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1he ChemlsLry of Llfe and

Macromolecules
Pydrocarbons conLaln !uS1 hydrogen
and carbon
Pydrocarbons can vary ln lengLh and
branchlng" or be ln rlngs"
luncuonal
groups" glve
some funcuon Lo
borlng
hydrocarbons
Cne ||u|e change |n a
funcnona| group can
have ma[or b|o|og|ca|
consequences.
luncuonal Croup: Pydroxyl (Alcohol)
luncuonal Croups: Carbonyl
l. keLones
ll. Aldehydes
luncuonal Croups: amlno
luncuonal groups: carboxyl
luncuonal Croup: phosphaLe
AceLylsalyclc Acld
Ceranlol
Caelne
henylalanlne
Cne makes you feel beuer when you have
a cold. 1he oLher ls a hlghly addlcuve
sumulanL.
Can molecules be 8C1P polar and non-polar?
Cne change ln a funcuonal group ln a sex hormone
can deLermlne gender dlerences.
C. WhaL are
Lhe funcuonal
groups shown
here???
nouce Lhe klnds of charges LhaL Lhese
funcuonal groups have.
A polymer ls a molecule wlLh repeaLed
unlLs
A Monomer-
(s|ng|e ||nk)
A o|ymer-
(who|e cha|n)
8ut what does 1nIS have to do w|th
b|o|ogy???
1he Macromolecules
CarbohydraLes- olysaccharldes
roLelns
nuclelc Aclds
A nucleoude monomer
Llplds: laLs, Clls and Waxes
Pow does Lhe cell make macromolecules
from slmpler monomers?
Pow does Lhe cell break down (caLabollze)
Lhe macromolecules???
Cuesuon: ls Lhls dehydrauon or
hydrolysls???
MalLose ls a DIsaccharlde molecule
1he g|ycos|d|c bond
CarbohydraLes: po|ysaccharldes
AnoLher example of a polysaccharlde:
Chlun
L|p|ds (lA1S)
are composed
of glycerol
and fauy aclds
A 1kIg|ycer|de
CerLaln llplds are parL of Lhe cell
membrane LhaL envelop Lhe cell
Llplds self-
assemble lnLo
membranes
and spheres
olar vs. non olar ([usL when you LhoughL
you were done wlLh Lhls concepL)
Aceuc Acld
WhaL klnd of a monomer ls Lhls?
A. An Am|no Ac|d.
1here are 20 amlno aclds, each wlLh a
dlerenL 8" slde chaln.
uesnon: Are these s|de cha|ns po|ar or
non-po|ar???!!!
Amlno aclds undergo dehydrauon/
condensauon for form pepudes"
1he pepnde bond
olypepudes fold lnLo funcuonal proLelns
8lbbon model of a
proLeln
Space-lllng model
of a proLeln
1he levels of proLeln sLrucLure
rlmary- [usL Lhe 8LClSL sequence of amlno
aclds
Secondary- when a polypepude folds lnLo
alpha hellces and beLa-pleaLed sheeLs.
1eruary- 3u folded sLrucLure
CuarLernary- ll Lhere are mu|np|e
polypepudes LhaL lnLeracL for a funcuonal
proLeln.
rlmary sLrucLure- [usL Lhe preclse
sequence
Secondary SLrucLure ls held LogeLher by
hydrogen bondlng.
1eruary SLrucLure ls Lhe lCLuLu 3u
CCnlC8MA1lCn.
CuaLernary
SLrucLure
encompasses all
levels of sLrucLure
8|o|og|ca| Concept:
Lmergent ropernes-
"1he who|e |s greater
than the sum of |t's
parts"
Lxamples of proLelns wlLh quaLernary
sLrucLure
1he Macromolecule CheaLsheeL
Macromolecule Monomers Examples Polymers Examples
Carbohydrates monosacchar
ides
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
Lipids Fatty Acids

triglycerides

N/A

WhaL ls Lhe monomer of a
polypepude?
A. a monosaccharlde
8. glucose
C. an amlno acld
u. a llpld
L. a monopepude
Whlch of Lhe followlng ls nC1 an
example of a carbohydraLe?
A. Clucose
8. lrucLose
C. nucleoude
u. Sucrose
L. MalLose
Whlch of Lhe followlng ls lncorrecLely
palred?
A. SLarch. planLs
8. Cellulose. planLs
C. Clycogen. planLs
u. Chlun. arLhropods
Whlch of Lhe followlng ls nC1 a
componenL of a nuclelc acld?
A. A rlbose sugar
8. A glucose sugar
C. A deoxyrlbose sugar
u. A phosphaLe
L. A nlLrogenous base
A pepude bond descrlbes Lhe bond
beLween
A. Clucose monomers ln a polysaccharlde
8. lndlvldual amlno aclds ln a proLeln wlLh
prlmary sLrucLure
C. 1he bond beLween polypepudes ln a proLeln
wlLh quaLernary sLrucLure.
u. 1he bond holdlng beLa-pleaLed sheeLs and
alpha-hellces LogeLher.