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GP Essay Skills - Paper 2 - Paraphrasing Questions 1. PARAPHRASING Question Types: - Explain what the author means by .

Use your own words as far as possible. - What does the author mean when he says Use your own words as far as possible. Purpose: - To test if you can understand ideas well enough to put them in your own words Task: - What is the question asking you to do? Directional terms, eg. why provide reasons - Identify the key idea in the passage and express it in your own words Example: i. Why would women be more comfortable in the workplace nowadays than in the past? Use your own words as far as possible. *2+ (A Level 2007) Lift This coincided with the revolution in the nature of the workplace where, on the production line confrontational management has largely given way tocooperative enterprises in which women feel at home. Paraphrase The unprecedented change in the formerlyautocratic, male-dominated working style to an environment that was morecollaborative made women feel more at comfortable at the workplace.

GP Essay Skills - Paper 2 - Application Question 11. APPLICATION QUESTION - Get your requirements straight: R1: Stand, or the statements which answer the question; R2: Evaluation of arguments from passage(s); R3: Own knowledge and experience - Anchor your response around your R1, which is essentially THE QUESTION you have to answer. (R1A + R1B = TWO QUESTIONS) - Use SEA: Select (Paraphrase/Expand) Argument, Evaluate, Apply. - Select 3-4 arguments from the passage. - EVALUATION to show agreement: Show how argument is sound, logical, observed/manifested/reflected in society (leaders, policies, practices etc) - EVALUATION to show disagreement: Choose extreme/controversial/problematicargument in the passage and show how argument does not hold it may be idealistic, untenable, inconsistent, poorly substantiated, having loopholes in argumentation, inapplicable/irrelevant etc. Question the authors assumption or logic! - Evaluation also includes informed personal opinions/observations; a synthesized understanding of the big picture; an overarching exploration of origins (eg. origins of a particular culture/mindset) or societal structures; assessment or weighing of gains/losses, benefits/disadvantages, or a critical commentary of the authors language/tone (do this only after discussing content!) - EXAMPLES include: Real-world trends, governmental policies, statistics, surveys, patterns of behaviour, social/cultural practices and mindsets etc. (Do NOT cite isolated examples or hypothetical examples!) - *As AQs would not necessarily ask you which one you agree with more or which is more applicable to your society, you need to know which arguments to select as PLATFORMS to defend your stand.

GP Essay Skills - Paper 2 - Author's Intention Purpose Tone Attitude 4. AUTHORS INTENTION/PURPOSE, TONE & ATTITUDE Question Types: - What is the authors intention/purpose is stating this? - What is the authors tone? - What is the authors attitude on the issue? Task: - Discern the authors attitude (stand/position) on a given issue and his tone (how he conveys his attitude) - Note: While the authors tone and attitude may be congruent, they do not necessarily have to be. - Eg (a) Authors tone may be humourous, but attitude towards the issue may actually be scornful. - Eg (b) Author may disagree with the belief that green consumerism will solve environmental problems but his tone could be either skeptical, doubtful, disbelieving, incredulous, subversive, or even mocking - Common types of tone: Sarcastic, critical, cynical, humorous, condescending, contemptuous etc. Examples: i. Why does the writer use the analogy, We are burning the floorboards of our house to keep warm? (AJC Prelim 2007) Ans. The writer wants to criticise/indict/warn/ intends to show how foolish/ illogical/ shortsighted/unrealistic mankind is. OR The writer is trying to show that mankind is suicidal/ selfdestructive. ii. Words Associated with Tone
POSITIVE admiring/ laudatory amused approving compassionate joyful judicious modest/ unassuming/ humble NEGATIVE arrogant bitter/ angry/ resentful/ hostile brusque callous world-weary condescending confused/ befuddled

NEUTRAL aloof ambivalent cautionary concerned/ worried defensive detached didactic

optimistic thoughtful philosophical/ reflective respectful earnest sincere factual frank/ honest/ candid forgiving humorous informative impartial supportive tolerant witty/ humorous/ ironic

critical disparaging cynical skeptical pessimistic disapproving disdainful disheartened dejected

disbelieving dispassionate ironic joking nostalgic pensive remorseful evasive grudging

sarcastic

indifferent
lamenting/ sorrowful malicious mocking nave nasty/ abusive pessimistic resentful sarcastic satirical flippant hypocritical insulting intolerant irrelevant scorning/ biting/caustic self-pitying whining/ aggrieved/ complaining

impassioned indignant sentimental serious/ grave/ grim shocked solemn/ dignified sympathetic unemotional urgent whimsical

GP Essay Skills - Paper 2 - Comparison and Contrast 3. COMPARISON & CONTRAST Question Types: - Identify the similarities between X and Y. - What is the difference between X and Y? Task: - Comparison: Identify the commonality between the two different subjects. Write a SYTHENSIZED answer that captures the similarities. - Contrast: Identify the contrast first in your mind. Contextualise your answer, highlighting the contrast in the two examples clearly Examples: a. What are the similarities and differences between the new generation born into the age of the internet, email and mobile phone (lines 79-80) and the children in the Chrysalids? Use your own words as far as possible. [3] (A Level 2006) Lifted gives them extra-sensory perception, the ability to think each others thoughts (lines 78-79) giving them the means to interact and blend into a cohesive, whole society. (lines 80-81) as a result of radiation following a nuclear war (line 77) technological advancement (implied) undergone a mutation (line 78). born into (line 79) Paraphrased Both groups are similar in that they are able to easily communicate with and understand their peers in an unprecedented way. [1] The children in The Chrysalids were different from the past generations due to thedisastrous effects of a nuclear war while the new generation is impacted bystaggering technological advancements.(Think: positive vs negative) [1] The children in the novel undergone physical changes through mutation while the real children were impacted by external environmental changes (Think: internal vs external) [1]

ii. Explain how, according to Paragraph 4, animals and inanimate objects differ from humans. [2] (GCE A Level 2004) Lifts tasting, discriminating, choosing. (line 3738) being wise or prudent. (lines 39) The worlds history shows how choice is fundamental in making us different fromanimals who must obey their instincts, or from inanimate objects which are entirelysubject to the natural forces acting upon them. (lines 39-41) We are able to make decisions based on ourfree will [1/2], unlike animals that arecontrolled by their impulses/intuition and unlike inanimate objects that fall under the laws of nature. [1] Explanation Humans are discerning, intelligent beings [1/2]

GP Essay Skills - Paper 2 - Inferential Question 1. INFERENTIAL Purpose: - Infer: To derive from reasoning - To test if you can read between the lines and deduce what is not explicitly said A. IMPLIED QUESTIONS Task: - Use prior knowledge - Use context theme of passage & position of author - Integrate both to help you reach your answer Examples: i. What character traits are signified by the term Caesar and why are these character traits usually kept secret? (SAJC Pre-Prelim 2008) Ans. Caesar signifies a keen desire for authority, power, and control, implying that one is tyrannical/despotic. They are kept secret because these traits are usually seen as objectionable or are frowned upon by society. Displaying such traits will lead to self-disclosure and hinder chances to acquire power. B. CONTEXTUAL QUESTIONS Task: - Draw links between the scenario in the question and the context/theme in the passage. Examples: i. Using your own words as far as possible, explain how the writer uses the following phrases to show that the millenials, are technologically precocious. a) growing up with a rattle in one hand and a computer mouse in another Ans. The millenials are being exposed to/familiar with/weaned on/made very comfortable with technology from the time they were very young

ii. Explain how the three examples given in lines 35-39 are situations where their choices are made for them. *3+ (A Level 2004) Lifts i. (i) into an authoritarian religion which demands adherence to particular rules of behaviour and articles of belief (lines 35-36) (ii) into the discipline of military life where initial choice to obey their superiorslargely lifts the weight of choosing off their shoulders (lines 36-37) (iii) into an unquestioning commitment to some political, humanitarian or environmental cause. (lines 37-39) Explanation One is expected to follow prescribedcodes of conduct for a religion, acting and thinking solely in accordance to its teachings. [1] One would have to obey the commands of those who ranked above him, removing the possibility of choice.[1]

Giving total support to a particular cause takes away ones ability to make other choices in terms of following . [1]

GP Essay Skills - Paper 2 - Punctuation 4. PUNCTUATION Task: - Use prior knowledge to help you explain why certain punctuation marks are used. - For eg., quotation marks usually show that the author is trying to distance himself from the view, to highlight that he does not agree with it, or only partly agrees with it. But you must always CONTEXTUALISE your answer. Examples: i. Why does the writer use quotation marks for the word advances? (AJC Prelim 2007) Ans. The writer does not agree (or does not subscribe to the belief) that the arrival of shopping malls is a sign of progress and development when they are in fact evidence of regression. ii. Why does the author intend you to understand by the three dots () at the end of the first paragraph? Lifts We want to choose for ourselves and this demand stimulates invention and production, which increases employment and wealth, which *line 9-10] Explanation The three dots () are meant to emphasize the point that our desire for personal choice would stimulate growth and assets for the economy in a ceaseless/repetitive manner.

iii. What is the writers purpose in using the three dots (.) in the sentence, They are sullen and distant and armed.? Ans. He uses the three dots to build up anticipation/to create suspense/to highlight for dramatic effect [1/2] to show the extreme aggression that young people are capable of [1/2].

GP Essay Skills - Paper 2 -SIMILE, METAPHOR, ANALOGY 4. SIMILE, METAPHOR, ANALOGY (Tip: SIMILIARITY!) Question Types: - Explain the phrase: . (metaphor) - Why X is being described as Y? - Identify and explain one metaphor from Paragraph X. Purpose: - To test if you can draw similarities between two unlike ideas. Task: - Metaphor: Comparison between two unlike ideas. A metaphor is a vehicle that allows you to understand a complex, unique or abstract idea more deeply. - To draw links between two unlike ideas the literal definition and figurative definition. (What does it mean on its own, and what does it mean in context?) Template: - Just as X, Y - X is Similarly, Y is. Examples: a. Why does the author refer to ambition as an investment of emotional capital? (SAJC Pre-Prelim 2008) Ans. Just as an investment is risky/involves uncertainty/involves committing resources in the hope of earning a return (literal definition), so ambition may not generate success despite the heart/soul/emotional energy put into it (figurative definition). b. Explain what the author means by our destiny is simply this chameleon strangerourself! (A Level 2004) Ans. Just as a chameleon changes its colours according to the surroundings (literal definition), ones fate is continually changing as ones thinking is volatile (figurative definition) c. The writer says that "genes, by themselves, are like seeds dropped onto the pavement: powerless to produce anything". How is this simile apt in illustrating his point? (ACJC Prelim 2005). Show links between literal and figurative meanings, i.e. seeds = genes, pavement = absence of conducive environment, water/soil = optimal environment/culture

Lift "genes, by themselves, are like seeds dropped onto the pavement: powerless to produce anything". (l.50-51)

Paraphrase Literal: This (simile) implies that just as seeds dropped onto the pavement cannot grow without agents of dispersal/soil and water for nourishment. (1m) Figurative: Genes also need the influence of culture/ environment to determine how a person turns out/develops; genes alone cannot determine how a person turns out; they need the influence of culture or environment (1m) Alternative answer: Just as seeds need good soil and specific conditions for it to grow well and produce fruit, genes are special characteristics in a human being which need to be nurtured through a good

Tone/Attitude Vocabulary Tone/Attitude Vocabulary The nuances of these words are important! ANGER accusatory belligerent bitter disappointed disgusted furious grouchy incredulous indignant inflammatory insulting irritated outraged petulant querulous savage sullen threatening wrathful HAPPINESS amiable amused cheery Humor (Satire) belittling caustic comical cynical facetious flippant haughty insulting ironic irreverent malicious mock-heroic mocking obsequious ribald ridiculing sarcastic scornful taunting ARROGANCE authoritative boastful bold NEUTRAL Apathetic Authoritative Candid SADNESS/FEAR apprehensive concerned despairing elegiac foreboding gloomy hopeless melancholy morose mournful pessimistic regretful serious sober solemn somber tragic TRANQUILITY calm hopeful meditative nostalgic optimistic peaceful relaxed reminiscent sentimental serene soothing spiritual staid ROMANCE affectionate amorous compassionate erotic fanciful ideal intimate loving lustful

contented ecstatic elated enthusiastic exuberant hopeful jovial joyful jubilant lighthearted optimistic positive sanguine

condescending contemptuous critical disdainful haughty insolent judgmental mordant patronizing pompous pretentious supercilious

Cautionary Ceremonial Clinical Detached Didactic Distant Erudite Factual Forman Forthright Informative Instructive Matter-of-fact Objective Restrained

lyurical reflective sensual tender whimsical LOGIC argumentative didactic doubtful explanatory informative persuasive rational thoughtful