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Instrumentation and Measurements

Fall 2012

Assignment 1 (Solution) Total Marks: 50 Due Date: Saturday, February 02, 2013 This assignment is related to Data Acquisition Systems. You can consult the material available for this assignment. This assignment is compulsory part of your final term course. All students will submit this assignment on A4/Assignment papers. There are total 6 questions. Page 1 32 will be completely included. Page 33 onwards, following circuit diagrams will be considered. Active Low Pass Filter Active High Pass Filter Active Band Pass Filter Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) Ladder type Digital to Analog Converter Ramp type Analog to Digital Converter

Instrumentation and Measurements

Fall 2012

Question #1 a) Draw the general block diagram of a Data Acquisition System (DAS) and then explain briefly the function of each module.

Transducer This is a device which is used to convert one form of energy to other form. In data aquisistion systems, transducer will be used to convert the any type of signal to electrical form. Signal Conditioning Circuit This circuit is used to make the signal suitable for the circuit where it will be used. Multiplexer This module is used to transfer the signals coming from different locations to single point. Instrumentation Amplifier This part is used to amplify the incoming signal with respect to a reference level. This circuit contains two non-inverting amplifiers, one difference amplifier. Filter This circuit is used to eliminate the noise present in the signals coming from different parts of the system. In Data Acquisition systems, Low pass filter, High pass filter and Band pass filters can be used according to the requirements. A/D Converter This module of the systems is used to convert analog signal from real world to Digital signal suitable for processing through computer. Buffer This module is used to store the digital information for short period of time. This will send the information to computer whenever read signal will be high. Computer This module will be used to process the signal coming from buffer. After processing, the information can be stored or can be sent back to real world.

Instrumentation and Measurements

Fall 2012

b) Draw the general block diagram of the output side of a Data Acquisition System, DAS, (from the computer to the real world) and then explain briefly the function of each module.

Computer This part of the system is used to process the data available to it. After processing, computer sends the signal to register for storage purpose. Register Register is used to store the information coming from computer. It will send the stored information to DAC. D/A Converter This module will make the information coming from computer to information suitable for real world by converting the digital data to analog form. Actuator This module will be used to activate any output device such as motors, valves , and other type of outputs present in the system. Question #2 For the instrumentation amplifier circuit shown in Fig. 1, perform the following: a) Derive expressions for the voltage gains Ad = V0 / (VI2 VI1) In the circuit of instrumentation amplifier, we can see there are two non-inverting amplifiers and one difference amplifier. So, we will solve this circuit by parts. For A1: VO1 = (1+R2/RV) VI1 For A2: VO2 = (1+R2/RV) VI2 For A3: Input at inverting terminal will be VO1. Input at non-inverting terminal will be = (R4/R3 + R4) VO2 Now, we will have to use Super Position Theorem to find output voltage. Consider Input at noninverting terminal is shorted to ground. So, VO(1) = -(R4/R3)(VO1) VO(1) = -(R4/R3)( 1+R2/RV) VI1 Now consider Input at inverting terminal is shorted to ground. So, VO(2) = (1+R4/R3)(VO2) VO(2) = (1+R4/R3)( 1+R2/RV) VI2

Instrumentation and Measurements


Now the output of difference amplifier will be VO = VO(2) - VO(1) VO = (1+R4/R3)( 1+R2/RV) VI2 + (-R4/R3)( 1+R2/RV) VI1 As (1+R4/R3) (R4/R3), so VO = (R4/R3)[( 1+R2/RV) VI2 - (R4/R3)( 1+R2/RV) VI1 VO = (R4/R3)[( 1+R2/RV) (VI2 - VI1) (VI2 - VI1) = VID So, VO = (R4/R3)[( 1+R2/RV) VID Now Ad = VO/VID = (R4/R3)[( 1+R2/RV) b) Calculate the minimum and maximum values of Ad when R2 = 10 k, R3 = 1 k, R4 = 20 k and Rv varies from 1 k to 2 k.

Fall 2012

c) Calculate the corresponding output voltage Vo if VI1 = 10 mV and VI2 = 60 mV.

Figure 1

Instrumentation and Measurements

Fall 2012

Question #3 For the active filter circuit shown in Fig. 2, perform the following: a) Derive the transfer function h= Vo / Vi This part has been eliminated from assignment. b) If R1 = 1.2 k, C1 = 0.02 F, RG =1 k and RF = 10 k, determine the type of this filter, and then calculate its gain and cutoff frequency (frequencies).

Figure 2

It is a low pass filter.

Instrumentation and Measurements

Fall 2012

Question #4 For the active filter circuit shown in Fig. 3, perform the following: a) Derive the transfer function h= Vo / Vi This part has been eliminated from assignment. b) If R1 = 2.1 k, C1 = 0.05 F, RG =10 k and RF = 50 k, determine the type of this filter, and then calculate its gain and cutoff frequency (frequencies).

Figure 3

This is a High Pass Filter.

Instrumentation and Measurements

Fall 2012

Question #5 For the active filter circuit shown in Fig. 4, perform the following: a) Derive the transfer function h= Vo / Vi This part has been eliminated from assignment. b) If R1 = 10 k, R1 = 10 k, C1 = 0.1 F, C1 = 0.002 F, RG =1 k and RF = 5 k, determine the type of this filter, and then calculate its gain and cutoff frequency (frequencies).

Figure 4

This is a Band Pass Filter.

Instrumentation and Measurements


Question #6 Draw circuit diagram for the followings:

Fall 2012

Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)

Analog to Digital Converter (ADC)

Ladder type Digital to Analog Converter

Instrumentation and Measurements Ramp type Analog to Digital Converter

Fall 2012