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U.C. Umeobika et al.

, IJSID, 2013, 3 (1), 56-73

ISSN:2249-5347

IJSID

International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries


Research Article
STATE, NIGERIA U.C. Umeobika1, V.I.E Ajiwe1, M.I. Iloamaeke1, C.O Alisa2

An International peer Review Journal for Science

Available online through www.ijsidonline.info

PHYSICO- CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF RAIN WATER COLLECTED FROM 10 SELECTED AREAS IN AWKA SOUTH, ANAMBRA

Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria1. Chemical Science Department, Novena University, Ogume, Delta State 2

Received: 09-01-2013 Accepted: 11-02-2013


*Corresponding Author

ABSTRACT South LGA of Anambra State, Nigeria were carried out. Rain water samples were collected The physico-chemical properties of rain water from ten selected areas in Awka-

from ten locations (viz Unizik campus, Okpunor, Ifite, Amawbia, Udoka Estate, Iyiagu Estate, Emma Nnaemeka, Ngozika estate, Nibo and Nise) of Awka-South Metropolis, during the month of April to August, 2010. Rain water samples were grouped into two rainwater samples were analysed using standard methods. The result of analyses in the rainwater samples indicated that the mean concentration of all the heavy metals studied heavy metals coupled with high coefficients of variation suggest anthropogenic sources were generally above the WHO recommended limit. The high mean concentrations of the months of April and May 2010, which. This showed that it is possible to have acidic immediate corrective actions. Keywords: Rainwater, pollution,acidity, anthropogenic sources, Anambra State. periods: early rain (from month of April to June) and late rain (July and August). The

Address: Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria Name: U.C. Umeobika Place: Anambra State, Nigeria E-mail: dagombe@yahoo.com

for arsenic, iron, mercury, zinc, lead, chromium, bismuth and selenium.The pH values of rain as a result of anthropogenic effects in these locations and thus suggestive of

the samples for the two periods showed slight acidity (ie mean pH<6.5), particularly for

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U.C. Umeobika et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (1), 56-73 limited due to scarcity or where surface and underground water quality is poor. In many areas, rainwater is still considered as of the largest sources of water for Nigeria. The rainfall is mainly during the rainy season which varies from north to south. Hence, it runs from June to October and April to October in the north and south, respectively (Nsi, 2007). Developments in science and technology have brought improved standard of living, but have also unwittingly introduced some pollution into Rainwater is an important source of fresh water especially for those who live in rural areas, where water use is INTRODUCTION

a safe and suitable source of potable water, and it is commonly used as such (Vikaskumar et al, 2007). Rainfall constitutes one our environment. Substances are regarded as pollutants if they are present in concentration toxic to man, animals or plants, activities of metropolis. These chemicals are mostly odourless, colourless and tasteless and most importantly, are health their source as dry or wet deposition, with its consequences over living organisms in the ecosystems (Steinnea,1990).

have an odour or in some other ways that irritate our senses (Wooven, 1974). These include emissions and effluent outflow

from factories, refineries, waste treatment plant, oil or gases of varying quality and quantity that are emitted into the atmosphere. As noted by Ayodele and Abubakar (1998) the concentrations of pollutants correlated with the industrial

hazards. The massive increase in chemical utilization due to recent development in science and technology has greatly to the atmosphere as gases and aerosols from human activities are transported and deposited several kilometers away from

increased different contaminant present in water generally, regardless of its source (Dinrifo et al., 2010). Pollutants released

important pollutants that contribute to the formation of acid rain are nitrogen oxide and sulphur-dioxide, which react with rain primarily come from manmade source, such as industries, utilities, automobiles, and other form of transportation and including Japan, in Europe and in the northeast areas of the United States and Canada (Adachi, et al 1990). 2001) have considered the effect of acid rain on human health. These Pollutants that contributes to acid rain may be carried 2010). Many researchers including Evans et al (2006), Yasunori and Akira (1981), Nicole and Mason (2001) and Susumu et al

moisture in the atmosphere, to form nitric and sulphuric acid. The sulphur and nitrogen compounds that contribute to acid

Acid rain is formed through a complex process of chemical reaction involving air pollution (Kemp, 1971). The most

industrial processes. Acid rain has recently become a serious environmental problem in many industrialized countries hundreds of miles before being deposited on the earth (Steinnea, 1990). Because of this, it is sometimes difficult to determine the specific sources of these acid rain pollutants as non-industrial area can experience dry or wet deposition (Dinrifo et al., pollutants from industrial activities of these states like gas flaring, bush burning etc., may be carried over hundreds of miles before being deposited which can cause environmental pollution to the neighbouring cities in which Awka city is among. The industries and neighbouring industries. Such study may form the basis for the recommendation of remedial actions. In this Emma Nnaemeka, Ngozika estate, Nibo and Nise were collected in order to check for the physical and chemical properties. International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 3, Issue 1, January-February 2013 Awka is not an industrial city but is surrounded by oil producing states like Delta, Rivers, Akwa Ibom etc. Air

farmers and horticulturists in Awka depend on rainfall and the water harvested by the usual methods of rainwater harvesting

(RWH). Beside farming and horticultural activities, the quality of rainwater has the potential to affect aquaculture (Adewolu et al 2009). There is a need therefore, to investigate the effects of these pollutants on the rainfall occurring in the vicinity of these study, rainwater samples from ten locations namely Unizik campus, Okpunor, Ifite, Amawbia, Udoka Estate, Iyiagu Estate,

57

U.C. Umeobika et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (1), 56-73 MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY Description of Study Site winds that rule the area: the South Western Monsoon winds from the Atlantic Ocean and the North Eastern dry winds from Awka is in the tropical zone of Nigeria and experiences two distinct seasons brought about by the two predominant

across the Sahara desert. Seven months of heavy tropical rains (May - October) are followed by five months of dryness (November - March). The Harmattan a particularly dry and dusty period occurs for about two weeks within the dry season. Nigeria. The temperature is generally hot and humid in the range 27-28 degrees celsius during July through December but rising to 35 Collection of Rain Water Samples Samples of rainwater were collected in the ten (10) different places ( Unizik campus, Okpunor, Ifite, Amawbia, Udoka degrees between February and April. All the selected areas were within Awka-South Local Government Area, Anambra State,

estate, Iyiagu estate, Emma nnaemeka, Ngozika estate, Nibo and Nise) of Awka-South Metropolis. Care was taken to ensure that samples were representative of water to be examined and that no accidental contaminations occur during sampling. Sample collectors were trained and made aware of the need to send the samples to the laboratory for analysis without delay. sample points were assigned serial numbers (SN) as shown in Table 1.
SN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

environment in other to ensure that the water have no contact with any object before getting into the container. The samples Table 1 Sampling points of rain water samples
Sampling Points Unizik Campus Okpuno Ifite Amawbia Udoka Estate Iyiagu Estate Emma Nnaemeka Ngozika Estate Nibo Nise

were analysed on the same day of collection to preclude possible chemical reactions that may occur in the samples. The

Rainwater samples were collected in clean plastic containers by placing the container on a raised platform in an open

Parameters Tested

determined by the methods outlined by AOAC, 1980. Nitrate was determined by Brucine method while sulphate was determined by Turbidmetric method (AOAC, 1980). Dissolved Oxygen and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) were Absorption Spectrometer (Pye Unican 969) connected to computer software.

determined using the Clemets Method. The heavy metals present in the samples were determined by the use of Atomic

The parameters, pH, Total Solid, Total Suspended Solid, Total Dissolved Solid, Total Hardness and Chloride were

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U.C. Umeobika et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (1), 56-73 Table 2: Physico-chemical Parameters of Rain water in April, 2011 RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4 5 6 5.3 0.464 4.4 40.0 35.6 ND ND ND 1.988
11.02 0.26 8.11 0.26 6.02 0.23 5.9 0.26 6.06 0.26 0.67 0.26 0.01 0.26 3.07 0.26 2.11 0.26 4.9 0.26

Hardness (mg/l) Hydroxyl (mg/l) Bicarbonate (mg/l) Alkalinity (mg/l) TSS (mg/l) TDS (mg/l) TS (mg/l) BOD (mg/l) DO (mg/l) COD (mg/l)

pH Acidity (mg/l)

Parameter

5.8 0.403 36.0 4.8 40.0 35.2 ND ND ND 3.976


13.1 0.23 11.94 0.23 7.12 0.23 0.81 0.23 6.9 0.23 40.23 0.9 0.23 6.12 0.23 7.05 0.23 1.27 0.23

4.9 0.96 36.0 ND ND ND ND ND ND 3.0 8.0

4.0 40.0

8.0

5.7 0.125 5.6 40.0 34.4 ND ND ND 1.988


0.89 0.25 10.01 0.25 9.02 0.25 5.01 0.25 7.53 0.25 3.03 0.25 0.1 25.9 5.66 0.25 2.19 0.25 8.9 0.25

8.0

5.6 0.336 4.0 40.0 36.0 ND ND ND 3.976


3.56 0.22 8.11 0.26 5.3 0.26 3.4 0.26 5.87 0.26 0.89 0.26 4.11 0.26 2.9 0.26 4.08 0.26

8.0

5.7 0.288 4.0 40.0 36.0 ND ND ND 1.988 ND ND ND 8.0

5.7 0.256 4.0 40.0 36.0 ND ND ND ND ND 7.5 9.0 ND 1.988


3.56 0.22 4.06 0.22 8.01 0.22 0.11 0.22 6.99 0.22 6.23 0.22 1.06 0.22 4.06 0.22 0.97 0.22 8.9 0.22

8.0

5.7 0.320 4.0 40.0 36.0 ND ND ND 3.976


2.34 0.21 11.08 0.21 3.1 0.21 1.8 0.21 7.01 0.21 0.6 0.21 0.09 0.21 0.79 0.21 5.9 0.21 18.9 0.21

8.0

5.6 0.288 4.8 40.0 35.2 ND ND ND 3.976


7.9 0.22 12.11 0.22 8.21 0.22 2.05 0.22 0.54 0.22 7.01 0.22 0.12 0.22 5.39 0.22 2.78 0.22 17.01 0.22

8.0

5.6 0.334 3.2 40.0 36.8 ND ND ND 1.988


14.09 0.23 13.14 0.23 2.3 0.23 5.89 0.23 0.76 0.23 7.11 0.23 0.17 0.23 4.09 0.23 2.9 0.26 8.9 0.23

10

8.0

5.56 0.489 10.8 4.28 40.0 35.72

Mean

WHO Std 5.8-8.5 200 7.5

Chlorides, Cl (mg/l) Nitrates, NO3(mg/l) Sulphates, SO42(mg/l) Calcium (mg/l) Magnesium (mg/l) Iron (mg/l) Chromium (mg/l) Bismuth (mg/l) Lead (mg/l) Arsenic (mg/l) Mercury (mg/l) Selenium (mg/l) Zinc (mg/l)

ND ND ND 6.0 9.0

3.976
12.08 0.21 1.01 0.21 5.18 0.21 0.78 0.21 7.89 0.21 6.07 0.21 1.06 0.21 3.07 0.21 2.1 0.21 19.89 0.21

ND ND ND 3.0 5.0

ND ND ND 2.0 8.0

ND ND ND 4.5 4.0

ND ND ND 2.0

ND ND ND 8.0

ND ND ND 7.5 4.0

12.0

3.90.26

7.08 0.23 6.79 0.23 2.07 0.23 4.01 0.23 7.04 0.23 6.45 0.23 1.29 0.23 4.23 0.23 0.9 0.23 3.11 0.23

13.0 9.0

10.0

20.0

2.982 7.65 7
7.562 8.215 5.914 3.166 5.412 5.009 0.606 3.847 2.365 10.071

250 150 0.3 75

10

0.05 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.01 5

that the pH values was in the range of 4.9-5.7 (mean: 5.56) which was above permissible level of WHO rain water standards. The pollutants from burning of fossil fuel, solid wastes etc.

high acidity of these rain water samples strongly suggested anthropogenic effect which might be due to climate change, air suggested anthropogenic effects which might be due to climate change or air pollutants that have travelled for hundreds of mile in the air before reacting with the rain to form a wet deposition. Other parameters such as hardness, dissolved oxygen (DO), International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 3, Issue 1, January-February 2013 Similarly all the selected metals analyzed were detected and they were above the WHO standard (WHO, 1993). This

Table 2 showed the physico-chemical parameters of rain water samples for the month of April 2010. The results showed

ND = Not detected

59

chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chloride, nitrate, sulphate and calcium were below the WHO total suspended solid (TSS) were not detected.
pH 5.8 Acidity (mg/l) 0.336 Hardness (mg/l) 8.0 DO (mg/l) 3.2 COD (mg/l) 40.0 BOD (mg/l) 36.8 Hydroxyl (mg/l) ND Bicarbonate(mg/l) ND Alkalinity (mg/l) ND TSS (mg/l) ND TS (mg/l) ND TDS (mg/l) ND Chlorides, Cl(mg/l) 1.988 Nitrates, NO3- (mg/l) 7.5 Sulphates, SO429.0 (mg/l) Calcium (mg/l) 14.89 0.23 Magnesium 8.29 (mg/l) 0.42 Iron (mg/l) 10.21 0.42 Chromium 3.02 (mg/l) 0.42 Bismuth 6.07 (mg/l) 0.42 Lead (mg/l) 0.09 0.42 Arsenic (mg/l) 0.39 0.42 Mercury 4.04 (mg/l) 0.42 Selenium 0.95 (mg/l) 0.42 Zinc (mg/l) 19.98 0.42 Parameter 1 5.9 0.288 8.0 1.6 40.0 38.4 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 4.5 14.0 8.1 0.23 6.7 0.23 3.01 0.23 4.11 0.23 7.1 0.23 1.1 0.23 1.04 0.23 3.78 0.23 2.06 0.28 19.01 0.23 2 5.8 0.528 8.0 3.6 40.0 36.4 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 3.0 16.0 3

U.C. Umeobika et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (1), 56-73

standards while parameters such as hydroxyl content, bicarbonate content, alkalinity, total solid (TS), total dissolved solid (TDS), Table 3: Physico-chemical Parameters of Rain water in May, 2010
5.8 0.368 8.0 3.2 40.0 36.8 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 7.5 5.0 5.16 0.25 20.01 0.25 8.76 0.25 0.65 0.25 0.94 0.25 5.12 0.25 1.49 0.25 5.03 0.25 0.56 0.25 5.01 0.25 4 5.7 0.296 8.0 3.6 40.0 36.4 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 2.0 12.0 3.04 0.35 5.6 0.35 2.98 0.35 1.89 0.35 7.12 0.35 4.39 0.35 0.01 0.35 0.18 0.35 2.78 0.35 12.89 0.35 5 5.0 0.36 8.0 4.8 40.0 35.2 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 9.0 5.0 6 5.8 0.4 8.0 1.6 40.0 38.4 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 12.0 10.0 7 5.3 0.352 8.0 3.2 40.0 36.8 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 7.5 11.0 8 9 10 Mean WHO Std 5.8-8.5 200 7.5

was in the range of 5.0 to 6.0 (mean = 5.69) which was slight acidic, which also suggested anthropogenic effect from either climate change, air pollutants from burning of fossil fuel etc. the values of heavy metals were above the WHO standards which also suggested anthropogenic effect.

Table 3 showed the physico-chemical parameters of rain water samples for the month of May, 2010. The pH values

8.8 0.28 8.9 0.28 2.9 0.28 0.1 0.28 0.99 0.28 1.41 0.28 0.09 0.28 5.91 0.28 0.1 0.28 6.98 0.28

ND = not detected

4.89 7.56 4.51 0.28 0.38 0.85 5.61 2.08 5.07 0.28 0.38 0.85 3.85 5.89 3.25 0.28 0.38 0.85 1.53 0.32 0.22 0.28 0.38 0.85 4.24 5.03 50.3 0.28 0.38 0.85 0.98 5.660.38 4.17 0.28 0.85 1.8 1.43 0.6 0.28 0.38 0.85 0.98 5.6 0.65 0.28 0.38 0.85 2.08 0.42 0.15 0.28 0.38 0.85 7.09 9.1 8.1 0.28 0.38 0.85

5.8 0.512 8.0 5.6 40.0 34.4 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 4.5 10.0 6.06 0.14 6.03 0.14 8.23 0.14 5.43 0.14 20.01 0.14 4.67 0.14 0.1 0.76 0.88 0.14 0.02 0.14 0.78 0.14

6.0 5.69 0.344 0.378 8.0 8.0 4.0 3.44 40.0 40 36.0 36.56 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 1.988 3.0 6.05 9.0 10.1 0.87 0.76 6.78 0.76 7.01 0.76 5.87 0.76 2.19 0.76 7.43 0.76 1.19 0.76 0.65 0.76 0.66 0.76 0.95 0.76 6.388 7.507 5.609 2.314 3.502 0.814 2.77 0.978 8.989

10 250 150 0.3 75

10.399

0.05 0.01 0.01 0.01 5 0.05

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pH Acidity (mg/l) Hardness (mg/l) DO (mg/l) COD (mg/l) BOD (mg/l) Hydroxyl (mg/l) Bicarbonate (mg/l) Alkalinity (mg/l) TSS (mg/l) TS (mg/l) TDS (mg/l) Chlorides, Cl(mg/l) Nitrates, NO3- (mg/l) Sulphates, SO42(mg/l) Calcium (mg/l) Chromium (mg/l) Bismuth (mg/l) Lead (mg/l) Mercury (mg/l) Selenium (mg/l) Zinc (mg/l) Arsenic (mg/l) Magnesium (mg/l) Iron (mg/l)

Parameter

5.9 0.272 8.0 3.6 40.0 36.4 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 2.0 16.0 3.4 0.17 9.1 0.17 10.03 0.17 0.64 0.17 3.09 0.17 0.06 0.17 1.2 0.17 3.99 0.17 1.01 0.17 3.99 0.17

6.0 0.488 8.0 3.6 40.0 36.4 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 9.0 22.0 2.08 0.17 4.1 0.17 2.87 0.17 5.59 0.17 5.59 0.17 7.05 0.17 0.23 0.17 4.07 0.17 0.9 0.17 4.07 0.17

Table 4: Physico chemical parameters of rain water in June, 2010


2 5.9 0.464 32.0 4.8 40.0 35.2 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 13.0 22.0 2.56 0.63 9.1 0.63 2.09 0.63 3.07 0.63 0.01 0.63 0.99 0.63 1.15 0.63 4.01 0.63 2.09 0.63 4.01 0.63 3 5.8 0.16 12.0 4.4 40.0 35.6 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 7.5 11.0 5.42 0.25 8.98 0.21 3.01 0.21 3.5 0.17 0.8 0.19 2.12 0.42 0.6 0.28 5.01 0.28 2.01 0.28 3.55 0.28 4 5.9 0.128 40.0 6.0 40.0 34.0 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 4.5 18.0 3.58 0.28 5.06 0.23 2.3 0.62 4.8 0.21 4.3 0.42 4.25 0.23 0.03 0.38 0.92 0.38 2.8 0.38 5.45 0.38 5 5.8 0.64 80.0 5.6 40.0 34.4 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 9.0 25.0 6.09 0.31 4.2 0.22 5.8 0.17 0.21 0.18 0.53 0.23 0.98 0.28 1.32 0.85 1.78 0.85 2.3 0.85 3.22 0.85 6 5.9 0.592 64.0 6.4 40.0 33.6 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 3.0 17.0 6.55 0.22 6.4 0.83 2.89 0.18 0.31 0.18 4.5 0.21 5.42 0.25 1.02 0.14 4.6 0.14 0.58 0.14 6.7 0.14 7 8.1 0.326 40.0 6.4 40.0 33.6 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 2.0 21.0 5.72 0.25 9.2 0.17 8 7.9 0.712 40.0 3.6 40.0 36.4 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 10.0 18.0 8.2 0.19 2.14 0.64 0.72 17 4.62 0.35 0.15 0.67 2.3 0.67 0.75 0.67 1.01 0.67 9

U.C. Umeobika et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (1), 56-73

3.2 0.23 0.61 0.17 6.18 0.21 0.78 0.35 0.1 0.76 0.89 0.76 0.22 0.76 0.89 0.76

6.82 0.23 7.5 0.33

8.4 6.56 0.456 0.409 24.0 45.6 4.4 4.88 40.0 40.0 35.6 35.12 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 1.988 4.5 6.45 20.0 19 2.79 4.501 0.89 6.78 7.042 0.22 5.4 0.17 5.47 0.33 2.12 0.22 7.2 0.28 0.18 0.41 4.581 2.634 2.784 3.347 0.598

10

Mean

WHO Std. 5.8-8.5 200 7.5

10 250 150 0.3 75

0.05 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.01 5

was in the range of 5.8 to 8.4 (mean=6.56), which was below the WHO standard. The rain was neutral which confirms the preposition (expectation of acid rain on the month of April, 2010) that was on ground at that time. climate change, air pollutants from burning of fossil fuels (gas flaring) etc.

Table 4 showed the physico-chemical parameters of rain water samples for the month of June, 2010. The pH values

ND = not detected

4.04 3.161 0.41 0.67 1.333 0.41 4.27 2.686 0.41

The values of the heavy metals were above the WHO standards which also suggested anthropogenic effect from

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values ranged between 4.3-8.4 (mean=5.57) which showed that rain water for this period was slightly acidic which suggested anthropogenic effect due to climate change, air pollutants from burning of fossil fuel etc. the pH values for this period was for this period were above the WHO standard which suggested anthropogenic effect.
pH 6.4 Acidity (mg/l) 0.288 Hardness (mg/l) 80.0 DO (mg/l) 8.2 COD (mg/l) 40.0 BOD (mg/l) 31.8 Hydroxyl (mg/l) ND Bicarbonate(mg/l) ND Alkalinity (mg/l) ND TSS (mg/l) ND TS (mg/l) ND TDS (mg/l) ND Chlorides, Cl(mg/l) 1.988 Nitrates, NO3- (mg/l) 7.5 Sulphates, SO42- (mg/l) 15.0 Calcium (mg/l) 5.5 0.27 Parameter 1 6.4 0.232 112 6.4 40.0 33.6 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 10.0 9.0 10.40 0.23 2 6.4 0.304 16.0 4.8 56.0 51.2 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 13.0 16.0 8.8 0.27 3 6.3 0.264 16.0 4.0 40.0 36.0 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 6.0 17.0 4.52 0.65 4 6.2 0.336 16.0 6.4 48.0 41.6 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 2.0 2.0 3.8 0.17 5 6.2 0.352 24.0 6.4 40.0 33.6 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 12.0 31.0 7.4 0.21 6 5.3 0.288 16.0 8.2 40.0 31.8 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 13.0 8.0 6.75 0.23 7

above the WHO recommended limit with the highest value shown in the month of April. The mean values of the heavy metals Table 6: Physico-chemical parameters of rain water in July, 2010
8

Table 5 showed the mean results of physico-chemical parameters for the months of April to June. From Table 5, the pH

Parameter pH Acidity (mg/l) Hardness (mg/l) DO (mg/l) COD (mg/l) BOD (mg/l) Hydroxyl (mg/l) Bicarbonate (mg/l) Alkalinity (mg/l) TSS (mg/l) TS (mg/l) TDS (mg/l) Chlorides, Cl(mg/l) Nitrates, NO3- (mg/l) Sulphates, SO42- (mg/l) Calcium (mg/l) Magnesium(mg/l) Iron (mg/l) Chromium (mg/l) Bismuth (mg/l) Lead (mg/l) Arsenic (mg/l) Mercury (mg/l) Selenium (mg/l) Zinc (mg/l)

Table 5: Mean Results for the Month of April to June, 2010


April 5.8 0.16 12.0 4.4 40.0 35.6 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 7.5 11.0 5.420.25 8.980.21 3.010.21 3.50.17 0.80.19 2.120.42 0.60.28 5.010.28 2.010.28 3.550.28 May 5.69 0.378 8.0 3.44 40 36.56 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 6.05 10.1 6.388 7.507 5.609 2.314 10.399 3.502 0.814 2.77 0.978 8.989 June 6.56 0.409 45.6 4.88 40.0 35.12 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 6.45 19 4.501 7.042 4.581 2.634 2.784 3.347 0.598 3.161 1.333 2.686 Mean 5.565 0.425 21.47 4.2 40 35.8

U.C. Umeobika et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (1), 56-73

Range 4.3-8.4 0.23-0.124 8-120 1.6-6 40 34-38.4

WHO Standard 5.8-8.5 200 7.5

ND = not detected

1.988 6.717 12.03 6.15 7.59 5.37 2.71 6.198 3.953 0.673 3.259 1.559 7.249

1.988 2-13 2-4 0.89-14.89 1.01-13.4 2.3-10.21 0.11-5.9 0.01-50.3 0.06-7.45 0.01-1.49 0.76-5.49 0.1-5.9 0.45-19.98

10 250 75 150 0.3 0.05

0.05 0.01 0.01 0.01 5

International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 3, Issue 1, January-February 2013

6.1 4.9 0.296 0.4 16.0 8.0 5.6 6.0 40.0 40.0 34.4 34.0 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 1.988 12.0 4.5 7.0 2.0 3.01 3.01 0.25 0.25

6.0 0.496 8.0 4.0 40.0 36.0 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 7.5 20.0 2.05 0.38

10

Mean 6.02 0.325 45.6 6.0 40.0 36.4

WHO Std 5.8-8.5 200 7.5

1.988 8.75 12.7 5.524

10 250 75

62

Chromium (mg/l) Bismuth (mg/l) Arsenic (mg/l) Zinc (mg/l) Lead (mg/l)

Magnesium(mg/l) Iron (mg/l)

Selenium (mg/l)

Mercury (mg/l)

6.4 (mean=6.02) which showed that the rain water was below the WHO standard. However, the values of heavy metals followed a similar trend with other months which was above the WHO recommended standards which suggested anthropogenic effect as earlier discussed.
Parameter pH Acidity (mg/l) 1 1 6.1 2 6.4 3 0.72 6.2

Table 6 showed the physico-chemical parameters for the month of July, 2010. The pH values was in the range of 4.9 to Table 7: Physico chemical parameters of rain water in August, 2010
4 0.826 12.0 4.0 48.0 44.0 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 12.0 9.0 5.5 0.23 7.2 0.23 2.98 0.23 3.07 0.23 0.21 0.23 1.01 0.23 0.05 0.23 5.2 5 0.56 24.0 3.6 48.0 44.6 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 10.0 1.0 4.06 0.22 10.51 0.22 4.42 0.22 5.02 0.22 2.3 0.22 4 0.22 0.99 0.22 5.5 6 0.64 32.0 4.4 48.0 43.6 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 13.0 6.0 3.2 0.21 6.5 0.21 7.01 0.21 1.62 0.21 5.6 0.21 4.03 0.21 1.11 0.21 5.8 7 0.715 24.0 4.0 40.0 36.0 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 2.0 4.0 3.6 0.25 5.8 0.25 3.5 0.25 3.98 0.25 6.71 0.25 0.75 0.25 1.02 0.25 5.9 8 0.496 56.0 3.6 40.0 36.4 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 3.0 4.0 2.8 0.42 2.4 0.42 5.8 0.42 0.18 0.42 4.32 0.42 5.23 0.42 1.15 0.42 5.9 9 0.296 24 4 40.0 36.0 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 12.0 7 3 0.63 8.8 0.63 3.01 0.63 0.22 0.63 7.15 0.63 5.12 0.63 0.52 0.63 5.9 0.552 8.0 4.4 56.0 51.6 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 9.0 4.0 6.7 0.17 7.5 0.17 6.02 0.17 5.42 0.17 6.72 0.17 6.5 0.17 0.1 0.17

7.85 0.27 9.8 0.27 0.65 0.27 6.08 0.27 0.1 0.27 1.16 0.27 4.01 0.27 0.92 0.27 0.89 0.27

5.45 0.28 2.3 0.28 0.78 0.28 6.9 0.28 2.15 0.28 0.4 0.28 3.15 0.28 1.8 0.28 2.03 0.28

U.C. Umeobika et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (1), 56-73


8.14 0.27 2.86 0.27 1.54 0.27 1.11 0.27 0.47 0.27 0.03 0.27 4.11 0.27 2.03 0.27 0.78 0.27 15.05 5.6 0.65 0.17 7.2 2.7 0.65 0.17 0.72 5.7 0.65 0.17 0.87 3.82 0.65 0.17 3.01 4.38 0.65 0.17 1.2 0.05 0.65 0.17 5.52 0.17 0.65 0.17 2.14 2.91 0.65 0.17 6.04 11.06 0.65 0.17 6.01 0.21 3.0 50.21 1.54 0.21 5.42 0.21 6.02 0.21 1.48 0.21 4.02 0.21 1.01 0.21 4.51 0.21 3.41 0.23 6.2 0.23 0.23 0.23 3.41 0.23 5.61 0.23 1.32 0.23 5.14 0.23 0.92 0.23 8.2 0.23

ND = not detected

8.2 0.25 3.4 0.25 2.1 0.25 7.02 0.25 0.63 0.25 0.88 0.25 1.27 0.25 0.17 0.25 15.4 0.25

4.2 0.25 7.53 0.25 2.13 0.25 6.01 0.25 4.16 0.25 0.13 0.27 0.72 0.27 0.82 0.27 7.28 0.27

10.4 0.38 2.3 0.38 5.89 0.38 0.73 0.27 7.44 0.27 1.22 0.27 0.87 0.27 0.02 0.27 5.15 0.27

7.431 4.734 2.128 4.137 3.397 0.787 2.898 1.274 6.134

0.05 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.01 5

150 0.3

10

Hardness (mg/l) DO (mg/l) COD (mg/l) BOD (mg/l) Hydroxyl (mg/l) Bicarbonate (mg/l) Alkalinity (mg/l) TSS (mg/l) TS (mg/l) TDS (mg/l) Chlorides, Cl(mg/l) Nitrates, NO3- (mg/l) Sulphates, SO42- (mg/l) Calcium (mg/l) Magnesium (mg/l) Iron (mg/l) Chromium (mg/l) Bismuth (mg/l) Lead (mg/l) Arsenic (mg/l)

International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 3, Issue 1, January-February 2013

16.0 6.0 40.0 34.0 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 9.0 4.0 12.05 0.85 9.25 0.85 3.01 0.85 0.92 0.85 7.01 0.85 0.23 0.85 0.23 0.85

24.0 4.0 40.0 36.0 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 13.0 2.0 2.4 0.14 4.8 0.14 2.9 0.14 3.16 0.14 1.11 0.14 7.02 0.14 1.07 0.14

6.0 0.4

Mean 5.89 0.642 22.8 4.2 44 39.82

8.0 4.0 40.0 36.0 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 3.0 2.0 6.01 0.27 5.3 0.27 4.5 0.27 5.88 0.27 2.01 0.27 7.78 0.27 0.17 0.27

WHO Standard 5.8-8.5 200 7.5

1.988 7.7 4 4.932 6.806 4.333 2.947 4.314 4.167 0.651

10 250 75 150 0.3 0.05 0.05 0.01

63

Mercury (mg/l) Zinc (mg/l)

Selenium (mg/l)

6.4 (mean=5.89) as expected from rain water. The pH values were within the accepted level for rain water (WHO, 1993). The anthropogenic effect. Table 8: Mean Results for the Month of July and August, 2010 July August Mean 5.89 0.642 22.8 4.2 44 39.82 ND ND ND ND ND ND 1.988 7.7 4 4.932 6.806 4.333 2.947 4.314 4.167 0.651 3.692 1.407 4.126 5.955 0.484 34.2 5.1 42 38.11 Range 4.9-6.4 0.232-1 8-160 200 3.6-8.4 7.5 40-48 31.8-51.6

rain water sample for this month was polluted by heavy metals which were above the WHO standard which suggested Parameter pH 6.02 Acidity (mg/l) 0.325 Hardness (mg/l) 45.6 DO (mg/l) 6.0 COD (mg/l) 40.0 BOD (mg/l) 36.4 Hydroxyl Content (mg/l) ND Bicarbonate Content (mg/l) ND Alkalinity (mg/l) ND TSS(mg/l) ND TS (mg/l) ND TDS (mg/l) ND Chloride Content (mg/l) 1.988 Nitrate Content (mg/l) 8.75 Sulphate Content (mg/l) 12.7 Calcium (mg/l) 5.524 Magnesium(mg/l) 7.431 Iron (mg/l) 4.734 Chromium (mg/l) 2.128 Bismuth (mg/l) 4.137 Lead (mg/l) 3.397 Arsenic (mg/l) 0.787 Mercury (mg/l) 2.898 Selenium (mg/l) 1.274 Zinc (mg/l) 6.134 WHO Standard 5.8-8.5

Table 7 showed the physico-chemical parameters for the month of August, 2010. The pH values ranged between 5.2 to

4.21 0.85 0.96 0.85 0.62 0.85

3.75 0.14 1.6 0.14 3.04 0.14

5.02 0.23 1.89 0.23 0.93 0.23

U.C. Umeobika et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (1), 56-73


5.04 0.22 0.82 0.22 1.02 0.22 3.15 0.21 2.62 0.21 8.41 0.21 0.84 0.25 2.02 0.25 0.92 0.25 5.25 0.42 0.3 0.42 7.4 0.42 1.23 0.63 2.4 0.63 12.7 0.63

ND = not detected

5.3 0.17 0.04 0.17 5.43 0.17

3.06 0.27 1.42 0.27 0.79 0.27

3.692 1.407 4.126

0.01 0.01 5

ND = not detected

8.225 8.350 5.228 7.119 4.534 2.538 4.226 3.782 0.719 3.295 1.341 5.13

3-23 1-20 3-12.05 2.4-15.05 2.3-9.8 0.18-5.89 0.21-7.01 0.23-7.02 0.03-1.18 0.17-5.14 0.02-2.91 0.62-12.7

10 250 75 150 0.3 0.05 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.01 5

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3.7, the pH values ranged between 4.9-6.4 (mean 5.96). this showed that the rain water samples for this period was neutral and below the WHO standard (WHO, 1993). The rain water for this period was also polluted with heavy metals but the level of effect. Data Management and Multivariate Statistical Techniques Multivariate analysis of rain water data was subjected through Students T- test and Factor Analysis (FA) pollution was less when compared with the first period (Table 3.4). the high values of heavy metals suggested anthropogenic (Johnson and Wichern, 1998; Millard and Neerchal 2001; Yidana et al 2008). The rain water samples were grouped into World Health Organization (WHO, 1993) (Table 9). Table 9: Descriptive Statistical Data of Rain Water samples

Table 8 showed the mean values of physico-chemical parameters for the month of July and August, 2010. From Table

U.C. Umeobika et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (1), 56-73

two periods; early rain (April-June) and late rain (July-August). The data sets were first summarized as well as their

Parameter pH 5.565 0.425 4.200 21.467 12.033 6.150 7.588 5.368 2.705 6.198 3.953 0.673 3.259 1.559 7.249 2.319 6.717 35.8 40 Mean

Early Rain 4.3-8.4 1.6-6 40 Range

Acidity mg/l Hardness mg/l Sulphate mg/l Mg (mg/l) Fe (mg/l) Cr (mg/l) Bi (mg/l) Pb (mg/l) As (mg/l) Se (mg/l) Zn (mg/l) Ca (mg/l) Chloride mg/l Nitrate mg/l BOD mg/l COD mg/l DO mg/l

0.23-0.124 34-38.4 8-120 1.988 2-13 2--4

0.791 0.234 1.173 26.334 0.754 4.183 6.184 3.797 3.735 2.678 2.165 9.197 2.599 0.568 1.780 1.254 6.187 1.173 0

Std. Dev.

Coeff. of Var. 0.133 0.550 0.279 0.033 1.227 0.325 0.623 0.514 0.617 0.492 0.499 0.800 1.484 0.657 0.844 0.546 0.804 0.854 -

Late Rain Mean 0.484 5.100 38.11 1.988 8.225 8.350 5.228 7.119 4.534 2.538 4.226 3.782 0.719 3.295 1.341 5.130 34.2 42 5.955 4.9-6.4 Range 3.6-8.4 40-48 8-160 1.988 3--23 1--20 Std. Dev. 0.21 0.429 1.455 39.651 4.109 7.761 2.767 2.876 2.147 2.073 2.535 2.588 1.804 0.871 4.421 0.52 0 4.401 5.938

0.232-1 31.8-51.6

0.072 0.434 0.285 0.108 0.156 0.105 0.500 0.929 0.529 0.404 0.474 0.817 0.684 0.723 0.547 0.862 0.65 0.6 -

Coeff. of Var.

WHO Maximum Allowable Levels 5.6-8.5 7.5

200 250 0.05 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.01 5 150 0.3 75 10

0.89-14.89 1.01-13.14 2.3-10.21 0.11-5.9 0.01-50.3 0.06-7.45 0.01-1.49 0.45-19.98 0.76-5.49 0.1-5.9

2.4-15.05 2.3-9.8

3-12.05

0.18-5.89 0.21-7.01 0.23-7.02 0.03-1.18 0.17-5.14 0.02-2.91 0.62-12.7

Hg (mg/l)

coefficients of variation of most of the parameters measured were much larger than the average (1/3 or 33.33%). This suggested that the data was positively skewed--very few of the measurement scores lie below the average measurement score. International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 3, Issue 1, January-February 2013

The descriptive statistical data for the rain water samples are shown in Table 9. It was observed that the values of the

65

rain) since no significant variation was observed in their results. From Table 9, the pH for the early rain ranged between 4.3 8.4 with a mean of 5.57, which was slightly acidic, while that of the late rain ranges between 4.9-6.4 with a mean of 6.0. The later result would be regarded as neutral as the value was within the permissible level of WHO rain water standards. Such pH that was near to neutral was indicative of unpolluted water (Fakayode, 2005). making it potentially harmful for human consumption. Thus, the slight acidity of these rain waters suggested that the waters wastes etc. Acidity increases the capacity of the water to attack geological materials and leach toxic trace metals into the water,

A similar trend was observed in the parameters determined for the samples for the two periods (early rain and late

U.C. Umeobika et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (1), 56-73

were susceptible to some degree of trace metal pollution, possibly through atmospheric deposition as a result of samples as expected from rain water.

anthropogenic forces. These factors might be due to change in climate of the place, acid rain due to burning of fossil fuels, town The total suspended solid (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity, hydroxyl and bicarbonate content were absent in the CaCO3mg/l as soft, 75-150 CaCO3mg/l as hard while samples having total hardness of over 300 CaCO 3mg/l was hard. Based on these, the rain water samples in this study for the two periods (early and late rain) fell under soft water. The total metals fell within the maximum acceptable limit by WHO (1993). The degree of hardness of the water samples were low and and this was consistence for all the water samples in both early and late rain water. content impacts taste and could cause corrosion (Adeyeye and Ayejuyo, 2002). permissible limit. Water has been classified on the basis of hardness as follows (Agbaire and Oyibo, 2009): water having 0-75

concentration of divalent metal ions (primarily Ca and Mg) expressed in mg/l of equivalent CaCO 3 is termed total hardness of this might encourage the dissolution of heavy metals (Adeyeye and Ayejuyo, 2002). This might explain the presence of most of

water. Mg and Ca were in the range of 1.01-13.14mg/l (mean; 7.57 mg/l) and 0.89-14.89 mg/l (mean; 6.15 mg/l) respectively

for the early rain and for the late rain, 2.4-15.05mg/l (mean; 7.12mg/l) and 3-12.05 (mean; 5.23mg/l) respectively. These the metals in the rain water samples (Ipinmoroti et al. 1997). Chloride was in the range of 1. 1.988-mg/l (mean, 1.988-mg/l) Chlorides are relatively harmless to organisms except when converted to Cl 2, ClO-and ClO3- which are toxic. High chloride

Dissolved oxygen (DO) is very crucial for survival of aquatic organisms and it is also used to evaluate the degree of freshness of a river. The DO mean value of early and late rain was 4.25 and 5.89, respectively, and was quite adequate and within the WHO showed that all samples had low nitrate values when compared with WHO (1993) standard. Nitrate in natural waters could be traced to percolating nitrate from sources such as decaying plant and animal materials, agricultural fertilizers, domestic physiological problem. Drinking water containing more than 50mg/l nitrate could cause methamoglobinemia in infants (Uba sewage (Adeyeye and Abulude, 2004). Nitrate content in rain water might come from burning of town wastes and fossil fuels because of the reaction of nitrate with amine in diet forming carcinogenic nitrosomoamines. Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn etc. are among the objectionable to consumers and even become hazardous to health. The nitrate values ranged between 2-13mg/l (mean 7.9205mg/l) and 2-13mg/l (mean 8.8125mg/l). The results

and flaring of petroleum from wells. A nitrate content of more than 100 mg/l impart bitter taste to water and might cause and Aghogho, 2001). Epidemiological studies have predicted association between exposures to nitrate and gastric cancer general elements essential for human health and metabolism and should be available in normal rain water (Safe Drinking International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 3, Issue 1, January-February 2013

Water Comm., 1980). However, if one or more of these elements occur in the water above certain limits, the water may become

66

WHO recommended guideline maximum values for water potability. They would therefore, pose either physiological or aesthetic problem to the usage of the waters studied for drinking or domestic purposes. Caution should be exercised if these waters were to be consumed.
S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 10 7 8 9

It was noticeable from Table 9 that the mean concentrations for heavy metal are generally high and well above the

U.C. Umeobika et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (1), 56-73

anthropogenic sources for arsenic, iron, mercury, zinc, lead, chromium, bismuth and selenium (U.S.EPA,2008).
8.034 3.252 6.482 3.654 5.758 3.192 7.678 4.302 4.62 3.37

The high mean concentrations of heavy metals coupled with high coefficients of variation (Table 9) suggested Table 10: Mean Concentration of Heavy Metal for each Sampling Point
Fe 4.064 4.424 5.252 1.706 0.966 2.918 2.542 2.37 4.93 3.564 Hg 1.208 2.884 2.736 3.862 2.254 3.434 5.8 0.23 0.99 2.98 Cr 5.718 1.676 2.488 4.848 4.788 6.532 1.562 6.8 4.85 5.83 Bi 1.506 4.678 3.456 4.584 3.036 5.392 7.392 5.63 2.26 0.91 Pb 0.266 0.876 0.418 1.382 1.196 0.438 0.586 0.12 0.85 0.76 As 0.948 1.692 1.644 1.544 2.802 1.662 0.638 1.768 0.882 1.134 Se 5.612 8.894 2.882 4.904 11.198 6.302 4.012 8.378 3.77 8.06 Zn

and 9 had the highest mean concentration of iron showing high dissolution of this metal. Sampling points 4, 3 and 1 showed high dissolution for bismuth while sampling point 8 showed a similar trend for zinc. Two sample T-Test T-test and the result has been shown in Table 13. HYPOTHESIS
L)

high dissolution of mercury, sampling points 10 showed high dissolution of chromium and lead. Also sampling point 9 showed The significant difference between the population mean of rain water samples for the two periods was analysed using

Table 10 showed the mean concentration of heavy metal for each sampling point. From Table 3.9, sampling points 1

H0: Mean difference of the rain samples for the two periods (early and late rain) were significantly equal. i.e. M D = 0 or (ME M H1: Mean difference of the rain samples for the two periods (early and late rain) were not significantly equal. i.e. MD 0 or (ME ML) 0. Where, Test Statistics, t =
D=

= 0.

SD = Sample standard deviation of difference nD = Number of pairs

Sample mean difference

SD nD

-0

Assumption:

The mean difference in the rain samples is approximately normally distributed.

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67

U.C. Umeobika et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (1), 56-73 Decision Rule: Table 11: Significant difference between the Population Mean of Rain Water Samples (Paired Sample Statistics)
EARLY RAIN LATE RAIN 31.50753 35.05737 Mean 19 19 N Std. Deviation 109.522238 96.123746 Std. Error Mean 22.052300 25.126125

At significant level = 0.05. Reject H0, if p-value is less than 0.05 or accept H0, if p-value is greater than 0.05.

Table 12: Significant difference between two Periods (Paired Samples Correlations) EARLY RAIN & LATE RAIN 19 N Correlation 1.000 .000 Sig.

Table 13: Significant difference between the two Periods (Paired Samples Test) Std. Error Std. Deviation Mean 13.684805 3.139510 Paired Differences 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference -10.145707 Lower Upper t df

Deduction:

EARLY RAIN - LATE RAIN -3.549842

Mean

hypothesis. Thus, it has been concluded that there was no significant difference between the population mean of rain water samples for the two periods (early rain and late rain). Pollution Index (Pi) standard. It is given as: Pollution index (Pi) is expressed as a function of the concentration of individual parameter as against the baseline

Since the p-value was greater than 0.05, it then meant that there was insufficient evidence to reject the null

3.046023

-1.131

18

Sig. p-value (2-tailed) .273

Pollution index (Pi) = Concentration Standard It shows the relative pollution contributed by each item. The critical value is 1.0, values greater than 1.0 indicates significant degree of pollution while values less than 1.0 shows no pollution.

Pollution index values obtained for iron, chromium, arsenic, selenium, mercury and zinc in all samples studied indicated that the rain waters were polluted. A higher degree of pollution was evident in mercury, selenium and lead than in other heavy metals. Consumption of Zn in excess of WHO recommended value may lead to gastrointestinal disturbances such as pain, cancer while mercury affects the kidney and central nervous system and lead affects mental development in infants, toxic to the central and peripheral nervous systems (Uba and Aghogho, 2001). The rain waters therefore need to be appropriately through anthropogenic roots as discussed earlier. International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 3, Issue 1, January-February 2013 treated with respect to these two major toxic metallic elements before consumption. These metals must have entered the rain cramp, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and pancreatic toxicity (Adeyeye and Abulude, 2004). Arsenic and chromium causes

The level of pollution (pollution Index Value) was shown in Table 14. All the heavy metals determined were detected.

68

Table 14: Computation Data of Pollution Index for the Rain Water Samples
Parameter DO mg/l pH Early Rain Pollution Index 1.006253 0.1073 0.6717 17.893 79.06 325.9 155.9 67.3 54.1 ND 0.082 0.009 0.56 Late Rain Pollution Index 0.9403 0.8225 0.0334 15.113 50.76 75.64 329.5 134.1 1.026 71.9 ND 0.171 0.68

U.C. Umeobika et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (1), 56-73

Hardness mg/l Sulphate mg/l Mg (mg/l) Pb (mg/l) Zn (mg/l) Se (mg/l) Fe (mg/l) Cr (mg/l) Bi (mg/l) Ca (mg/l) Chloride mg/l Nitrate mg/l

0.048132 0.05059

0.007952 0.07051 0.04746

As((mg/l) Hg (mg/l)

drinking water hence did not indicate pollution because their levels were below the limits for portable water. The Pearson relationship with all the heavy metals that were determined which suggested that the low pH of the rain water samples (slightly acidic) leads to dissolution of some of the trace metals in the rain waters. This relationship confirmed the anthropogenic effect caused by air pollutants from either climate change of the area, burning of fossil fuel etc. which had resulted in wet deposition (acid rain) which aided in the dissolution of some heavy metals in the rain water samples. The heavy metals strongly correlated among themselves positively, thus suggesting that they were influenced by

product moment correlation coefficients between measured parameters were shown in Table 15. The pH showed a negative

However the results of the other parameters studied were cosidered low when compared with the WHO standard for

1.4498

common phenomenon i.e. anthropogenic forces as discussed. The best correlations, significant at P<0.05, were observed for Cr-Hg (r=0.96) and Ca-Zn (r=0.97). This implied that the cycling of the correlated metals might be associated. The correlation relatively weak correlations (r0.50) were observed between Ca-Bi, Mg-Pb and Pb-Zn. Factor analysis (r=0.94), Mg-Fe (r=0.91), Mg-Zn (r=0.88), Fe-Zn (r=0.94), Pb-Hg (r=0.89) and Pb-Se (r=0.94) Furthermore, considerable correlations between Fe-Bi (r=0.64), Cr-Pb (r=0.84), Cr-Se (r=0.79) and Ca-Pb (r=0.68) were also observed. Also significant but From factor analysis complex linear correlation between heavy metal concentration in rain water was determined,

matrix also showed strong significant positive correlation (inter metal relationships) (P<0.05) between Ca-Mg (r=0.94), Ca-Fe

which enabled interpretation of correlation of elements in the study area. Comparisons were made within each of the rain water samples. Elements belonging to a given factor were defined by factor matrix after varimax rotation, with those having International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 3, Issue 1, January-February 2013 manner of individual association of each element in rain water was determined by principal component method (Table 16).

strong correlations grouped into factors. The identification of factors was based on dominant influence. The distribution

69

Based on Eigen values and varimax rotation three factors explained most of the variability (total variance explained was about
pH

U.C. Umeobika et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (1), 56-73

57% for the rain water data).


pH 1 .486 .248 DO 1 .486 .784 .908 (*) .441 -.219 -.408 -.210 -.051 -.699

DO

Table 15: Pearson product moment correlation coefficients between measured parameters
Acidity HardnessNitrate Sulphate Ca .040 .784 1 .792 -.210 -.072 -.220 -.155 -.435 -.475 -.339 -.241 .412 -.206 -.174 -.166 .248 .908 (*) 1 .792 .078 -.051 .810 .441 .078 1 -.699 -.072 -.442 -.163 -.207 -.495 -.296 -.691 -.002 -.576 -.342 -.435 -.846 -.355 -.087 -.220 -.203 -.442 1 .940 (*) (*) .943 .294 .532 .676 .119 .258 .613 .972 (**) Mg -.631 -.099 -.298 -.155 -.017 -.163 .940 (*) 1 (*) .911 .214 .330 .579 .044 .188 .670 .882 (*) Fe -.702 -.463 -.252 -.435 -.425 -.207 .943 (*) (*) 1 .911 .183 .644 .492 .156 .065 .463 .938 (*) Cr -.268 -.385 .788 -.475 -.035 -.495 .294 .214 .183 1 -.256 .864 .959 (**) .789 .102 -.837 Bi -.641 -.701 -.209 -.339 -.778 -.296 .532 .330 .644 1 -.256 -.022 .650 -.391 .692 Pb -.653 -.318 .596 .062 .676 .579 .492 .864 1 -.022 -.523 .885 (*) (*) .902 .520 -.241 -.691 As -.287 .032 .412 .119 .044 .156 .650 1 -.837 -.523 -.797 -.642 .340 -.588 -.180 -.002

Hg

Acidity Nitrate Ca Fe Cr Bi

Hardness .040 Sulphate .810 Mg

-.219 -.408 1

-.288 -.178 .809 .215 .258 .188 .065 .959 (**) (*) 1 .885 -.391 -.797 .821 .062 -.206 -.576

Se

-.386 -.001 .341 .298 .613 .670 .463 .789 .902 (*) 1 .821 .413 -.287 -.642 -.174 -.342

Zn

-.877 -.392 -.190 -.166 .972 (**) (*) (*) .882 .938 .102 .692 .520 .340 .062 .413 1 -.297 -.435

-.846 -.355 -.087 -.631 -.099 -.298 -.702 -.463 -.252 -.268 -.385 .788 -.653 -.318 .596 -.287 .032 -.288 -.178 .809 -.386 -.001 .341 -.641 -.701 -.209 -.588

-.203 -.017 -.425 -.035 -.778 .062 .215 .298 -.180

Pb As Se

Hg Zn

* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Fe Cr Bi Element 0.096 0.318 0.252 0.195 0.21 0.236 0.335 0.239 Communality

-.877 -.392 -.190

Table 16: Factor Analysis Result of Rain Water Samples


1.764 1.303 1.064 0.919 0.696 0.404 Eigen 1.463 22.048 18.288 16.292 % of Variance 22.048 40.336 56.628 Cumulative % 0.501 0.192 0.621 0.634 -0.32 Factor 1 -0.378 -0.178 -0.641

-.297

-.287

Pb As Se Zn

0.139 0.336 0.278 0.198 0.539

Factor 2 -0.788 -0.537 -0.123

0.115 0.024 0.471 0.582 0.24

Factor 3 -0.802 -0.167 -0.014

Hg

International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 3, Issue 1, January-February 2013

0.387

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U.C. Umeobika et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (1), 56-73 Factor 1 and Selenium. This factor indicated strong association for mercury (r=0.63), Arsenic (r=0.62) and Fe (r=0.50) in the rain water. factor analysis on rain water factor model 1 was interpreted to represent mercury contaminated rain water. This was because Hg had a high correlation value (r=0.63). Sampling point 4 have the highest dissolution of mercury. The source of contamination was largely anthropogenic. Factor 2 Factor 1 exhibited 22% of the total variance of 57% with positive loading on all elements except Chromium, Bisthmus

Mercury concentration ranged from 0.76-5.49mg/l (mean = 3.26) while that of Arsenic ranged from 0.01-1.49mg/l (mean = 0.67). There was strong negative loadings on selenium (r=-0.64) indicating an inverse relation with other metals. Based on

19.98mg/l with an average of 7.25mg/l. Sampling point 2 had the highest dissolution of Zn. The negative loading on chromium indicated an inverse relation with zinc in the rain water. Chromium showed an average concentration of 2.71mg/l. Factor 3 (r=-0.802). Selenium varied from 0.1-5.9mg/l with an average of 1.56mg/l. Element Fe Cr Pb As Zn Present Study 2.3-10.21 0.11-5.9 0.06-7.45 0.01-1.49 0.45-12.7 Akure 0-0.2 3.3-6.1 0.1-0.5 0.1-0.2 Southern Nigeria 0.11-0.12 0.21-0.44 0.24-1.30 Table 17: Comparison of the Result with other Results Pakistan 0-0.04 0-4.10 0.6-4.20 0.1-4.3 USA 0.83

Factor 2 exhibited 18.2% of the total variance with positive loading on Zinc. Zinc concentration varied from 0.45Factor 3 showed 16.2% of the total variance and with positive loading on selenium and negative loading on bismuth Norway <0.35 50.9 Britain 0-0.07

0.15-0.4

Fe, Cr, As, Zn and Pb were higher than those recorded in countries outside Nigeria. The higher content of these heavy metals may be related to anthropogenic effect which aids in dissolution of these metals due to ongoing climate change, acid rain, ozone layer depletion etc. CONCLUSION The above analysis demonstrates the use of multivariate statistical techniques to study the source/genesis of physico-

A comparison of this study with results from other countries was shown in Table 17. It was obvious that the levels of

Source: Nkono and Asubiojo (1998), Ward et al. (1999).

0.04-0.05 0.12-3.81

chemical parameters in rain water samples. This study investigated the potential danger or guidelines otherwise that may be COD, BOD, chloride, nitrate, magnesium, calcium and hardness were below pollution level when compared with WHO themselves positively, thus suggesting that they are influenced by common phenomenon i.e. anthropogenic forces. These anthropogenic factors might have come from burning of town solid wastes, flaring of petroleum gases, ongoing climate change International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 3, Issue 1, January-February 2013 etc. Data set was also analyzed using factor analysis (FA). FA identified three factors responsible for data structure explaining

associated with rain water in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Campus (Anambra State). Parameters such as acidity, DO, allowable levels for drinking water. However, the pollution index for iron, chromium, arsenic, selenium, bismuth mercury and done was to ascertain the effect or relationship of one parameter to another. The heavy metals strongly correlated among zinc indicated that the rain water samples were polluted and the early rain water samples were slightly acidic. The correlation

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57% of total variance in the rain water and allowed to group selected parameters according to common features. Based on highest correlation value (0.63). Broadly, most of the rain waters bodies in the study area had mean levels of arsenic, iron, mercury, zinc, chromium, RECOMMENDATION

U.C. Umeobika et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (1), 56-73

factor analysis on the rain water, factor model 1 was interpreted to be mercury contaminated water. This is because Hg has the selenium and lead which were above WHO guideline values. High concentrations associated with high coefficients of variation therefore suggest anthropogenic sources for arsenic, iron, mercury, zinc and lead.

level of climate and other pollution factors impact on the rain water in this area. Government should also embark on mitigation policies addressing the release of toxic gases into the environment that can cause rain water pollution as well as indiscriminate deforestation, over grazing and other agricultural practice which degrade the environment and lead to greenhouse effect, acid rain and above all contribute to climate change. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Adewolu M.A , Akintola S.L, Jimoh A.A, Owodehinde F.G, Whenu,O.O, Fakoya K.A (2009):Environmental Threats to the REFERENCES Development of Aquaculture in Lagos State, Nigeria. European Journal of Scientific Research .34 (3):337-347 Ife, Nigeria. J. Chem. Soc. Nig. 29, 98-103. and its Environment. Pak. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 45, 10-16. Adeyeye E.I and Abulude F.O. (2004). Analytical assessments of some surface and ground water resources in IleAdeyeye E. I. and Ayejuyo O. O. (2002). Assessment of the Physicochemical Status of a Textile Industrys Effluent in Abraka, Nigeria , African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Vol. 3. 116-118. Springer-Verlag New YorK Atsuko Adachi, Yoko Asaka, Midori Ozasa, Noriko Sawai, and Tadashi Kobayashi (1990):Effect of Air Nigeria. J. Environ Mgt and health. 9 (4): 176-181 Agbaire P. O. and Oyibo I. P., (2009). Seasonal Variation of some Physico-Chemical Properties of Borehole Water

It is recommended that routine analyses of this type should also be embarked upon on a regular basis to ascertain the

Pollution Chemical Components on the Acidity of Rain Water in Japan. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 45:495-499 Ayodele J.T and M.B Abubakar (1998): Trace element contamination of rain water in the semiarid region of Kano, fromSome Industrial Areas of Lagos State Nigeria. European Journal of Scientific Research. 41 (3): 383-390 composition of roof-harvested rainwater Water Research, 40(1):37-44 Ibadan Nigeria. Ajean Ragee 10, 1-13. pp. 30-35 Evans C.A , P.J. Coombes, R.H. Dunstan (2006): Wind, rain and bacteria: The effect of weather on the microbial Fakayode S. O., (2005). Impact Assessment of industrial Effluent on Water Quality of the Recieveing Alaro River in Kemp P.H (1971): Chemistry of natural watersVI: Classification of waters Water Research,5(10): 943-956. Millard S. and Neerchal N. K., (2001). Environmental statistics with S-PLUS. CRC Press, U.S.A, 56-75. Johnson R. A. and Wichern D. W., (1998). Applied Multivariate Statistical Analysis. 5th Edition. Prentice Hall, U.S.A, Dinrifo R.R., Babatunde S.O.E., Bankole Y.O., Demu Q.A (2010): Physico- Chemical Properties of Rain Water Collected

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13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

Nicole M. Lawson, Robert P. Mason (2001) Concentration of Mercury, Methyl - mercury, Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic, and 4039-4052 Nsi EW (2007). Basic Environmental Chemistry, The Return Press ltd, Makurdi, 8: 87. acidification and atmospheric deposition, Envir. Toxicol. Chem, 9, 825. Water Research, 35(10): 2489-2495 Institute Public Analyst of Nigeria News, 2, 11-14. rain events Water Research, 41 (16): 3655-3666 Safe Drinking Water Comm. (1980). Drinking Water and Health Vol 3, Nat. Acad. Press, Washington, 415.

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Selenium in the Rain and Stream Water of Two Contrasting Watersheds in Western Maryland Water Research,35(17): Steinnea, E. (1990), Lead, cadmium and other metals in Scandinavian surface waters, with emphasis on Uba B. N. and Aghogho O., (2001). Rain Water Quality from Different Roof Catchments in Port- Harcourt District. Vikaskumar G. Shah, R. Hugh Dunstan, Phillip M. Geary, Peter Coombes, Timothy K. Roberts,Tony Wooven, K. (1974): Chemistry of the Atmosphere, 2nd ed . Gordon Willson U.S. 214, 283 Guidelines, Final Task Group Meeting. Geneva, pp. 21-25. environments possible effects by acid rain Water Research,15(4): 413-419.

Susumu Kawakubo, Shunsuke Hashi, Masaaki Iwatsuki (2001) Physicochemical speciation of molybdenum in rain water

Rothkirch (2007): Comparisons of water quality parameters from diverse catchments during dry periods and following World Health Organisation (WHO) (1993). Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, Revision of the 1984

Yasunori Mahara, Akira Kudo (1981) Interaction and mobility of cobalt-60 between water and sediments in marine

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