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THE IMPROVEMENT STUDENTS SPEAKING SKILLTHROUGH GUESSING GAMES TECHNIQUE

( A Classroom Action Research at SDN Kelapa Dua -Tangerang )

THESISSubmitted As the Fulfillment of the Degree of Sarjana Pandidikan

Written--------------------------------------

ENGLISH DEPARTEMENTSCHOOL OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATIONKUSUMA NEGARAJAKARTA2009

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A.Background of the Study As a professional teachers in the language teaching, especially the teachingof English a foreign language, teachers mostly spend much of time on appropriateteaching methodologist for greater effectiveness in students acquisitions onEnglish, designing and implementing materials, test, and practice Teacher areresponsible to educate the students from little or no knowledge to sufficient Englishspeaking environment. Mostly of the teaching method before the past few decades, found theteacher tend to carry out the teaching process in the classroom by applyingtraditional and monolingual principle ways of teaching with unsatisfactory. Thisshows that teachers need enrichments with appropriate ways of teachingatmosphere, that why in teaching English as the second language by applying newand modified fashions in order that the result of the teaching learning processwould contribute more input to reach satisfied learning outcome. Whole around theworld recently, where the people encourage that English as their target or secondlanguage used based on whole interactions and communication holding thedominant role of very aspects of their life. English is most widely used in teachinglearning process of broader Educational occasions either formal or informalenvironment It is reasonable that English is progemmed as the first foreign or secondlanguage in many countries on this earth, furthermore in present global era. That iswhy experts on language and language teaching range must invent today Englishteaching and learning environment. According to the 2006 English Curriculum and its supplement, theemphasis of the curriculum is that the students are able to communicate in English by mastering the whole skills1. However, it is not easy to master all the skills; theremust be one important skill that covers the whole skills. Based on the statementabove speaking is the most important skill that should be mastered by students inorder to communicate in English fluently. In this case, the students must study hard to master it and the teacher shouldcreate a good atmosphere in class. However, it is contrary to the real situation inclass. Speaking activities do not work in class because many factors preventstudents from speaking English with their friends. They are afraid of makingmistakes, of being laughed at by his or her friends and of having lack of confidencein their ability.

Considering problem, relating to speaking activities in class and helpingstudents to improve their speaking skill is part of the teachers job. He or she isexpected to have right teaching techniques to provide students with appropriateteaching materials and to create a positive classroom environment.
1

Curriulum

Therefore, thestudents will have opportunity to use English among themselves. The teaching learning process should not only happen between teacher and students but also between students and students. Speaking is an activity used by someone to communicate with other. Ittakes place very where and has become part of our daily activities. When someonespeaks, he or she interacts and uses the language to express his or her ideas, feelingand thought. He or she also shares information to other trough communication. In the classroom, the teacher must create the situation that can encouragereal communication, many activities can be designed to make majors elementlively. Games is one of the techniques that can be applied in teaching speaking because games in one of potential activity that gives students feeling of freedom toexpress themselves. Games are also potentially useful to encourage students of interact with each other orally. In this research, the researcher focuses on the guessing games. The reasonfor using guessing games is you give more opportunities to students to make turnsin speaking during the times allocated. The researcher assumes that guessinggames are combination between language practice and fun. They can express their ideas freely because they do activities with their friends. This game is also easy toadmiser and flexible in terms of subject matter and design. B.The Identification of the Problem Based on the background of the study mentioned above, the identificationof the problem of the research are: 1.How far the effectiveness of speaking through games technique? 2.How The English by games more interested to teach speakingtrough games technique 3.How the teachers more interested to teach speaking troughgames technique 4.How to make students confident to talk in learning speaking? 5.How English play game more interesting for student to learnEnglish. 6.Why games suitable to teach speaking at fourth grade? C.The Limitation of the Problem The researcher limits the discussing of the study about, The ImprovementStudents Speaking Skill through Guessing Games Technique.Because theresearcher find, the effective method to teach using this games. Especially for elementary students for fourth grade.

D.The Formulation of the Problem

Based on limitation of problem mentioned above, the problem of theresearch can be formulated as follows; How to improvement student is speakingskill through guessing games to the fourth grade of SDN Kelapa Dua II? E.Benefit of Research The researcher hopes that this thesis can develop education institution to perform a language laboratory, teacher to use the approach and method properlyin teaching speaking to their students; it can be refer for English teacher instudying which pursuant and guide liner of the better ways to achieve thesuccessful English Study. The benefit of this research for elementary in SDN Kelapa Dua II that theheadmaster of the school knows actually teaching and teaching speaking arereally acceded by the teacher. The students of course the headmaster tries providethe equipment of speaking so that, the students speaking can be improved by practicing actively. The students of STKIP Kusuma Negara can have a good reference for their knowledge and someday they will make tries connected with learning speaking.Then they may make some references of this thesis because this thesis can be putin the library of STKIP Kusuma Negara and every body can read it. By using guessing games in teaching speaking skill to the fourth gradestudents of SDN Kelapa Dua II Tangerang. It motivates and encourages studentsof SDN Kelapa Dua II; it motivates and encourages students to practice speakingEnglish. It makes them enjoy expressing their feeling,ideas, opinion and even inmessages and suggestions. Since it is fun activity, it helps students to take port in practice.

CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

A.Definition of Teaching Teaching is a process to give guidance the students to reach the goals.Teaching known as Instruction it means process that makes someone dolearning. Teaching is a media for learning process includes behavior individualchanges through pre- planned. Teaching is an exiting job. Today, many references help teachers to getsome solutions of problems in teaching learning process. The teachers can usesome references to find out some techniques of teaching in their classroom. Onthe other hand, teaching is not easy to do. The teacher should do much of hiswork before entering the classroom. According to Brown, Teaching is a superior job, is the demanding job. Among the demandingtasks are modifying the approaches, Syllabus, technique, and exercises toadopt and maximize the learning of a class as well as of most of itsindividual members2. It can be stated from the definition above that teaching is not just presenting information or knowledge to students, but it needs strategies and tactics. The teacher must decide what goals it would be best to teach and whatstrategies and tactics are best suited for teaching these goals.According to Patricia, It is important for teacher to include as many techniquesas possible to enhance student learning3.The knowledge gives the intelligenceconcerning to import, as a knowledge before unknown, or rules for practice toinculcate as true or important to exhibits impressively as, to teach arithmetic,dancing, music, or the like to teach morals. The objective of language is to encourage effective communication in dailylife, by practicing effective expression, increasing vocabulary, give sampleopportunities that use language to describe, to compare and relate experiences,thoughts and felling, creating stories dramas, song, poems, etc. Language should be embedded throughout all activities. Moreover, young learner can learn easily many languages. Young learner are equipped by language acquisition device, therefore, they will not have anydifficulty to learn two or three different language at the same time. B.Definition of Speaking

James Dean Brown,The Elements of Language Curriculum: A Systematic Approach toProgram Development, ( Boston : Heinle & Heinle Publisher, 1995 )

Patricia J. Wentz,The Student Teaching Experience, ( T.tp.: Merrill Prentice Hall, t.t )

Speaking is one of the skills that have to be mastered by students inlearning English. It is important for students to known definition first. Manyexperts define speaking in different ways. Brown and Yule stated in their book. Speaking is to express the needsrequest, information, service, etc.4 Thespeakers say words to the listener not only to express what in her mind but also toexpress what he needs whether information service. Most people might spend of their everyday life in communicating with other. Revell defines communication asfollow: Communication, of ideas, of opinions, of feeling.5 Therefore,communication involves at least two people where both sender and receiver needto communicate to exchange information, ideas, opinions, views, or feelings.Meanwhile, Jones stated, Speaking is a form of communication.6 We can saythat the speaker must consider the person they are talking to as listeners. Theactivity that the person does primary based on particular goal. So, it is importantthat everything we wants to say is conveyed in an effective way, becausespeaking is not only producing sounds but also a process of achieving goals thatinvolves transferring messages across. Jone said, How you say something can beimportant as what you say in getting your meaning across.7 Therefore, speaking process should pay attention to want and how to say as well as to whomappropriately. In expression ones need-request, information, service, we must consider some points about speaking. Jones stated, Some point should be consideredabout speaking, they are clarity, variety, audience and tone.8 Albert Valdman said, The ability to speak a foreign language is without doubtthe most highly prized language skills, and rightly. So, because he was can speak the language well can also understand it and can learn to read it with relative casean also the ability to speak a language will greatly expedite and facilitate learningto write it.9 According to M. Solahudin in his book speaking is, Kemampuanberbicara dengan bahasa Inggris dan pembicaraan kita dipahami oleh orang lain.10 In order to express his or her needs, ideas, feeling and thought in realcommunication, one must be able to ask as well as answer questions. Yusnaini Lubis says, Question and answer, major elements in naturalconversation sessions.11 Beside on that statement we conclude that one of important aspects in speaking is there is a
4

Gillian Brown and George Yule,Teaching the Spoken Language : Approach Based on the Analysis of Conversational English (Australia : Cambridge University Press, 1989), p. 14
5 6 7 8 9

Jane Revell,Teaching Technique for Commutative English (London Macmillan : Pres Ltd). P.27 Rhodi Jones,Speaking and Listening (London : The Bath Press, 1989), p. 14 ibid. Rhodi Jones ibid. Rhodi Jones Albert Valdman,Trend in Language Teaching , Mc Graw : Hill Book Co, 1996. P. 194 M. Solahudin, Kiat-Kiat Praktis Belajar Speaking . Diva Press, 2008, p. 16

10

11

Yusnaini Lubis,Developing Communicate Proficiency in the English As A Foreign Language(EFL) Class.

communication or interacting betweenthe speaker and listener. So it will make the good attraction / understanding aboutthe object of topic. a. Clarity It means that the words that the speakers use, must be clear, so thatlisteners can understand what the speaker says. Here, the speaker mustconsider speed and volume. The speed at which you speak is relevant her. If you speak quickly, listeners may have difficulty. The volume with whichyou speak can also have a bearing. Speak out and do not mumble. Your words have to be loud enough to reach all your listeners. b.Variety Here the speakers must try to vary way of speaking such as pitch(rise and fall of voice), emphasis, speed, variation, volume and pause. Thespeaker is expected to fine variation in saying words do not speak monotonously. c.Audience and Tone The way you speak and the tone you use will be affected by audienceto whom you are speaking. If you are discussing something with your friends.You are likely to use informal conversational tone. If you are giving a talk toa group of thirty people. It likely that you would speak more formally andwould raise the pitch and the volume of your voice in order to make sure thatwhat you say reaches all of your listeners. If you were telling a comic story, you would speak differently from way you would if you were putting a pointof view about which you felt strongly. C.Definition of Guessing Games According to Klippel, The basic rule of guessing games is eminentlysimple; one person knows something that another one wants to find out.12 Wrightand Buck say, Essentially, in guessing and speculating games, some one knowssomething and the others must find out what it is.13

In addition, according toMerriem Webster, Guessing games is game in which the participates competeindividually or team in the identification of something indicate obscurely (as inriddles or charades).14

(Jakarta. DepDikBud. 1988). P. 25


12

Friederike Klippel, Keep Talking (USA : Cambridge University Press, 1994). P. 13

13

David Betteridge and Michael Buckby,Games for Language Learning , New Edition (SidneyCambridge University Press, 1990), p. 169
14

Merriem Webster,Websters Third New International Dictionary(USA : Merriem Webster inc, 1986), p. 1008

Based on the definition, it can be conclude that guessing games is a game inwhich a person or participant knows something and competes individually or in ateam to identify or to find out it. There are many concepts of guessing games, which can be applied inteaching speaking. According to Lee: Among them are numbers guessing games that can be played at various levels: 1.Guess what is it? Is it? 2.Guess Who I am? What is my name? 3.Guess what is there in my bag today? 4.Guess where is it?Then the description ofc each concept is a s follow: a.Guess What is it? Is it.? The students things of an object or a person the class knoes the nameof, and the other ask question, putting up their hand waiting to be called on : 1.Is a green Is it Martys desk. 2.Is it my face? 3.Is it the pond? 4.Is it Billy and Peter? 5.Is it the cinema? 6.Is it my mother who came this evening? 7.It is your book. Etc The first guess correctly takes the thinkers place. After such a game has beensuccessfully played by the class as a whole, it can be played in groups or evenin pairs. The learner who has thought of something may be questioned bymember of another, to keep the whole class active.

b.Guess Who I am? What is my name?

Everybody imagines him self to be some body else a living wellknown locally, nationally or internationally or an historical figures such as Napoleon, Ghandy, Julius Caesar, Galileo, Etc. Each makes up sentencesabout him self, e.g. 1.I lived..about..years ago.

2.I was a king / poet / general / scientist, Etc. There is not much difficulty in guessing, but it should not to be made too easy(e.g. one should not say, if one is Shakespeare. I lived in Stratford-on-Avonand wrote Hamlet). c.Guess what is there in my bag today? Alternatively: 1.What is in my bag today? 2.What have I got in my bag today?(This can be teachers or anybody bag, not doubt specially prepared). Thestudents guess, for instance,theres an apple / photograph / a mirror / ahandkerchief / a ticket / a doll, etc. And the owner of the bag says, No, theresno a or Yes, theres a.and brings it out and perhaps ask what colorsis it? Or is it a bag or small.?At an appropriate level plurals come innaturally here, e.g.There some..in my bag d.Guess Where is it?

Students turn round the close their eyes while a small object or severalobject suh as coin, a ring, a sweet, a doll, is hidden. Question: 1.Is it behind the cupboard 2.Is it in Mr. Clauss bag 3.Is it mams desk 4. In your shoe 5. Under those books / etc.Each student makes at least one guess. Statements can be made instead of question: it is behind the cupboard / in Mr. Clauss pocket, etc.

D.Guessing Games in Teaching Speaking There is common perception that all learning should be serious andsolemn in nature and that if ones is having fun and there is hilarity and laughter,then it is not learning. This is a misconception. It is possible to learn a languageas well as enjoy oneself the some time. One best way of doing this trough games.Games can be applied in teaching learning English. This idea issupported by Andrew Wright, Betteridge and Buckby.

Games can be found togive practice in all skills (Reading, speaking, listening, and speaking) in allstages on teaching learning sequences..15 Beside on the statements above, itis clear that all skill can be applied in teaching, one of them is speaking. There are many reasons a teacher uses games in teaching speaking.Games give students chance to use English orally, it means that students can practice and develop their ability to speak English. Games provide fun and relaxwhile remaining very much within the framework of language learning. It isexpected for shy or slow learners can be active participants to show their abilityand find their confidence in communicating in the foreign language. Among many techniques of guessing in teaching speaking, guessinggames can be applied in the teaching of speaking. This assumption is beside onsome experts comments. In fact, there are many categories of guessing games.Patricia and Amato say: Although the categories can overlap, the games hereoffered her are dividend into the following types depending on their emphasis:non-verbal games, board-advancing games, treasure hunt and guessing games16. According to Richard Amato, Guessing games can be used todevelop or reinforce concept, to add diversion to regular activities, or just to break the ice. However, their must important function is to give practice incommunication.17 It says that guessing games give students do mot feel boredduring learning process. Nevertheless, the most important thing is to give thestudents in practicing their English. They also add that:

Guessing games can be painless to develop or reinforce any number concepts. Guessing what I am, Guess who I am for example, can be usedteach about animals profession or people in different age groups (baby, child,teenager, young adult, elderly person).18 Those statements say that by given someconcepts of guessing games like Guess What I am or Guess Who I am. Theteacher can teach many kinds of topics such as about animals, profession or people.

15

Andrew Wright, David Betteridge and Michael Buckby,Games for Language Learning (Sidney : Cambridge University Press, 1989), p. 2
16

Patricia , Richard Amato, Making it Happened : Interaction in The Second LanguageClassroom, (New York and London : Longman, 1988), p. 156
17

Patricia A. Richard Amato, Making in Happen: Interaction; the Second LanguageClassroom (New York and London : Longman, 1988), p. 155

18

Ibid. Patricia A. Richard - Amato

Silver says, Real guessing games provide the students with muchneeded practice in formulating questions, an essential skill that does not alwaysreceive sufficient attention.19 Based on the statement above, we can concludethat guessing games give students more chance in formulating question. But weknow that language classes are spent answering questions puts forth by theteacher or text book. This idea is also supported by Silver : Language classes areoften inadvertently structured so that most of the students speaking time is spentanswering questions put forth by teacher or text book: as a result the studentsoften have difficultly in forming own question.20 So, by using this game students are asked to practice in formulatingquestions. Here the students can apply their ability in using question word (WH) question. Lee says, Among them are number of guessing games which can be applied at various age level in general, the challenge to guess arousesconsiderable interest and encourages the learners to communicate.21 Thatstatement says that guessing games can be applied at various age levels. It has thesame idea Klippel, he says, Every body knows guessing games it is not onlychildren that like guessing games; adults like guessing too, as shown by many popular TV programmer.22 In addition, he adds, Guessing are true communicative situation andsuch are very important for foreign language practice with fun and excitement.23 From the three theories, it is enough clear that guessing games are liked bystudents all of ages from children until adult, it arouses considerable interest andencourages the learners to communicate because it is combination betweenlanguage practice with fun and excitement.

E.The Technique of English Teaching Teaching of English for young learner using many ways for examplethough reading, picture, plays or games etc. Many parents and administrators arefamiliar with statement that Play is Children work, but they still makedistinction between work and play. The work is defined as structure task such aswork sheets that children complete in order to learn the alphabet and numbers. During their playtime children often and spontaneously begin, object play, fantasy play, and sociodramatic play. Object play is reality based andinvolves manipulation of and reference to the object them.Speaking by using games method English learning for young learner isfun and enjoyable. Speaking
19

Stephen M. Silver , Guessing for the Classroom and The English Speaking Club. Selected Articles from the English Teaching Forum. 1980 1983, p. 244
20

Ibid. Stephen M. Silver W. R. Language Teaching Games and Contest (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1994), p. 13 Klippel. Loc. Cit. Ibid. Klippel, p. 32

21

22

23

pleasure by using combining word and picture cardsstudents are ready and interested in seeing the written forms of the language. M. Solahudin said, Speaking berkaitan dengan listening. Artinya apa yang kita bicarakan adalah pengulangan dari apa yang pernah kita dengar sebelumnya.24 From the theories above, it is clear enough that guessing gamesare liked. Learning by games is suitable for young learner, games are easilyadaptable to English language classrooms, give the student opportunity to expandtheir language experience through fun and play. This probably the most challenging time in teaching preparation thatthe teacher experienced. It is completely different kind of technique, whichrequires a new approach to teaching. The teacher has to make more conducive inthe classroom. Eventually that the changes on the technique of English teachingwill be baneful for the students and for the teacher. There is the technique of English teaching: 1. Begin with a positive messageIf you put a new message in the same place every time-on anoverhead or on the board-students will learn to look for it when theycome into the room. Music serves the same purpose it set a positivemood for the session. 2. Write three important goals for the class so that students can seethem.Three goals are manageable for one class session. When they arevisible, they keep us all on track. At the end of the class, referring tothe goals gives everyone a sense of progress and closure for the day. 3. Arrange for model test to be taken in a lab or at home on the honor system.Your time with the students is too valuable for you to spend four hours proctoring each model test. That would add up to twelve hour of class time for all the model tests. 4. Ask students to write their question a note card and bring them toclass. 5. Use class time to teach and practice academic skill. 6. Focus on speaking and writing in class. 7. Provide counseling and encouragement as part of the class routine20

A habit is pattern of behavior that is acquired through repetition.Researches indicate that following study habits are characteristic of successfulstudents. The teacher must make motivation to the students not only by techniqueof the teaching but we can improvement by positive habits from students. F.Definition Action Research

24

M. Solahudin, Kiat-kiat Praktis Belajar Speaking . Diva Press. PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama,2008, p. 18

Action research has different meaning and thing when used by differentanother. For example, Hopkin treats action research and classroom research byteachers as synonymous.25 Brown and Robinson suggest that any actionundertaken by teachers to collect data and evaluate their own teaching can betermed action research, and some highlights the participatory insider nature of action research.26 Hodgkinson has definition of action research as follows: Actionresearch is a direct and logical out come of the progressive position. After showing children how to work together to solve their problems, the next stepwas for teachers to adopt the methods they had been teaching their children, andlearn to solve their own problems co-operatively.27

Put simply, action research is learning by doing it is conducted by theteacher as classroom participant. As teacher, he/she needs to know what isactually happening in classroom, collecting data and evaluating her/his ownteaching, do something to solve it, see how successful his/her effort were, and if not satisfied, try again until showing the increasing of changing. Nunan sees the important defining aspect of action research as thecontrolling role of the teacher: For me the salient distinction between AR andother form of research process is initiated and carried out by practitioner.28 Stephen Kemmis has developed a simple model of cyclical of the typical actionresearch process (figure I) each cycle has four steps; they are, planning, acting,observing and reflecting.29 a) Planning is we prepare the material that we will teach, makinglesson plan, syllabus and making evaluation that the will examine. b) Acting is we teach the students based on our plan, the material andthe method we are going to teach and give the evaluation as the result.
25

Hopkins, D. (1985) A Teachers Guide to Classroom Research. Milton Keynes: OpenUniversity Press

26

Brown, H.D. (1994)Teaching by Principles : An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
27

Burns, Anne. 2007.Collaborative Action Research for English Language Teachers. Cambridge.Cambridge University Press, p.5
28

Nunan, D. (1993)Action Research in Language Education.In Edge, J. and Richards, K. (eds)Teacher Developed Teacher Research: Paper on Classroom Research and Teacher Development.Oxford: Heinemann. Pp. 44

29

Resouce : http://www.web.net/~robrien/Papers/arfinal. 3. html/ 25/12/2012

c) Observing are we observing the result of the acting is it satisfied or not?d)Reflecting is we analyze the weaknesses of the students.Strickland outlines the following steps in an AR cycle:

1.identify an issue, interest or problem 2.seek knowledge 3.plan an action 4.implement the action 5.reflect on your observations6.revise the plan

Based on the steps of Action Research above, it can be concluded that teacher asresearcher has to prepare teaching process as good as possible. Every step has to be followed in continuous and integrated. There are cycles within cycles. Some extend across an entire study.Others occupy only minutes or less. The result can be a very flexible andresponsive process. When each cycle includes a vigorous seeking out of disconfirming evidence the flexibility is also accompanied by research rig our. The people affected by the change are involved in the action and thecritical reflection. Understanding is widely shared, and so is commitment to any planned change. Action research certainly is not the only research process for researching change. However, it is process well suited to situations where youwish to achieve change (the action) and understanding (the research ) at some time.

Action research for development, teacher can become more autonomous,responsible, and answerable through action research, teachers themselves cantake a so decisions concerning change30. G.Teaching Speaking at Elementary School Every student who studies English will study about all components, whichin that subject. Those components are reading, listening, writing and speaking. Allcomponents have great correlation and support each other; one of those items will be discussed by researcher is teaching speaking.As one of the language skills, speaking can be complex process. The firstspeaking has some points to show speaking and productions are related in themind of individual for the learners. The learners also need production to getinteraction in receiving messages, result according to Hymes, Communicationcompetence31
30

Day, C. (1987) Professional Learning Through Collaborative in Service Activity. In Smyth,J.(ed.)

Educating Teacher: Changing the Nature of Pedagogical Knowledge. London: The Falmer Press. Pp. 207-222
31

Hymes,Communication Competence, (Cambridge Press, 1976), p. 16

Penny Ur says, Of all four skills (listening, speaking, reading andwriting) speaking seem intuitively the most important.32 Based on the statement above speaking is the most important skill that should be mastered by students inorder to communicate in English fluently. Speaking is essential to all interactionand his is an ability to understand and master about what an active process of constructing a message, especially for student elementary school. It is true thatthey need to concentrate to what listening for every question. It is suggested thatlearning of a new language which is not associated with visual, action or someintellectual exercises to help identification of meaning because if it is done it become boring and will not necessary lead to advantageous. Sami Alrabaa says:Why speaking activities do not work: the classes are too big for speakingactivities; the students have too little time to speak. Speaking section of textbooks gives very few students the chance to talk, while the rest of classesremain listeners, often inattentive ones.33 Brown and Yule say, Speaking is toexpress the needs request information, services, etc.34

H.The Curriculum of Teaching Curriculum must build new experiences on existing knowledge andgradually extend that knowledge since children naturally integrate newinformation into their previous experiences. The education experiences must integrate to all components of children development are physical, socialemotional, and intellectual.Complex activities with many dimension naturally lend themselves to themultiple out comes that are characteristic of learning this age. Finally, programmust anticipate that there is wide variation in the rate development of individualchildren, especially during the transition stages of Elementary School.According to the 2006 English Curriculum: Pengembangankemampuan siswa dalam berbahasa Inggris yaitu dengan memiliki empat ketrampilan dalam berbahasa Inggris (speaking, listening, reading,writing).

Yang bertujuan untuk mengembangkan kompetensi berkomunikasi secara lisan secara terbatas untuk mengiringi tindakan (languageaccompanying action). 35
32

Penny Ur, A Course in Language Teaching : Practice an Theory (Great Britain:CambridgeUniversity Press, 1966), p. 120
33

Sami Alrabaa,Games in Speaking English Teaching Forum, Vol XXXIX, No. 3 (July,1991), p. 39

34

Gillian Brown and George Yule,Teaching the Spoken Language : An Approach Based on the Analysis of Conversational English(Australia : Cambridge University Press, 1983), p. 27

SDN Kelapa Dua II by using Curriculum of 2006.Competency Based Curriculum constitutes a set of planning andarrangement about competency and learning outcomes that must be achieved bystudent. It also constitutes a set of evaluation activity, teaching learning process,and using education resource efficiently in developing school curriculum

integrate to all components of children development are physical, socialemotional, and intellectual.Complex activities with many dimension naturally lend themselves to themultiple out comes that are characteristic of learning this age. Finally, programmust anticipate that there is wide variation in the rate development of individualchildren, especially during the transition stages of Elementary School.According to the 2006 English Curriculum: Pengembangankemampuan siswa dalam berbahasa Inggris yaitu dengan memiliki empat ketrampilan dalam berbahasa Inggris (speaking, listening, reading,writing).

Yang bertujuan untuk mengembangkan kompetensi berkomunikasi secara lisan secara terbatas untuk mengiringi tindakan (languageaccompanying action). 35

SDN Kelapa Dua II by using Curriculum of 2006.Competency Based Curriculum constitutes a set of planning andarrangement about competency and learning outcomes that must be achieved bystudent. It also constitutes a set of evaluation activity, teaching learning process,and using education resource efficiently in developing school curriculum. 35 Curriculum Bahasa Inngris 2006

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METODOLOGY

A.Purpose of the Study The purpose of research is to get the new theory, especially to knowteaching speaking by using games effective at fourth grade of elementary schoolSDN Kelapa Dua II Tangerang. Teacher hopes them to active in practicing Englishspeaking in class. It is expected that the students can enjoy to expressing their ideasopinion and feeling and can match dialogue with situation and condition. Besidesthat, they can also get fun in learning English in school especially for learningEnglish speaking. B.The Place and Time of Study The place to research teaching speaking by using games for fourth gradestudents of elementary school in SDN Kelapa Dua II Tangerang. This researchtakes place during one semester about four months from June - November 2008.

C.Method of the Research In this research, the researcher uses the qualitative research with classroomaction research. The qualitative method is the kinds of the data are the descriptivedata. From getting the data, the research wants to describe and explain the problem that chosen in this researching. In the research, it does not used questioner butusing the work sheet to evaluate the result and using picture as a material, becausethe research focused on classroom action research.Classroom action research method tends to rules of speaking or how toimprove the speaking English trough games. It is true, that uses the three cycles,and every cycle consists of four steps. On the other hands, of course, it uses thecollaboration method too, for example the role play and the answer question; theanswer question method and guessing games; or collaboration of three methods. D.Subject of the Research The subject of the research is the students from forth grade elementaryschool SDN Kelapa Dua II, Kecamatan Kelapa Dua, Tangerang City. There are 20(twenty) students on the class. The researches use the method and the techniqueteaching speaking through guessing games. E.Technique of Collecting Data The collecting data that is the researcher get the data from the studentsespecially for 4th grade of elementary school. The researcher attends to the data,which are the result of applying teaching speaking though guessing games.In the following section, the researcher explains about procedure of teaching, speaking using guessing games. The procedure is dividing into four stages. They are socializing guessing games, individually or grouping, distributingcards, and asking Question and asking giving answer. The researcher gavespeaking skill test before did the presentation of lessons material (pretest). After giving the treatment, give the some test (post-test) then made calculation of resultfrom both test. Trough the cycle I, cycle II, and cycle III. Each cycle consist of: 1.Planning 2.Acting 3.Observing 4.ReflectingThis research can discuss or collaborate with English Teacher and the others. The design is as follow: 1.Socializing Guessing Games a.Teacher introduces guessing games b.Teacher states the aims of guessing games .Teacher explains the definition of guessing games d.Teacher explains the concept of guessing games

e.Teacher has the rules of guessing games f.Teacher checks students understanding 2.Individually or Grouping a.Teacher asks students to apply this games individually or b.Teacher asks students to apply this games in a group 3.Distributing Cards a.Teacher distributes cards as teaching material b.Teacher explains the use of cards 4.Asking Questions and Giving Answer a.Teacher asks to practice the games by asking question and givinganswer to each group b.Teacher asks each group to perform once.

F.Analysis of the Research There, the analysis of the research uses the descriptive analysis. Based onthis method there has some advantages and weaknesses.Some of the advantages of using teaching speaking using guessing games are asfollows: 1.Using guessing games make students more pleasure fromregular activities in class. It creates a relaxed atmosphere in the classroom. 2.Using guessing games can encourage the students tocommunicate in English because the games are combinations betweenlanguage practice with fun and excitement

3.Guessing games can practice the students ability in formingmany kind of dialogues. While the weaknesses are: 1.In applying guessing games, the teacher needs the students who are skillfulformulating question from dialogue. 2.In applying guessing games, the teacher needs the students more carefullyto make communication.

3.In applying guessing games, the teacher needs the students morecontrolling how to make right pronunciation

CHAPTER IV THE RESEARCH RESULT AND DISCUSSION

A.Description of SDN Kelapa Dua II - Tangerang SDN Kelapa Dua II is located Jalan Cibogo Kulon, Kav. Kelapa Dua, Kec.Kelapa Dua Tangerang Banten it has been since 1975. The headmaster is Mr. H.Miftahudin, S. Pd. I. It consists 12 classes pararel and amount of 366 students, 16Teacher and one English Teacher for all class. SDN Kelapa Dua II has Visi :Membentuk siswa yang menguasai IPTEK dan IMTAQ di lingkungan lembaga pendidikan formal berkualitas, and Misi: Pembenahan system pendidikan pengajaran, pelatihan, bimbingan menuju system yang berkompetensi. Mostly the students were from the medium down family. The schooldoesnt give students the handbook, but only give the LKS (student work sheet).They can borrow the books from library or school

lends them but not to bringhome. So, for the English book. They were just doing home LKS at home and lenttextbook. May be it become a problem for them to study at home. With limitedfacilities, they cant improve their lessons. They had low ability in English Especially in fourth grade. There for, I did research at this school to find out howthey learn English. B.Teaching Speaking Through the Guessing Games The researcher choose teaching speaking through Guessing Games for fourth grade at SDN Kelapa Dua II, it is suitable for them they have just learnedEnglish from Fourth grade, because they have little vocabulary knowledge andlittle English Study knowledge.The lesson plan was guidance for the researcher to teach. In planning speaking process, teacher should find out potential to make simple question, decide whataspect of speaking to focus on. The teacher has responsibility to create classroomactivities in such away that the instructional objectives that have been formulated before can be achieved successfully. Motivating students, managing classroom using good method andtechniques, and transferring knowledge or teaching material and evaluating to thestudents are roles of the teacher. In teaching speaking through Guessing Games, a teacher had to know purpose of using this method, the procedures of teaching, the techniques will beapplied, and the evaluation accomplished. The learning processes using Guessing Games give students chance to useEnglish orally, it means that students can practice and develop their ability to speak English. Games provide fun and relax while remaining very much withinframework of language learning. It expected for shy or slow learners can be active participants to show their ability and find their confidence in communicating in theforeign language. The speaking teaching that given at fourth grade according the curriculumKTSP. That to purpose how to improve competent limited communicates to follow by action (language accompanying action). Such as focus on specific and usually individualized participants, time words usedto connect events, action words predominate in complication and resolution, noungroups are very important in describing characters and setting. 1.Activities at Classroom Cycle 1at fourth grade class, June 1stday 2008 ReconnaisanceAt the first time the reseacher entered the class. The students had lowmotivation. And the situation was not condusive. Planning: The researcher prepared the material a recount by picture fromthe text book. Then introduce about the picture.The researcher condition of student, took the

absence of student and say greeting. Then the researcher gaveexplanation about greeting before giving the main of lesson and make pre-test (invite student for reciprocating greeting) by simple dialogue about greeting. It supposed to know andmeasure the students achievement comprehending lesson of English speaking. When done by is simple dialogueconcerning greeting, seen reaction of student not yet giveenthusiastic response. Out of twenty student only five peoplethat seem is active . Acting: The researcher put the picture on the blackboard and readloudly.The student were asked to answer the question aloudabout the picture one by one that called randomly , theresearcher define kinds of greetings utterances.Researcher and student repeat articulate greeting utterance andreciprocation from the greeting.Then gives explanation concerning greeting utterancefunction.After that the students make partner to demonstrate simpledialogue concerning greeting if they had wrong pronuciationthe researcher corrected and then students were asked totranslate the dialogue into Indonesian language, if theycouldnt the reseacher called the other to translate and if he or she couldnt too, the researcher translated by herself .Indecisive flavor and fear to do mistake when replyingquestion which in rising seen. Of students seen still be covered by unconvinced and indecisive flavor of themselves whenreplying question. Even they are not daring to say by ear thatfirms [oppositely; also] heard by approximant whisper.Researcher gives reinforcement and concludes, AdviceLessons that will come and give homework to make simpledialogue with their partner about greeting. Then the studentswere asked to answer the work sheet (Execute evaluation).Researcher say greeting before class exit. In this part the researcher observed that they had problem intheir pronounciation. From observation which got, almost allstudent unable to answer and say truly. Even arise is eachother laughing. This thing result student is less enthusiasticallyeven class atmosphere become clamor. And their equip theanswer showed that they had a few self confidence.The result of average from the students in the first cycle, thecompetention from the methode is not work properly well. Itscan see in appendix 10 They had problems in bad pronounciation and have notenough encourages to speak loudly. Even in intonation evenalso of students, many doing mistake. Condition of class rather less in control, probably because new situation and they dealwith instructor which less familiar, so that of front studentsstill for expression their selves in the form of communications.The material would be equiped that had simple thing thatcontents the easy dialogue.

Observing:

Reflecting:

After the researcher did the research, she finds that:

1.The students were afraid to speak aloud because theydidnt know how to pronounce the words. 2.They were motivated by the researcher that they hadto pronounce and intonation correctly because if theywere wrong in pronunciation they will get the wrongmeaning of the conversation 3.The students had not fun felling because the classcondition is not condusive. 4.They couldnt equip in the correct sentence. So how with teaching process hereinafter? What have to bealtered and added in process of teaching so that student canincrease the ability in conversing English?Is that some weakness on technique of teaching, teachingmatter that too difficult to be received or linguistic insu bmitting not accurate matter?This thing will be evaluated at cycle of two

Cycle 2 at fourth grade class, June 2ndof day 2008 ReconaisanceAt second time the researher entered the class. The students motivater wasrather higher. And the student more condusive. But they were still notconfidence in their pronunciation and dialogue. Planning: Firsth the researcher ask 4-students tide for advance anddemonstrate their homew ork concerning greetings thenresearchers introduce matter concerning introduction and sayhow to introduce herself and invite student to repeat thearticulate give explanation concerning procedures introduce.Student with him/her partner demonstrate simple dialogue.Acting :The researcher choose the material about hobby same as clycle1 and about introduction. Then the researcher giving pretest before the main of lesson gave. It supposed to know andmeasure the students courages to speak. (Lesson from cycle 1to reminded). The researcher puts some pictures on the blackboard and the stude nts ask question of that person as if they have just meet him. The students reconst ruct theconversation they have created.The students were asked to choice a partner and make simpledialogue about introduction and try to make dialogue in frontof the class. They create a new dialod using words they havelearned how to say during their conversation. The researcher wacth the students and make sure that the conversiation between students is rigth. The next was same with cycle 1 andthen they were asked to answer the work sheet in oral and givestatement about the dialogue. Activities of End givereinforcement and conclude. Advise Lesson which will come.Execute evaluation

Observing:

In this part the researcher observed that they had over cometheir problems, it prooves that they could speak in simpledialogue even a lot of mistake about the pronounciation but

at least they almost show their courages and ability to speak English.The students are invited to talk about how they felt during theconversation.There was increasing from the students ability speaking skilland answer the question in cycle 2.Reflecting:The researcher must make savety felling for the students. Andmake the atmosphere of the class being fun.There was a littleincreasing in their pronounciation from the dialogue. As far the tasks were given individually. In the cycle two theresearcher find there is a will to the students to overcome their problems in pronunciation and speaking skill. Few studentsshowed increasing their speaking and they could make simpledialogue with their partner .How is if they do in group? Cycle 3 at fourth grade class, June 3rdof day 2008 Reconaisance At the third time the researcher entered the class. The students motivation wasstill high the student had worked cooperatively with their teacher. The problemwas have they hard ability to speak? Because not all students have good pronouciation and self confidence to speak Planning: The researcher choosed the material that contained threethemes about greeting, introduction and hobby and they had tomake dialogue . The researcher took the sample material fromthe text book. The reseacher divided them into five groups.Then make observation of the students activities and makesure the students feel more comfortable with their groups.Acting:The researcher read loudly dialogue about hobby. The studentshad to listen carefully to see if what the teacher say. And thenstudents folowing what the researcher say. Students work together in groups of four. Each of groups were asked to speak in front of the class. After that they were asked to make moredialogue using three of themes. The researcher corrects byrepeating correctly the sentence the students have created. Andthen the researcher gave them to prepare and make dialoguein front of the class.The researcher was being observer and conselor in the classactivities.Observing:From these activities the reseacher observed that they couldimprove they ability. Although they didnt know all themeaning of the words, they would do that best. In groups, students can begin to feel sense of community and learn fromeach other as well as the teacher. This was cooperation, notonly competition, and was encourage.The researchers initial role is that of conselor. It means thatthe researcher recognized how threatening a new learningsituation can be for fourth grade elementary school, so theresearcher can support the students in their struggle to master the target

language.There were a lot of different activities thatcould occur with students working in a groups. Researcher who use the groups activities believe students can learn fromeach other and can get more practice. This could lead todevelopment of community among class members. Reflecting:There was increasing in their speaking ability and theresponses showed that they had motivation in learningspeaking. Their anthussiasme were high when that reseacher choosed simple conversation from the dialogue that theymake. The students again invited to talk in front of the class.Developing a community among the class members buildstrust and can help to reduce treat of the speakig skill. And to know the whole result from this research, the researcher gavethe students the evaluation.Building relationship with among students was veryimportant. In trusting releationship, the threat that studentsfeel is reduced and therefore nondefensive learning in promoted. Students can learn from their interaction with eachother as well as their interaction the teacher. A spirit of cooperation, not competition, can prevail.In cylcle 3 there the competition was held among the groups,then the students were more interested when did theconversation with their group. They were still to improve their speaking ability to be more succesful and more confident. 2.Result of Collaboration In this research, the researcher was found one from twentystudents has a trouble to learn English study. There some factor that theresearcher find, they are the student from descendant of Chinese, the student hardto comprehend Lesson. She from inability family, and nobody want to closeand work with her because her inability. From that finding, the result of the finding that researcher make some approachto the students by using discuss with the group. And the ability students can beimprovement with their group.

3. Analysis In activities in the class, the researcher could see the progrees of speaking ability from the student s. The improvement process in teachingspeaking through Guessing Games is figured in this graphic design:

There was increasing the average score from cycle 1, cycle 2 andcycle 3- the researcher took their score from exercises that they have done. Itwas indicated that teaching speaking through guessing games the studentsreached better and better in speaking.

And as the result of the research, the researcher took the students score fromthe evaluation that held at the end of the research. It is figured in this graphicdesign: Grapichof EvaluationScore

From graphic shows the result score evaluation are: 9 students got score 7(63%), 7 students got score 8 (38%), 4 students got score 9 (23%). The averagescore is 7.75 , it means that the method by games is make improvement for Speaking English for the students

From grapich above show the result score evaluation from each group.The studendts more encourage and more confident to speak and cooperativewith their group From the facts and data that I accepted there are many factors why dothey have low ability and low motivation in speaking learning .The factors are : 1.The Students are afraid to make mistake in pronounciation 2.The Students have little self confidence, and low motivation tospeak extensively 3.The Students are reasons why they cant understand what theyspeak 4.The Students didn t get message , feelings and experience fromthe author, and the students have not 5.The students have not enough encourage to speak. The problems above often arise in speaking learning, especially in the firstat fourth grade, these are some solutions to overcome: 1.They have to practice speaking aloud to develop their pronounciation 2.Choose the suitable games to work on depending their knowledge level 3.Choose effective guessing to make involve and participant fromstudents 4.Help the students to do extensive spaking practice 5.And make a group to improve they ability to speaking .

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS A. Conclusions and Suggestions After analyzing some experts theories about improvement studentsspeaking skill through Guessi ng Games, now the researcher tries to makeconclusions from cycle 1 to cycle 3. 1.From the cycle 1, the researcher which got, almost all student unable toanswer and say truly. Even arise is each other laughing. This thingresult student is less enthusiastically even class atmosphere becomeclamor. And their equip the answer showed that they had a few self confidence.

2.From the cycle 2, the researcher must make savety felling for thestudents. And make the atmosphere of the class being fun. There waslittle increasing in their pronounciation from the dialogue. As far thetasks were given individually. In the cycle two the researcher find therewas a will to the students to overcome their problems in pronunciationand speaking skill. Few students showed increasing their speaking andthey could make simple dialogue with their partner.

3.There was increasing in their speaking ability and the responses showedthat they had motivation in learning speaking. Their anthussiasme werehigh when that reseacher choosed simple conversation from thedialogue that they make.In cylcle 3 there the competition was held among the groups, then thestudents were more interested when did the conversation with their group. They were still to improve their speaking ability to be moresuccesful and more confident. Make some group on the class canimprove the ability to speak.The conclusion from three cycles that the process of the improvementstudents speaking skill through guessing games, first that the researcher mustmake situation of the classroom more conducive so that the students can fell moresafely. The researcher has to choose effective guessing to make involve and participant from students. The students more encourages and more active when the researcher gives thematerials by group, they more confidence to improve their ability speaking skilland to make conversation by their group. Nevertheless, many factors hamper students to speak English, sometimesit comes from lack of teachers technique teaching. The students need to learnmore speaking of the target language. Guessing games is one of the techniques that have a positive effect on students speaking knowledge to make confidenceand encourage.

B. Suggestion After did the research the researcher has some suggestions for thestudents, English teacher and the institution as follow :a. The recommendation as follow for teacher : 1.The teacher should make condusive and make comfortable inthe class. 2.It is good for teacher to use technique to introduce guessinggames to students 3.Before teaching, teacher should stucture and plan this techniquecarefully 4.Teacher must be able to manage the class and the time in order to make students be more active and involved to the activity and makeit runs well.

5.The teacher should keep monitoring during the stages b. For the students : 1.If student find difficulties in understanding the games, theyshould ask the teacher for clearer explanation 2.The students should be active in participating during the lesson 3.The students should remind their friends to keep speakingEnglish c. For the institution: 1.Provide facilities that support the students activities in learningEnglish 2.Maximize the function of the library as a medium for learning 3.Provide the teachers that qualified based on their backgroundeducation. 4.Create the good relationship among the students, teachers, staffs, andthe headmaster

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