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trng i hc bch khoa h ni khoa in t vin thng

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bo co bi tp ln

vi x l
ti: h thng iu khin t xa cc thit b in

Ging vin: Nguyn Hong Dng Sinh vin : Ng Kin Cng Th Ngt Phm Ngc Khoa Trn Minh Hi Nguy n Mnh H Nguyn Mnh Cng Lp : in t 5 - K47

H ni 12 - 2005

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Li ni u
Chng ta thng nghe ni by gi l thi i K thut s. Ngoi my vi tnh v my tnh b ti rt quen thuc cn c bit bao thit b v h thng k thut s : ng h eo tay , my DVD , in thoi s , h thng in thoi di ng, cc h thng iu khin t ng cng nghip vv... Thc ra tm quan trng v mc ph bin ca in t phn ln l nh cng lao ca k thut s . K thut s c vai tr v mc ph bin nh hin nay l nh nhng u im ca n v s pht trin ca cng ngh mch tch hp ( ch to cc IC) . c bit s ra i ca Vi iu khin - Vi x l nm 1971 thc y s pht trin v ng dng ca k thut s ln 1 mc khng khip. Mt s u im ca K thut s l : 1. D hiu : D K thut s c nhng chc nng phc tp nhng u c xy dng da trn mt s phn t c bn d hiu 2. D thit k : S hot ng ca mch in t s khng i hi cc in th chnh xc m ch cn chng ri vo mt khong cch bit nhau gi l mc cao v mc thp. 3. chnh xc cao, t b nh hng bi nhiu : Nghch l l cc in th khng cn chnh xc nhng KTS li chnh xc hn k thut tng t. KTS t b nh hng bi nhiu tc l cc bin ng in ngoi mun pht sinh trong h thng hoc t bn ngoi xm nhp vo. 4. D lu tr ,truyn ti : V bn cht 2 trng thi (thp / cao) nn KTS c lu tr v truyn ti 1 cch thun li vi dung kng ln v sai s thp. 5. D to mch tch hp : Do ch c to nn bi mt s phn t c bn m c lp i lp li hng ngn ln nn KTS rt thch hp vi cng ngh mch tch hp . Do c s lng IC phong ph thc hin nhiu chc nng khc nhau t n gin ti phc tp. iu ny cng gip cho vic thit k mch v h thng s d dng. 6. Hot ng c th c lp trnh : H thng s dao tip d dng vi phn mm nn hot ng ca n rt linh hot. Ngoi khi x l trung tm thc hin chc nng nhim v ca mt vi x l, vi iu khin c tch hp thm cc khi chc nng h tr, to thnh mt khi iu khin hon chnh. Bn cnh , vi iu khin cn cho php ngi s dng lp trnh tu theo yu cu da trn tp lnh ring kh
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phong ph. Ngy nay cc b vi iu khin ang c ng dng ngy cng rng ri v thm nhp ngy cng nhiu trong cc lnh vc k thut v i sng x hi. Hu ht cc thit b k thut t phc tp cho n n gin nh thit b iu khin t ng, thit b vn phng cho n cc thit b trong gia nh u c dng cc b vi iu khin.

Ni dung bo co Li ni u Gii thiu v ti Gii thiu h vi x l 8051 Cc ni dung ca ti : o Gii thiu v hng ngoi o Thit k h thng o M ngun chng trnh o Gii thiu sn phm o Hng pht trin

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Phn 1. Gii thiu ti


ti : in h thng iu khin t xa cc thit b

Thc hin : Nhm KTX - Lp in t 5 - K47 - HBKHN 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ng Kin Cng (Trng nhm) Th Ngt Phm Ngc Khoa Trn Minh Hi Nguyn Mnh H Nguyn Mnh Cng

Ngy nay VXL c ng dng rt nhiu trong cuc sng ca con ngi . Mt s ng dng ca VXL c th lit k trong bng di y :
Thit b ni tht gia nh in trong nh My m thoi My in thoi Cc h thng an ton Cc b m ca ga-ra xe My tr li My Fax My tnh gia nh Tivi Truyn hnh cp VCR My quay camera iu khin t xa Vn phng in thoi My tnh Cc h thng ton My Fax L vi sng My sao chp My in lazer My in mu My nhn tin t My tnh hnh trnh iu khin ng c an Ti m kh Thit b ABS o lng H thng bo mt iu khin truyn tin Gii tr iu ho nhit M ca khng cn cha kho

http://dientu5.bizhat.com Tr chi in t Cc nhc c in t My khu iu khin nh sng My nhn tin

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Trong nhiu ng dng trn, ng dng iu khin t xa l mt ng dng rt th v. Thay cho vic phi ng dy tt qut , bt in , tt in ...th gi y ch vi mt chic iu khin t xa trong tay ta c th nguyn mt v tr trong nh m c th iu khin c tt c cc thit b in tt m theo mun . Xut pht t thc t , nhm quyt nh chn ti ny. tng thc hin l s dng hng ngoi iu khin, dng mt b pht hng ngoi c m ho vi nhiu nt bm, mi nt bm vi mt m ring iu khin mt thit b. Vic gii m c lp trnh trn vi x l 8051. Phn 2. Gii thiu v h vi x l 8051 Phn 3. Ni dung ti I. Gii thiu v hng ngoi 1. Hng ngoi l g ?

Hng ngoi l s bc x nng lng vi tn s thp hn tn s m mt ta nhn thy . V vy chng ta khng th nhn thy n c. Tuy nhin nh chng ta u bit mc d khng nhn thy tn s m thanh nhng chng ta bit rng n tn ti v tai ta c th nghe thy chng. Ta khng th nhn thy hay nghe thy hng ngoi nhng ta c th cm thy n t s cm ng nhit trn da. Khi bn a tay ti gn ngn la hoc nhng vt nng , bn s cm thy nhit d bn khng nhn thy. Bn nhn thy ngn la l bi v n pht ra nhiu loi bc x mt ta c th nhn thy, ng thi n cng pht ra hng ngoi m ta ch c th cm nhn qua da. 2.Hng ngoi trong in t

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Hng ngoi tht th v, bi v n c to ra 1 cch d dng v khng b nh hng bi nhiu in t do n c s dng mt cch rng ri v tin li trong thng tin v iu khin. Tuy nhin n khng hon ho, nhiu ngun sng khc nhau c th pht ra hng ngoi v c th gy nhiu n thng tin ny. Mt tri l mt v d, n pht ra mt khong ph rt rng trong c ph hng ngoi. Vic s dng hng ngoi trong cc thit b iu khin t xa TV/VCR v nhiu ng dng khc cng mt phn l do cc Diode pht v thu hng ngoi rt r v sn c trn th trng. Nh ni trn, nhiu th c th to ra hng ngoi, bt k th g bc x nhit u c kh nng . Bao gm c th chng ta, n, l vi sng, ch st tay bn vo nhau, thm ch c nc nng na . V vy cho php s truyn thng hiu qu s dng hng ngoi v trnh nhng tn hiu nhiu khng mong mun phi s dng mt kho bo cho u thu u l tn hiu c ch, u l nhiu. Khi nhn ln bu tri m bn c th thy rt nhiu v sao, nhng bn c th d dng nhn ra 1 chic my bay bi nh sng nhp nhy ca n. nh sng nhp nhy ny cng c th coi l mt kho , mt kiu m ho i vi chng ta. Tng t nh my bay trong bu tri m ,TV ca chng ta cng c th nhn hng trm ngun hng ngoi li ti t c th chng ta, nhng chic n xung quanh thm ch l mt tch tr nng . Mt cch trnh nhng ngun hng ngoi khc nhau l to ra mt kho. Do , iu khin t xa dng iu bin hng ngoi ca n ti mt tn s no . u thu hng ngoi TV/VCR s i theo tn s ny m l i cc hng ngoi khc nhn c. Khong tn s hay s dng l 3060KHz , tt nht l khong t 3638KHz .Hng ngoi pht ra t cc diode hng ngoi theo cc xung nhp vi tn s 36000 ln mt giy pht ra cc mc logic 0 v 1 to ra tn s 36 Khz l vic n gin, ci kh y l thu v nhn dng n . l l do ti sao nhiu cng ty sn xut ra thit b thu hng ngoi bao gm nhng b lc, mch gii m v sa dng u ra. Mt xung vung chu k xp x 27s a vo cc baz ca Transistor c th iu khin 1 LED hng ngoi truyn i

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Bn c th bt hoc tt tn s ny ti u pht , u thu s ch ra khi no u pht l bt hay tt

Nhng b gii iu ch c mc logic o ti u ra khi c mt gi hng ngoi c gi, u ra mc tch cc thp ,tng ng mc logic 1. trnh vic mt iu khin t xa Philip c th thay i knh ca mt TV Panasonic..., ngi ta s dng cc cch m ho khc nhau cho cng mt khong tn s . Chng s dng cc kiu t hp bt khc nhau m ho vic truyn d liu v trnh nhiu. 3. iu khin TV SONY Sony s dng loi m ha rng bt, y l kiu m ho n gin cho vic gii m. Hy xem xt khong thi gian nh T c 600s . Mi bit truyn I l s kt hp ca -T+T cho bt 0 v -T+2T cho bt 1 .V vy bit 0 c chiu di 1200s v bit 1 c chiu di 1800s

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Mc ln (+T) trong tn hiu trn c ngha l hng ngoi c truyn i , mc xung (-T) ngha l khng c. tit kim Pin, hu ht cc nh sn xut khong 5/6 thm ch 3/4 so vi rng xung nh l thuyt . Bng cch ny, pin 500 gi c th s dng c ti 600gi (5/6) hoc 800 gi (3/4). Mt s nh sn xut khc khng quan tm lmv vn ny. H tng cng hiu qu truyn tn hiu bng cch m rng 1 cht khong thi gian sng mang 36 KHz tch cc v rt nhn khong thi gian kia. Nh vy tn hiu t REMOTE SONY c dng sng nh sau:

Ta thy: - Phn u tin c truyn i gi l Header( mo u) , n cng c coi l bit bt u (START bit ) , phn mo u c rng 3T hay 1800s. - Tip theo phn Header bn s thy 12 bit lin tip c gii iu ch nh sau: 500s im lng + 700s hng ngoi = bit 0 500s im lng +1300s hng ngoi = bit 1
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Bit u tin sau bit START l bit LSB, ta t tn n l bit B0, bit cui cng s l B11 B0---B6 : 7 bit m lnh B7---B11 : 5 bit a ch

Trong hnh v trn , a ch l 02H, m lnh l 16H . C 32 kh nng a ch v 128 lnh .Ton b thi gian truyn i ca khung c th thay i theo thi gian v rng ca bit 1 > rng ca bit 0. Nu bn gi nt bm, khung d liu s lp li sau mi 25ms . Nu bn s dng mt nhn hng ngoi c sn trn th trng , tt c dng sng trn s b o li nh sau:

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thu v gii m c tn hiu t REMOTE SONY, thc t ta khng cn thu ton b 12 bit m ho. Ta ch cn thu 7 bit COMMAND v c th b qua 5bit a ch, bi vi cng mt iu khin th tt c cc nt bm u pht ra m a ch nh nhau, ch khc nhau m lnh. M a ch c SONY s dng phn bit gia cc MODEL REMOTE SONY khc nhau. thu 7 bit m lnh ta c thut ton sau: 1. Thit lp thanh ghi A = 01000000B 2. Khi u bng cch ch tn hiu xung y s l bit START 3. Ch cho tn hiu ln - y l khi u ca bit 4. Ch tn hiu i xung 5. Ch khong 750-950s 6. o mc tn hiu 7. Nu mc tn hiu l mc cao (UP) Bit nhn c l bit 0 - Thit lp bit nh C = 0 (bit m lnh thu c) - Quay phi c nh A, nh vy C s c gi vo MSB ca A, LSB ca A gi vo C. - Ban u, A = 01000000B th sau khi quay ta c C = 0 v MSB ca A l bit u tin ca m lnh. - Nh vy sau 7 ln quay th C = 1 v 7 bt bn tri ca A s cha m lnh - Kim tra bit nh C, nu C = 1 nhy ti bc 9 , nu C = 0 quay li bc 4 8. Nu mc tn hiu l mc thp (DOWN) Bit nhn c l 1 - Thit lp Bit nh C = 1 (bit m lnh thu c) - Quay phi c nh A - Kim tra bit nh C, nu C = 1 nhy ti bc 9 , nu C = 0 quay li bc 3 9. 7 bit m lnh cha trong 7 bit tri ca A : A = D6D5D4D3D2D1D00
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- Quay phi A c 7 bt phi ca A cha m lnh : BEGIN 0D6D5D4D3D2D1D0 Lu thut ton


o mc tn hiu

A =

Tn hiu mc thp

Y o mc tn hiu N

Tn hiu mc cao

Y o mc tn hiu

Tn hiu mc thp

Y To tr 750s 950s o mc tn hiu N t c nh C = 0 Quay phi c nh A Y t c nh C = 1 Quay phi c nh A

Tn hiu mc thp

N C=1

Quay phi A END 11

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