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Protective Device Coordination

ETAP Star

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Agenda
Concepts & Applications Star Overview Features & Capabilities Protective Device Type TCC Curves STAR Short-circuit PD Sequence of Operation Normalized TCC curves Device Libraries
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination Slide 2

Definition
Overcurrent Coordination
A systematic study of current responsive devices in an electrical power system.

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 3

Objective
To determine the ratings and settings of fuses, breakers, relay, etc. fuses breakers relay etc T isolate the fault or overloads. To i l t th f lt l d

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 4

Criteria
Economics Available Measures of Fault Operating Practices Previous Experience p

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 5

Design
Open only PD nearest (upstream) of the fault or overload Provide satisfactory protection for overloads Interrupt SC as rapidly (instantaneously) as possible Comply with all applicable standards and codes Plot the Time Current Characteristics of different PDs
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination Slide 6

Analysis
When: New electrical systems Plant electrical system expansion/retrofits Coordination failure in an existing plant

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 7

Spectrum Of Currents
Load Current
U t 100% of f ll l d Up to f full-load 115-125% (mild overload)

Overcurrent
Abnormal loading condition (Locked Rotor) (Locked-Rotor)

Fault Current
Fault condition Ten times the full load current and higher full-load
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination Slide 8

Protection
Prevent injury to personnel Minimize damage to components
Quickly isolate the affected portion of the system Minimize the magnitude of available short circuit short-circuit

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 9

Coordination
Limit the extent and duration of service interruption S l ti f lt i l ti Selective fault isolation Provide alternate circuits

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 10

Coordination
C t A C D B D B A

I
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 11

Protection vs. Coordination


Coordination is not an exact science Compromise between protection and coordination
Reliability Speed Performance Economics Simplicity
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination Slide 12

Required Data
One-line diagrams (Relay diagrams) Power Grid Settings Generator Data Transformer Data
Transformer kVA, impedance, and connection Motor Data

Load Data Fault Currents Cable / Conductor Data Bus / Switchgear Data Instrument Transformer Data (CT, PT) Protective Device (PD) Data
Manufacturer and type of protective devices (PDs) One-line diagrams (Relay diagrams)

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 13

Study Procedure
Prepare an accurate one-line diagram (relay diagrams) Obtain the available system current spectrum (operating load, overloads, fault kA) Determine the equipment protection guidelines Select the appropriate devices / settings Plot the fixed points (damage curves, ) Obtain / plot the device characteristics curves p Analyze the results

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 14

Time Current Characteristics


TCC Curve / Plot / Graphs 4.5 x 5-cycle log-log graph X-axis: Current (0 5 10 000 amperes) (0.5 10,000 Y-axis: Time (.01 1000 seconds) Current Scaling (x1, x10, x100, x100) V lt Voltage S li ( l t kV reference) Scaling (plot f ) Use ETAP Star Auto-Scale
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination Slide 15

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 16

TCC Scaling Example


Situation:
A scaling factor of 10 @ 4.16 kV is selected for TCC curve plots.

Question
What are the scaling factors to plot the 0 48 kV 0.48 and 13.8 kV TCC curves?

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 17

TCC Scaling Example


Solution

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 18

Fixed Points
Points or curves which do not change regardless of protective device settings: dl f t ti d i tti
Cable damage curves g Cable ampacities T Transformer damage curves & inrush points f d i h i t Motor starting curves Generator damage curve / Decrement curve SC maximum fault points
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination Slide 19

Capability / Damage Curves


t I22t It
2

I2t

I2t

Motor Gen

Xfmr

Cable

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 20

Cable Protection
Standards & References
IEEE Std 835-1994 IEEE Standard Power Cable 835 1994 Ampacity Tables IEEE Std 848-1996 IEEE Standard Procedure for the Determination of the Ampacity Derating of Fire-Protected Cables IEEE Std 738-1993 IEEE Standard for Calculating the CurrentCurrent Temperature Relationship of Bare Overhead Conductors The Okonite Company Engineering Data for Copper and Aluminum C d t El t i l C bl Al i Conductor Electrical Cables, B ll ti EHB 98 Bulletin EHB-98

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 21

Cable Protection
The actual temperature rise of a cable when exposed to a short circuit current for a known time is calculated by:

2 t A= T2 + 234 g 0.0297log T1 + 234


Where: A A= Conductor area in circular-mils circular mils I = Short circuit current in amps t = Time of short circuit in seconds T1= Initial operation temperature (750C) T2=Maximum short circuit temperature (1500C)
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination Slide 22

Cable Short-Circuit Heating Limits


Recommended temperature rise: B) CU 75-200C

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 23

Shielded Cable
The normal tape width is 1 inches

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 24

NEC Section 110-14 C


(c) Temperature limitations. The temperature rating associated with the ampacity of a conductor shall be so selected and coordinated as to not exceed the lowest temperature rating of any connected termination conductor, or termination, device. device Conductors with temperature ratings higher than specified for terminations shall be permitted to be used for ampacity adjustment, correction, or both. (1) Termination provisions of equipment for circuits rated 100 amperes or less, or marked for Nos. 14 through 1 conductors shall be used only for conductors Nos conductors, rated 600C (1400F). Exception No. 1: Conductors with higher temperature ratings shall be permitted to be used, provided the ampacity of such conductors is determined based on the th 6O0C (1400F) ampacity of th conductor size used. it f the d t i d Exception No. 2: Equipment termination provisions shall be permitted to be used with higher rated conductors at the ampacity of the higher rated conductors, provided the equipment is listed and identified for use with the higher t d hi h rated conductors. d t (2) Termination provisions of equipment for circuits rated over 100 amperes, or marked for conductors larger than No. 1, shall be used only with conductors rated 750C (1670F). ( )

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 25

Transformer Protection


1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination Slide 26

Standards & References


National Electric Code 2002 Edition C37.91-2000; IEEE Guide for Protective Relay Applications to Power Transformers C57.12.59; IEEE Guide for Dry-Type Transformer Through-Fault Current D ti C t Duration. C57.109-1985; IEEE Guide for Liquid-Immersed Transformer Through-Fault-Current Duration APPLIED PROCTIVE RELAYING; J.L. Blackburn; Westinghouse Electric Corp; 1976 PROTECTIVE RELAYING, PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS; J.L. J L Blackburn; Marcel Dekker Inc; 1987 Dekker, IEEE Std 242-1986; IEEE Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination of Industrial and Commercial Power y Systems

Transformer Category
ANSI/IEEE C 57 109 C-57.109

Minimum nameplate (kVA) Category Single-phase Three-phase g y g p p I 5-500 15-500 II 501-1667 501 1667 501-5000 501 5000 III 1668-10,000 5001-30,000 IV above 1000 above 30,000 b b 30 000

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 27

Transformer Categories I, II

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 28

Transformer Categories III

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 29

Transformer
FLA

200

Thermal
I2t = 1250
(D-D LL) 0.87

t (sec) ( )

Infrequent Fault
(D-R LG) 0.58

Frequent Fault

Mechanical
K=(1/Z)2t
Inrush I h

2.5

Isc

25

I (pu)

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 30

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 31

Transformer Protection
MAXIMUM RATING OR SETTING FOR OVERCURRENT DEVICE PRIMARY SECONDARY Over 600 Volts Over 600 Volts 600 Volts or Below Transformer Rated Impedance Not more than 6% Circuit Breaker Setting 600 % Fuse Rating Circuit Breaker Setting 300 % Fuse Rating Circuit Breaker Setting or Fuse Rating 125% (250% supervised) ( p )

300 %

250%

More than 6% and not more than 10%

400 %

300 %

250%

225%

125% (250% supervised)


source: NEC

Any Location Non-Supervised

Table 450-3(a)

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 32

Transformer Protection
Turn on or inrush current Internal transformer faults External or through faults of major magnitude Repeated large motor starts on the transformer. The motor represents a major portion or the transformers KVA rating. ti Harmonics Over current protection Device 50/51 Ground current protection Device 50/51G Differential Device 87 Over or under excitation volts/ Hz Device 24 Sudden tank pressure Device 63 Dissolved gas detection Oil Level Fans Oil Pumps Pilot wire Device 85 Fault withstand Thermal protection hot spot, top of oil temperature, winding temperature Devices 26 & 49 Reverse over current Device 67 Gas accumulation Buckholz relay Over voltage Device 59 Voltage or current balance Device 60 Tertiary Winding Protection if supplied Relay Failure Scheme Breaker Failure Scheme

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 33

Recommended Minimum Transformer Protection


Protective system
Winding and/or power system Winding and/or power system g grounded neutral grounded g g neutral ungrounded
Up to 10 MVA Above 10 MVA Up to 10 MVA Above 10 MVA

Differential

Time over current Instantaneous restricted ground fault Time delayed ground fault Gas detection Over excitation Overheating


Slide 34

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Question

What is ANSI Shift Curve?

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 35

Answer
For delta-delta connected transformers, with line-to-line line to line faults on the secondary side the side, curve must be reduced to 87% (shift to the left by a factor of 0 87) 0.87) For delta-wye connection, with single line-tog ground faults on the secondary side, the y curve values must be reduced to 58% (shift y ) to the left by a factor of 0.58)
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination Slide 36

Question

What is meant by Frequent and Infrequent for transformers? q

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 37

Infrequent Fault Incidence Zones for Category II & III Transformers


Source Transformer primary-side protective device (fuses, relayed circuit breakers, etc.) may be selected by reference to the infrequent-faultincidence protection curve Infrequent-Fault f l Incidence Zone* Category II or III Transformer Fault will be cleared by transformer primary-side protective device Optional main secondary side protective device. side May be selected by reference to the infrequent-faultincidence protection curve Fault will be cleared by transformer primary-side protective device or by optional main secondaryside protection device Feeder protective device Frequent-Fault Incidence Zone* Feeders * Should be selected by reference to the frequent-fault-incidence protection curve or for transformers serving industrial, commercial and institutional power systems with secondary-side conductors enclosed in conduit, bus duct, etc., the feeder protective device may be selected by d l d i d i b d h f d i d i b l d b reference to the infrequent-fault-incidence protection curve.
Source: IEEE C57
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination Slide 38

Fault will be cleared by feeder protective device p

Motor Protection
Standards & References
IEEE Std 620-1996 IEEE Guide for the Presentation of Thermal Limit Curves for Squirrel Cage Induction Machines. IEEE Std 1255-2000 IEEE Guide for Evaluation of Torque Pulsations During Starting of Synchronous Motors ANSI/ IEEE C37.96-2000 Guide for AC Motor Protection The Art of Protective Relaying General Electric

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 39

Motor Protection
Motor Starting Curve Thermal Protection Locked Rotor Protection F lt Protection Fault P t ti

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 40

Motor Overload Protection


(NEC Art 430 32 Continuous Duty Motors) 430-32 Continuous-Duty

Thermal O/L (Device 49) Motors with SF not less than 1.15
125% of FLA f

Motors with temp. rise not over 40C p


125% of FLA

All other motors th t


115% of FLA
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination Slide 41

Motor Protection Inst. Pickup


I
LOCKED ROTOR

1 = XS + X d "

Recommended Instantaneous Setting:

RELAY PICK UP =

I PICK UP I LOCKED ROTOR

1 6 TO 2 1.6

If the recommended setting criteria cannot be met, or where more sensitive protection i d i d th i t t t ti is desired, the in-stantaneous relay ( a second relay) can b set l (or d l ) be t more sensitively if delayed by a timer. This permits the asymmetrical starting component to decay out. A typical setting for this is:

RELAY PICK UP =

I PICK UP I LOCKED ROTOR

1.2 TO 1.2

with a time delay of 0.10 s (six cycles at 60 Hz)


1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination Slide 42

Locked Rotor Protection


Thermal Locked Rotor (Device 51) Starting Time (TS < TLR) LRA
LRA sym LRA asym (1.5-1.6 x LRA sym) + 10% margin

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 43

Fault Protection
(NEC A t / T bl 430-52) Art Table 430 52) Non-Time Delay Fuses
300% of FLA

Dual Element (Time-Delay Fuses) ( y )


175% of FLA

Instantaneous Trip Breaker


800% - 1300% of FLA*

Inverse Time Breakers


250% of FLA

*can be set up to 1700% for Design B (energy efficient) Motor


1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination Slide 44

Low Voltage Motor Protection


Usually pre-engineered (selected from Catalogs) Typically, motors larger than 2 Hp are protected by combination starters Overload / Short-circuit protection

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 45

Low-voltage Motor
Ratings
Continuous amperes Nominal voltage (V) Horsepower Starter size (NEMA)

Range of ratings 9-250 240-600 1.5-1000 Quantity 00-9 NEMA designation

Types of protection

Overload: overload relay elements

OL

Short circuit: circuit b k current i it breaker t trip elements Fuses Undervoltage: inherent with integral control supply and three-wire control circuit

CB

FU

Ground fault (when speci fied): speci-fied): ground relay with toroidal CT

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 46

Minimum Required Sizes of a NEMA Combination Motor Starter System


MINIM MUM SIZ ZE GROUN NDING CONDU UCTOR FOR A 50 % CURRENT CAPACITY 460V NE FLC EC MAXIMUM CONDUCTOR LENGTH FOR ABOVE AND BELOW GROUND CONDUIT SYSTEMS. ABOVE GROUND SYSTEMS HAVE DIRECT SOLAR EXPOSURE. 750 C CONDUCTOR TEMPERATURE, 450 C AMBIENT NEXT LARGEST WIRE SIZE USE NEXT LARGER GROUN ND CONDUCTOR MAXIMUM LENGTH FOR 1% % VOLTAGE DROP WITH LARGER WIRE FUSE SIZE CLASS J FUSE

CIRCUIT BREAKER SIZE

MOTO HP OR

STAR RTER SIZ ZE

MAXIMUM LENGTH FOR 1% % VOLTAGE DROP

MINIMUM WIRE SIZE

250%

200%

150%

1 1 2 3 5 7 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150

2.1 3 3.4 4.8 7.6 11 14 21 27 34 40 52 65 77 96 124 156 180

0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5

12 12 12 12 12 12 10 10 10 8 6 6 2 2 2 1 2/0 4/0

12 12 12 12 12 10 8 8 6 4 2 2 2/0 2/0 4/0 250 350 500

759 531 468 332 209 144 283 189 227 276 346 266 375 317 358 304 298 307

10 10 10 10 10 8 6 6 4 2 2/0 2/0 4/0 4/0 250 350 500 750

1251 875 772 547 345 360 439 292 347 407 610 469 530 447 393 375 355 356

15 15 15 20 20 30 35 50 70 80 100 150 175 200 250 350 400 450

15 15 15 20 20 25 30 40 50 70 70 110 150 175 200 250 300 350

15 15 15 15 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 90 100 125 150 200 250 300

5 6 7 10 15 20 30 45 60 70 90 110 125 150 200 250 350 400


Slide 47

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Required Data - Protection of a Medium Medi m Voltage Motor


Rated full load current Service factor S i f t Locked rotor current Maximum locked rotor time (thermal limit curve) with the motor at ambient and/or operating temperature Minimum no load current Starting power factor Running power factor Motor and connected load accelerating time System phase rotation and nominal frequency Type and location of resistance temperature devices (RTDs), if used Expected fault current magnitudes First cycle current Maximum motor starts per hour

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 48

Medium-Voltage Class E Motor Controller


Ratings Nominal system voltage Horsepower Symmetrical MVA interrupting capacity at nominal system voltage Types of Protective Devices Overload, or locked Rotor, or both: Thermal overload relay TOC relay IOC relay plus time delay Thermal overload rela o erload relay TOC relay IOC relay plus time delay Short Circuit: Fuses, Class E2 IOC relay, Class E1 G ou d au t Ground Fault TOC residual relay Overcurrent relay with toroidal CT 1 1 GP GP 3 3 FU OC Class El Class E2 ( C 2 (with (without fuses) fuses) 2300-6900 0-8000 25-75 5 5 2300-6900 0-8000 160-570 60 5 0

Quantity

NEMA Designation Phase Balance

3 3 3 3 3 3

OL OC TR/O

Current balance relay

BC

Negative-sequence voltage 1 relay (per bus), or both OL OC TR/OC Undervoltage: Inherent with integral control supply and threewire control circuit, when voltage falls suffi-ciently to permit the contractor to open and break the seal-in circuit Temperature: Temperature relay, p g operating from resistance sensor or ther-mocouple in stator winding

NEMA Class E1 medium voltage starter

UV

OL

NEMA Class E2 medium voltage starter


Slide 49

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Starting Current of a 4000Hp, 12 kV, 1800 rpm Motor


First half cycle current showing current offset.

Beginning of run up current showing load torque p g q pulsations.

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 50

Starting Current of a 4000Hp, 12 kV, 1800 rpm Motor - Oscillographs

Motor pull in current showing motor reaching synchronous speed hi h d

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 51

Thermal Limit Curve

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 52

Thermal Limit Curve


Typical Curve

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 53

(49) I2T

tLR ts Starting Curve (51)

O/L

MCP

200 HP

MCP (50)

LRAs

LRAasym

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 54

Protective Devices
Fuse Overload Heater Thermal Magnetic Low Voltage Solid State Trip Electro-Mechanical Motor Circuit Protector (MCP) Relay (50/51 P, N, G, SG, 51V, 67, 49, 46, 79, 21, )
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination Slide 55

Fuse (Power Fuse)


Non Adjustable Device (unless electronic) Continuous and Interrupting Rating Voltage Levels ( a kV) o age e e s (Max ) Interrupting Rating (sym, asym) Characteristic Curves
Min. Melting Total Clearing

Application (rating type: R, E, X, )


1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination Slide 56

Fuse Types
Expulsion Fuse (Non-CLF) Current Limiting Fuse (CLF) Electronic Fuse (S&C Fault Fiter)

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 57

Total Clearing Time Curve

Minimum Melting g Time Curve

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 58

Current Limiting Fuse (CLF)


Limits the peak current of short-circuit short circuit Reduces magnetic stresses (mechanical damage) Reduces thermal energy

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 59

Current Limiting Action


Ip
Curre (peak amps) ent k

ta = tc tm Ip ta = A i Ti Arcing Time tm = Melting Time tc = Clearing Time tm tc ta


Time (cycles)

Ip = Peak Current Ip = Peak Let-thru Current


Slide 60

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Let-Through Chart
7% PF (X/R = 14.3)

Pea Let-T ak Through Amper res

230,000 230 000

300 A
12,500

100 A 60 A

5,200

100,000

Symmetrical RMS Amperes


1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination Slide 62

Fuse
Generally: CLF is a better short-circuit protection N CLF ( Non-CLF (expulsion f l i fuse) i a b ) is better Overload protection Electronic fuses are typically easier to coordinate due to the electronic control adjustments

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 63

Selectivity Criteria
Typically: N CLF Non-CLF: CLF: 140% of f ll l d f full load 150% of full load

Safety Margin: 10% applied to Min Melting (consult the fuse manufacturer)

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 64

Molded Case CB
Thermal-Magnetic Magnetic Only g y Motor Circuit Protector (MCP) I Integrally F ll Fused (Li i d (Limiters) ) Current Limiting High Interrupting Capacity Non-Interchangeable Parts Insulated Case (Interchange Parts) Types Frame Size Poles Trip Rating Interrupting Capability Voltage

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 65

MCCB

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 66

MCCB with SST Device

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 67

Thermal Maximum

Thermal Minimum

Magnetic (instantaneous)

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 68

LVPCB
Voltage and Frequency Ratings Continuous Current / Frame Size / Sensor I t Interrupting Rating ti R ti Short-Time Rating (30 cycle) Short Time Fairly Simple to Coordinate Phase / Ground Settings Inst. Override
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination Slide 69

LT PU

CB 2 CB 1
LT Band
CB 2

ST PU

480

kV

CB 1

IT

ST Band If =30 kA

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 70

Inst. Override

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 71

Overload Relay / Heater


Motor overload protection is provided by a device that models the temperature rise of the winding When the temperature rise reaches a point that will damage the motor, the motor is deenergized bimetallic, Overload relays are either bimetallic melting alloy or electronic

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 72

Overload Heater (Mfr. Data)

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 73

Question
What is Class 10 and Class 20 Thermal OLR curves?

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 74

Answer
At 600% Current Rating:
Cl Class 10 f f t t i 10 for fast trip, seconds or less Class 20 for 20 seconds or for, less (commonly used) There is also Class 15, 30 for long trip time (typically provided with electronic overload relays)
6

20

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 75

Answer

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 76

Overload Relay / Heater


When the temperature at the combination motor starter is more than 10 C (18 F) different than the temperature at the motor, ambient temperature correction of the motor current is required. An adjustment is required because the output that a motor can safely deliver varies with temperature. p The motor can deliver its full rated horsepower at an ambient temperature specified by the motor manufacturers, normally + 40 C. At high temperatures (higher than + 40 C) less than 100% of the normal rated current can be drawn from the motor without shortening the insulation life. At lower temperatures (less than + 40 C) more than 100% of the normal rated current could be drawn from the motor without shortening the insulation life.

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 77

Overcurrent Relay
Time-Delay (51 I>) Short-Time Instantaneous ( I>>) Instantaneous (50 I>>>) Electromagnetic (induction Disc) Solid State (Multi Function / Multi Level) A li ti Application

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 78

1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Time-Overcurrent Unit
Ampere Tap Calculation
Ampere Pickup (P.U.) = CT Ratio x A.T. Setting Relay Current ( R) = Actual Line Current ( L) / CT y (I (I Ratio Multiples of A.T.
CT

= IR/A.T. Setting = IL/(CT Ratio x A.T. Setting)

IL

IR
51

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 80

Instantaneous Unit
Instantaneous Calculation
Ampere Pickup (P.U.) = CT Ratio x IT Setting Relay Current ( R) = Actual Line Current ( L) / CT y (I (I Ratio Multiples of IT
CT

= IR/IT Setting = IL/(CT Ratio x IT Setting)

IL

IR
50

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 81

Relay Coordination
Time margins should be maintained between T/C curves Adjustment should be made for CB opening time Shorter time intervals may be used for solid state relays Upstream relay should have the same inverse T/C characteristic as the downstream relay (CO-8 to CO-8) or be less inverse (CO-8 upstream to CO-6 downstream) Extremely inverse relays coordinates very well with CLFs
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination Slide 82

Situation
4.16 kV CT 800:5
CB
50/51

Relay: IFC 53

Cable CU - EPR
Isc = 30,000 A DS
5 MVA 6%

1-3/C 500 kcmil

Calculate Relay Calc late Rela Setting (Tap Inst Tap & Time Dial) (Tap, Inst. For This System

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 83

Solution
Transformer:

IL =

5,000kVA = 694 A 3 4.16kV 5 IR = IL = 4.338 A 800


IR
R

IL

I Inrsuh = 12 694 = 8,328 A


Set Relay: y

CT

125% 4.338 = 5.4 A TAP = 6.0 A TD = 1 Inst (50) = 8,328 5 = 52.1A => 55 A 800 (6/4.338 = 1.38)

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 84

Question
What T/C Coordination interval should be maintained between relays?

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 85

Answer
B t A
CB Opening Time + Induction Disc Overtravel (0.1 sec) I d ti Di O t l (0 1 ) + Sa ety a g (0.2 Safety margin (0 sec w/o Inst. & 0 sec w/ Inst.) /o st 0.1 / st )

I
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination Slide 86

Recloser
Recloser protects electrical transmission systems from temporary voltage surges and other unfavorable conditions. Reclosers can automatically "reclose" the circuit and restore normal reclose power transmission once the problem is cleared. Reclosers are usually designed with failsafe mechanisms that prevent g them from reclosing if the same fault occurs several times in succession over a short period. This insures that repetitive line faults don't cause power to switch on and off repeatedly, since this could cause damage or accelerated wear to electrical equipment. It also insures that temporary faults such as lightning strikes or transmission switching don't cause lengthy interruptions in service.

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 87

Recloser Types
Hydraulic Electronic
Static Controller Microprocessor Controller

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 88

Recloser Curves

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination

Slide 89