demands of the child. Similar to the study of Ghanizadeh (2009) he stated that usually families are sacrificing their work in order to care of their children. For the researcher, these actions describe on the innate characteristic of Filipinos of being hospitable. Also, based on the interview sessions the researcher observed that while conducting interviews the participants are full of happiness in caring their children based on their smiles. For the perspective of the researcher, these reactions of the participants describe the acceptance of the condition of the children and notify that it is not difficult to take care of children with A.D. as long as you are happy in giving care and service for them. Moreover, the researcher found out that there are two children who experienced verbal and physical abuse from caregiver of the child. For this reason, some parents are overprotective toward to the children, based on the insight of the researcher this characteristic of the participants of being overprotective is a mechanism of parents to give much love, protection and care for their children; this is not a negative characteristic in context. Religion In connection with the study of the researcher, According to Sabatier and his colleagues (2011) the religiosity of the family considered as a positive factor in order to achieve higher life satisfaction. Also, religiosity of the family, religion affects the parent perspective on how to deal a child with autism they wanted to raise their children as normally as possible, incorporating them into ordinary social, and religious practices at home and in the community (Jegatheesan, Miller, & Fowler, 2010). Religion for the parents is considered as a source of inspiration to give more love for their children and hope that the child will be more productive in future; family D said that Nagdadasal na mag-progress siya na makapagsalita siya maging independent. They said that it is not important what religion of the person is, but the most important is faith that there is God and he will help the child to be good and productive. Family E believed that religion has a role in supporting special people such as children with A.D.
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There is one family that stated that they were hurt when their child was teased by other children, and if they encountered difficulties financially they get stressed and worried if they failed to give the needs of the child such as food. The family cope with this through offering their faith and problems to God. In contrast with the responses of the participants, Matthew & Von Kluge (2009) found out that there are cases that indicated that they lost the support of their church, and stopped attending their Catholic Church because the congregation and the pastor did not accept their sons disability. The other family broke ties with their Lutheran Church because of similar circumstances. They reported receiving dirty looks from members of the congregation when their child misbehaved The researcher was inspired from the responses of the participants; the data describe the faithfulness of Filipinos and the spirit of hope which help them to give more support for their child with A.D. In connection with the statement of the researcher, in the study of Altierre & Von Kluge (2009) two couples reported that their spirituality significantly improved. Community and Social Support In connection with the study of the researcher, Hall and Graff (2010) suggested that giving parents opportunities to express their likes and dislikes about support networks can lead to identifying how support networks can be more effective and accessible to parents and families. The community and social support are critical in giving effective care for their children with A.D., the families participated in the study answered that without their friends and community they do not know what to do with their child, also sometimes from their neighbourhood they can receive support such as inspiration, advice, as well as food and money. However, there are still people who do not understand Autistic Disorder, they see it as negative and some of the neighbourhoods of the participants get mad with the exceptional behaviors of their children, and there are neighbours that ask for something in return for the help that they gave to the child with A.D. Family B stated that Minsan naman may mga taong tutulong pero isusumbat naman nila sayo habang buhay ayun ang mahirap, kung sakin kung gusto mong tumulong huwag ka na magsalita kusang loob mo ibigay. Kasi kalimitan dito samin sasabihin kung hindi dahil samin wala kayo. In connection with the researchers study, Altiere & Von Kluge (2009) stated that parents quickly discovered that raising a child with autism is a 24-hour, 7-day-a week task. This was an upsetting reality for parents, as most of their time was spent helping their child. Therefore, they had less time for friends, extended family, other children, and their spouse Some of the families responded that they really need social support and acceptance of the childs situation, because if the society learns how to accept Autistic Disorder, it would become easier for the family to help their child in developing childs social skills. Moreover, some parents suggested that the government should provide more public schools that accommodate

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special people and playground for special children so they could learn how to socialize with other children, also they need affordable government hospitals for childs heath consultation. In contrast with the responses of the participants, there is a study that stated that parents have differing opinions about support groups and are not always interested in becoming involved. Previous data suggest parents may choose to isolate themselves from such social meetings (Gupta & Singhal,2005; Sivberg, 2002), especially if the parents have decided the meetings offer no benefit for their families (Symon, 2005). The researcher believed that the families feel in pain if there are people who could not learn to accept their child with A.D., and this factor somehow decreases the participants confidence in giving efficient help for their children, as well as a person. In connection with the researchers statement, in the study of Altiere & Von Kluge, (2009) they stated that family gained the confidence to handle any challenge after conquering the difficult task of raising a child with autism, as part of the hope and patience learned from raising their child, parents stated that they were extremely excited about minor improvements in development that would have gone unnoticed in other children. In the researchers perspective, at the present time the Filipino community is not yet knowledgeable about the concepts of Autistic Disorder, therefore some of them have negative impressions toward the families have children with A.D. However, if this issue will be resolved, may be in the future the biases of the Filipino community will decrease. What Filipino Families have learned from having a child with Autistic Disorder Challenges The family C, family D, family E, family F, and family G had common stressful experiences. One of these experiences is when the child did unacceptable behaviors such as stealing money or other personal things, making tantrums Family E said that Whenever I picked him out to the mall, and he throws some tantrums.....He could not understand that we are outside, he doesnt know the feelings of shame and embarrassmentand saying inappropriate words in public place. Through these troubles, they give food to stop childs rude actions and sometimes the family just keep the childs to be alone. Another thing to inhibit the tantrum of child with A.D. is through giving IPod, Family D stated that minsan yungIPodayun yung madalas nakakapagpahinto sa kanya. Positive Experiences The childs condition strengthens the relationship of the family, because of the negative impressions of the society they have learned to act as family member and give more love to their children with A.D. Majority of the participants stated that the childs condition made them more patient and developed the relationships of the family members. Family A stated that Mabait sa anak Mas gumanda relasyon sa pamilya.while family B responded by saying Naging matatag ang pagsasama.

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Eventually, the family has learned on how to live together with people with special needs and became more patient to the child with A.D. The hope and patience learned from raising their child, parents stated that they were extremely excited about minor improvements in development that would have gone unnoticed in other children (Altiere & Von Kluge, 2009). Moreover, Altiere and Von Kluge (2009) found out that most of their participants received personal improvement, friendships, strengthening of the family, and love of their child. Family J joined support group system in order to learn more about Autism. In connection to the study of Hall and Graff (2010), parents discussed reading and joining support groups. Parents connect with other parents of children with autism and used the Internet to locate health care providers who are knowledgeable about autism (Hall & Graff, 2010). Based on my perspective, understating and patience are two values that should possess by the families in order to be able to understand the childs condition. Through learning positive experiences from the child with A.D. it could develop the intimate relationships of all the family members to their children with A.D. and could develop own personal values. The dynamics among family members of which one is diagnosed with Autistic Disorder. Similar to the experiences of the Filipino families, in the study of Altiere & Von Kluge (2009), they said that the respondents family united to support each other during the course of raising their child with autism. Four couples reported that working with their child strengthened their marriage. Two couples suggested that they are better parents because of their child with autism. Although feelings of resentment are possible because of less attention directed to other children in the family, parents indicated that their other children have been supportive and helpful. The majority of the participants describe their family as bonded and cheerful family, even though they have children with Autistic Disorder. The relationship of the whole family is bonded strongly because of their child, it gives them inspiration family B responded that Siya yung inspirasyon namin ngayon, bali kung hindi siya dumating sa buhay namin, hindi namin nararanasan yung bagay na hindi pa namin nararanasan noong araw.. Also, the siblings are attached to child with Autistic Disorder, sometimes they have playtime, and however there are instances that the child has conflict by the some members. Family D said that Close sa ibang members, but sometimes salbahe siya sakin. In connection with the responses of the participants, in the study of Altiere and Von Kluge (2009) they found out that most of their participants received personal improvement, friendships, strengthening of the family, and love of their child. The researcher was inspired from the responses of the participants; the researcher actually observed the closeness of all the family members toward their child with A.D. based on the interview sessions. The researcher was glad to see the support of the family members, passion to give service for their child and optimism that the child will be a better person. Based on the perspective of the researcher, having children with A.D. is not considered as problem for the participants, in fact the childs condition serve as the motivation of the family to
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build a better relationship with one another and to work hard to provide the needs of the family members and their children with A.D. Conclusion and Recommendation In conclusion to the study, the researcher found out that the cases of Autistic Disorder here in the Philippines are not yet fully understood based on the responses of the participants. The families handling a child with A.D. should research information to give them more understanding on how the members of the family will properly take care of their children. Also, the roles of professionals such as SPED teachers, Developmental pediatrician, and Clinical psychologist are significant, these people will be the source of knowledge on how the child will properly take care of, and they will serve as mentors of the family members, their competency in providing advices and support in order to optimize the childs capability to learn and to be a productive child are important. The researcher concluded that the participants of the study have different experiences in caring their child with A.D. However, there are some experiences that similar to one another. These include the negative reactions of the society with the childs situation, as well as some of the family members who are still not accepting that their child has A.D., and the basic needs of the child such as money, education, religion, family support and social support in order to give proper and efficient care for the child.Moreover, the researcher found out that the love, understanding, patience and acceptance to the childs condition are the most important values that the all families must possess in order to give proper care for their child. For the reason that, without these values there would be no good relationship and proper care involved between the family members and the child with A.D. Having completed this study, the researcher came up with the following recommendations for future studies regarding the same subject matter. Further studies should include more families in the study so they could gather more data that will describe the full details of handling a child with A.D. Also, the researcher suggested that the future researchers should give psychological test in order to accurately measure the responses of the participants such as stress experiences and level of optimism. Use DSM-IV-TR criteria for Autistic Disorder to pattern interview questions that will help to increase the validity of interview questionnaire. For the SPED schools, the researcher suggested that they should conduct their own study in their school in order to discover more about the concerns of parents handling a child with A.D. and they could also develop new intervention for both of the parents and children through research as a result it can somehow more effective actions in caring child with A.D References Altiere, M. J., & Von Kluge, S. (2009). Searching for acceptance: Challenges encountered while raising a child. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability 34(2) , 142 152.

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Beidel, D. C., & Rao, P. A. (2009). The Impact of Children with High-Functioning Autism on Parental Stress, Sibling Adjustment, and Family Functioning. Behavior Modification, 437-451. Blair, K.-S. C., Lee, I.-S., Cho, S.-J., & Dunlap, G. ( 2010). Positive Behavior Support Through FamilySchool Collaboration for Young Children With Autism. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education., 22-36. Carandang, M. L. (2008). A Report on Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Philippines.89-92. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition Text Revision. (2000). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. Gayman, M. D., Turner, J. R., Cislo, A. M., & Eliassen, H. (2010). Early Adolescent Family Experiences and Perceived Social Support in Young Adulthood. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 880-908. Ghanizadeh, A., Alishahi, M.-J., & Ashkani, H. (2009).Helping Families for Caring Children with Autistic. Archives of Iranian Medicine , 478 482. Hall, H. R., & Graff, J. C. (2011). The Relationship Among Adaptive Behaviors of Children with Autism, Family Support, Parenting Stress, and Coping. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 34:425, 2011 , 4-25. Higgins, D. J., Bailey, S. R., & Pearce, J. C. (2005). Factors associated with functioning style and coping strategies of families with a child with an autism spectrum disorder. Autism, 125-137. Jegatheesan, B., Miller, P. J., & Fowler, S. A. (2010). Autism From a Religious Perspective: A Study of Parental Beliefs in South Asian Muslim Immigrant Families. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities., 98-109. McDaniel, S. H., Campbell, T. L., Hepworth, J., & Lorenz, A. (2005).Family-Oriented Primary Care Second Edition. New York: Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. King, G., Baxter, D., Rosenbaum, P., Zwaigenbaum, L., & Bates, A. ( 2009). Belief Systems of Families of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders or Down Syndrome. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities., 50-64.

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Nugent, N. R., Sledjeski, E. M., Christopher, N. C., & Delahanty, D. L. ( 2011). The influence of family environment on dissociation in pediatric injury patients. Linical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 485-497. Pantea, M.-C.(2011). Young Peoples Perspectives on Changing Families Dynamics of Power in the Context of Parental Migration.375-395. Peek, L., Morrissey, B., & Marlatt, H. (2011). Disaster Hits Home A Model of Displaced Family Adjustment After Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Family Issues, 1371-1396. Sabatier, C., Mayer, B., Friedlmeier, M., Lubiewska, K., & Trommsdorff, G. (2011). Religiosity, Family Orientation, and Life Satisfaction of Adolescents in Four Countries.Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. Sadock, B. J., & Sadock, V. A. (2007). Kaplan & Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences/Clinical Psychiatry, 10th Edition. New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Schaaf, R. C., Toth-Cohen, S., Johnson, S. L., Outten, G., & Benevides, T. W. (2011). The everyday routines of families of children with autism: Examining the impact of sensory processing difficulties on the family. Autism, 373-389. Sipos, R., Predescu, E., Muresan, G., & Iftene, F. (2012).The Evaluation of Family Quality of Life of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactive. Applied Medical Informatics , 1-8. Sirota, K. G. (2010). Narratives of transformation: Family discourse, autism and trajectories of hope. Discourse & Society, 544-564. Solomon, A. H., & Chung, B. (2012). Understanding Autism: How Family Therapists Can Support Parents of Children with Autism. Family Process, Vol.51, No.2 , 250-264. Weiss, J. A., & Lunsky, Y. (2010). The Brief Family Distress Scale: A Measure of Crisis in Caregivers of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Child and Family Studies , 521-528. Retrieved from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/importance-of-family.html January 23, 2012

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Social Video Gaming and Social Skills of Filipino Adolescents


Carlo Neil Ople Butch Dela Cruz
The video game industry is one of the fastest, if not the fastest, growing entertainment industry and comes second only to music in terms of profitability. It is nearly universal among kids, teens, young adults, adults and even the young at heart. This paper aims to correlate social video gaming to the social skills of adolescent that will be classified into 3 groups. (e.g. avid gamer, moderate gamer, casual gamer). The results show that avid gamers obtained a high score in relation to social skills the moderate group placed 2nd and the casual gamer last. The result of pearsons r correlation showed a value of .986 which shows that there is a strong and significant correlation between the 2 variables. The hypothesis of the study is then valid. _______________________________________________________________________________________

Video games actually provide a wide area of benefits for all ages. Video games can provide a fun and social form of entertainment which is a thing thats rarely seen from any other ordinary activities. Things that schools take ages to teach like teamwork and cooperation can easily be achieved through video games. Not only that, since video games has become so mainstream, educational video games are also available which develops reading, math, technology and problem-solving. Things that others thought can only be taught in a school. Even motor skills and hand-eye coordination can be improved through video games since consoles nowadays are motion activated which may also serve as a means of getting fit and healthy while having fun and not getting bored. In 2008, a study by MacArthur Foundation shows that 90% of children play video games. Its almost an assurance that a person will have a point in is/her life where he/she will just pick up a game controller and play video games and next thing they know, it can actually shape them into other individuals. Through video games, individuals can find something that they can excel on which increases their self-confidence and self-esteem as they master each game. This will then provide points of common interest among others and will give opportunity for socialization. According to Dr. Kourosh Dini(2009), good video games can increase empathy, cooperation, helping and emotional awareness. Despite these said benefits, there will always be the cons. They spite the goodness of video games by generalizing all of them into one thus labelling all video games as a source of violence. They also claim for it to be very addicting which causes individuals to lose their sense of responsibility and develop different priorities. The responsibility also falls into the guardian. They should monitor or set limits to the extent of time allotted for playing video games and also what kind of video games to play since most games include if they are age appropriate and their contents. Piaget (1920) stated in his Cognitive Development Theory that children learn through their senses. Through video games and because of the technology now, almost all of the senses may be stimulated through playing. Since children are more likely to be entertained by video games, they have more time to learn and may develop faster.

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Social interaction is almost as important as any of the basic necessities of an individual for him to be able to live in sanity. Although this remains a fact, there are those who are just too shy to be able to socially interact with others. These individuals have a hard time expressing themselves to others personally. They often spend their time alone and playing. This leads us to social video gaming. With it hitting the charts only last year, social gaming has become a thing for everyone and anyone. Through video games, specifically online social games which are now the trending genre, individuals may also develop socially through playing them since they provide social interaction. Games such as Sims, Farmville, MMOrpg (Massive Multiplayer Online RPG) and even the simplest of games like angry birds even if its played alone. It may make you wonder why or how that is possible, but with the improvements and trend right now, being able to see online how your friends and everyone else is doing in a game that you all are playing, it gives everyone that sense of competitiveness and fulfilment once theyve seen themselves make records or beat records. This also gives everyone the chance to be able to interact like in a way giving tips and helping each other out. A study in social interaction in massive multiplayer online games was conducted by Marko Siitone (2007). Siitonen(2007) stated that Online multiplayer gaming is a playground which can give us clues about the future of social and technological developments. These games typically encourage interaction between players. Collaboration with other players may be a prerequisite for making progress in a game, or a game may be based on competition between players. Typical online games can be played fairly independently, without seeking closer contact with other gamers. However, social interaction is a strong motive not only for playing multiplayer games, but also for forming lasting social relationships with other gamers, Siitonen says. Social interaction between members of multiplayer communities shares similarities to interaction in face-to-face groups.Shared values and goals are the basis on which a shared understanding and a sense of community are built on. These games also give chance to parents to interact with their children and form deeper bonds with them. The generation that grew up with "Pac-Man" and "Pong" are now having children of their own. And across the nation, fathers and their kids are finding the virtual worlds of video games a popular place to bond. Many fathers say the games bring them closer to their kids by providing a safe, convenient way to stay in touch and talk to their children on their own terms. A national survey released last year by the Entertainment Software Association, a video game industry group, found that 35 percent of parents play video games, of which 80 percent play with their children. Mothers, too, were part of the study. This study aims to see over the horizon of video game industry and get past the argument of it being good or bad. With the ever growing and improving technology that we have today, a video game is no longer worthy to be just called a video game. New and better social video games are contending with each other in providing more interaction for the players. With this at hand, there may be a difference in its effects towards gamers depending on how much of a gamer an individual is. There are those who are casual gamers who just play very less often, there are the moderate gamers and the avid gamers who spend most of their leisure time playing these video games. The hypothesis for this study states that there is a significant relationship between social video gaming and the social skills of adolescents. Review of Related Literature
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With the technology that we have right now, almost anything is possible. Getting things done is now easier and faster. With this said, people tend to be more dependent in the technology and the perks that it provides, checking mails, making reports, having reminders, setting meeting, all of these and so much more are achievable. It is like having an office away from the office and a home away from home. Amanda Cravens (2003) said that human culture and technology are continually co-evolving in a dynamic relationship. This is why through innovation; almost anything is can be done with just a press of a finger, or even a swipe of it. But does it make us too dependent to it or too lazy? Researchers do not think so because a technology, once its developed, changes the culture that gave it birth. Besides turning everything into a mobile device enabling us to do anything we want to anywhere we go, there is another thing that technology has as one of its greatest contributions which is Video Games. Video games date back to the 1940s but were made famous and recognized during the 70s when arcade and computer games were introduced and immediately became a popular form of entertainment. Since then, children, teens, young adults, adults and even the young at heart has enjoyed over 4 decades of game-time especially with all the genres available depending on your taste of gaming. With a thing like this having such a big impact, it is safe to say that there may be a relationship between video games and an individuals development. Video games used in Physical Development Psychologists have long known that "play" is a mechanism through which children learn and reinforce their physical and intellectual strengths. Bailey, (2011) mentioned that active video games have the potential to increase energy expenditure during otherwise sedentary video gaming and may provide a viable adjunct to more traditional exercise. Baileyand McInnis, (2011) conducted a study to evaluate the potential effect of 6 forms of exer-gaming (3 commercial products and 3 consumer products) on energy expenditure in children of various body mass indexes. The study included 39 boys and girls with their ages averaging 11.5 years old. In addition to treadmill walking at 3 miles per hour, energy expenditure of the following exergames were assessed for 10 minutes: Dance Dance Revolution, LightSpace (Bug Invasion), Nintendo Wii (Boxing), Cybex Trazer (Goalie Wars), Sportwall, and Xavix (J-Mat). Participants were given 5 minutes of seated rest between each activity. The researchers found that all forms of interactive gaming evaluated in the study significantly increased energy expenditure above rest, with no between-group differences among normal and "at-risk" or overweight children. The researchers note that this level of intensity is consistent with current physical activity recommendations for children. This may actually be a factor in helping with the prevention of obesity especially with children. It may not be a cure but as prevention, it already has a huge purpose. Visual improvement is also achievable through proper use of video games. Video games that involve high levels of action, such as first-person-shooter games, increase a player's realworld vision, according to Bavelier (2009). The finding builds on Bavelier's past work that has shown that action video games decrease visual crowding and increases visual attention. Bavelier
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(2009) says that the findings show that action video game training may be a useful complement to eye-correction techniques, since game training may teach the visual cortex to make better use of the information it receives. To learn whether high-action games could affect contrast sensitivity, Bavelier (2009), tested the contrast sensitivity function of 22 students, then divided them into two groups. One group played the action video games Unreal Tournament 2004 and Call of Duty 2. The second group played The Sims 2 which is a richly visual game, but does not include the level of visual-motor coordination of the other group's games. The volunteers played 50 hours of their assigned games over the course of 9 weeks. At the end of the training, the students who played the action games showed an average 43% improvement in their ability to discern close shades of gray close to the difference she had previously observed between game players and non-game players whereas the Sims players showed none. Video games used in Psychological Development Other than physical development, there have been studies showing that video games also affect behavior, personality, attitude, or simply psychologically. Video Games are said to have a bad effect in the psychological development not just of a child of any age. There are others who claim that its where the sense of violence is learned and developed. Fortunately there are researchers who contradict these claims and show the good side of video gaming as long as there is proper guidance from guardians/parents and as long as gamers have a huge sense of responsibility. According to a study, regular gamers are fast and accurate information processors, not only during game play, but in real-life situations as well. In the study, Dye, Green and Bavelier (2009), looked at all of the existing literature on video gaming and found some surprising insights in the data. For example, they found that avid players got faster not only on their game of choice, but on a variety of unrelated laboratory tests of reaction time. The scientists believe that this is a result of the gamer's improved visual cognition. Playing video games enhances performance on mental rotation skills, visual and spatial memory, and tasks requiring divided attention. Bushman (2011) said that relaxing video games put people in a good mood and when they are in a good mood, they are inclined to be more helpful to others which is better for everyone. He conducted a research wherein 150 college students were told they were participating in a study of different types of computer games. They were randomly assigned to play one of three types of games for 20 minutes on the Wii game system: a relaxing game (such as Endless Ocean), a neutral game (such as Super Mario Galaxy) or a violent game (such as Resident Evil 4). They then participated in a reaction time task in which they were told they were competing with an unseen other player but there wasnt really another player. The goal of the study was to see who could push a button faster when prompted. The winner would then receive a small amount of money, and the loser would be blasted with noise through headphones. However, there was a catch, that the participants chose how much money their competitor would get if he or she won, and how loud and long of a noise blast they would get if they lost. The results showed that participants who played a violent video game were more aggressive by choosing a louder and longer noise blast for their opponents than those who played neutral or relaxing games. Bushman (2011) said that participants who played a neutral game were more aggressive than those who played a relaxing game. On the other side, those who
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played the relaxing game gave their opponent more money than participants who played a violent game. Video games used in Social Interaction Other than facts about video games being used as treatment or as a source of change in an individuals behaviour, may it be aggression or being calm, video games have taken its capacity to a whole new level and have developed a new category for them which is social gaming or social games. We all know that socialization is part of life. Nobody can last or survive without any interaction to others. Everyone needs and wants to socialize but not everyone can or choose to. This may be because there are others who are too shy in front of others. The good news is, thanks to social video games, social interaction can be easily done even in games. These games enable the players to engage in a multiplayer world of gaming and be able to share the fun of playing with friends or newly met friends through the game. With the social games today, it does not only give bonding time between friends, it also provides quality time between parents and their children without that awkward feeling. A recent study of the gaming company PopCap, famous for the game plants versus zombies, in collaboration with Goldsmiths University sought to see exactly how parents are integrating video games into their families. The results of the study are interesting and a good counter to the anti-videogame drivel says Dr. Tomas (2011). Moreover, Tomas (2011) stated that after conducting the survey, 32% of parents claim to actively play games with their children, and 80 % of those consider this to be quality time. Onethird of moms and dads playing with progeny report stronger bonding as a result of this activity, and 20 percent of them feel like games have helped given their kids a better sense of technology. The study happened to disprove the commonly held belief that playing video games will make children fat, lazy, and unhealthy. The opinions collected show that 75% of parents claim that their jewel-swapping, bird-slinging, fish-feeding offspring enjoy ample exercise and wellbalanced diets. 30% have noticed improvements to concentration, and over 50% claim their children exhibit improved problem-solving skills. "These findings are important because they highlight the social benefits of playing videogames," according to Tomas (2011). Tomas claimed that this recent research has tended to look only at the individual effects of video games, but in the era of social networking, video games appear to have a vital role in enhancing social relationships. The fact that parents are using games to connect with their children, suggests that video games can improve social skills and make a key contribution to both effective parenting and child development. Synthesis To summarize this, video games are not just a form of entertainment anymore. It has evolved into something that is holistic in a sense. It is ever growing and has room for more improvements. Videogames arenow being used for treatment certain ailments.Not just that, with video games being carefully sorted by genres, it is being able to help in the behavioural development of children as long as they are playing the suited game for their age. Playing video games improves their psychological state which makes them more social. It is safe to say that
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what others say about video games being nothing but a pass time and can never teach you anything are nothing but hasty generalizations and have no truth in them. It all depends on how they will be used and how responsible a person will be in picking the video games that he or she would be playing. With the trending social games that just exploded mid-way of year 2011 are now going places and are becoming the mainstream of gaming. The fact that social games have been available not just in consoles but in social networks as well such as Facebook, these games are very accessible and get the hang of. With social games being available in social networks where adolescents are actively engaging themselves into, the researcher intends to focus on the relationship of social video gaming to the social interaction skills of adolescents. As most of the literature showed studies on video games used in Physical and Psychological development, this study will introduce more of the video games side wherein social interaction is touched upon. The relationship between social video gaming and social interaction will highlight the gap in this study among other past studies about this topic. Method Research Design The researcher used quantitative design to gather data and through tallying and data analysis the data were gathered. Using Pearson-r correlation, the researcher showed the significant relationship between the variables which is social video gaming and social interaction skills of the participants. Participants The researcher focused on the individuals that are in their teens as the participants. They were selected through purposive sampling and were scoped and limited by their ages since this study will focus on those who are still at the ages 15-19, those who are still in the adolescence. The target number of participants for this study was 60. The researcher used purposive sampling since the study will focus on those who are avid gamers and those who are just moderate gamers. There will be 20 respondents per group. The researcher asked the participants first if they play social video games and how often. Depending on the response, the researcher classified the respondents whether they fall under avid gamer which is group 1, moderate gamer which is group 2 and casual gamer which is group 3. Materials The researcher used a research method conducted through handing out survey questionnaires that each respondent will answer. The first questionnaire, Social Video Games Survey, aims to discover if the respondents do play social video games, what they think of it whether positive or negative, how much time they allocate for their playing time, and if they do socialize with other players within the game. It will consist of 10 items. Sample items are Do you play social video games?, Do you enjoy playing social video games?, and How long do you usually play?.

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A second survey questionnaire, published by Buninyong Public School was as well that measured the level of social interaction the respondents engage themselves into. The researcher divided the questions in this survey according to their subscale. This questionnaire, Teenager Social Skillstreaming Checklist (TSSC), used a Likert-type format Scale as its means of measurement. Through this, it answered whether the respondents do develop social skills or do have better social skills by playing these games and if they are able to put it to use in real life. The pretest for this TSSC in order to find its reliability showed a result of alpha=.704 . This test would show that the higher the score of the respondent means he/she has high social skills, correspondingly if he/she scores low on the test, it would mean he/she has low social skills. The lowest possible score for this test is 15 and the highest is 75. In order to classify whether the respondent falls under low, medium and high social skills the researcher set a specific range for each classifications. The researcher started at 15 because the lowest score that a test taker can get is 15 and ended at 75 which is the highest attainable score in this test. There are 60 digits between 15-75. The researcher then divided 60 which is the total number of scores possible to attain in this test into 3. The researcher used the quotient of 20 as the range. The range for the low social skills is 15-35, the range for the medium social skills is 36- 55 and the range of the high social skills is from 56-75. Procedure The researcher looked for participants or respondents for the questionnaire through purposive sampling. Before handing out the first survey questionnaire, Social Video Games Survey which will have at least 10 questions that can be answered through the choices that will be given per question, the respondents were asked first if they do play social video games and the frequency of their gameplay. After that, the researcher will ask for permission if they could answer the survey and be a respondent. This first part will define whether the respondents do play social video games, how they play it, how they find it and how often. The second questionnaire, Teenagers Social Skill streaming Checklist that is in a Likert-type format Scale type was given to the respondents as well. This second part measured the level of social skill of the respondents in each corresponding groups. Statistical Analysis The researcher used Pearsons R correlation as the statistical tool to identify whether there is a significant relationship between social video gaming and the social skills of adolescents. The respondents will be grouped into three namely casual, moderate and avid gamers. The classification of the three groups was identified by the first survey questionnaire named Social Video Games Survey. The difference of the values within the correlation of each group identified the significance of the relationship between social video gaming and social skills of Filipino adolescents. These values were obtained upon analyzing the scores gathered from the second survey questionnaire named Teenager Social Skillstreamer Checklist. Results/Findings The mean score from the Teenager Social Skillstreamer Checklist (TSSC) for casual gamers is 29.7. The moderate gamers mean score is 48.6, and the mean score of Avid gamers is
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69.75. The casual gamers fell under the range of low social skills, secondly the moderate gamers fell under the range of medium social skills and the avid gamers fell under the range of high social skills.

The correlation between the two variables showed a positive correlation. The result of Pearsons R showed a value of .986 which shows that there is indeed a significant relationship between the 2 variables. Having this said, the hypothesis of the study is then valid and acceptable. All in all, the results from the tests that the researcher was able to gather supported the hypothesis for this study. There is indeed a significant relationship between the variables which are social video gaming and social skills of Filipino adolescents as supported by the result of Pearsons R correlation. Discussion All through-out the research, the researcher canvassed through different locations such as computer shops and in a local college to be able to find respondents. Fortunately the respondents were cooperative which made the task of handing out questionnaires easier that the researcher expected. However, as the researcher gave out questionnaires and collected them back, the totality of the answered questionnaires was not complete forcing the researcher to distribute another batch of questionnaire to be able to fill out the remaining necessary respondents per group. The respondents were interested to know the results of the test and what it means or implies. Some of the respondents seemed to be unapproachable and reserved however some of them being avid gamers showed great skills in socializing to the researcher and they shared a lot of insights in terms of what they know about games, and different types of gamers. The findings show that there is a relationship between social video gaming and social interaction skills of adolescents as shown in the results which tell that the level of social skills of the adolescents depend on the adolescents classification as a gamer. The data obtained in the study reveal that the adolescents level of social interaction skills varies on the classification of the adolescent in terms of being a gamer. To sum it all up, the researcher was able to justify the hypothesis stated
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before the research was conducted. At the same time, he gained a bigger web of network in terms of video gaming. This study showed proof for the claim of the related literature, specifically Dr. Tomas (2011) where he stated that gaming is a good source of socializing may it be with family, peers, or other people. The statement of Bailey (2011) wherein he claimed that social video gaming could shape a person into a different individual is supported by the results and findings of this study.

Conclusions and Recommendation The researcher therefore concludes that there is a significant relationship between social video gaming and social skills of Filipino adolescents. Through this research, a new face of video gaming has been introduced. Social video gaming indeed may be still young, but on a brighter note, it will have much more improvement in it and a room of more possibilities. The researcher could recommend to the future possible researchers about this study to widen the scope and limitation of the study. For starters, including other demographics such as age and gender may help in making and developing a new study related to this research. The researcher also recommends others to be open-minded when it comes to video games and not just label all video games as a source of violence if not non-sense. Including a wider range in terms of number of respondents would prove to be beneficial as well towards the research.

References American Academy of Ophthalmology (2011, October 23). Video games used in new treatment that may fix 'lazy eye' in older children. Science Daily. Retrieved February 13, 2012, from http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2011/10/111023135651.htm Bruce W. Bailey and Kyle McInnis. Energy Cost of Exergaming A Comparison of the Cost of 6 Forms of Exergaming. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med., March 7, 2011 Douglas A. Gentile. The Multiple Dimensions of Video Game Effects. Child Perspectives, 2011; 5 (2): 75 Energy

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Linda A. Jackson, Edward A. Witt, Alexander Ivan Games, Hiram E. Fitzgerald, Alexander von Eye, Yong Zhao.Information technology use and creativity: Findings from the Children and Technology. Computers in Human Behavior, 2011 Matthew W.G. Dye, C. Shawn Green, Daphne Bavelier.Increasing Speed of Processing With Action Video Games : Processing Speed and Video Games.Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2009; 18 (6): 321

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Michelle E. Kho, Abdulla Damluji, Jennifer M. Zanni, Dale M. Needham. Feasibility and observed safety of interactive video games for physical rehabilitation in the intensive care unit: a case series. Journal of Critical Care, 2011 University of Colorado Denver (2010, October 19). Video games can be highly effective training tools, study shows: Employees learn more, forget less, master more skills.ScienceDaily. Retrieved February 13, 2012, from http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2010/10/101019171854.htm University of Rochester (2009, March 29). Action Video Games Improve Vision, New Research Shows. Science Daily. Retrieved February 13, 2012, from http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2009/03/090329143326.htm

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Seating Structure Design and Active Classroom Participation of College Students


Mildred Ruedas Gladys Lazo
This study investigated the comparable effects of U-style and Row-style seating arrangement in terms of active participation and attentiveness of students during class discussion. The researcher used Within Subject Experimental Design since the same group of subjects served in two level of treatment. The study comprised of N=25 First Year Bachelor of Science in Accountancy College Students. The data revealed that row-style seating arrangement is still the ideal seating arrangement for a lecture type of teaching in classroom setting. In the row style, the researcher observed that 48% students actively participated, 40% students manifested disruptive behavior, and 12% students were passive learners. However, in U-style seating, 40% students actively participated, 32% students manifested disruptive behaviors, and 28% students were passive learners.

Most setting of classrooms we see in the Philippines or observed even in our own schools and universities are almost similar with each other. Specifically concerning the seating style. Very few from our teachers or professors are changing the style of the seats like instead of using the Row Style in teaching, change it to Semi-circle style. The researcher also noticed that with the traditional kind of setting in seating arrangement, we hear teachers say, People from the back, please stop talking or in a scenario of recitation we often hear, Other hands please. Many researches and articles as the researcher goes on with the study proven that there were actually effects of classroom seating arrangement with the performance of the students yet some still contradicts it and as the researcher observed in the Philippine setting of education, classroom seating arrangement is not a concern or a significant variable for most of the schools and universities. Classroom managements is a term coined by teachers and mentors which means a process of ensuring that a lecture in the classroom goes smoothly and delivered effectively despite disruptive behavior of the students. According to Damper (2000), classroom management, particularly seating arrangement is one of the factors and not saying the only factor to be considered in getting high grades as the researchers concern. As for the researcher, part of classroom management and one of the ways to maintain order and control in the classroom is to have seating style. According to Chinappi, J. & Wistrom, E. (2011), the physical atmosphere of the classroom can play a large role in how well professors are able to manage the students. In the Philippine setting, the most commonly used is called the Row-column style or the Traditional style. With this kind of setting, the students are arranged by rows facing the teacher at the front of the class. Based on Otrar et. al. (2004), students sitting next to the wall or at the back row have less participation and attention and are more likely to display undesired behaviors. Therefore, the researcher thought that it would be difficult to involve the whole class especially those who are seating at the back row. With this, during lecture period, it would be possible that the student will
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feel boring or sleepy especially during lecture period, thus may affect their active participation. In case like this, students who are usually participating are the ones participating over and over again. She stated, "I agree that the physical arrangement to seating and the assignment (or lack thereof) to such is basic classroom management Fulton, M. E. (2001). According to Wannarka and Ruhl (2003), students at the back of the classroom tend to interact with each other more frequently than those seated at the front, potentially adversely impacting their attention to the task. According to Fernandez, Careena & Rinaldo (2011), Parker, Hoopes & Eggett (2011) and Ikram (2010) other types of seating arrangements like the U-style pattern helps the teachers to easily get along the class for monitoring students, it is also advantageous in a sense that the design encourages group discussion as students can see and interacts with each other, but it also allows the instructor to remain the central feature. The instructor can move freely through the space in the center while assisting students and presenting projects and assignments clearly. Therefore, it is also ideal for easy learning and participation in class since the students may easily understand the lessons. He stated Question asking was more frequent when the children were seated in the U-style arrangement (Marx et al. 2000). The professors could easily see the faces of the students thus preventing student to student chatting that can cause environmental disrupt, resulting of the attention of students more likely on the teacher. The New York University is one of the schools in America who uses this kind of style. The active performance of the students can be seen during recitations, asking questions and participation in class activities. The researcher measured active participation in terms of students raised hands, asked relevant questions, answered professors questions, shared ideas, consistently took down notes and gave opinions. When a child is active in his or her performance, it is possible that he or she learned a lot and gets more knowledge. On the other hand, attentiveness of the students were measured in terms of leaving the seats without permission, chatting with classmates, making loud and distracting noises, using cell phones and other gadgets unrelated, repeatedly leaving and entering the classroom while the lecture was on going, sleeping or wool-gathering and doing unrelated things. As for the researchers opinion, seating arrangement is not for a shallow reason of controlling the students because after all, inside the classroom, there is always an authority and that is the teacher and authority should be followed for they set order for the better. In case of a classroom, seating arrangement is a concern for the teachers in order to prevent and lessen constraints brought by the students that could affect the attention of both the teacher and the classmates and much worse the learning process that could affect the active participation of the students. Still, the majoritys advantage was obvious. The researcher aims to know the effects of U-style seating arrangement to active participation and attentiveness of the students in a class discussion. Also, the researcher wants to know the effects of Row-style seating arrangement to active participation and attentiveness of
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the students in a class discussion. The researcher hypothesized that there is an effect in the active participation and attentiveness of students in the row style and u-style seating. By understanding these mentioned, this study could contribute to the knowledge of the teachers on how to do an effective seating arrangement that could contribute to a better classroom management. Therefore, mentors could have better strategy in teaching and continual smooth flow of discussion. This study would also be beneficial to the students because having them be seated in a good seating arrangement may help them to somehow focus more of the lecture. This could help the students to actively participate knowing they understood more of what the teacher has taught.

Review of Related Literature The researcher gathered several studies and related articles to support the stated topic. The different variables mentioned might support the dependent variable, which was the active participation and attentiveness of the students. Reliable articles were collected to support the study and these were classified into the following subtopics: Order and Control in the Classroom First, the study of Konzier (2011), stated that teachers must take time at the beginning of the school year to plan a seating arrangement that will work best for their particular class. Seating arrangement has an effect with maintaining order and control thus contributes to classroom management. The location of the seat of a particular student has an effect in the learning and concentration process. Second was from Callahan (2005) wherein he investigated the arrangement of seating and equipment in computer lab classrooms and its effect on the social and physical settings of the classroom. He found out that seating will affect how students interact with one another, how they interact with the teacher and even how easily they can move around the room. Third, Damer (2000)stated that the placement of the teacher's desk also affects student behavior. They will be on-task more consistently and will display fewer unnecessary behaviors when they know they are closely monitored. Fourth, Cook, J. (2001) believed that having a carefully planned seating arrangement in your classroom is a simple, yet effective way to prevent behavior problems before they happen. In the traditional classroom, students would sit in rows facing the front, where the teacher would lecture. This style of seating is still well suited for days when the students will take a test or any other situation where you want to minimize interaction and keep student focus directed in one area. Also, for classroom discussions, arranging the desks in a half-moon or U-shaped

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arrangement can work well. The students can see each other well and keep their attention on the teacher. However, it can be harder to fit the desks in this arrangement in a small room. Fifth, Zerin, S. (2009) in her study Classroom Management: Seating Arrangements in ESL Classroom concluded that if the seating arrangement of a classroom is not set up properly, it may affect the other aspects of classrooms as well. It also becomes difficult to grab learners attention if the seating arrangement is not proper. Active Participation of the Students The research of Piorier (2011), which based his study on Robert Sommer's Research about Personal Space, he found that students who sit in the front and center rows of a classroom participate more than other students. He extended this study to perimeter-style seating arrangements and found that students sitting directly across from the teacher were the most frequent participants. Students who sat to the left and right of the teacher were less likely to participate in the classroom activities, regardless of their previous participation patterns. Another is from Marx, Fuhrer and Hartig (2006). This study investigated the relationship between classroom seating arrangements and the question asking of fourth-graders. Two seating arrangements were used, semicircle position and a row-and-column arrangement. The results showed that children asked more questions in the semicircle than in the row-and-column arrangement, and that the pattern of question characteristics was stable over time. Roxas, Carreon and Monterola (2010) also proven that the effect of seating arrangement, group composition and group-based competition on students performance. All the lectures were scattered with student interaction opportunities, in which students work in groups to discuss and answer concept tests. Two individual assessments were administered before and after that. The ratio of the post-assessment score to the pre-assessment score was calculated to establish the improvement in student performance. Using actual assessment results, an optimal seating arrangement for a class was determined based on student seating location. Lastly, the study revealed that competition-driven interactions increase within-group cooperation and lead to higher improvement on the students performance. The study of Cohen et al.,(2007) suggested results state that the majority of pupils preferred the circle arrangement when taking part in a class discussion and participation increased therefore seating arrangement has an effect in learning. Another study is from Ikram (2010). According to his research, it is not only the seating arrangement of the classroom but also the way students are distributed in the class that affects significantly the students learning. The place the students prefer to sit brings some advantages and disadvantages in terms of learning and participation. For a teacher to know about the personal features of the students and about how effective their sit mate are helps her/him know about them more. The purpose of the study is to determine the students preferences about the
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place to sit in teacher-centered (traditional) classrooms in terms of their personal characteristics and the characteristics they look for in their seatmate based on their perceptions. It was concluded that students preferring to sit at front rows care the lesson more and are more willing to participate, while those sitting at back rows are vice versa; that for females the place they prefer, which is usually the front rows. Students Appropriate Behavior Wannarka & Ruhl (2008) concluded that seating arrangements are important classroom setting events because they have the potential to help prevent problem behaviors that decrease student attention. Three common arrangements (i.e., rows, groups or semi-circles) were considered in the said study. Results indicate that teachers should let the nature of the task dictate seating arrangements. Evidence supports the idea that students display higher levels of appropriate behavior during individual tasks when they are seated in rows. Also, Parker, Hoopes and Eggett (2011) contradicts with the previous studies stated because according to them there is conflicting evidence on the effect of seat location on student performance and participation in the classroom. The two major hypotheses used are a.) that seat location influences student behavior and b.) that seat preference and selection is associated with personality traits of students. Half of the class was randomly assigned a permanent seat while the other half was randomly reassigned a different seat each class period. Students sitting in the front of the classroom in the permanent group made significantly more comments than permanent group students in the back. The move group, however, showed increased overall participation with no significant difference between the front and back of the classroom. Findings suggest a more flexible explanation-that students may adopt or reject an implied social role in which seat location and personality traits are influential factors. Dunbar (2004) quoted from Fred Jones, A good classroom seating arrangement is the cheapest form of classroom management. Its discipline for free. Many experienced teachers recommend assigned seating for students to facilitate discipline and instruction.

Synthesis The articles mentioned above are interrelated in terms that all of them regardless of the point of affected variables stated that there is a significant effect or significant relationship between classroom seating arrangements and other related variables with students like learning process, behavioral process etcetera. Also, almost all of the stated articles above except for articles Piorier (2011), Parker, Hoopes and Eggett (2011) , Ikram (2010) , and Damer (2000) linked classroom seating arrangement with the learning and participation of the students. Moreover, the study of Konzier (2011) , Roxas, Carreon and Monterola (2010) and Callahan (2005) articles have something in common although each mentioned studies used different methods actually arrived at the same conclusion. The conclusion was those students who are
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sitting on the front row are most likely active in performance, learning and behavior rather those who are sitting on the last rows. But according to Roxas, Carreon and Monterola (2010) the place the students prefer to sit brings some advantages and disadvantages in terms of learning and participation or increasing participation or learning which contradicts the statement concluded based on Parker, Hoopes and Eggett (2011)that says, increased overall participation has no significant difference between the front and back of the classroom. Method Research Design First, the researcher chose Within Subject Experimental Design because the same group of subjects serves in two levels of treatment, which are the Row style and U-style seating arrangements. Second, the researcher used a quantitative design, which was the seating sheet (Figure 4-1 & 4-2) in order to record the frequency of the students participating and manifesting disruptive behaviors. A statistical tool was used particularly chi-square analysis in order to compare the tallies or counts between the performances in row style and u-style patterns in terms of their reliability. Participants The researcher intended focused on first year college studentsschool year 2012-2013. The population was composed of 25 freshmen students with 6 males and 19 females. Also, a professor whose teaching Logic subject took part in the experiment. Instruments A seating pattern chart was used in conducting the observation. The researcher used the said chart in tallying students who actively participated and attentive. Procedure First, the researcher asked permission from one of the professors about their willingness to allow the researcher to conduct the experiment in their class. Second, the professor that agreed was advised by the researcher not to mention that she will be conducting an experiment. It was a secret between the professor and the researcher in order to avoid bias response from students. It may be an extraneous variable if students know that their participation were being observed thus may affect the result of the study. Instead, the researcher was introduced as a sit-in student for the reason of reviewing her lessons on that particular topic for one of her subjects. Third, the professor and researcher proceeded on the class chosen, with the treatment A, no need to arrange the style of the arrangement of the chairs since this is the one used in the
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College. In case of the treatment B, the researcher arranged the chairs before the teacher and students came to class in order to avoid time-consuming nor distractions on the professors part. Fourth, after everything has settled on, the lecture started and lasted for about 1 hour and 30 minutes. The moment the lecture started, the observation was on process and was recorded by the researcher using video camera. A video camera was used so that every detail that happened in the class was observed and recorded by the researcher. The class was exposed to the same subject and teaching style since the same professor was on hand. It only varied with the seating arrangement style. The researcher did this for 2 meetings or 1 week since there are 2 meetings of the class per week. Row-style seating arrangement was used for the first meeting and for the second meeting, U-style seating was used. With this, the consistency of the results was attained by the researcher. Active Participation was measured by the numbers of students raised hands, asked relevant questions, answered professors questions, shared ideas, consistently took down notes and gave opinions. Also, attentiveness of students were measured in terms of leaving the seats without permission, chatting with classmates, making loud and distracting noises, using cell phones and other gadgets unrelated, repeatedly leaving and entering the classroom while the lecture was on going, sleeping or wool-gathering and doing unrelated things. Extraneous variables were considered. First, the mood of the professor or the professor itself may be an effect of the active participation of a student. For example, the professor looks rugged and so the students may be frightened to recite. A boring professor may also be a factor that may affect the students participation. With these in line, the researcher decided to survey beforehand about the best professor for them so far in this semester. This happened with the experimented class. By getting the result, the researcher picked the top 3 professors and asked for their approval. The researcher chose the professor which got the highest vote. Second issue, students may not be interested with the topic, this may affect the result of the study. According to Sarah (2012), Math is perhaps the most popular subject in school, it is one of the subjects many people struggle with. Creating a fun, engaging and entertaining activity can make learning easier to embrace. Therefore the researcher concluded that this issue lies also with the teacher. No matter how difficult the subject may be, it will always depend on how the teacher delivers the lesson that will make it interesting to learn. Data Analysis The researcher use the data gathered on the experiment using the seating sheet. First, the researcher interpreted the data by comparing and contrasting the data gathered. Second, the researcher looked for the differences and similarities observed. Third, the differences and similarities were analyzed using related literatures and interpretation. Lastly, the researcher stated the conclusions and recommendations with regards to the data gathered for results. The researcher used chi-square analysis in order to compare the tallied frequencies of the performances of the group of subjects between the row style and u-style seating patterns.
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Results Presentation of Data The purpose of this experimental study was to compare the effects of the two differently arranged seats particularly U-style seating arrangement and Row Style seating arrangement on both the attentiveness and active participation of the students. The review of related literatures suggested on how the physical setting of the classroom including seating styles maximizes the potential for student learning and teaching style. A participant observation and interview of the professor were used to collect data about the said experiment.

Figure 4-1. Researchers Observation: Row Style Seating Arrangement AP: Students raised hands: 12 Students asked questions: 5 Students answered questions correctly: 10 Students shared ideas: 0 ATT: Students consistently taking down notes: 10 Students did not answer correctly: 1 Students talking with their seatmates: 8 Students doing unrelated things: 5 Students feel sleepy/bored.

Vacant seats Actively Participating Disruptive Behavior (talking, sleepy, doing unrelated things etc.) Passive Learners

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White Board/Teachers Table

Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4

Figure 4-1.shows that 12 out of 25 or 48% students actively participated in the lecture. On the other hand, 10 out of 25 or 40% students manifested disruptive behaviors. Moreover, 3 out of 25 or 12% students were passive learners.

Figure 4-2. Observation: U-style Seating Arrangement AP: Students raised hands: 3 Students asked questions: 2 Students answered questions correctly: 7 Students shared ideas: 1 ATT: Students consistently taking down notes: 8 Students did not answer correctly: 4 Students talking with their seatmates: 5
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Students doing unrelated things: 5 Students feel sleepy/bored: 4

Vacant seats Actively Participating Disruptive Behavior (talking, sleepy, doing unrelated things etc.) Passive Learners

White Board/Teachers Table

Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5

Row 6

Figure 4-2.shows that 10 out of 25 or 40% students actively participated in the lecture. On the other hand, 8 out of 25 or 32% students manifested disruptive behaviors. Moreover, 7 out of 25 or 28% students were passive learners. Figure 4-3. Chi-square Analysis The following data were taken from each of the seating patter. The data were specifically in terms of the active participation: Students raised hands, asked questions, answered questions correctly and shared ideas (Refer to Figure 4-1 and 4-2).
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Row Style Seating Observed (o) Expected (e) (o-e)2/e 27 12.5 16.82

U-style Seating 13 12.5 0.02 Chi-square value: 16.84 df=1 p value (0.05) = 3.84

Since x2 =16.84 >p=3.84 therefore it means that the null hypothesis is rejected and there is a significant difference between the observed and expected frequencies. Therefore, the researcher concluded that row style seating is more ideal than the u-style seating in terms of lecture sessions. The following data were taken from each of the seating pattern. The data were specifically in terms of the attentiveness: Students consistently took down notes, did not answer correctly, consistently talked with their seatmates, performed unrelated things and felt sleep/bored. (Refer to Figure 4-1 and 4-2). Row Style Seating Observed (o) Expected (e) (o-e)2/e 27 12.5 16.82 U-style Seating 26 12.5 14.58 Chi-square value: 31.4 df=1

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p value (0.05) = 3.84

Since x2 =31.4 >p=3.84 therefore it means that the null hypothesis is rejected and there is a significant difference between the observed and expected frequencies. Therefore, the researcher concluded that in this study, more students manifested disruptive behaviors in the row-style that the U-style. Results and Discussion The researcher has given two objectives in this study, first was to know the effects of U-style seating arrangement in terms of active participation and attentiveness of the students, second was to know the effects of Row style seating arrangement in terms of active participation and attentiveness of the students. According to the information shown above (Figure 4-1 and 4-2), the comparable observation can satisfy the objectives given. Active Participation According to Sommer (2000), in the Row-style classroom, students across from the instructor participated more than students at the sides of the instructor. The study of the straight row arrangement found that students near the front and center of the straight row classroom participated more than students in the rear and at the sides. Another experiment, the research of Piorier (2011), which based his study on Robert Sommer's Research about Personal Space, he found that students who sit in the front and center rows of a classroom participate more than other students. The researcher observed that it actually manifested in the experiment, as seen in the Figure 4-1., students sitting near the center and at the center of the row participated more than those of the sides. The 12 students who were actively participating were seated across from the instructor. Also, these students were the ones consistently taking down notes, raising their hands and answering questions correctly. As shown in the Figure 4-1. above, passive learners were seated at the sides. They seem to be listening but when the teacher asked questions, they cannot answer correctly or they were not even raising their hands. It was observed that there was a student seating on the center that was not participating yet no student who actively participating can be seen on the sides of the rows. Therefore the researcher concluded that Sommer (2000) and Priorier (2011) studies were similar and true to the researchers experiment. On the other hand, in the U-style seating arrangement, students were less actively participating than of the Row-style. As seen in the Figure 4-2, more students were actively participating on the first three rows. The last row or row 6 shows only 3 students who seated at the center of the row 6 which were also actively participating. During the experiment, the researcher observed that 3 students changed their seating locations that the professor caught. He
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asked them Bakit ba tayo kayo ng tayo at lipat ng lipat?, they answered, Sorry sir, hindi po kasi naming makita kapag nasa likod, hindi po naming maintindihan. 2 students originally seated at the second and third seats, left view of the row 6 moved to the center, which were the 2 seats in front of the row 6. The other student moved from the center right side of row 5 to the center right side of row 3. Therefore, the researcher concluded that in this kind of seating pattern, students seating from row 4 to row 6 neither can hardly seen nor hear the professors voice therefore contributes to their active participation specifically poor participation. Moreover, the researcher compared the two seating patterns based on the active participation and noticed that more students were passive learners in the U-style seating pattern compared to the row style. Passive learners were doubled in the U-style pattern, which is 28% than of the Row style, which is only 12% of the class. When the researcher asked his reaction regarding the said experiment, he shared one of his conclusions which was in line of active participation, he said, Mas nahirapan umintindi yung mga estudyante ko sa U-style formation, at the end of the period nang magpa-seatwork ako, marami ang nakakuha ng mababang score. The researcher continued and asked his opinion with the reasons behind, the professor stated Siguro dahil sa hindi nila ako masyadong makita especially yung mga isinusulat ko sa board na mga lectures, lalo yung mga nasa likod at gilid, he added Mahirap ko rin silang makita individually, yung mga nasa likod at nasa center lang ang nakikita ko therefore baka hindi rin nila ako masyado makita. According to Center for Adolescent Studies. (1996). What is your classroom management profile? Teacher Talk, 1(2), scanning the faces of your students will give you an idea of whether or not what you are saying is registering with them. The looks in their eyes and on their faces will tell you if they are following you or if they are totally lost. Also according to Wainwright (2003), inside the classroom, eye contact performs a very significant function as non-verbal communication; teachers can use eye contact for the enhancement of learning of the students in various ways. Therefore the researcher found out that Fernandez, Careena & Rinaldo (2011), Parker, Hoopes & Eggett (2011) and Ikram (2010) research which stated that other types of seating arrangements including the U-style arrangement helps the teachers to easily get along the class for monitoring students is not reliable with the experiment done by the researcher. Another, the experiment found to be contradicting to Marx et al. (2000) which concluded that the professors could easily see the faces of the students thus preventing student to student chatting that can cause environmental disrupt therefore, the attention of the students are more likely on the teacher. Based on the observation of the researcher and the professor participated in the experiment it was the other way around, students and teacher could hardly see nor hear each other while the lecture was on going, resulted to students difficulty in understanding the lesson which leads to lesser active participation in the class compared to Row style teaching. Lastly, the researcher concluded that U-style teaching in terms of active participation could not be of help but rather a barrier for students to effectively empathize what the professor is teaching. The researcher agreed with the professor participated in the experiment, he said Sa tingin ko, hindi
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effective ang U-style in terms of lecturing, it is more applicable to group work or other activities involving the whole class. Attentiveness In the row-style seating, the researcher found out that 10 out of 25 or 40% of students participated in the experiment actually manifested disruptive behaviors. Figure 4-1 showed that 9 students were actually seating at the side of the instructor. 4 boys at the left side of row 2 and 3 were constantly talking with each other. On the other side, the 3 girls at the row 2 were similarly talking with each other constantly. Other students were using cell phones, ipad, looking at the mirror and even doing their make-ups while the lecture was on going. And these students were actually seating at the sides. Based on Otrar et. al. (2004), in row-style seating pattern, students sitting next to the wall or at the back row have less participation and attention and are more likely to display undesired behaviors. With the observation done by the researcher, it was proven true since it was manifested. Furthermore, according to Wannarka and Ruhl (2003), students at the back of the classroom tend to interact with each other more frequently than those seated at the front, potentially adversely impacting their attention to the task. Figure 4-1 showed that those students who were constantly chatting with each other were actually seating at the two most back rows, similarly with the research presented by Wannarka and Ruhl (2003), therefore supported the experiment done by the researcher. On the other hand, in the U-style seating pattern, 8 out of 25 or 32% students manifested disruptive behaviors. These students were actually not in single rows unlike in row-style but rather sparse. Still, Figure 4-1 showed that unquiet students were more likely seen at the sides, no student could be seen at the center most back doing unrelated things. Also, the researcher observed that compared to row-style, U-style has less students who appeared to do disruptive behaviors but doubled the number of passive learners. The professor participated in the experiment quoted While I was teaching, ang nakikita ko lang yung nasa center na mga students, yung sa sides hindi ko masyado tinitingnan, yun kasi yung center ko. Ang kaso nga lang sobrang layo na nila. This maybe the reason why students feel bored during the lecture resulting in more passive learners. According to Wainwright (2003), teachers use eye contact in order to show attention and interest to students. Therefore, it may be a cause why students feel bored and uninterested in learning that was why they manifested passive behavior. Moreover, it was noticed that there were 4 students who answered incorrectly in the Ustyle formation than of the row-style, which only has 1. The professor asked these students abruptly because they were woolgathering and because more passive learners were seen in the said style, the more students resulted incorrectly answered in the recitation. During the observation, the researcher found out that it was actually noiseless in the U-style formation than of the row-style yet during the seatwork, more students got a low score than of the row-style.

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Conclusion and Recommendation In conclusion to the study, the researcher found out that row-style seating arrangement is still the more ideal seating arrangement for a lecture type of teaching in the classroom setting. Also, the researcher found out that there is a significant effect between the kinds of seating style the professor will be using with regard to the activities that will be doing inside the classroom. Also, it was proven that the seating pattern is an important part of classroom management thus professors should consider. Moreover, the researcher discovered that active participation and attentiveness of students have something to relate with the seating pattern the professor will be using during activities with regard to learning. In line with the experiment, U-style seating would be applicable for a classroom having less than 25 students or for small groups in order to overcome the problems in terms of seeing and hearing clearly what the professor is teaching. The professor should take into consideration if every student hear and see them and if every student see and hear the professor in setting up the seating pattern. Having completed this study, the researcher recommends the following for future studies with the same topic. First, further studies should include more participants in the study so they could observe more keenly and gathered more data that will support the precious studies or may find out new knowledge for a better classroom management. Second, the researcher suggested that the future researchers should consider more variables that may have relation to seating pattern and the students performance. Third, future researchers may consider lengthening the time of the experiment so that results that are more consistent could be attained. For the schools administrators, engineers and architects, the researcher suggested that they should conduct their own study concerning the workspace and spatial environment on which the students learn for the betterment of classroom management for the benefits of both the students and professors. References Callahan, Jessica (2005). Effects of Different Seating Arrangements in Higher Education Computer Lab Classrooms on Student Learning, Teaching Styles and Classroom Appraisal.,Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12(3), 147165. Cohen, et al. (2007). The Impact of Seating Arrangement in a Classroom on Pupils Verbal Participation in Year 8 and Year 9 RE Lessons.,Research Methods in Education. Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, London. Damer, Mary (2000). How seating arrangements impact student behavior.,International Journal of Educational Research . 33. Douglas, Marshall P., & Losonczy-Marshall Marta (2010). Classroom Ecology: Relations between Seating Locations, Performance, and Attendance.,Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2(2), 119124.
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Dunbar, Christopher (2004). Best Practices in Classroom Management. Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues, 1743. Ferncandes, Amanda, Jinyan Huang, Careena, & Rinaldo, Vince (2011). Does Where A Student Sits Really Matter? - The Impact of Seating Locations on Student Classroom Learning.,Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9(2), 199206. Ikram, Cinam (2010). Classroom Geography: Who Sit Where in the Traditional Classrooms?,Journal of Economic Education. 35 (3), p.215-231. Marx, Alexandra, Fuhrer, Urs, Hartig Terry (2006). Effects of Classroom Seating Arrangements on Children's question-asking., Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12(3), 147165. Parker, Tory, Hoopes, Olivia, & Eggett, Dennis (2011). The Effect of Seat Location and Movement or Permanence on Student-Initiated Participation., Journal Articles; Reports Research, 59 (2) p79-84, 2011 Poirier, Alexander (2011). Psychological Effect on Perimeter Seating in the Classroom., Roxas, R. M., Carreon-Monterola, Monterola, C. (2010). Seating Arrangement, Group Composition and Competition-driven Interaction: Effects on Students Performance in Physics.,Teaching and Teacher Education, 16(2), 239253. Wannarka, Rachel, Ruhl, Kathy (2003). Seating arrangements that promote positive academic and behavioural outcomes: a review of empirical research., Support for Learning., Volume 23 Issue 2. 6.5.2003. Nasen.

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Predictors of Counterproductive Work Behavior among Call-Center Agents


Samantha Faye Salcedo Butch Dela Cruz
This study investigates whether tattoo and piercing predict Counterproductive Work Behavior. Data was collected from call center agents working within Northgate Alabang call center companies. Out of 150 respondents, 17% have tattoo, 14% have piercing, and 19% have both tattoo and piercing. This study examined the CWB of call center agents using the Counterproductive Work Behavior-Checklist by Spector et al. (2006). Multiple Regression was utilized to predict the criterion, CWB, in using two predictors, tattoo and piercing. Results of the study showed that tattoo and piercing has a significant relationship with CWB (R = .678; p < .01). Thus, both tattoo ( = 13.56; p < .01) and piercing ( = 11.32; p < .01) were positive predictors of Counterproductive Work Behavior.

What is Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB)? CWB is an employee deviant behavior that goes against the norms and values of organizations, and brings harm to both the company and its employees (Kwok et al., 2005). Current trends in the field of Industrial / Organizational Psychology suggest continuous study on CWBs, specifically on its predictors, because of the consequences and its persistence in the workplace. Hence, the objective of this research is to find out whether tattoo and piercing predicts CWB among call center agents. Unlike most of the hiring process of companies and organizations, majority of call center companies do not consider tattoo and piercing, in hiring or non-hiring of agents. Perhaps, it is because agents do not have direct contact with the clients. Incidentally, researchers say that tattoo and piercing are markers of deviant behaviors (Koch et al., 2009; Irwin, 2000: Atkinson. 2003). Being that deviant behavior is similar to Counterproductive Work Behavior, only CWB is in the organizational setting; the researcher used these studies as a conceptual framework. The researcher defines call center agents with body tattoo/s as, employees who have a permanent mark/s on any part of their body. While, call center agents with piercing/s are employees who have piercing on any part of their body, at any sites other than earlobe for women. Call center agent is defined in this research as one who involves in handling phone calls depending on the clients business. According to research, call center industries in the Philippines contributes 12% to the Gross National Product (Williams, 2010). Certainly, employees have a great impact in an organizations growth; likewise, employees could also cause financial losses in organizations. The financial cost of CWB to business in Australia is approximately $13 billion or P546 billion a year (Lenders, 2005). Moreover, the National Retail Federation states that CWB was responsible for 44% of retail losses in 2008, adding up to $15.9 billion or P667.8 billion in losses for retail businesses (2009). Thereupon, the aim of this research is to find out predictors of CWB in order to minimize its prevalence in the workplace.
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This study seeks to answer the following questions; Is there a relationship between Counterproductive Work Behavior and tattoo and/or piercing of call center agents? Does tattoo predicts Counterproductive Work Behavior among call center agents? Does piercing predicts Counterproductive Work Behavior among call center agents? The researcher hypothesize that there is a significant relationship between Counterproductive Work Behavior and tattoo and/or piercing of call center agents. Overall, this research is useful not only for call center companies, but also for its agents. In addition, this study is helpful to HR practitioners of call center companies regarding screening and hiring applicants that may have less possibility to develop Counterproductive Work Behavior in the future. Thus, this research is an addition to, and a basis for, more research of this type. Review of Related Literature Counterproductive Work Behavior Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) is defined as employee deviant behaviors that violate the norms and values of organisations, and bring harm to both the company and its employees (C. Kwok, 2005). According to Dalal (2005) and Bowling et al. (2010), current trends in the field of Industrial / Organizational Psychology suggest a continuing increase in the study of CWBs, specifically on its predictors (Devonish et al., 2010; Oppler et al., 2008; Roberts et al., 2007). Likewise, attention being given to the study of CWB increased because of the consequences of CWBs and their persistence in the workplace (Levy et al., 2011; MacLane et al., 2010). Counterproductive Work Behavior-Checklist The Counterproductive Work Behavior-Checklist was devised by Spector, et al (2006) which consists of 32 items that produces subscales of the forms of CWB. These forms of CWB, includes; abuse against others (a), behaviors directed towards co-workers and others with a motive to harm them physically and psychologically through threats, nasty comments, making fun, and undermining ones performance; production deviance (b), purposeful failure to perform job tasks, the way they are required to be performed; sabotage (c), purposeful damage to or defacing the company property or equipment; theft (d), any stealing, use or misuse of their employers assets without permission to do so; and withdrawal behavior (e), behaviors like coming late on job, absenteeism, leaving early from job, taking longer breaks than authorized etc (2006). CWB-C was used in seven organizations to measure CWB of employees. The first five organizations were conducted in Chicago and Tampa. The five samples were support staff of two universities and employees of a financial consulting firm, an accounting firm, and a behavioral health services company. With the five organizations the response rate was 23%. However,
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based on the number of distributed questionnaires, the response rate was 32% for employees. The relatively low response rate was in part due to the fact that participants were requested to provide a matching co-worker evaluation of their behavior (for use in a different study). The total sample size was 169 (21.6% male, 26.4% managerial positions, and 91.3% white-collar). Due to the sensitive nature of the questionnaire items, no further demographic data were collected. The sixth organization consisted of employed individuals taking mostly night classes at the University of South Florida in chemistry, computer science engineering, interdisciplinary social science, management, and psychology. 299 met the requirements (eight additional ones were dropped). The sample was 23% male, with an average age of 23.3 and average tenure on the job of two years. The seventh organization consisted of 279 employed individuals taking coursework at the University of South Florida. 24% of the sample was male and 17.4% held management or supervisory positions. A response rate could not be determined since there was no way to know how many potential respondents chose not to participate. Predictors of Counterproductive Work Behavior Present studies on predictors of CWB include: Age (Lau, 2003; Ng et al., 2008); Emotional Intelligence (Devonish et al., 2010; Penny, 2001; Spector et al., 2005); Financial History (Oppler et al., 2008); Personality (Bolton et al., 2010; Salgado, 2002); and Self-Control (Fodchuck, 2007; Marcus et al., 2004). Despite of these studies, current trends in the field of IO Psychology still suggest a continuous study on predictors of CWBs (Devonish et al., 2010; Oppler et al., 2008; Roberts et al., 2007). Hence, this research seeks to investigate whether tattoo and piercing are predictors of CWB among call center agents. Tattooing and Piercing Body modification in the form of tattoos and piercings is becoming increasingly common. According to Antoszewski et al. (2009), the main reasons for body modification are the desire to enhance ones individuality and the need to increase sexual attractiveness; body piercing and tattooing are a way to identify oneself and create an opportunity for self-expression. Antoszewski et al.s (2009) research also showed that people with a tattoo or body piercing believe that there is a wide social acceptance of this phenomenon. Moreover, research of Nathanson et al. in a sample of 279 undergraduate students who completed a comprehensive battery of personality questionnaires and provided detailed selfreports of any unusual appearance markers undermines the allegation that acquiring deviance markers directly increases the likelihood of misconduct. The association between body modification and misconduct is extremely false. Furthermore, Nathanson et al. states that deviance markers being associated, not only with drug use and criminal offenses, but also with driving offenses, bullying, and anti-authority misconduct are bogus (2005).

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In contrast, Irwin (2000) and Atkinson (2003) states that tattoos and piercing are markers of deviant behavior. This was supported with the research of Koch et al., which use sub-cultural identity theory to propose that individuals with increasing evidence of body art services will also report higher levels of deviant behavior in order to maintain and/or increase social distance from the mainstream (2009). Koch et al. tested this proposition by surveying 1753 American college students, asking them to report their level of body art acquisition and their history of deviance. Results indicate that respondents with four or more tattoos, seven or more body piercings, or piercings located in their nipples or genitals, were substantively and significantly more likely to report regular marijuana use, occasional use of other illegal drugs, and a history of being arrested for a crime. Furthermore, less marked, but still significant in many cases, was an increased tendency for those with higher occurrence of body art to cheat on college work, binge drink, and report having had multiple sex partners in the course of their lifetime (2009). Synthesis In a nutshell, researchers suggest a continuous study on Counterproductive Work Behavior, specifically on its predictors, because of the consequences of this behavior and their persistence in the workplace (Bowling et al., 2010; Dalal, 2005; Levy et al., 2011; MacLane et al., 2010). Though present studies on predictors of CWB have been conducted (Bolton et al., 2010; Devonish et al., 2010; Fodchuck, 2007; Lau, 2003; Marcus et al., 2004; Ng et al., 2008; Oppler et al., 2008; Penny, 2001; Salgado, 2002; Spector et al., 2005), further study on predictors of CWB is still recommended (Devonish et al., 2010; Oppler et al., 2008; Roberts et al., 2007). According to research, tattoo and piercing are markers of deviant behaviors Koch et al., 2009; Irwin, 2000: Atkinson. 2003. Being that deviant behavior is similar to Counterproductive Work Behavior (only CWB is in the organizational setting), the researcher used this studies as the basis of this research.Therefore, this research aims to fill the gap and seeks to find out whether tattoo and/or piercing are predictors of Counterproductive Work Behavior among call center agents using the Counterproductive Work Behavior-Checklist (Spector et al., 2006). Method Research Design Descriptive correlational method was utilized to describe and determine the relationship of the variables (Counterproductive Work Behavior, tattoo & body piercing) in this research. This method was used to find out whether tattoo and/or piercing are predictors of Counterproductive Work Behavior among call center agents.

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Participants The call center agents who participated in this study were employed in different call center industries within the range of Northgate Alabang. The sampling technique used was a non-probability sampling that is purposive sampling. This technique was used to purposely gather data of the desired population, those agents who possess tattoo and/or piercing (n=75) and those who dont possess either (n=75). In this study, there are a total of 150 respondents, 14% possessedpiercing only, 17% possessedtattoo only, and 19% possessed both tattoo and piercing. Instruments The instruments used are; Self-administered Scale, which was utilized for this research to obtain needed information by encircling yes or no. This scale is composed of 8 items which was made-up of 2 questions to obtain the required information (e.g. Do you have a tattoo? Do you have a body piercing (at any sites other than earlobe for female)?), and 6 decoy questions in order to divert participants attention on the motive of the survey (e.g. Are you the head of the family? Do you exercise daily? Do you go to church regularly? etc.) The Counterproductive Work Behavior-Checklist (Spector, et al 2006), a 32-item scale design to measure CWB of agents, which has an internal consistency of ( =.90). The responses were measured on a Likert-type format scale, the degrees of frequency for answering were: (1), once or twice (2), once or twice per month (3), once or twice per week (4), and every day (5). The instrument is scored by summing the total of the 32 items. From the total score, one can infer the agents level of CWB. Procedure Initially, the researcher gave cover letters, which was rejected, to call center companies within Northgate Alabang, due to their policy that employees should not be disturbed during their working hours. Thereupon, researcher gathers information near the area where the agents usually go during their breaks. The participants were informed beforehand about the confidentiality of their answers. Answering the forms were estimated to be between 3-5 minutes. The questionnaires were gathered right after the participants have completed answering. Thus, gathering of data was conducted several days. After the forms were returned, the data were encoded in a MicrosoftTM Excel workbook and then it was transferred to SPSS StatisticsTM 17.0 for statistical analysis. Statistical Analysis The software package SPSS StatisticsTM 17.0 was used to perform statistical analysis. Multiple Linear Regression was used to quantify the criterion and predictors in this research. Regression is the correlation between the observed and predicted values of dependent variable;

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and tells how strongly the two independent variables (tattoo and piercing) are related to the dependent variable (Counterproductive Work Behavior). The closer to 1.0 the regression value is, the better the model. The closer the regression value is to 0, the worse the model. Analysis of Variance is applied to determine a statistically significant portion of the variability in the dependent variable from variability in the independent variables. Statistical data analysis illustrates that the level of significance is p < .01. In addition, beta standardized coefficient is used to ascertain which of the independent variables have a greater effect on the dependent variable in a multiple regression analysis. Results Descriptive Statistics section showed that agents with tattoo and/or piercing have a mean of 62.73 and SD of 12.12, while agents without tattoo and piercing have a mean of 41.91 and SD of 7.61. The regression in the Model Summary table showed that there is a positive correlation between Counterproductive Work Behavior and tattoo & piercing (R = .678; p < .01). Table 1: Tattoo and/or Piercing Call Center Agents Without tattoo or piercing With piercing only With tattoo only With both tattoo and piercing TOTAL Low CWB 70 (93%) 9 (43%) 8 (31%) 6 (21%) 93 (62%) High CWB 5 (7%) 12 (57%) 18 (69%) 22 (79%) 57 (38%) TOTAL 75 (50%) 21 (14%) 26 (17%) 28 (19%) N= 150 (100%)

Table 1 showed that only 7% of agents without tattoo and/or piercing have high CWB and 93% have low CWB. On the other hand, 57% of agents with piercing only got high CWB and 43% got low CWB, 69% of agents with tattoo only got high CWB and 31% got low CWB, and 79% of agents with both tattoo and piercing got high CWB and 21% got low CWB. Respondents with tattoo have M = 63.67 and SD = 11.46. The Coefficients table demonstrated that tattoo of agents is a positive predictor CWB ( = 13.56; p < .01). Further, respondents with piercing have M = 63.31 and SD = 12.49 . The Coefficients table demonstrated that piercing of agents is also a positive predictor CWB ( = 11.32; p < .01). Overall, given that CWB has a significant correlation with tattoo and piercing; and both variables predicted CWB, the hypothesis was accepted.

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Discussion The aim of this research is to determine whether tattoo and piercing are predictors of Counterproductive Work Behavior among call center agents. Tattoos and piercing are given emphasis because most of call center companies do not consider body modification in hiring and non-hiring of agents. Likewise, CWB is given importance because of its negative consequences and its persistence in the workplace. Findings showed that there is a significantly positive correlation between CWB and tattoo & piercing of call center agents (p .01). Such result was consistent with the findings of earlier studies, that tattoo and piercing are markers of deviant behaviors, similar with CWB (only CWB is in organizational setting) (Irwin, 2000; Atkinson, 2003; Koch et al., 2009). Further, results suggest that both variables predict CWB. Such results were in contrast to the study of Nathanson et al. (2005) which states that body modification is not associated with misconduct. That deviance markers being associated, not only with drug use and criminal offenses, but also with driving offenses, bullying, and anti-authority misconduct are bogus. The researcher observed that agents who possessed either tattoo or piercing, or both tattoo and piercing got higher CWB than those who do not possess either. However, almost half of the agents with piercing only (43%) and tattoo only (31%) have low CWB which implies that not all agents with tattoo or piercing have high CWB. In essence, results of this study suggest that call center industries should consider tattoo and/or piercing in hiring and non-hiring of applicants. In order to be able to hire agents that may less engage in CWBs in the future. Thus, prevention of CWB means fewer consequences and financial loses. Unfortunately, certain issues such as unequal employment opportunity and employment discrimination may arise in relying on the findings of this research. In solving these issues, the researcher suggests more in-depth training and evaluation for applicants with tattoo and/or piercing, and more battery of test could be given. If the results showed high performance from applicants with tattoo and/or piercing, HR may disregard tattoo and/or piercing of the individual. Although this research proves that tattoo and piercing are predictors of CWB among call center agents, the researcher doesnt conclude that all agents with tattoo and piercing already have high CWB. The researcher only states that they are more likely to engage in CWB than those who dont have either. Likewise, the researcher doesnt set aside other factors that should be considered in hiring or non-hiring of applicants with tattoo and/or piercing. The generalizability of the findings is limited by the sample size (N=150) and the area where the data had been gathered. Gathering of samples was problematic because the researcher

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only conducted the study in area where agents usually go during their breaks. Moreover, the independent variables are limited in two variables (tattoo and piercing) only. Conclusion and Recommendation The results of this study validate the hypothesis that Counterproductive Work Behavior has a significant relationship with tattoo and piercing. Thus, both tattoo and piercing are predictors of Counterproductive Work Behavior. Therefore, the researcher concludes that call center agents with tattoo and piercing are more likely to engage in CWBs than those who dont have either. Future researcher interested to study similar topic may consider the following; First, other factors that may predict Counterproductive Work Behavior such as gender and tenure in the workplace. Second, further study on a different setting and/or other participants. Last, construct a more specific scale to measure Counterproductive Work Behavior of employee. References Antoszewski, B.; Sitek, A.; Fijalkowska, M.; Kasielska, A.; Jeromin, J. K. (2009). Tattooing and body piercing What motivates you to do it?.International Journal of Pyschiatry. DOI: 10.1177/0020764009106253. Atkinson, M. (2003).Tattooed: The sociogenesis of a body art. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Bolton, L.R.; Becker, L.K.; Barber, L.K. (2010). Big Five trait predictors of differential counterproductive work behavior dimensions. Personality and Individual Differences 49: 537541. Bowling, N. A.; Eschleman, K. J. (2010).Employee personality as a moderator of the relationships between works stressors and counterproductive work behavior.Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 15 (1): 91103. Dalal, R. S. (2005).A meta-analysis of the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior.Journal of Applied Psychology: 12411255. Devonish, D.; Greenidge, D. (2010). The effect of organizational justice on contextual performance, counterproductive work behaviors, and task performance: Investigating the moderating role of ability-based emotional intelligence. International Journal of Selection and Assessment 18 (1): 7586. Fodchuk, K. M. (2007). I. Management principles: The theory of management: Work environments that negate counterproductive behaviors and foster organizational
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citizenship: Research-based recommendations for managers. Psychologist-Manager Journal 10 (1): 2746. Irwin, K. (2000). Negotiating the tattoo. In P. A. Adler & P. Adler (Eds.), Constructions of deviance: Social power, context, and interaction (3rd ed., pp. 469479). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Koch, J. R.; Roberts, A. E.; Armstrong M. L.; Owenb, D. C. (2009) Body art, deviance, and American college students Kwok, C. K.; Au, W. T.; Ho, J. M. C. (2005).Normative controls and self-reported counterproductive behaviors in the workplace in China.Applied Psychology: An International Review: 456-475. Lau, V. C. S.; Au, W.T.; Ho, J. M. C. (2003).A qualitative and quantitative review of antecedents of counterproductive behavior in organizations. Lenders, J. (2005).New campaign to stop workplace bullying.Retrieved February 20, 2010 from, http://www.ferret.com.au/c/WorkSafe-Victoria/New-campaign-to-stop workplacebullying-n698098. MacLane, C. N.; Walmsley, P. T. (2010).Reducing counterproductive work behaviour through employee selection.Human Resource Management Review 20 (1): 6272. Marcus, B.; Schuler, H. (2004). Antecedents of counterproductive behavior at work: A general perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology 89 (4): 647660. Nathanson, C.; Paulhus, D. L.; Williams, K. M. (2005).Personality and misconduct correlates of body modification and other cultural deviance markers. Ng, T. W.; Feldman, D. C. (2008).The relationship of age to ten dimensions of job performance.Journal of Applied Psychology 93 (2); 392-423. Oppler, E. S.; Lyons, B. D.; Ricks, D. A.; Oppler, S. H. (2008).The relationship between financial history and counterproductive work behavior.International Journal of Selection and Assessment 16 (4): 416420. Penny, L. M.; Spector, P. E. (2001).Emotions and counterproductive work behavior. Rawes, E. (2009). Reduce employee theft. Retrieved February 20, 2010 from, http://www.ehow.com/how_2084213_reduce-employee-theft.html. Roberts, B. W.; Harms, P. D.; Caspi, A.; Moffitt, T. E. (2007).Predicting the counterproductive employee in a child-to-adult prospective study.Journal of Applied Psychology 92 (5): 14271436.
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Salgado, J. F. (2002). The Big Five personality dimensions and counterproductive behaviors.International Journal of Selection and Assessment 10: 117125. Spector, P. E.; Fox, S. (2005). Emotions, violence, and counterproductive work behavior. Spector, P. E.; Fox, S.; Penney, L. M.; Bruursema, K.; Goh, A.; Kessler, S. (2006). The dimensionality of counterproductivity: Are all counterproductive behaviors created equal?.Journal of Vocational Behavior: 446-460. Williams, A. (2010). The growing call center industry in the Philippines. Retrieved February 20, 2010 from, http://www.piton-global.com/resource18.html.

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Online Social Networking and Interpersonal Relationship Among College students


Catherine Ann Santos Margaret Sanapo
This study explores whether engaging in Social Networking Sites (SNS) and the interpersonal relationship between friends are correlated. The researcher administered the survey to n=105 undergraduate students. The respondents were selected using random sampling. There are two parts of questionnaire. The questionnaire includes personal use of SNS which includes SNS they own, hours spent a day and their purpose. The data was obtained using statistical tool such as weighted mean and Pearson Correlation r. The result revealed an r=.46 which states that there is a positive relationship between engaging in SNS and Interpersonal Relationship. This neither means to say that engaging in social networking influence interpersonal relationship. It does not hamper nor delays when an individual puts more priority in spending time online but rather improves.

Social Networking gained so much popularity over the past years. It is a huge progress in the communication system that we have experienced as it develops its structure. Social Networking is simply defined as bringing individuals together into a specific group of people depending on their interests through Internet. It is an easy access, making it possible for easy connection to every user. Although, there are risk in publicity of their online profile which includes personal information, that didnt stop the million users to stay connected and it is continually gaining and attracting more individuals to join social networking. According to Andreassen (2012), the use of facebook has increased rapidly and we are already dealing with a subdivision of Internet addiction connected to social media. It is safe to say that a lot of Facebook users spend way too much time on checking, updating, uploading and may at the very least describe themselves as obsessed, if not addicted. Psychological and medical organizations have established classifications of addictions based on certain human habits and obsessions. We may be introduced to a new form of entertainment and/or easier way of communication but there are still possible for unhealthy use, overuse and abuse, perhaps spending too much time everyday updating status, uploading photos, comments and likes, playing facebook games, and reading friends update status. Active facebook users might neglect other important responsibilities, commitments, or people in exchange of facebook. Maybe their real-world relationships, careers, or schoolwork suffer due to too much time on Facebook. According to Conrad (2010), facebook is not considered as an addiction. It is not classified as a disorder by any psychological or medical organizations. It requires years, if not decade to diagnose classification systems of new disorders. Most people can use facebook without becoming addicted, but there are also a few users who have difficulty keeping their facebook habits in control like individuals who puts more importance in gaining facebook friends rather than maintaining and developing their real world friendship. Addicted facebook users work performance may suffer as a result of facebook preoccupation and the like.

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Early last year, it was reported that Philippines has the highest percentage of users who are signed up to facebook with a 93.9% to be exact. And also, Philippines has been declared as The Social Networking Capital of the world ( Rusell, 2011). The research intends to investigate the relationship between Social Networking Sites (SNS) engagement and interpersonal relationship among college. It is possible for heavy users of social networking to narrow their lives and it actually somehow isolates the users from the normal environment which can affect ones interpersonal relationship. Review of Related Literature This review included a summary of related literature and studies that provides direction and background materials for this research. Social Networking Social networking has reached a million users all over the globe; few published studies have addressed the topic. Those studies that have been published are mainly on privacy issues, social environment and social networking that may result into antisocial behavior. At our present generation, we are exposed to a very innovative and better world full of technology and gadgets, which can easily be influenced the teenagers. Most of the teenagers spend their time in the internet mostly in the social networking sites like facebook, using such has a possibility to contribute to a new progress which would either benefit the teenagers or not. Social networking is an online place wherein you create your own personal network that is connected with other users (Lenhart & Madden, 2007). Facebook includes personal information that can be shared and model their social networking through the internet. Besides its easy access, making it possible for easy connection, keeping in touch and sharing common interest with others, there are also risks in publicly sharing information (Govani & Pashley, 2005). But that didnt stop internet users to engage in social networking sites. Revealing personal and sensitive information online, creating digital profile reflects their behavior and can affect their future image (Gross & Acquisti, 2005). Status updates on Different kinds of social Networking sites became the newest form of communication, and because of that, it is easier for the teenagers to be influenced through this kind of medium (Darren Waters.2009). Users must be aware of the dangers that might cause themselves and must limit their personal information being exposed for they attract predators (Rosen, 2011). Privacy and plagiarism are two of the common problems that arise when joining social networking (Duran, 2011). Profound issues regarding SNS use have also concerned few researchers, instances such as addiction. Researchers have found out that the excessive use of new technologies and most especially Social Networking Sites may be for the most part addictive to young people. In line with the framework for the etiology of addictions, it is claimed that those people addicted to using SNSs experience indications similar to those experienced by those who suffer from addictions to substances or other behaviors (Echeburua, 2010). In addition to this, scholars have hypothesized that young vulnerable people with narcissistic tendencies are particularly prone to engaging with SNSs in an addictive way (La Barbera, La Paglia & Valsavoia, 2009).

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In Kuss & Griffiths (2011) qualitative case study, it appears that from a clinical perspective, SNS addiction is a mental health problem that may require professional treatment. Unlike the quantitative studies, the case study emphasizes the significant individual destruction that is experienced by individuals coveringdifferent aspects of life, including their professional life as well as their mental condition. Social Networking affecting Interpersonal relationship Early studies have shown the negative effects of using social networking in our behaviour. According to Nie & Erbing (2002), the more time people spend on the Internet, the less time internet users spend with friends and family. It decreases the social activities and loses contact to the social environment. High users of social networking sites are less socially involved within their community. And to create a connection because of lack of connection to the community, they use social networking as a tool (Nyland, Marvez, & Beck, 2007). Social medias effect on users are development of anti-social behavior, presence of psychological disorders like narcissism and other character flaws and negative (Rosen, 2011). In contrast, Howard, Rainie, & Jones (2001) concluded that the Internet allows the user to stay in touch with their existing relationship. Peers use social networking most often to stay in touch with their friends because there is a continuous conversation point. And also, it widens Internet users social contract than detract. Pew (2001) revealed that 48% of the teens who are active user of SNS believe that it improves their interpersonal relationship between friends. Persons with high interpersonal relationships live longer and have less cognitive decline with aging, greater resistance to infectious disease, and better prognoses when facing chronic lifethreatening illnesses (Cohen & Janicki-Deverts, 2009). Social networking may increase individuals social capital accumulated resources through the relationships with people (Owens, 2009). Teen users revealed that social networking help them manage their friendship (Lenhart & Madden, 2007). Same with the study conducted by Raacke & Bonds-Raacke (2008) that majority of the college students use social networking to make new friends and locate old friends.Social networking is a bridge that connects people which includes communication that cultivates relationship closeness (Regan & Seeves, 2010). Kraut, et al (2001) found out that, more use of Internet was correlated with positive outcomes. Participants who uses internet increased in trust in people, face to face interaction with family and friends and community activity involvement but this is mostly among the extroverts. Using Internet become visible to complement rather than putting out the value from maintaining and forming relationships (Owens, 2009). Social networking provides individuals to maintain and strengthen social ties, which is beneficial (Cain, 2008). And also, professionals use social networking to build stronger bonds with their weak ties and to reach out with co-workers, build a personal level with coworkers and campaigning projects as their motivation in using social networking at work (DiMicco, Millen, Geyer, Dugan, Brownholtz, & Muller, 2008). According to Zinoviev & Duong, (2009), online friendship is an umbrella name for real friendship and various degrees of acquaintanceship and that on average only 25% of contacts are recognized as real friends.In Chan & Cheng, (2004) research, and results revealed that ofine friendships involved more interdependence, breadth, depth, code change, understanding, commitment, and network convergence than online friendships. However, the qualities of both
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online and offline friendships improved as the duration of the relationship increased, the differences between the two types of friendships diminished over time. Furthermore, contrary to the evidence typically found for offline friendships, the qualities of cross-sex online friendships were higher than that of same-sex online friendship. Synthesis The effects of having big amount of time allotted for online social networking are controversial and contradictory. One of the salient points in the related studies gathered is the high fragility of social networking use. Nie & Erbing (2002) suggests that over use of social networking decreases the social activities and loses contact to the social environment in which also, the more time people spend on the internet, the less time internet users spend with friends and family. However, Howard, Rainie, & Jones (2001) points out that the internet allows the user to stay in touch with their existing relationship. And also, it widens Internet users social contract than detract. Compilation of studies clearly contradicts the effect of engaging in social networking sites among teenagers. Contradictory perspectives regarding the usage of such sites helped the researcher to come up with a study that will only focus on one factor that can be affected which is the interpersonal relationship of adolescents with friends. Method Research design Quantitative design through survey method was used in this study. The researcher has chosen this because it is appropriate in gathering data and measuring the frequency and relationship of engaging in social networking and interpersonal relationship among teenagers. Descriptive research design was used in this study to interpret and describe the collection of information that was tabulated in numerical form, such as the scores on the test and the respondents personal use of the Internet. Participants Convenience sampling technique was used in this research. Participants for the current study were undergraduates from different courses and the age ranges from 16 to 19. Each participant was recruited from the campus, from library, and cafeteria. There were 105 respondents who are engaged into social networking sites and admitted to be active users. The researcher chose teenagers because at their age, they are vulnerable and can be easily influenced. And also, they are the very first to use SNS a long time ago and have been constantly the user for several years until today. Respondents are from a collegewith a anactive population in using SNS.The results revealed that the very least to use SNS is 2 hours up to more than 3 hours and this reflects the teenagers who are engaged in social networking sites.

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Instrument The researcher used questionnaire and survey forms as research instrument. There are two parts of questionnaire to be used in this research. Part one of the instrument consist of personal information regarding social networking use which includes the SNS owned, the hours spent a day and the purpose of using SNS. Second part is a scale that measures the relationship they have with their friends and it is a 24-item test. The 24 item questionnaire measures feelings about a friend/friendship in adolescence. It is based on meaning of friendship: companionship, help, reliable, and emotional security. Statements of friendship functions are responded to a 4point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The perfect score for each item of the questionnaire is 4.0 and the lowest possible score per item is 1.0. Getting a score closer to 4.0 signifies that the individual has high interpersonal relationship with friends and a low score indicates the opposite - low interpersonal relationship with friends. In other words, if a person is sociable, he/she is likely to get a high score in each item of the scale (4.0 or closer) and the opposite would get a low score (1.0-2.0). Range 1.00-1.44 1.45-2.44 2.45-3.44 3.45-4.00 Numerical Interpretation 1 2 3 4 Verbal Interpretation Strong Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree

The scale has been administered and found to be valid and reliable with a range of people including random teenagers, college students, and high school students, the test-retest reliability was discussed with a statistician. To measure the reliability of the proposed questionnaire Cronbach Alpha was used. Reliability is evidently good, with the reliability for the full scale of 0.92. The test-Retest was conducted to a total of 69 participants. Procedure Knowing that almost all undergraduates of SBCA own a single social networking profile, the researcher then picked certain respondents who uses SNS 2 hours or more, but there were students who only uses SNS for a few minutes to an hour and it has not been accepted to be tabulated or part of the result for this research is for active users only. The respondents are asked to fill up the two parts questionnaires. Some answered it through e-mail to fill in the questionnaire, they have to complete part one of the questionnaire regarding personal use of social networking and the part two of the questionnaire which measures the interpersonal relationship they have with their friends, which consist of 24 items. There were some questionnaires that have not been completed by the respondents, another set of questionnaires were given to another set of respondents until it reached the target number of respondents. Statistical tool To answer the problem in the study, several formulas were used. The frequency count and percentage formula was used to show the degree of Interpersonal relationship with the
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existing friends of the respondents. The mean is used to get the score of the 2nd questionnaire and; the Pearson Moment Correlation r was used to measure the relationship between heavy use of social networking and the interpersonal relationship of friendship whether it obstructs or develops. SPSS was used to tabulate and compute for the result. Results
Profile of respondents

The respondents age distribution is almost equally distributed. .Most of them are of the aged 17 years old, which accounts to 30.48% of the total respondents and the least number are under the age of 18 which comprises to 20%, under 16 years old are 28.57% and 19 years old respondents are 20.95%.Most of the respondents are from first year students from different courses.
Age 16 17 18 19 Total Frequency 30 32 21 22 105 Percentage 28.57 30.48 20 20.95 100

Social Networking Accounts Owned In terms of the SNS use, the table below shows that 100% of the respondents do have a Facebook account. Furthermore, only 7 of the 105 respondents do not have a twitter account, andalmost 60% of the total respondents also have a tumbler account. Moreover, 26 of 74 respondents (24.76%) own a personal YouTube account. None of the heavy users have any account in tagged and Hi5. Social Networking Accounts Frequency Facebook Tumblr Twitter 105 62 92
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Percentage 100.00 59.05 87.62

Rank 1 3 2

Youtube Tagged Hi5

26 0 0

24.76 .00 .00

Frequency of Using Social Networking sites The table below shows that most of the respondents who are engaged in SNS spend 3 hours a day with a percentage of 42.9%, while 41.9% of the respondents spend time online for 2 hours and few respondents revealed that they uses SNS for more than 3 hours a day with 15.2%. Hours Spent a day Respondent Frequency Less than an Hour 1 Hour 2 Hours 3 hours More than 3 Hours Total 0 0 44 45 16 105 Percentage 0 0 41.9 42.9 15.2 100.0

Purpose of Using Social Networking Most of the active users use social networking for chatting purposes, accounting to almost 96% of their total. Almost with the same percentage (93%), nearly all of them use social networking for updating purposes. Furthermore, a good number of the active users use social networking for checking their mails (59.05%) , while only 28 of 74 of them use it for blogging purposes.

Purpose of Social Networking Frequency Update/Status 98 Percentage 93.33 Rank 2.0

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Chat School/busi purposes Blog Check Email Others

100 43 28 62

95.24 40.95 26..67 59.05

1.0 4.0 5.0 3.0

48

45.71

Test of Difference between Male and Female Majority of the excessive users are female, which comprises 60% of the total respondents. Out of 105 respondents, 63 respondents are females and 42 respondents are male. Result revealed that p-value (p=.912) exceeded the level of significance of 0.05, the decision is failed to reject the null, we have evidence to say that the mean interpersonal relationship of male and female is just the same. The result shows that there is no significant difference between the interpersonal relationship of male and a female regarding SNS use. Gender has no bearing in the interpersonal relationship with friends among teenagers. Result of the overall scale of respondents The computed general weighted mean of 2.76 (high) indicates that active users of social networking accounts to a verbal interpretation of Agree. With regards to the interpersonal relationship, the computed general weighted mean of 2.756 indicates that engaging in social networking accounts to have a high interpersonal relationship. It is not affected by how many hours spent online. Test of Relationship The objective of this study is to identify whether engaging in SNS and interpersonal relationship are correlated. Using a statistical tool Pearson correlation r, the researcher linked the interpersonal relationship questionnaire with the average number of hours spent a day in social networking sites in order to attest that the two variables are connected. Result showed that the two variables have a positive relationship at r=.46 (Refer to Appendices). Hence, actively engaging in SNS is sociable. Discussion It is alarming to know that the alongside consequence we can get by engaging in Social Networking Sites (SNS) is affecting the relationship we have by spending way too much time online, making us less social, lacks face to face interaction which can strain our interpersonal relationship. But the result of this study showed a positive influence rather than negative and it revealed that SNS is correlated to interpersonal relationship between friends, which is an
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evidence to the related literatures of past studies such as what Regan and Seeves (2010) stated, that SNS nurtures relationship closeness. The result of this research all boils down to a favorable outcome. The result indicates that there is a positive relationship between engaging in SNS and interpersonal relationship. The study implies that adolescents who are engaged in SNS do not obstruct a user from their existing friendship. Although such sites have become activity that young adults have been attached to, they still desire to be socially accepted in their social group, and that is actually a norm for the kind of age they have and that is why teenagers engage in SNS. Like what Greenfield and Subrahmanyan (2008) explained, peers use SNS most often to stay in touch with offline peers. Regan and Seeves (2010) also emphasizes on their research that SNS could empower young adults. They explained that teenagers have been the very first to use SNS because their age group is typical or is in their nature to focus on peer interaction and social relations. This means to say, that online SNS are bridge and bond people, linking the users which includes communication that cultivates relationship closeness. Some researchers reported that 48% of teens who are avid SNS user believe that it improved their relationship (Pew, et al., 2001) which supports the result of this study. The researcher reckons that despite the early concerns regarding SNS usage, it actually may have more positive influence than negative. The researcher thinks that this is because SNS seems to follow the outline of the norms of socialization with regards to interpersonal relationship. Teens may have different reasons on impulsive use of SNS, they are still after to reinforce established friendship, something they do offline as well and it is a continuous link of bonding and communication, after all, any forms of interaction is still important and also healthy way of communication which a lot of teenagers might prefer. Social networking sites instill its platform to communicate and interact which is mainly their intention for the users, it targeted its principle to connect and it became a mainstream of communication for teenagers because of its convenience. The researcher thinks that the use of online social networking results in to a favorable effect to the interpersonal relationship because they maintain the already formed friendship into a different medium. Online social networking actually gives the adolescents a new outlet to strengthen the relationship they have with their existing friends. Conclusion Social networking is part of most peoples daily life especially Filipino teenagers. It is associated to many factors that might be affected in a negative way. But, this particular study focused mainly on the existing relationship primarily friendship among teenagers. The study shows that engaging in such sites can increase can improve the existing relationship which opposed to some studies that users may affect the relationship they have. It highlighted a positive interpretation of the influence of social media sites with their relationships. On the other hand, when social networking sites was exposed to children, it may not have the same result as to the teenagers who participated in the study, they may have a difficulty or inability to communicate well or have real conversation that will arise in their teenage years which will affect the kind of relationship they have with their existing friends, which means to say that the effect of SNS to different age group may vary.. And also, it does not guarantee that engaging in such sites may lead into favorable result in whatever aspect we can link it with. There are pros and cons, as well
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as risks associated with social media sites, yet despite of the entire disadvantage and negative concerns that were voiced out, the positive outcome regarding the relationship of SNS among active users and interpersonal relationship outweigh the disadvantages. Recommendation Several limitations should be acknowledged to the inadequacy of this research. First, an important limitation to note is that the participant used in the study were drawn from a single university/college, which means it does not reflect the diversity of a community sample and it was only conducted to a small group of participants. The researcher would like to recommend considering different age ranges, result may vary if participants were drawn to be grouped according to its age. Regarding the scale used, it should also be improved and provide subtopics to point out what aspect of interpersonal relationship is the most affected. The scope and limitation of the future study regarding SNS should be broaden and the researcher also recommend to the young adults who are engaged in SNS must properly use it, not just for entertainment but for communication with the people they know for a healthy relationship, have an open mind and do not believe or follow the stereotype label of SNS as being the effect of low grades or non-sense of its kind, do not let SNS affect our personal life. Reference Cain, J. (2008). Online Social Networking Issues Within Academia and Pharmacy Education. American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy , 1-10. Chan, D., & Cheng, G. (2004).A comparison of offline and online friendship qualities at different stages of relationship development.Journal of Social and Personal relationship , 305-320. DiMicco, J., Millen, D., Geyer, W., Dugan, C., Brownholtz, B., & Muller, M. (2008).Motivations for social networking at work.CSCW'08: Computer SupportedCooperative Work , 711-720. Echeburua E, de Corral P. (2010) Addiction to new technologies and to online social networkingin young people: A new challenge. Adicciones. ;22:9195. Govani, T., & Pashley, h. (2005).Student Awareness of the Privacy Implications When using Facebook. Unpublished manuscript retrieved . Gross, R., & Acquisti, A. (2005). Information Revelation and Privacy in Online SocialNetworks (The Facebook Case).Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society . Howard, P., Rainie, L., & Jones, S. (2001). Days and Nights on the Internet.AmericanBehavioral Scientist , 382-404. Kraut, R., Kiesler, S., Boneva, B., Cummings, J., Helgeson, V., & Crawford, A. (2001). Intenet Paradox Revisited. Journal of Social Issues . La Barbera D, La Paglia F, Valsavoia R. Social network and addiction. Cyberpsychol Behav.2009;12:628629.
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Pempeka, T. A., Yermolayevaa, Y. A., & Calver, S. L. (2009). College students' social networking experiences on Facebook. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology , 227-238. Raacke, J., & Bonds-Raacke, J. ( 2008). MySpace and Facebook: Applying the Uses and Gratifications Theory to Exploring Friend-Networking Sites. CyberPsychology &Behavior , 169-174. Raacke, J., & Bonds-Raacke, J. (2008). MySpace and Facebook: Applying the Uses and Gratifications Theory to Exploring Friend-Networking Sites. CyberPsychology &Behavior , 169-174. Valkenburg, P. M., Peter, J., & Schouten, A. P. (2006).Friend Networking Sites and Their Relationship to Adolescents' Well-Being and Social Self-Esteem.CyberPsychology &Behavior , 584-590.

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Self-Reflection and Procrastination Among Thesis Writers


Jaimee Michelle Santos Gladys Lazo
This study explores whether the procrastination awareness log is an effective tool for minimizing the procrastination habit among college thesis writers. A total of 20 college thesis writers participated in the study, where the participants were divided into two groups. A pre-test and post-test on a procrastination test was provided to the participants of both groups to show the difference between using a procrastination awareness log and verbal instruction in minimizing procrastination. Through a two-tailed paired-samples t-test, the researcher compared the results of the pre-test and post-test of both groups. Results revealed that for the experimental group, a significant difference can be seen where t(9)=2.64, p<.05, while the results for the control group showed no significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores t(9)=.583, p>.05. These results imply that the use of a procrastination log is effective as compared to the use of verbal instruction as a means of minimizing procrastination. Pearsons r correlation was also used to determine a relationship between the level of self-reflection and the level of procrastination. The computed r value was -.437, showing a significant relationship with a fair or moderate correlation between the two.

Procrastination is a trait that results from putting off work for completion at a later time. It is viewed as a negative trait that is common among college students (Shraw, Wadkins & Olafson, 2007) It is inevitable, and at one point in a students life, procrastination is experienced. Procrastination poses negative effects on individuals, especially students. However, despite this fact, students still resort to this habit. For some, procrastination has become part of their lifestyle. There is a need to minimize procrastination from an individuals habits for the effects that are caused by it are real problems that should not be taken lightly. According to Knaus (2010), an estimated 90% of college students procrastinate. There are several types of work in which one tends to procrastinate on. As observed by the researcher, the most common procrastinated work is paper writing. One of the major requirements for college students is their thesis. The completion of thesis takes a lot of work, time, and effort, and requires dedication from the writer. With that being said, it is expected of a student to deliver their best, and not waste time through the course of their research. The researcher observed that despite the weight of the thesis as a requirement, students still tend to procrastinate for its completion. The problem with procrastination is that it does not recognize the needs of an individual. It does not recognize the importance of prioritizing work. In this case, procrastination in thesis writing is given focus. Is there really an effective way to overcome procrastination? The researcher aims to minimize procrastination among thesis writers through a proposed possible intervention. There are possible solutions for minimizing procrastination. According to Knaus (2010), there are five phases of change that can help a person overcome the procrastination habit. He gave focus on the first phase of change which was awareness. Keeping a procrastination log is a way for boosting ones awareness (Knaus, 2010). This will be useful because it will provide a
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record of the trend of the procrastination habits of the individual, giving a clear focus on the causes and effects of procrastination in their life.

Self-reflection is important for personal growth and transformation. It helps provide a clear understanding of ones thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and insight (Grant, Franklin, & Langford, 2002) In this research, self-reflection serves as a guide for molding behavior, in form of the procrastination awareness log. The researcher conducted the study on college students who are taking up their thesis for the semester. The researcher wants to find out if the procrastination awareness log is effective for minimizing procrastination among thesis writers. The researcher also aims to identify the common causes for procrastination among the thesis writers. Lastly, the researcher wants to see if there is a relationship between self-reflection and the level of procrastination of students. The purpose of the study is to help students minimize procrastination. Review of Related Literature Procrastination Procrastination may be definedas ones intentional deferring or delaying of work that must be completed (Shraw, Wadkins & Olafson, 2007). Procrastination is viewed by most people as a negative personality trait. Procrastinators are thought to be indifferent to the quality of their work and possibly of lower cognitive ability than those who do not procrastinate. Types of Procrastination Arousal Procrastination Two reliable and valid forms of chronic behavioural procrastination have been identified at present (Ferrari et al., 1995) One type seems to be related to a tendency to delay tasks as a thrill-seeking experience, as a way to ward off boredom, and as a belief that one works best under pressure. Avoidant Procrastination The other type of frequent, chronic procrastination seems to be a reflection of low selfesteem and self-confidence such that a person delays completing tasks that might reveal potential poor abilities (Ferrari et al., 1995) Causes of Procrastination In an article written by Pavlina (2005), eight causes of procrastination were given focus.

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The first among the eight was stress. Working productively is difficult when one is feeling worried, stressed, or anxious. According to Pavlina (2005), in certain situations, procrastination works as a coping mechanism that helps in keeping stress levels of an individual under control. Overwhelm was also determined as a cause for procrastination. Having so many tasks to accomplish overwhelms an individual to some extent. Ironically, when one experiences overwhelm, it is more likely for them to procrastinate (Pavlina, 2005) In cases such as this, the brain seems to refuse to cooperate with a schedule that appears to be unreasonable. The third cause as determined by Pavlina (2005), was laziness. According to Pavlina (2005), when a person is too physically or emotionally drained to work, it often results to procrastination. When one feels lazy, even simple tasks appear to be too much work because their energy is too low compared to the energy that is required by the task. Lack of motivation was another determined cause. As explained by Pavlina (2005), suffering from chronically low motivation greatly affects ones performance. Lack of discipline was the next determined cause of procrastination. With a person with weak self-discipline, procrastinating becomes too tempting to resist. Even when motivation is high, people still tend to encounter tasks that they dont want to do. In these situations, selfdiscipline works like a motivational backup system (Pavlina, 2005) With enough self-discipline, one could achieve getting things done even when its a task that they dont necessarily enjoy. The sixth cause as determined by Pavlina (2005), was poor time management. Poor time management that is often caused by being disorganized contributes to procrastination. Procrastination is often unintentionally done when it is lead by bad habits such as poor time management and disorganization (Pavlina, 2005) Lack of skill was also determined as a cause for procrastination. Lack of sufficient skill to complete a task at a reasonable level of quality may result to procrastination. Individuals who lack the essential skills result to procrastination as a way to avoid a failure experience (Pavlina, 2005) The last determined cause for procrastination was perfectionism. According to Pavlina (2005), a common form of erroneous thinking that leads to procrastination is perfectionism. According to him, the belief that something must be done with perfection causes stress. Perfectionists associate stress with the task, conditioning themselves to avoid it. Putting the task off until the last possible minute becomes their escape, and they use having little time to perform a task as an excuse for the mediocrity of their work. Procrastination becomes their defence against certain conditions such as fear of failure, failure anxiety, and fear of blame (Knaus, 2010)

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Effects of Procrastination As revealed by previous studies, the results of procrastination include lost time, poorer health, decreased long-term learning, and lower self-esteem (Thakkar, 2009). A number of studies also have indicated that procrastination may be linked to anxiety and fear of failure (Ferrari & Tice, 2000). These studies suggest that procrastination is an impediment to academic success. Procrastination contributes to the decrease in the quality and quantity of learning, while increasing the severity of stress and other negative outcomes in students lives (Ferrari et al., 1995; Milgram, Gehrman, & Keinan, 1992). However, despite these consequences, previous studies have reported that many college students result to procrastination (Conti, 2000; Saddler & Buley, 1999). Higher ability students procrastinated more than lower ability students, and procrastination tends to increase as students advance in their academic careers and became more self-regulated (Ferrari, 1991). These findings suggest that procrastination is common among college students. They also suggest that procrastination among successful college students may have little impact on performance or perhaps may be adaptive because it allows individuals to achieve a sustained level of flow and better use of their study time (Brinthaupt & Shin, 2001; Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Sommer, 1990; Tullier, 2000) Procrastination Awareness According to Knaus (2010), awareness is the very first step in identifying procrastination traps in order to make positive changes that can overcome the procrastination habit. There are five phases of change as presented by Knaus (2010) First is awareness, followed by action, accommodation, acceptance, and lastly, actualization. Giving focus on awareness, he says that keeping a procrastination log can help boost ones awareness. A procrastination log is an awareness tool that is used for tracking what a person does when they procrastinate. Logging what you think, how you feel, and what you do as you procrastinate promotes meta-cognitive awareness (Knaus, 2010). Meta-cognitive awareness is ones ability to think about their own thinking and their ability to make connections between their thoughts, emotions, behaviours and results. In this case, with the help of listing down what goes on when one procrastinates, one is provided with a chance to change their ways because they are able to monitor their behavior. Self-Reflection Boud, Keough, and Walker (1985) defined reflection as an important human activity in which people recapture their experience, think about it, mull over, and evaluate it. It was also identified as an important factor in learning (Crawley, 2010) According to Chalker (2010), selfreflection can lead to profound personal growth and transformation. It was also mentioned as the core ingredient in personal transformation.

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Several studies linked self-reflection with self-regulation, performance, and education. The role of reflection in education has been a topic of research since Deweys (1910) groundbreaking work, which differentiated routine action from reflective action (Williams, 2006) Routine action, according to Dewey, is guided by factors such as tradition, habit and authority and institutional definitions and expectations. Reflective action, on the other hand, involves a willingness to engage in constant self appraisal and development (Pollard, 2005) Self-reflection was also defined as the inspection and evaluation of ones thoughts, feelings, behavior and insight, and the clarity of understanding of ones thoughts, feelings, and behavior. According to Carver and Scheier (1998), these properties of self-reflection are metacognitive factors that are important to process of purposeful, directed change. Grant, Franklin, & Langford (2002) said that purposeful progress through the cycle of self-regulation towards a specific goal rests on an individuals ability to monitor and evaluate his/her progress and use such feedback to improve their performance. Synthesis The information that the researcher has gathered from several articles and previous studies has provided a clear view on the specifics of procrastination. It has helped the researcher with the identification of the problem, its causes, and the possible solutions to it. The definition of procrastination was given. It was defined as ones intentional deferring or delaying of work that must be completed (Shraw, Wadkins & Olafson, 2007) Some findings suggest that procrastination is an impediment to academic success, decreasing the quality and quantity of learning in students (Ferrari et al., 1995; Milgram, Gehrman, & Keinan, 1992) Overall, the effects that were presented by the previous studies were negative. Types of procrastination were identified as arousal procrastination and avoidant procrastination, and eight causes for procrastination were given focus. The following included stress, overwhelm, laziness, lack of motivation, lack of discipline, poor time management habits, lack of skill and perfectionism. Awareness was given focus as an important step in minimizing procrastination, and one way for boosting awareness was detailed. Knaus (2010) said that by keeping a procrastination log, meta-cognitive awareness is promoted. Meta-cognitive awareness is defined as ones ability to think about their own thinking and their ability to make connections between their thoughts, emotions, behaviours and results. With the help of the procrastination awareness log, one is able to monitor their behavior, and in the process, find ways to improve it. Selfreflection was also defined. According to Carver and Scheier (1998), it is the inspection and evaluation of ones thoughts, feelings, behavior and insight, and the clarity of understanding of ones thoughts, feelings, and behavior. It was identified as a factor that can lead to profound personal growth and transformation (Chalker, 2010)

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Method Research Design The researcher used the quasi-experimental research design for this study. The quasiexperimental research design involves group selection that does not make use of random preselection processes, as the participants will be chosen from a target group which consists of thesis writers. The research design will help determine the effectiveness of the presented method. Participants The total number of respondents for this study is 20. Participants are college psychology majors who are already working on their thesis, and are self-confessed procrastinators. The participants for this study were given a procrastination test that was used to determine if the procrastination habit is evident in them, as well as the level by which they procrastinate. The result of the procrastination test as their pre-test showed that the participants are extreme procrastinators, based on the provided rating guide. The result of the pre-test verified that the participants are qualified for this study. Instruments The instruments that were used for this study include a procrastination test (Crawley, 2010) for the process of selection of participants. The procrastination test is composed of 20 true or false statements, where some statements reflect the habits of procrastinators. Sample items include the following: (1) I often find myself performing tasks that I had intended to do days before; (2) I generally delay before starting on work I have to do; (3) In preparing for some deadline, I often waste time by doing other things. The items were scored according to the given answers, where certain items answered true merited one point each and other items answered false also merited 1 point each. The added points have a corresponding rating that determined the participating individuals level of procrastination. For the group of participants who will be receiving treatment, a procrastination awareness logbook was provided. The logbook was used to monitor the progresses and interferences concerning their thesis writing. It was also used to help in keeping the respondents aware of their procrastinating habits as well as its effects. The researcher also used a self-reflection and insight scale (Grant, Franklin, & Langford, 2002) to measure self-reflection among the participants. The self-reflection and insight scale had a total of 20 items using a 6-point likert type scale (1-strongly disagree, 6-strongly agree). Sample items for the self-reflection and insight scale include the following: (1) I frequently examine my feelings; (2) I have a definite need to understand the way my mind works; (3) I usually have a very clear idea about why I've behaved in a certain way. These were divided into three subscales: Engagement in Self-Reflection, Need for Self-Reflection, and Insight.
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The program began at the start of the semester, until the week before the final submission of the thesis requirements of the participants. The program ran for a total of 10 weeks. Procedure First, the researcher went through a selection process for the participants of the study. Thesis writers who have the tendency to procrastinate were the target group of the study. A procrastination test that measures the severity of the procrastination habit of an individual was used. Individuals who were classified as extreme procrastinators were selected. Second, the selected participants were interviewed where participants were informed about the goals of the program. The interview was also used to see which of the participants were willing to participate in the program. The 20 participants were then divided into two groups, where one received the proposed intervention which made use of a procrastination awareness logbook, and the other were only informed of ways to minimize procrastination through verbal instruction. The treatment group was carefully monitored and any progress and interference concerning their thesis writing were recorded through a logbook. The logbook also contained a deadline that was self-imposed by the participants. It was used as the guide for determining the improvement of the participants habits. The participants of the two groups were checked for progress weekly to check whether the treatment was effective or not.

Lastly, the researcher confirmed the overall effectiveness of the treatment by looking into the productivity of the participant through their thesis requirement completion and submissions, based on the logbook. It was assumed by the researcher that the participants of the experiment will have improved their habits when it comes to procrastination by the end of the program, in a span of 10 weeks. Both the control group and the experimental group were given a post-test on the procrastination test, and the level of procrastination as determined by the pre-test was compared with the results of the post-test. Results of the tests of both groups were compared to confirm whether the treatment was successful or not. Statistical Design A paired-samples t-test was used for the assessment of this study. The t-test was used for the comparison of the means of the two groups of respondents, where one group received the treatment to help minimize procrastination.

The data that was measured was the procrastination test which determined the level of procrastination of each participant. Participants of both the experimental and control groups were
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given a pre-test and post-test for the comparison of the results. A paired-samples t-test was also used to compare the results of the self-reflection and insight scale of the experimental and control groups. The researcher used Pearsons r correlation to find out if there is a relationship between the level of procrastination of students and their level of self-reflection. The data that was used for this was the post-test results of the procrastination test, and the results of the self-reflection scale of both groups. Results and Discussion In the interview and briefing of the participants, the researcher found out that the type of procrastination that is present among the participants is arousal procrastination. Most of the participants of the study stated that they procrastinate because they feel that they work better under pressure. Arousal procrastination is related to an individuals tendency to delay task as a thrill-seeking experience, as a way to ward off boredom, and as a belief that one works best under pressure (Ferrari et al., 1995) This type of procrastination is the focus of this research. Level of Procrastination The procrastination test that was used for the pre-test and post-test of the experimental and control groups had a fixed rating. Based on the procrastination test by Crawley (2010), the rating is as follows: below 7 not a procrastinator, 7-8 average procrastinator, 9-12 above average procrastinator, 13 and above, extreme procrastinator.

Figure 1. Comparison of pre-test means and post-test means of the experimental and control groups

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The researcher used a paired-samples t-test through SPSS for the separate analysis of the data and comparison of means for the two groups. Figure 1 shows the comparison of the means of the pre-test and post-test of the experimental and control groups. The mean for the pre-test of the experimental group was 15.10, indicating that their level of procrastination is high. For the control group, the mean for the pre-test was 14.80, which also indicated a high level of procrastination. The result of the post-test of the experimental group produced a mean of 13, while the control group had a mean of 14.44. A slight change in the mean of the experimental and control groups can be seen, but based on the provided rating scale in the procrastination test, the results still show a high level of procrastination for both groups. A paired-samples t-test was used to compare the means of both groups in the pre-test (t(9)=.557, p>.05), and post-test (t(9)=-3.77, p<.05). Based on these results, there was no significant difference between the pre-test means of the experimental and control groups. However, for the post-test, a significant difference can be seen between the means of the two groups. The results imply that the use of a procrastination awareness log is effective in minimizing procrastination, compared to the use of verbal instruction. The graph shows a noticeable difference between the post-test means of the experimental and control groups. The researcher assumes that the procrastination awareness log helped the participants in minimizing their procrastination habit. The procrastination awareness log was the tool used to help the participants become aware of their habits. Through this awareness, the participants were able to work towards a positive change, helping them improve their habits and minimize procrastination.

Figure 2. Comparison of pre-test and post-test means of the experimental and control groups

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Figure 2 shows the compared pre-test and post-test results of each group. There was a significant difference between the scores of the pre-test (M=15.10, SD=.738) and post-test (M=13, SD=2.211) for the experimental group; (t(9)=2.64, p<.05). These results suggest that the procrastination awareness log did help in minimizing procrastination among the participants of the experiment. For the control group, no significant difference was seen between their scores for the pretest (M=14.80, SD=.632) AND post-test (M=14.40, SD=2.459); (t(9)=.583, p>.05). The graph presents the difference in the mean of the pre-test and post-test for the control group, showing that the results had a very little difference. Based on the results, the use of verbal instruction on ways to minimize procrastination was not effective for minimizing procrastination. The tips on ways to minimize procrastination were taken from an online article by Manktelow, Thompson, Podmoroff, Salujan, and Hallet (2011) Examples of the verbal instruction that was given addresses disorganization, where the researcher advised the use of a to-do list where researchers can write down their tasks according to their priority Another example of the verbal instruction that was given addresses lack of motivation. The researcher encouraged the participants of the control group to make use of a personal rewards system to help keep them motivated to accomplish their tasks. These tips were not forced on the participants. They only served as a guide on how they could minimize procrastination in their own way. Participants had the choice to follow or not to follow these tips. The procrastination log is an awareness tool that is used for tracking what a person does when they procrastinate (Knaus, 2010) This tool was used by the experimental group to help them monitor their habits, and identify the reasons why they procrastinate. According to Knaus (2010), logging what you think, how you feel, and what you do as you procrastinate promotes meta-cognitive awareness. In this case, it was also used as a form of self-reflection. Selfreflection, according to Boud, Keough, and Walker (1985) is an important human activity in which people recapture their experience, think about it, mull over, and evaluate it. It was also defined as the inspection and evaluation of ones thoughts, feelings, behavior and insight, and the clarity of understanding of ones thoughts, feelings, and behavior (Carver & Scheier, 1998) The procrastination awareness log was used as a form of self-reflection because it helps the individual recapture their experience in procrastinating as they go through the log, which then helps them understand their behavior, learn from it and take action to change it. Chalker (2010) stated that self-reflection can lead to profound personal growth and transformation. This is what the researcher aims to accomplish. Based on the given results, the experiment turned out to be effective in directing change, helping minimize the procrastination habits of the participants. Based on the observation of the researcher, using the log improved the participants

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awareness on their procrastination habits. Using the procrastination awareness log made them conscious of their behavior, causing them to work on it and improve their habits. The researcher also counter-checked the submissions of the participants by looking into the dates when they have uploaded the given requirements. This was done to confirm the submission report that was written in the procrastination awareness log of the participants. Common Reasons for Procrastination The procrastination awareness program ran for a total of 10 weeks. 10 students participated in the program and a procrastination log was provided for each. Upon viewing the procrastination log of each participant in the experimental group, the researcher was able to identify the participants common reasons for procrastination. The researcher grouped the reasons for procrastination provided by the participants of the program based on the eight causes of procrastination as determined by Pavlina (2005) The eight causes were grouped according to their similarities. Stress, overwhelm, and poor time management skills were grouped together as well as laziness and lack of discipline.

Figure 3. Common Reasons for Procrastination Week 1

On the first week, the commonly stated reasons in the procrastination awareness log pointed to laziness and lack of discipline. 7 out of 10 participants claimed to have had a difficulty in adjusting from the summer break. 2 out of 10 experienced a lack of motivation, where one clearly stated that she wasnt motivated enough to start working on her thesis. 1 out of 10 reasoned out that she had other things to focus on, such as her other subjects and household chores.
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Figure 4. Common Reasons for Procrastination Week 2

The reasons given in the second week did not go far from the first weeks. Laziness and lack of discipline remained as the top reason for procrastination for 6 out of 10 students. The common reasons that were stated were straight to the point. The participants were too lazy to work on their thesis as the deadline seemed far away still, and need not be immediately attended to. The same reasons were provided for lack of motivation and stress, overwhelm, and poor time management skills.

Figure 5. Common Reasons for Procrastination Week 3

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The same common reasons could be seen on the third week. A slight change can be seen, where lack of skill and perfectionism appeared to be the reason for one participant. The participant stated in the log that he will only start working on the thesis once everything that is needed is set. He also mentioned that he wanted to avoid bad feedback for his work as much as possible. 2 out of 10 students experienced stress and overwhelm as they also needed to work on other school requirements. 3 out of 10 students experienced a lack of motivation, and 4 out of 10 experienced laziness and lack of discipline.

Figure 6. Common Reasons for Procrastination Week 4

Changes in the common reasons provided by the participants can be seen starting on the fourth week. Stress, overwhelm and poor time management skills topped the reasons for procrastination with 5 out of 10 participants. The participants recorded reasons for procrastination reflected overwhelm and poor time management. The fourth week has been stressful for most because of the various homeworks and quizzes. Some had a difficulty in balancing their time for work because of overwhelm. Laziness and lack of discipline also appeared as a common reason with 3 participants. These participants reasoned out that they did not feel like working on their thesis, while the other 3 lacked the motivation to start working on it.

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Figure 7. Common Reasons for Procrastination Week 5 The reasons on the fifth week stayed the same, where 6 out of 10 participants experienced stress, overwhelm and poor time management skills due to the demands of school. The other school requirements and quizzes kept them from keeping up with their responsibility for the thesis, while others had a more difficult time because they also had household chores to attend to. 3 participants experienced laziness and lack of discipline, where one reasoned out that she had no time for the thesis as she went out with her friends and bonded with her cousins. On the fifth week, 1 out of 10 participants still had a lack of motivation to work on the thesis.

Figure 8. Common Reasons for Procrastination Week 6


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The sixth week showed the same common reason, with 4 out of 10 participants claiming difficulty in managing their time for the various school work that they need to accomplish. 3 participants experienced a lack of motivation, while the other 3 experienced laziness and lack of discipline. The weather on the sixth week was pointed to as an excuse, as the reason for those who experienced laziness was the mood they were on that was caused by the rainy weather.

Figure 9. Common Reasons for Procrastination Week 7 The common reason for procrastination on the seventh week changed back to laziness and lack of discipline. The seventh week was the week wherein heavy rains were experienced, and classes were called off. It was also the week for the midterm examinations, where 3 of the participants chose to focus on the exams, while 2 did not feel motivated enough to work on their thesis.

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Figure 10. Common Reasons for Procrastination Week 8

The common reason for procrastination changed back to stress, overwhelm and poor time management skills on the eighth week. The midterm exams were moved to this week, and 6 out of 10 students had their focus on reviewing for the exams. 3 students had laziness and lack of discipline for their reason for procrastination, while 1 lacked motivation.

Figure 11. Common Reasons for Procrastination Week 9

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Stress, overwhelm, and poor time management skills remained to be the top reason for procrastination among the participants on the ninth week. One of the participants with this reason stated that she experienced difficulty in balancing her work with other requirements that need to be done. 3 out of 10 experienced laziness and lack of discipline, while one lacked motivation. 1 had lack of skill and perfectionism as a reason, where the participant stated that he chooses to do things with perfection, in just one go.

Figure 12. Common Reasons for Procrastination Week 10 The common reasons for the tenth week was almost the same as that of the ninth. Less students experienced laziness and lack of discipline as the deadline was already near and work already had to be done. 1 still lacked motivation and the other still had lack of skill and perfectionism as an excuse.

Figure 13. Summary of Common Reasons for Procrastination


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Figure 13 shows a summary of the common reasons that were provided by the participants from the first week of the program, down to the final week. Based on the graph, stress, overwhelm and poor time management skills appeared to be the most common reason for procrastination among the participants. Laziness and lack of discipline were also a common reason as can be seen in the first three weeks. Lack of motivation followed, while lack of skill and perfectionism did not appear to be much of a problem to the participants. Procrastination caused by stress often occurs as a coping mechanism. In this case, the stress was caused by overwhelm. With overwhelm, the brain seems to refuse to cooperate with a schedule when one has too many tasks to accomplish at one time (Pavlina, 2005) This is common among students especially considering that they have different subjects to attend to, other than the thesis. Because of the overwhelming amount of work, students find it hard to manage their time. Laziness and lack of discipline only appeared to be a common problem in the first three weeks. This was because the students experienced a hangover from the summer break, where they did not have school activities that needed their full attention. Laziness as a cause of procrastination often occurs when simple tasks appear to be too much work to an individual due to a lack in energy (Pavlina, 2005) Laziness also occurs as a result of lack of discipline, where individuals experience a difficulty in controlling their urge to procrastinate and put off tasks. Based on the observation of the researcher, individuals who commonly experience this are the ones who have the tendency to become easily distracted. Lack of motivation was the next determined cause. Some individuals experience a lack of motivation which greatly affects their performance and determination to finish a required task (Pavlina, 2005)They excuse their way out of a task by saying that they do not have the right motivation to work on it, or that they are not inspired enough to do it. Lack of skill and perfectionism was uncommon among the participants. Only one participant appeared to experience this. Students who experience a lack of sufficient skill result to procrastination as a way to avoid a failure experience (Pavlina, 2005) The same goes for perfectionism. Individuals who experience this use procrastination as an excuse for a possible poor performance or quality of work. These individuals often are the ones who cant handle criticism. They find a way out of being ridiculed for a poor performance or quality of work, by giving the excuse that their work was done only in a short period of time, just before it is due. These people also have a tendency to take pride in procrastinating when praised for a good output.

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Self-Reflection A self-reflection and insight scale was given at the end of the program. The results of the self-reflection and insight scale of the experimental and control groups were compared through a paired-samples t-test. The mean of the experimental group was 78.00. Based on the scale, the experimental group was high in self-reflection. The control group had a mean of 47.00, which shows that participants in the control group were low in self-reflection. There was a significant difference between the scores of the experimental group (M=78.00 SD=13.18) and the control group (M=47.00, SD=9.01), where [(t(9)=9.33, p< .05)].

Pearsons r Correlation was used by the researcher to see if there is a relationship between self-reflection and the level of procrastination. A significant relationship between the two was seen, where the computed r value was -.437, which shows a fair or moderate correlation. The computed value is negative, and therefore shows that if the level of self-reflection is high, the level of procrastination decreases and vise versa.

Figure 14. Pearsons R Correlation for Self-Reflection and Procrastination Level Participants who participated in the experiment were high in self-reflection and were able to improve their habits and minimize procrastination. The ability of the participants to self-reflect helped them become conscious of their habit. In this study, the use of the procrastination awareness log promoted self-reflection as the students were able to keep track of the reasons for their procrastination. It helped them look back into their habits and monitor their progress as well as their lack of progress, allowing them to take a step towards a positive change. Conclusions/Recommendations The results of the study showed a significant difference between the final procrastination test scores of those who participated in the procrastination awareness program, and those who did not. The procrastination awareness log was effective in minimizing procrastination.
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However, the mean of the level of procrastination in the final test remained on the extreme level, based on the scoring guide provided in the test developed by Crawley (2010) The common reasons for procrastination were tallied. Stress, overwhelm, and poor time management skills appeared to be the most common reason for procrastination among those who participated in the program. Laziness and lack of discipline also appeared to be a common reason, as well as lack of motivation. Using Pearsons r correlation, the researcher found out that there is a significant relationship between the level of self-reflection and the level of procrastination. The value was negative, which means that if the level of self-reflection is high, the level of procrastination becomes low and vice versa. It is recommended for future researchers to use a procrastination test that is self-made and more specific. In this research, the researcher used a test that covers procrastination in general. The use of a more specific test will help provide results that are more related and appropriate for the study. The researcher also suggests the use of different strategies for a better comparison. Other strategies may include the use of peer-assistance, a rewards system. Future researchers may also compare the procrastination awareness log with journal writing about procrastination habits. The procrastination awareness log may also be improved but adding either open-ended questions such as What have you done to help you reach your deadline? or close-ended questions such as How many times did you think about your thesis today?. By providing questions, the participants will have a clear idea on what to write on the log. References Chalker, A. (2010).Self Reflection: A critical skill for your personal growth and development. Retrieved from: http://www.best-personal-growth-resources.com/self-reflection.html

Crawley, A. (2010). Procrastination: Causes and Cures. Retrieved http://www.montgomerycollege.edu/Departments/studevgt/onlinsts/time/procrasti nation.htm

from

Ferrari, J., Barnes, K. & Steel, P. (2009).Life regrets by avoidant and arousal procrastinators: Why put off today what you will regret tomorrow? Grant, A., Franklin, J., Langford, P. (2002). The self-reflection and insight scale: a new measureof private self-consciousness. Retrieved from: http://www.stemcareer.com/richfeller/pages/studenthelp/Documents/Self%20Reflecton% 20and%20Insight%20Scale.pdf

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Knaus, W. (2010).End procrastination now! Get it done with a proven psychological approach. USA: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Retrieved from http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=Iot3Ehg1DwYC&printsec=frontcover&dq= procrastination&hl=en&sa=X&ei=BWtbT5n1PKykiAeqgs3CDQ&redir_esc=y Manktelow, J., Thompson, R., Podmoroff, D., Salujan, J., &Hallet , T. (2011). Overcomingprocrastination. Manage your time. Get it done right. Retrieved fromhttp://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newHTE_96.htm Pavlina, S. (2005, February).Personal procrastination. development for smart people:Overcoming

Shraw, G., Wadkins, T., & Olafson, L. (2007).Doing the things we do: A grounded of academic procrastination.

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Steel, P. (2007).The nature of procrastination: A meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Thakkar, N. (2009). Why procrastinate: an investigation of the root causes behind procrastination. Veenman, M., Van Hout-Wolters, B., Afflerbach, P. (2006).Metacognition and learning: conceptual and methodological considerations. Retrieved fromhttp://www.scribd.com/doc/82083762/Veenman-Metacognition Williams, J. (2006). Why kids need to be bored: a case study of self-reflection and academicperformance. Retrieved from: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/EJ804100.pdf

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Gender, Optimism and Self-efficacy: Predictors of College Completion


Levi Jess Valencia Margaret Sanapo
The purpose of this study is to determine the best predictor of college completion among Overseas Filipino Worker children and non-Overseas Filipino Worker children. The predictor variables include: optimism, gender and selfefficacy. There were a total of 104 participants in this study. Twenty (20) were children of Overseas Filipino Worker (OFW) parent/s and 84 Filipino young adults who are referred to as non-OFW children. They were grouped into college graduates and non-graduates whose ages range from 21-25 years old. This study used Life Orientation Test and College Self-Efficacy Inventory. The results using multiple regression analysis showed that self-efficacy is the best predictor of college completion (p<.01) for OFW children group and non-OFW group (p<.001), while optimism and gender were not predictors of college completion among both OFW children and non-OFW children.

College graduation in the Philippines is generally a symbol of successful pursuit (Virola, 2012), it is a relief for individuals who already completed and reached the end of their tertiary education, and seek their careers and future goals in life, equipped by the values and knowledge they acquired from their college training. However, education leaders and advocates for increasing college completion said the overall increase in completion for young adults was not strong enough, showed that the total number of college graduates increased by only 2.9% in 2010 according to the National Statistics Coordination Board (NSCB). Before reaching college completion, there are many factors that can affect students endeavor for completion in regards to education. It includes, school climate (Rumberger, 2011), individual characteristics, parent-child relationship (Chen, 2008), relationship with peers (Blum, Beuhring & Rinehart 2000) and psychological variables, such as optimism and self-efficacy. Optimism looks at the quality of future consequences (Bryant & Cvengros, 2004) and optimistic people primarily have high expectations for their future (Carver & Scheier, 2005). As Seligman (1995) stated that pessimistic people do worse than optimistic people in regards to achievement in school. Hence, the belief of ones future will work out as a predictor of school completion. An optimists view in life can enhance an individuals self-efficacy (Carver & Scheier, 2005). It is an individuals belief of their capability to accomplish a task, and influence of these beliefs within academic areas is pervasive as a significant predictor of academic performance (Zimmerman, Bandura & Martinez-Pons, 1992; Chimers, Hu & Garcia, 2001), In addition, high self-efficacy levels are strong predictors of not only academic performance but also achievement (Bandura, Barbaranelli, Caprara & Pastorelli, 1996). Another variable to consider is gender; In the Philippines, it was found that, among those with academic degrees, there were more females (56.2 %) than males (43.8%). This study aims to determine, what is the best predictor of college completion among young adults? The predictor variables include; gender, optimism and self-efficacy. The
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researcher hypothesized thatoptimism, gender and self-efficacy, can predict college completion among young adults. Moreover, by identifying these predictor variables, it may help promote more possibility for college students to reach completion and have their diplomas, mainly focused on optimism and self-efficacy. This study may also be a guide or overview for future researchers who will conduct new studies regarding predictors of college completion. Review of Related Literature There were different related literature gathered regarding Overseas Filipino parents and predictors of school completion such as, gender, optimism and self-efficacy through earlier studies and journals, hence, this section would provide the researcher a better understanding regarding the predictor variables and its relationship with school completion. Overseas Filipino Parents It is for a fact that family is the foundation for the childrens development; they impart an important role in guidance, imposing good habits and morals to help them succeed in life. However, there are still parents who choose to work overseas and leave their children to the care of grandparents, relatives or guardians. According to POEA (Philippine Overseas Employment Administration), around 8.6 million 11 million Filipinos are estimated count worldwide or about 11% of the total population of the Philippines are working overseas due to economic needs that are a necessity for us to live, Filipinos are becoming more practical and tend to work outside the country, not only for the security of their daily needs like food, clothes and shelter, but primarily to have financial support to provide education to their children, thus, these OFW parents does not consider the impact that it will cause to their childrens social, emotional, psychological, spiritual behavior and mainly on their education. Gender This female advantage in educational attainment is not a new phenomenon, the researchers point out. More women than men graduated from college, but the gap has grown recently, with the overall college graduation rate (Swanbrow, 2011). In the Philippines alone, it was reported that there are more females who have college degrees than males (females; 56.2%males; 43.8%) as of 2012. Past studies also suggests that, males fall behind even after they have made the initial decision to obtain a college diploma (Snyder, Dillow, and Hoffman 2008). Gender differences in college enrollment are problematic for college administrators who seek gender-balanced student populations (see, for example, Gibbs 2008).

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Optimism A number of researchers have found that Importance of College, future expectations, goal orientation, optimism, sense of agency are related to school completion. Seligman (1995) stated that pessimistic people do worse than optimistic people in regards to achievement in school. Hence, the belief of ones future will work out as a predictor of school completion. Relationship between future-oriented and school success is provided by Eriksons psychosocial theory. This theory provides a perspective on individual development that is focused on the future and applicable to school completion. Hence, the theory suggests that students who feel competent in an area like academics will anticipate future success. Self-Efficacy Self-efficacy is a construct that describes how confident people believe they are or how much control they believe they have in their ability to reach a goal or accomplish a task (Bandura, 1997). According to past studies, high self-efficacy levels are strong predictors of academic achievement (Bandura, Barbaranelli, Caprara & Pastorelli, 1996). In addition, according to Bandura, a students belief in his or her ability to accomplish various tasks is highly influential on whether she or he will actually accomplish this task or succeed in an individual area. As individuals increase their accomplishments in a given task or area, they also increase their personal self-efficacy leading them to accept greater challenges in those given areas. In another study, according to Gore Jr. (2006), there are growing body of literature supports the relationship between students self-efficacy beliefs for their academic performance. Expected, some researchers have investigated the role that academic self-efficacy beliefs play in predicting college success. Gore Jr. (2006) suggested, that the result of several studies that was conducted; academic self-efficacy beliefs predict college outcomes but that this relationship is dependent on when efficacy beliefs are measured, the types of efficacy beliefs measured, and the nature of the criteria used. Synthesis According to the related literature that were gathered by the researcher, there were more females that graduates from college than males (Swanbrow, 2011), by this, the researcher assumed that an individuals gender could predict college completion. Another is, optimism which Seligman (1995) suggests, the belief of ones future will work out as a predictor of school completion, And lastly, Bandura, Barbaranelli, Caprara & Pastorelli, (1996); Gore Jr, (2006) suggests that high self-efficacy levels are strong predictors of academic achievement, and academic self-efficacy beliefs play in predicting college success. These related studies provided that the predictor variables; gender, optimism and self-efficacy can contribute to college completion.

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Method Research Design The research design used in this study is a descriptive correlational, which seeks how a variable predict another variable, and the predictor variables included; are the following, gender, optimism and self-efficacy. Participants The researcher selected participants through a purposive sampling method; this method was chosen because the preferred population was children of Overseas Filipino Worker (OFW) parent/s and Filipino young adults which is referred as non-OFW children, who were college graduate and non-graduate ages 21-25 years old, from United Paraaque Subdivision 5 (UPS5) and Camella Homes II, Paraaque City. A total of (n = 104), 84; non-OFW children and 20 OFW children, were included since, not all populate falls in the preferred criteria. In this study, OFW children is defined as individuals whose parent/s are working abroad, then graduates is defined as individuals who finished their four (4) year college degree while, on the other hand non graduates is defined as individuals, who are not yet graduated from their four (4) year college degree OFW children Table 3: Participants Gender

Table 4: Participants Age

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Non-OFW children Table 1: Participants Gender

Table 2: Participants Age

Instruments The instruments used are; a self-administered questionnaire which comprises of questions regarding variables such as gender (male or female), age (21-25 yrs old) and education (College graduate or non-graduate). Next is, Life-Orientation Test-Revised (Scheier, Bridges & Carver, 1994) which is a 10-item scale designed to measure optimism, the internal consistency using Cronbachs coefficient alpha was adequate at ( =.73). The scores ranging A = I agree a lot, B = I agree a little, C = I neither agree nor disagree, D = I disagree a little, E = I disagree a lot. The College Self-Efficacy Inventory (Solberg, OBrien, Villareal, Kennel, & Davis, 1993), a 19-item scale designed to measure individuals self-efficacy in college, which has an internal consistency of ( =.96). The responses were measured on a Likert-type format scale, 8 point scale ranging from 0, totally unconfident, to eight totally confident. The instrument is scored by summing the total of the 19 items. From the total score, one can infer their level of self-efficacy in college. Procedure Prior to administering the surveys and collecting data, the researcher sent a request through electronic mail to Dr. Scott Scolberg, regarding the permission to use the College Selfefficacy Inventory (CSEI), then he replied at once, allowing to use CSEI and giving instructions
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how to measure the scores. On the other hand, the Life Orientation Test is scales made available for use in research, without charge and without any need for permission. After the researcher had gained permission to use the instruments, the distribution of survey questionnaires had started. The survey questionnaires were given to participants with the criteria of the preferred population for this study. Through referrals within the neighborhood and by the participants themselves, if whether they know someone who is college graduate or non-graduate ages 21-25 yrs old who may be OFW children or not, the gathering of participants was accomplished. The participants were then informed personally about the purpose of the questionnaire and let them sign if they are willing to participate. After the given amount of time, the researcher personally meets the participants to collect the questionnaires. Statistical Analysis Linear regression analysis was chosen for data analysis, which is used to determine relationships between a number of predictor variables and a criterion variable, since this study aims to identify predictors of college completion. The predictor variables include gender, optimism and self-efficacy while the criterion variable is college completion. Cross tabulations were also used. The software package SPSS 17.0 was used to perform the statistical analysis. Results This section shows the results derived from OFW and non-OFW children. Their responses were separated to show readers how each group responded to the scales utilized in the survey. OFW Children Results revealed that half of the children of OFWs (50%) who participated in the survey were optimistic. When they were segregated according to whether they finished their college education or not, slightly more than half (55%) of those who had graduated from college showed to be optimistic. For the non-graduates, on the other hand, the majority (67%) indicated that they were slightly pessimistic (Table 1). It should be noted that none from the non-graduates and only one from the graduates reported that they were extremely optimistic. Table 1: Optimism

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With regards to gender of respondents with OFW parents, the number of male and female participants was almost evenly distributed. There were slightly more males in the non-graduates (56%) and slightly more females in the graduate group (6%) (Table 2). Table 2: Gender

When their responses on self-efficacy scale were tabulated, results revealed that the majority (72%) of those who graduated from college had an average self-efficacy. With regards to the non-graduate group, the majority of them (78%) indicated that they had low self-efficacy (Table 3). In addition, there was none from the non-graduate group who indicated high-self efficacy while for the graduate group 2(18%) reported to have high self-efficacy. Table 3: Self-efficacy

Non-OFW Children This section reports responses of participants whose parents were not OFWs. Like their OFW children counterpart, the majority (67%) of those who did not graduate from college showed to have slightly pessimistic disposition. The graduate group, on the other hand, had more people who had optimistic disposition (59%). None from the non-graduate group had an extremely optimistic disposition while 1(2%) from the graduate group showed to have a very optimistic disposition (Table 4). It should be noted that the same pattern was also shown by that of the OFW children group. This goes to show that regardless of parents work, those from the non-graduates would be more likely to show a slightly pessimistic disposition and those who were able to finish their college education would be more likely to be optimistic.
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Table 4: Optimism

With regards to gender distribution, the same pattern also emerged. There were more males (72%) than females who did not complete their tertiary education and there were more females than males (61%) who completed their education (Table 5). This trend seemed to show that females are more likely than males to complete their higher education. Table 5: Gender

When responses of the non-OFW children respondents were tabulated, almost all of those who graduated from college (91%) showed an average self-efficacy while only 23% from those who did not graduate showed an average self-efficacy (Table 6). However, 77% of those who did not graduate from college showed a low-self efficacy rating. It should be noted that the same pattern was shown by those in the OFW children group. There were more people who did not graduate from college who had low self-efficacy than those from the graduate group. Table 6: Self-efficacy

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Using the multiple regression analysis, the results showed that self-efficacy is the best predictor of college completion for both Overseas Filipino Worker children at (p<.001), and non Overseas Filipino Worker children at (p<.001), while optimism and gender is not a predictor of college completion at given that only college self-efficacy out of the three (3) variables predicted college completion, the hypothesis was only partially accepted. Discussion The present study aims to determine the best predictor of college completion among Overseas Filipino Worker children compared to non Overseas Filipino Worker children. The predictor variables includes; optimism which is a disposition or tendency to look on the more favorable side of events or conditions and to expect the most favorable outcome, their gender, and self-efficacy which is a construct that describes how confident people believe they are or how much control they believe they have in their ability to reach a goal or accomplish a task. Results suggest that self-efficacy is the best predictor of college completion, wherein participants who already graduated from college have higher levels of self-efficacy than those who did not graduate. Such results are consistent with the findings of earlier studies, that high self-efficacy levels are strong predictors of academic performance and college success (Bandura, Barbaranelli, Caprara & Pastorelli, 1996; Gore Jr., 2006). On the other hand, optimism is not a predictor of college completion, hence, does not support the findings of earlier studies that the belief of ones future will work out as predictor of school completion, however, the results showed that majority of the participants who already graduated from college was more optimistic than majority of the non graduates who had slightly pessimistic disposition, this supports the findings of Seligman (1995), that pessimistic people do worse than optimistic people in regards to achievement in school. Perhaps, since the related literature for optimism was proposed during the mid 1990s, optimism is not a predictor of college completion in the present, in addition, Filipinos are known to have a positive disposition in life, hence being optimistic occurs naturally and does not determine whether one will complete college education. Moreover, gender is also not a predictor of college completion, results showed that gender cannot determine whether an individual will reach college completion or not. However, for OFW children; there are more females (64%) who already graduated from college than males (36%), and for non OFW children; there are also more females (61%) who graduated from college than males (39%). This supports the findings of Swanbrow (2011) that more women than men graduate from college. Conclusion The study showed that self-efficacy is the best predictor of college completion. This is consistent with previous studies. Optimism which was thought to contribute to likelihood to graduate from college did not appear to be a predictor. This finding on optimism is not supported by earlier studies. One of the reasons for this result on optimism could be that there were only 55% OFW children who graduated from college who were optimistic and 36% were pessimistic, while for the non OFW children, there were only 59% who were optimistic and 39% were pessimistic. Therefore, the gap between their scores on the optimistic scale and that of those who did not graduate was not that big.

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However, with self-efficacy, almost the majority of OFW children who are college graduates (72%) had an average self-efficacy while only 22% from those who did not graduate, while for the non OFW children, 91% who already graduated from college had an average selfefficacy, and only 23% from those who did not graduate. Recommendation The instruments used in this study came from Western sources. This could have an effect also on the findings of the study; there might be items in the instrument that may not be appropriate to the Filipino context. However, since there is not enough time to construct similar instruments for this study, the researcher assumed that the items in these questionnaires were not that significantly different from our experience as Filipinos. Future researchers interested to study similar topic could explore constructing a Filipino-oriented instruments so that it could really capture the experience of the respondents. Moreover, there were unequal OFW children and non OFW children, since the gathering of OFW children was problematic, future researchers may allot more time in order to accumulate enough participants. For college students, since self-efficacy is the best predictor of completion, it is recommended that they learn to improve their academic performance by studying hard and making extra effort in their classes. If they consistently perform well in their studies, their selfefficacy would also improve and hence would motivate them to finish their studies. References Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (1996).Multifaceted impact of self-efficacy beliefs on academic functioning. Child Development, 67, 1206-1222. Bandura, Albert, Barbaranelli, Claudio, Caprara, Gian Vittorio & Pastorelli, Concetta (1996). Multi faceted impact of self-efficacy beliefs on academic functioning. Child Development, 67, 1206-1222. Blum, Robert W., Beuhring, Trisha, & Rinehart, P.M. (2000).Protecting teens: Beyond race, income and family structure. Minneapolis, MN: Center for Adolescent Health, University of Minnesota. Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Segerstrom, S. C.(2010). Optimism. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 879-889. Ellenbogen, Stephen, & Chamberland, Claire (1997). The peer relations of dropouts: A comparative study of at-risk and not at-risk youths. Journal of Adolescence, 20, 355367. Gainzero, Gina (1999). Promoting Parental Involvement, Improving Students Outcomes Gore Jr., Paul A., (2006) Academic Self-Efficacy as a Predictor of College Outcomes: Two Incremental Validity Studies

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Seligman, Martin E. (1995). The optimistic child. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. Solberg, V.S., O'Brien, K., Villareal, P., Kennel, R., & Davis, B. (1993). Self-efficacy and Hispanic college students: Validation of the college self-efficacy instrument. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 15, 80-95. Steinberg, Laurence, Blinde, Patricia Lin, & Chan, Kenyon S. (1984).Dropping out among language minority youth. Review of Educational Research, 54, 113132. Walsh, Bruce W. & Hanle, Nancy .A. (1975).Consistent occupational preferences, vocational maturity and academic achievement. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 7, 89-97

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Anxiety and Social Competence among Fifth Grade Pupils


Angela Clarize Vergara Fatima Bullecer
The main purpose of this study is to determine if there is a relationship between Anxiety and Social Competence among Grade 5 pupils and to know whose gender is more socially competent and optimistic. Baron EQ Inventory Youth Version (S) was used in measuring the Social Competence of the pupils. On the other hand, Child Anxiety Scale was used to measure their Anxiety Level back when they were in grade 3, stating that having a low level of anxiety would result to a more optimistic way of thinking. In a greater sense, individuals having a high level of social competence would most likely have a low level of anxiety because of the feeling of being socially accepted where they can easily adapt to the various situations and different people. The researcher used the results of both tests and was analyzed using Pearson r. The computed r value was -0.2133, indicating a low or weak negative correlation.Results show that there is a significant negative correlation between Social Competence and Anxiety of Grade 5 pupils .

Much of what is meant by anxiety and social competence varies among peoples way of looking ones life and how they deal on each problems persistently. Anxiety can be described as an unrealistic fear resulting in physiological arousal and accompanied by the behavioral signs of escape or avoidance (Hey et al., 2001). Children who suffer from social anxiety have persistent and irrational fears of social or performance situations in which they fear they might do something that will embarrass or humiliate them. Although they frequently want to interact with other children, they try to avoid most social and performance situations as a consequence of their fears (Silverman & Ginsburg, 1998). As children begin to interact with peers, this process starts to unfold and they develop beliefs about their ability to bring about certain outcomes in social interactions. Children may experience different levels of anxiety when interacting with others and the anxiety may affect their performance in the situation. Although the developmental trajectory of social anxiety has not yet been fully determined, various findings have indicated that certain temperamental characteristics, such as behavioral inhibition, may make some children more susceptible to experience anxiety in social situations (Ollendick & Hirshfeld-Becker, 2002; Turner, Beidel, & Wolff, 1996). The children who do experience anxiety may therefore be less successful at bringing about desired outcomes due to performance inhibition. If they are not successful, they will receive little positive feedback, or even negative feedback, from the environment. Such outcomes will reduce the chances of children exposing themselves to similar social situations in the future. The avoidance will then lead to increased anxiety and even less chance of succeeding in social interactions, which will decrease their self-efficacy even further. A reciprocal cycle is therefore put in place, where social anxiety leads to avoidance of social situations and decreased self-efficacy and outcome expectancy (Hannesdottir, 2005). Social Competence, on the other hand, is a complete multidimensional concept consisting of social, emotional, cognitive and behavioral skills, as well as motivational and expectancy sets
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needed for successful social adaptation. This also reflects having an ability to take anothers perspective concerning a situation, learn from past experiences, and apply that learning to the changes in social interactions (Semrud-Clikeman, 2007). It reveal adjustment in the family, school, work, in society at large, and in old age, requiring more context specific definitions of the construct, as well as a focus on particular facets of social competence, such as empathy, self control, trust, respect for other people, or civic engagement. Although there has not been a clear consensus on the definition of social skills most people agree that social skills are a set of behaviors and characteristics that enable people to interact successfully with other people in social situations (Stravynski & Amado, 2001). But in this study, social competence refers to the scores of respondents on the interpersonal skills scale of Baron EQ Inventory - Youth Version. Good quality interactions can be even more important to children in need of special support. Numerous studies have shown that children in need of special support have difficulties related to peer-relations and social competence (Odom, McConell, & McEvoy, 1992; SemrudClikeman, 2007). One of the most difficult things to do in life, if you do not have the skills to, is to connect socially with other people, and to build relationships on an interpersonal level. Without the skills necessary this simple and essential part of the human experience seems an insurmountable mountain of futility. But with practice, effort and dedication, learning the social skills necessary can be the easiest thing you've done all day. Control anxiety. Being anxious is the quickest way to relationship failure. Build up your ability to remain calm and allow your brain to work effectively and you will have removed a massive road block to building up your social skills on an interpersonal level (Uebergang, 2006). Research on both adult and child social anxiety disorder has been aimed mostly at examining why socially anxious people are behaviorally inhibited in social situations. Two primary hypotheses have been analyzed: 1) they lack the social skills which are needed to interact with other people, or 2) they have the skills but are too concerned in their performance and therefore do not exhibit their skills in social situations properly (Cartwright-Hatton, Hodges, & Porter, 2003). The topic of interest in this study is how other researchers give much less attention to the study of childrens optimism. On the other hand, childrens social relationship has received a great deal of attention in the literature. In addition, the rational that optimism may relate to social competence is supported by a great number of research that documents the influence of social knowledge and expectancies on how children process social information and their behavior (D.P. Deptula et al., 2006). The focus of this study was to examine the relationship between anxiety and social competence among fifth grade pupils and to know whose gender is more socially competent and optimistic. The data gathered were all in archival form. Since, the respondents in the study are still enrolled as grade 6 pupils, the results of the study could be of help for them to know the possibility if they are optimistic and socially competent. Knowing this, teachers could give suggestions and alternatives on how to improve optimism level and social skills of children in school.
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Review of Related Literature The researcher gathered different studies that would tackled about anxiety and social competence. Understanding Anxiety Anxiety (also called angst or worry) is a psychological and physiological state characterized by somatic, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components (Seligman et al). It is the displeasing feeling of fear and concern (Davison, 2008). The root meaning of the word anxiety is 'to vex or trouble'; in either presence or absence of psychological stress, anxiety can create feelings of fear, worry, uneasiness, and dread (Bouras & Holt, 2007). However, anxiety should not be confused with fear, it is more of a dreaded feeling about something which appears intimidating and can overcome an individual (Henig, 2012). Anxiety is considered to be a normal reaction to a stressor. It may help an individual to deal with a demanding situation by prompting them to cope with it. However, when anxiety becomes overwhelming, it may fall under the classification of an anxiety disorder (National Institute of Mental Health). Anxiety for many is seen in pathological terms (e.g. Freud ,1936; Beck, 1985; Barlow, 2002) or as a symptom to get rid of (e.g. American Psychiatric Association, 2000). For others it is described as an inevitable and therefore normal consequence of human existence (Yalom, 1980; van Deurzen, 2002; Spinelli, 2007) and something we can learn from - whoever has learnt to be anxious in the right way, has learnt the ultimate, (Kierkegaard, 1844, p155). Social Competence Eric Alder defines Social Competence as the ability to get along well with oneself and with his environment. Social competence is therefore a neutral skill and is a combination of communication, motivation and mental strength. It can only be developed in the logical order of the three steps: self-knowledge, self-control and empathy (Adler, 1990). Social competence has received considerable attention of researchers in last couple of decades because of its importance in workplaces and the educational settings. Like other constructs e.g. intelligence, there has been no universal consensus over the definition of social competence. However, the common theme that most of researchers have conceptualized is that social competence refers to effectiveness in social interaction (Dodge, 1985; Rubin & RoseKrasnor, 1992).

Relationship between Anxiety and Social Competence Social anxiety and social skills do not develop in a vacuum. From early on, expectations and beliefs affect childrens motivation to exhibit behavior that is likely to produce desired outcomes (Bandura, 1997). In his Social Learning Theory, Bandura (1977) states that there is a reciprocal relationship between behavioral, cognitive, and environmental influences. Children
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who observe others obtain desired outcomes as a result of a specific action are likely to imitate the action. If their behavior results in a desired outcome, children are more likely to show it again later. Childrens sense of efficacy in the situation will also increase if they are successful in bringing about the desired outcome (Bandura, 1978). This feedback from the environment therefore influences childrens expectancies and beliefs which, in turn, influence future behavior and motivation to exhibit certain behaviors. However, if their behavior brings about undesired outcomes, they are less likely to exhibit the behavior again and their sense of efficacy will decrease due to perceived failure in these situations. In this sense, a reciprocal system is put in place and perceived self-efficacy obtains a causal role in determining behavior (Bandura, 1997; Bandura, Caprara, Barbaranelli, Pastorelli, & Reagalia, 2001). Although research on the social skills of socially anxious children is limited, the results of the few studies that have been undertaken are mixed. Spence, Donovan, and Brechman-Toussaint (1999) examined social skills in a group of socially anxious elementary school children. The children were between 7 and 14 years of age and were clinically referred with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder. The researchers administered a variety of social anxiety, social skills, and social cognition measures and found the socially anxious children to be less socially skilled than a matched control group. For example, the socially anxious children tended to respond with fewer words during a role-play task, interacted less with their peers at school, and initiated fewer social interactions with their peers than children in the control group. Beidel, Turner, and Morris (1999) obtained similar results when they assessed the social skills of clinically referred socially anxious children between 7 and 13 years of age. They found that during a reading task and a role-play task, the socially anxious children were evaluated as less interpersonally skilled and more anxious by objective judges. In a recent study, a significant negative correlation was found between anxiety levels and attitudes towards learning communication skills in general as well as the teaching and learning process (Loureiro et al., 2011). According to a recent study in Child Psychiatry and Human Development, there are significant associations between measures of social functioning and the severity of a childs principal anxiety disorder. Further, social competence is likely to influence several key elements of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and CBT treatment response. According to the results, children rated to be more socially competent by their mothers prior to treatment were more likely to respond positively to CBT and were less likely to have their initial anxiety continue to meet diagnosis criteria at a 1-year follow up, than children rated less socially competent (Settipani, 2012). As children begin to interact with peers, this process starts to unfold and they develop beliefs about their ability to bring about certain outcomes in social interactions. Children may experience different levels of anxiety when interacting with others and the anxiety may affect their performance in the situation. Although the developmental trajectory of social anxiety has not yet been fully determined, various findings have indicated that certain temperamental characteristics, such as behavioral inhibition, may make some children more susceptible to experience anxiety in social situations (Ollendick & Hirshfeld-Becker, 2002; Turner, Beidel, & Wolff, 1996). The children who do experience anxiety may therefore be less successful at
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bringing about desired outcomes due to performance inhibition. If they are not successful, they will receive little positive feedback, or even negative feedback, from the environment. Such outcomes will reduce the chances of children exposing themselves to similar social situations in the future. The avoidance will then lead to increased anxiety and even less chance of succeeding in social interactions, which will decrease their self-efficacy even further. A reciprocal cycle is therefore put in place, where social anxiety leads to avoidance of social situations and decreased self-efficacy and outcome expectancy. In a recent follow up study, researchers examined the role of beliefs in social relationships of children ages 10 to 11 years old. Study revealed that children who are socially anxious rated themselves as having low social skills on a conversation task compared to their low anxious counterparts. In addition, a study conducted by Hanesdottir (2005) showed that socially anxious children reported being less socially skilled, less assertive with strangers than with friends, and lower in self-efficacy and outcome expectancy than children in a normal comparison group. By having a low level of anxiety would result to being an optimistic. Therefore, having a low level of anxiety would mean having a high level of interpersonal skills. Synthesis Given the importance of social engagement of children in their development of Interpersonal behaviors, having friends of their own, peer relations have a deep influences on childrens social and emotional functioning. Friendships help foster emotional security and support and may protect against loneliness and depression (Gifford-Smith ME, Brownell CA, 2003). According to one study made by Harter (1987), children having a poor perceived competence will result in a negative effect and may affect their activities and mastery attempts. Agreed upon by (Chansky & Kendall, 1997; Smari, Petursdottir & Porsteinsdottir, 2001), low ratings of self-perceived social competence were reported by socially anxious youth and a recent study of adolescents reported that lack of perceived social acceptance predicts subsequent social anxiety and fear of negative evaluation (Teachman & Allen, 2007).

Method Research Design The researcher used Descriptive Correlation Method as a research design. A correlational study is one designed to determine the degree and direction of relationship between two or more variables or measures of behavior. Relational research aims to investigate the relationship between changes in one variable with another, whereby variables are not manipulated and are measured unobtrusively (Terre Blanche, Durrheim, & Painter, 2006).

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Through this design, it will answer the question if there is a significant relationship between optimism and social competence. Participants A sample of 216 was obtained using purposive sampling, one that is selected based on the knowledge of a population and the purpose of the study. The researcher chose the sample based on who they think would be appropriate for the study, since the tool that was being used in measuring Anxiety and Social Competence were taken by them. The sample consisted of a group of pupils ranging from 10 to 11 years of age of grade 5 pupils S.Y. 2011-2012, aside from the fact that it is convenient for the researcher, the tests being used by the researcher as her tool were available and were administered in the school. Instruments The researcher used the Baron EQ Inventory Youth Version (S) Test for measuring Social Competence made by Reuven Bar-On, Ph.D & James D.A. Parker, Ph.D. It has seven (5) subscales that probe the areas of interpersonal and intrapersonal abilities, stress management, adaptability, and general mood, but only Interpersonal Scale was being used that has a 12-item questionnaire that will conclude a childs social competence. Scoring of Baron EQ are as follows (Range and Classification): 130+ - Markedly High; 120-129 Very High; 110-119 High; 90109 Average; 80-89 Low; 70-79 Very Low; Under 70 Markedly Low. The researcher also used Child Anxiety Scale in measuring anxiety of children.. It was developed by John S. Gillis. The CAS consists of 20 brief items that could be administered individually or to groups. Low anxiety would result as being emotionally stable, trusting, selfassured, relaxed and optimistic. On the negative part, high anxiety would result as being reactive, vigilant, apprehensive and tense. It is primarily used to measure the anxiety level of children in the elementary school level. Having a low anxiety level would most likely result in being an optimistic individual. Procedure The researcher asked permission from the grade school principal to use the previous results of pupils on Bar-On EQ Inventory: Youth Version and Child Anxiety Scale since the study would be an Archival one. After getting the consent, the researcher got the results in the Testing Center, having only the T-scores, Gender and Classification of the pupils due to its confidentiality. Statistical Design To know the corresponding results of the test, the researcher used the design Pearson r which is a type of correlation that tells the magnitude and direction of the association between two variables. It is a measure of the strength of a linear association between two variables and is represented by r.
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Results Descriptive and inferential statistics were utilized to analyze the collected data. in the current study, statistical decisions were based on an alpha level of .05. Table 1 present the gender profile of the grade 5 pupils S.Y 2011-2012. 126 pupils (58%) are males, whereas 90 pupils or 42% were females. Table 1 Profile of Respondents based on Gender Gender Frequency Male Female Total 126 90 216 58% 42% 100% Percentage

Table 2 present the Profile Distribution of the Respondents based on their Interpersonal Scale. This subscale shows how pupils establish and maintain mutually satisfying relationships with others. As shown, majority of the student have an Average Level (53%) in Interpersonal Scale. 64% are on Females whereas 45% are on Males. Table 2 Profile of Respondents based on their Interpersonal Scale Male Classification f % Female f % Total f Percentage

Markedly High Very High High Average Low Very Low

0 1 12 57 26 20

0 .79 10 45 21 16

0 2 9 58 16 3

0 2 10 64 18 3

0 3 21 115 42 23

0 1 10 53 19 11

300

Markedly Low Total

10 126

8 100

2 90

2 100

12 216

6 100

Table 3 reveal the Percentage Distribution of the Respondents based on their Anxiety Level. As revealed in the results, most of the respondents have an Average Level of Anxiety of 67%, wherein Females got 68% and Males got 67% of Average Level of Anxiety. Pupils belonging to this range show positive emotional response to people and situation.

Table 3 Profile of Respondents based on their Anxiety Level Ma le Classification Low Level of Anxiety Average Elevated Level of Anxiety Total f 27 84 15 126 % 21 67 12 100 18 61 11 90

Female % 20 68 12 100

Total f 45 145 26 216 Percentage 21 67 12 100

Table 4 Pearson r Correlation n r Critical at 0.5 level of Significance Computed r Value Interpretation

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0.361

-0.2133

Since the computed r value (-0.2133) is lower than the r critical value of .195, the findings revealed that there is a low negative correlation between Social Competence and Anxiety.

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Discussion Using Bar-On EQ Inventory: Youth Version and Child Anxiety Scale, the results of this study revealed a weak negative correlation between anxiety and social competence. The results imply that students, who are low in anxiety level have a high interpersonal relationships with others. Literature supports the view that socially anxious children reported being less socially skilled, less assertive with strangers than with friends, and lower in self-efficacy and outcome expectancy than children in a normal comparison group. By having a low level of anxiety would result to being a socially competent individual. Therefore, having a low level of anxiety would mean having a high level of interpersonal skills Hanesdottir (2005). Overall, as revealed in the results, the participants in the study show an average level of interpersonal relationships with others resulting to an average level of anxiety as well. In terms of Interpersonal Skills, girls are more socially competent than boys in their age of 10 to 11 years old. While on the other hand, in terms of Anxiety Level, boys are more anxious than girls on their age. Ideally, High level of interpersonal relationship (social competence) would have a low level of anxiety to others resulting in being an optimistic and socially competent individual. Conclusion/ Recommendations Based on the data gathered and as revealed by the results, the researcher concluded that there is a significant weak negative correlation between Social Competence and Anxiety among Grade 5 pupils. This would mean that the grade 5 pupils of SY 2011-2012 are socially competent amidst being anxious in some matters. In a greater sense, individuals having a high level of social competence would most likely have a low level of anxiety because of the feeling of being socially accepted where they can easily adapt to the various situations and different people. Being Optimistic does not mean forcing yourself to have positive thoughts. It means being hopeful and open to the future. Its a mindset that can help you cope with anxiety. In addition, this can be supported by the results of the study conducted by Hanesdottir (2005) where it showed that socially anxious children reported being less socially skilled, less assertive with strangers than with friends, and lower in self-efficacy and outcome expectancy than children in a normal comparison group. By having a low level of anxiety would result to being an optimistic. Therefore, having a low level of anxiety would mean having a high level of interpersonal skills. To the next researchers who would have further study in this topic, it is best recommended to not have again an Archival Study and focus on the present data for it could be one possible extraneous variable that might affect the results of the study. Researcher also suggest to have the study conducted in Public School and to know if different environment compared to the private school could be a factor in the childs view on optimism and how are they socially competent to one another. Also, try other variables that could have a possible correlation to anxiety like, academic performance, motivation and such.

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References Bouras, N. and Holt, G. (2007). Psychiatric and Behavioural Disorders in Intellectual and Build-Relationships&id=4086738 children. In B. Schneider, K. H. Rubin, & J. Ledingham (Eds.), Childrens peer relations: Davison, Gerald C. (2008). Abnormal Psychology. Toronto: Veronica Visentin. p. 154.ISBN Deptula, D.P., et al. (2006). Expecting the best: The relation between peer optimism and social competence. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 1(3), 130141 Developmental Disabilities 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press: UK. Dodge, K. A. (1985). Facets of social interaction and the assessment of social competence in friendlessness, and childrens self- and peer-perceptions. Child Development, 76, 1161 Gifford-Smith ME, Brownell CA (2003) Childhood peer relationships: social acceptance, friendships, and peer networks. J Sch Psychol 41:235284 Hannesdottir, D.K (2005). Social Skills among Socially Anxious Children in Iceland. Hey, W. T., et al. (2001).Understanding Adolescent Anxiety Disorder: What Teachers, Health Educators, and Practitioners should know and do. The International Electronic Journal ofHealth Education, 2011; 4: 81-91 http://ezinearticles.com/?Interpersonal-SocialSkills-to-Build-Relationships&id=4086738 Interpersonal Social Skills to Build Relationships. Retrieved Oct. 1, 2012 from Issues in assessmentand intervention (pp. 3-22). New York: Springer-verlag National Institute of Mental Health Retrieved September 3, 2008. Robin Marantz Henig, "ANXIETY!", "The New York Times Magazine", August 20, 2012 Rubin, K. H., & Rose-Krasnor, L. (1992).Interpersonal problem solving.In V. B. Van Hassett &M. Hersen (Eds.), Handbook of socialdevelopment (pp. 283-323). New York: Plenum Salmivalli, C., & Isaacs, J. (2005). Prospective relations among victimization, rejection, Seligman, M.E.P., Walker, E.F. &Rosenhan, NewYork: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. D.L..Abnormal psychology, (4th ed.)

Settipani, C.A., Kendall, P.C. (2012).Social functioning in Youth with Anxiety Disorders Association with Anxiety Severity and Outcomes from Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.Child Psychiatry& human Development.

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San Beda College Alabang


Psychology Department, College of Arts and Sciences, Don Manolo Boulevard, Alabang Hills Village, Muntinlupa City Tel/ Fax: 8091782

Edited by: Darius Immanuel Guererro Paul Hilario, PhD Laurice Anne Labrador

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