Fluid mechanics

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Fluid mechanics

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Tritton Physical Fluid Dynamics, Oxford. [3] G. K. Batchelor An introduction to uid dynamics, Cambridge. To see the theory in action, the following is a book of photographs of uid motion: [4] M. Van-Dyke An album of uid motion, Parabolic Press.

Contents 0. Introduction 1. Preliminary ideas 2(a) Stress in uids 2(b) Strain in uids 2(c) Stress-strain relationship for a Newtonian uid 3. The Navier-Stokes equations 4. Vorticity dynamics and the stream function 5. Exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations 6. Stokes ow 7. Lubrication theory 8. Boundary layers 9. Hydrodynamic stability Appendix: Invariants of a matrix under rotation.

0. Introduction The study of uid mechanics encompasses many varied applications in both natural and engineering processes. Some examples are Aerodynamics ow past wings; computation of drag and lift; DAlemberts paradox Biological uid dynamics sh swimming; ow in arteries and veins; blood ow in vascular tumours; Korotko sounds Geophysical uid dynamics (GFD) oceanography and meteorology; climate and weather prediction Industrial uid dynamics ow past structures and buildings; coating ows (e.g. deposition of photographic lms); spraying processes Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) ow of conducting uids; Maxwells equations Physiochemical uid dynamics ow under surface tension in the presence of chemical contaminants Turbulence transition to turbulence from laminar ow; boundary layer receptivity All of these are active areas of research We will show that the Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible uid are: u = 0, where u is the velocity in the uid p is the pressure is the density is the viscosity. If U and L are typical velocity and length scales for the problem in hand, we will also see that a given ow may be characterised by the value of the dimensionless Reynolds number R= UL . u + u u = p/ + (/)2 u, t

Simplications can be made if R 1 (see Section 6) or R 1 (see Section 8). 1. Preliminary ideas What is a uid? A simple uid cannot withstand an externally applied stress without deforming in some manner. This denition of a uid encompasses both liquids and gases. In order to develop a mathematical basis for the study of uid motion, we adopt the continuum hypothesis, 2

which states that the material under scrutiny is assumed to behave as if it is perfectly continuous. In real materials, uctuations at the molecular level mean that this hypothesis is inaccurate at very small scales. However, in most situations we are concerned with macroscopic observations of a given uid motion and are not troubled by the irregular variations apparent on molecular lengthscales. Focussing on a tiny volume of a given uid, we make the approximation that physical quantities, such as mass and momentum, are spread uniformly over that volume rather than unevenly distributed within it. Under this assumption we may dene, for example, the uid velocity u(x, t), density (x, t), or temperature T (x, t), valid at a point x and time t in the ow eld and treat them as continuous, dierentiable quantities over the domain of interest. A viscous uid is distinguished by its ability to resist shearing motions. A perfect or inviscid uid oers no resistance to shear. The viscosity, , of a uid is a measure of its ability to withstand such shearing action. The kinematic viscosity of a uid is dened to be the ratio between the viscosity and the density, so = /. Describing a uid ow There are two dierent frameworks avaliable within which to describe a uids motion. These are the: Eulerian framework: In this approach, the uid is considered as a whole. Global vector and scalar variables such as velocity and temperature are dened and solved for over the entire ow-eld simultaneously. This is by far the most widely used. Lagrangian framework: In this formulation, individual uid particles are tracked. Each particle is labelled according to its known location at a given time. For example, a particular particle is labelled by its position x0 at time t = 0. Then, at a later time t > 0, it has position x(x0 , t), velocity u = (x/t)x0 , and acceleration (u/t)x0 , where the labels on the brackets indicate that the dierentiations are performed for constant x0 , i.e. for this one particular particle. This description of the ow tends to be rather cumbersome and is little used. Compressibility What role do compressibility eects play in determining the motion of a uid? Air is clearly much more easily compressible than water, say, but to what extent is this important in a particular ow? Bernoullis theorem states that in a steady, inviscid ow with no body forces acting, the pressure is related to the velocity via 1 p + u2 = constant along a streamline. 2 It follows that a change in speed of a uid element from zero to U requires a pressure change 3

of O(U 2 ). By denition, c2 = dp , d

where c is the speed of sound. Thus a small change in density is related to a small change in pressure via d dp = 2, c and so U 2 d =O c2 M= = O M2 , U . c

We can deduce that if M 1, the eects of compressibility can be safely ignored. Examples: 1. In air, c 340ms1 , so that for U = O(102 ms1 ), M = 0.29 and compressibility will not be important. 2. For water, c 1.5 103 ms1 , so would need U O(1500ms1 ) for signicant compressibility eects. 3. For an incompressible uid, changes in pressure occur with no corresponding change in density. In this case dp/d is innite, so the speed of sound in the incompressible medium is innite. A consequence of this is that the uid feels the eect of a local change everywhere in the uid instantaneously.

2(a). Stress in uids The forces acting on a uid in motion are divided into two categories: 1. Long-range forces: Externally applied forces such as gravity, an imposed pressure gradient, or electromagnetic forces in the case of conducting uids. 2. Short-range forces: These refer to local dynamic stresses developing within the uid itself as it moves; specically, the forces acting on a given element of uid by the surrounding uid.

To describe those in the second category, we introduce the stress tensor ij , dened as the i-component of stress acting on an element of surface with unit normal n in the j-direction. where i, j both run over 1,2,3, corresponding to x, y, z in a Cartesian frame. This makes the stress on a surface easy to nd if the surface in question has normal pointing in one of the coordinate directions. We just pick out the relevant entry of ij . For example, the stress on a plane wall at y = 0 is found by noting that the normal points in the y direction. So, for the component of stress pointing in the x direction, for example, we need 12 . Similarly, the component of stress in the z direction on a wall at x = 0 is 31 . In general, of course, the unit normal will not point in a coordinate direction. Suppose instead we have a solid boundary over which ows a uid. We show below that the force exerted at a point on the boundary by the passing uid is

3

ij nj

j=1

where the unit vector n is normal to the boundary and points into the uid. Einsteins summation convention Einstein introduced the nifty convention of summing over a repeated index to save repeatedly writing the summation sign (this shows up a lot in relativity!). We will adopt the same convention throughout this course, and thereby write the previous formula as just ij nj where the summation over j is now understood. Stress within a uid As a uid moves, it may be acted upon by long-range forces such as gravity. But there are also internal stresses active inside the uid. Consider an imaginary surface drawn in the uid. Shade on this surface a small patch of area dS, as shown in the diagram. Label the uid on one side of the dividing surface 1 and on the other side 2. The unit normal to the patch is n and is chosen to point into uid 2. We dene the stress (force per unit area) acting on the patch on side 1 due to the uid on side 2 to be H (so the force is H dS), when n points into the uid on side 2. In general H will depend on n, the position in the uid x and time t, i.e. H = H(x, n, t). From the denition of ij above, we have ij = Hi (x, Nj ) 5 (2.1)

F n

1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 1 0000000

dS

where N1 =i, N2 = j, N3 = k. The dependence on t in (2.1) is taken to be implicit. How can we evaluate H for an arbitrary normal direction n = (n1 , n2 , n3 )? To do this, consider a small tetrahedron of uid of volume dV as shown below.

x3

A3 dS1

n

dS2 P A2 dS

x2

x1

A1

dS3

We let A1 A2 A3 P A2 A3 P A1 A3 P A1 A2 dS dS n1 dS dS 1 = n2 dS dS 2 n3 dS dS 3

the area of

be

(2.2)

(Note: To nd the areas of each surface of the tetrahedron, use the simple half-base times height rule.) Now, dS dS 1 dS 2 dS 3 Hi (x, n) dS Hi (x, N1 ) dS 1 Hi (x, N2 ) dS 2 Hi (x, N3 ) dS 3

is

. 2.3) (

dS [Hi (x, n) ij nj ]. Note: Here we are using the Einstein summation convention of summing over a repeated index. So ij nj means i1 n1 + i2 n2 + i3 n3 . 6

If the dimensions of the tetrahedron are of size O(), the left hand side of (2.4) is O(dS) = O(2 ), while the right hand side is O(dV ) = O(3 ). Therefore, if we let tend to zero, (2.4) produces the result that Force = 0, and we conclude that and so Hi (x, n) = ij nj . (2.5)

Example 1: Find the stress in the x direction on a wall placed at y = 0. In this case n1 = n2 = 0, n3 = 1. So Fi = ij nj = i2 . The component in the x direction is F1 = 12 , as we had above. Example 2: Find the stress in the z direction on the upper side of the plane x + y + z = 1 due to the uid above it. In this case n=+ 1 (x + y + z 1) = (1, 1, 1). |(x + y + z 1)| 3

Then the stress in the z direction is F3 , with 1 1 1 F3 = 3j nj = 31 + 32 + 33 3 3 3 1 = (31 + 32 + 33 ). 3 Symmetry of the stress tensor In the absence of external couples applied to the uid (so-called body-couples), the stress tensor ij is symmetric. To demonstrate this, consider a small cube of uid of dimension as shown.

22 2 x2 11 x2

2

12 2 21 2

21 2 x1 x3

11 2

12 2 22 2

x1

d {Angular momentum}. dt 7

The left hand side is made up of moments due to body forces (e.g. gravity) + surface forces due to surrounding uid O(4 ) O(3 )

while the right hand side is of size (cube volume) (cube length) = O(4 ). Therefore, on the face shown in the gure, 2 2 [12 21 ] = O(4 ) = 12 = 21 . 2 Following similar arguments, we deduce that ij = ji .

2(b). Strain in uids Consider the relative positions of two individial uid particles under any particular uid motion. At time t, the particles are close together, with the rst at position x and moving with velocity u(x, t), and the second at x + dx, moving with velocity u(x + dx, t).

Expanding the second particles velocity in a Taylor series, we have the following expression for the relative velocity of the two particles: ui (x + dx, t) ui (x, t) = ui xj dxj + O(dx2 ). j (2.6)

We now re-write the derivative on the right hand side like this ui = eij + ij xj where eij = 1 2 uj ui + , xj xi 8 ij = 1 2 uj ui . xi xj (2.7)

Note that eij is symmetric, while ij is antisymmetric (So eij = eji , ij = ji ). eij is called the rate of deformation or strain tensor. ij is sometimes called the vorticity tensor. To see why these two tensors are given their names, we examine their meanings in terms of the kinematics of the uid particles. The strain tensor eij Since eij is a symmetric, second order tensor, we may rotate to a new set of axes, called principal axes, in which eij is diagonal (see Appendix A).

z z y v3 v2 y v1 x x

A set of Cartesian axes (x, y, z) and a rotated set of principal axes (x , y , z ) along which are aligned the three orthogonal eigenvectors of e . ij

We denote it as e in the new frame. Writing both out as a matrix we have ij e11 e12 e13 eij = e21 e22 e23 e31 e32 e33 and 0 0 e 11 e = 0 e 0 ij 22 0 0 e 33

The three eigenvalues of the new matrix are 1 = e , 2 = e and 3 = e and, since e is 11 22 33 ij symmetric, they are all real and have mutually orthogonal eigenvectors. These eigenvectors, v1 , v2 , v3 are aligned along the principal axes and form a basis. The action of matrix e on a general vector, q = ij

3 3 i=1 i vi , 3

for constants i , is

e q =

i=1

i e vi =

i i vi .

i=1

Therefore the vector q gets stretched or contracted in directions v1 , v2 , v3 according to whether each eigenvalue i is positive or negative. 9

Local expansion of the uid Suppose we try the above ideas out on a small cube of uid aligned with the principal axes and with sides of length dx , dx , dx and volume V = dx dx dx . 1 2 3 1 2 3

z

dx 3 y dx 1 dx 2 x

After a short time dt, the side dx will have become deformed so that its new length is 1 old length + (rate of stretching in the x direction)dt 1 So its new length will be (1 + e dt) dx . Similar arguments apply for the other sides so the 1 11 new edges are of lengths (1 + e dt) dx 11 1 (1 + e dt) dx 22 2 (1 + e dt) dx 33 3 Therefore, the change in volume of the cube after time dt is equal to {(1 + e dt)(1 + e dt)(1 + e dt) 1}V = (e + e + e )V dt = Trace(e )V dt, ij 11 22 33 33 11 22 neglecting terms of size O(dt2 ). Now, the trace of a matrix is invariant under a rotation to a new coordinate frame (see Appendix A). So, the change in volume (divided by V dt) is equal to ui Trace(e ) = Trace(eij ) = eii = = u. ij xi A uid is dened to be incompressible if the local change in volume of a uid element such as the box just considered is zero. In other words u = 0 for an incompressible uid. The vorticity tensor ij As a preliminary, we introduce the alternating tensor dened as 0 if any of i, j, k are equal ijk = 1 if i, j, k are in cyclic order 1 otherwise, 10

so, for example, 123 = 231 = 1, 132 = 1, 133 = 0. The alternating tensor provides a convenient way of expressing a vector (cross) product in index notation. Exercise: Show that ijk aj bk is equivalent to a b by writing out the components. To understand the kinematics associated with ij , we reason as follows. Since ij is antisymmetric, it has only 3 independent components and may therefore be written quite generally as ij = 1 ijk k , 2 for some vector with components wk , k = 1, 2, 3. (2.8)

The factor 1/2 is included for convenience. Check for yourself that the right hand side of (2.8) has only 3 independent components, k . Referring back to the Taylor expansion (2.6), the antisymmetric contribution to the relative velocity of the two particles is

1 ij dxj = 2 ijk dxj k = 1 2 ikj k dxj 1 = ( 2 dx)i .

This is of the form v = r, where r is the position vector of a point relative to a suitably dened origin, which describes rotation of a particle about at axis with angular velocity ||. So,

1 represents a rotation of one uid particle about the other with angular velocity 2 .

( 1 dx)i 2

1 _ |w| 2

dx

Local rotation of two uid particles at angular rate 1 || about an axis pointing 2 in the direction . What are the components of in terms of the uid velocity? First we note the useful identity involving the alternating tensor, ijk lmk = il jm im jl , 11

where the Kronecker delta ij is 1 if i, j are equal and 0 otherwise. Hence ijk ljk = 2il . Now, operating with ijl on both sides of (2.8) and using the denition (2.7), we nd l = lij ij = 1 lij 2 uj ui xi xj = lij uj xi i.e. = u.

The vector is called the vorticity. Any ow for which = 0 is called irrotational.

2(c). Stress-strain relationship for a Newtonian uid To proceed with the modelling of uid ow, we need to understand the relationship between the stress in a uid and the local rate of strain. In other words, how much is the uid being deformed by the stresses exerted by the surrounding uid? For a uid at rest, there are no viscous forces, and the stress is simply related to the static pressure p by ij = p ij . (2.9)

So ii = p ii = 3p and therefore p = ii /3. Hence the stress exerted on an element with unit normal n is ij nj = pni and has magnitude p in the n direction. So the pressure force exterted on a wall by a uid at rest acts in a direction perpendicular to that wall. For a uid in motion, we write ij = p ij + dij , where p is the dynamic pressure and dij is the deviatoric stress tensor. We dene dii = 0 so that once again ii = 3p and thus p = ii /3. However, note that since the uid is now moving, p in equation (2.10) is not in general the same as p in equation (2.9). The deviatoric stress dij is due to the motion of the uid, which consists of translation, rigid rotation and stretching or contracting. Recall that ij corresponds to rigid rotation. eij corresponds to stretching/straining. Newtonian uid For a Newtonian uid, the deviatoric stress depends only on eij and the dependence is linear. 12 (2.10)

Notes 1. For a Newtonian uid dij is therefore symmetric. 2. The instantaneous stress at any point in the uid does not depend on the past history of the uid motion. Non-Newtonian, visco-elastic uids can have a memory whereby the stress depends on the state of the uid at previous times. The stress-strain relationship Since the deviatoric stress is a linear function of the strain rate for a Newtonian uid, we may write dij = Aijkl ekl where Aijkl is a constant fourth-order tensor. We assume that Aijkl is isotropic, which means that the stress dij generated on a uid element by a given straining motion is independent of the orientation of that element. In other words, the uid has the same properties in whichever direction you look. It is known that all isotropic tensors of even order can be written as sums of products of Kronecker deltas. Thus Aijkl = ik jl + il jk + ij kl , where , and are constants. Now, since dij = dji , Aijkl = Ajikl Therefore, dij = [ik jl + il jk ] + ij kl ekl (2.12) and so = . (2.11)

= 2eij + ij ekk . But dii = 0 by denition and so, by (2.12), 2 dii = 0 = [2 + 3]eii = = 3 Now, substituting dij into relation (2.10), we have 1 ij = pij + 2[eij ij ekk ] 3

(2.13)

(2.14)

Remember that ekk = u represents the amount of dilatation or local expansion of the uid. Therefore, for an incompressible uid, ekk = 0 and so ij = pij + 2eij 13 (2.15)

This provides a constitutive relation between the stress and strain for an incompressible, Newtonian uid. The constant is called the viscosity of the uid. We assume equation (2.15) throughout the rest of the course.

3. The Navier-Stokes equations 3.1 The convective derivative Our ultimate goal is to derive an equation describing the motion of a uid. To move towards this goal, we introduce the important concept of a derivative which tells us how things change as we move with the uid. The full usefullness of this idea will become apparent later on when we apply Newtons second law to derive the equations of uid motion.

y

At rest

Consider a set of axes moving with the local uid velocity u and another set xed in space as shown in the diagram. If the origin of the moving set of axes is at x = (x(t), y(t), z(t)) at time t, we can write its velocity as u(x, t) = dx dt

Suppose now we wish to calculate the acceleration of this set of axes. By denition, the acceleration is given by u(x(t + dt), t + dt) u(x, t) d2 x du . 2 = dt = lim dt dt dt0 Using Taylors theorem, x(t + dt) = x(t) + dt dx + dt = x(t) + dx + , 14 (3.1)

(3.2)

on writing dx = dt.(dx/dt). Also by Taylors theorem, u(x + dx, t + dt) = u(x, t) + dx u + dt Therefore, (3.1) becomes du d2 x 2 = dt dt = = Thus du dt = u 1 dt lim + dx u + dt t dt0 u dx + u t dt u + u u. t (3.4) u + . t (3.3)

The derivative on the left hand side of (3.4) is often written with a large D and referred to as the convective derivative (sometimes the material or substantial derivative). We will follow this convention and henceforth write u Du = + u u Dt t (3.5)

The convective derivative may be applied to any scalar or vector function. For example, consider the function f (x(t), y(t), z(t)). Proceeding as above, we nd Df Dt = = f + u f t f f f f +u +v +w . t x y z

Df /Dt tells us how the function f changes as we move with the ow. For example, D/Dt expresses the amount by which the density of a uid particle changes as it is convected along with the ow. For an incompressible uid, we therefore have D = 0. Dt 3.2 Lagrangian mappings 15

Working in the Lagrangian framework, we consider the motion of individual point particles; that is, given a uid particle at a particular point in space at a particular time, we monitor how that particle travels through space as time progresses. To this end, we label all particles over the entire uid domain according to their position at time t = 0. Then, at a later time, an individual uid particle is identied by its label, as if it was carrying a ag along with it as it moves in the ow. We therefore ascribe to each particle a label a, where a is the position vector of that particle at t = 0. Any position in the ow-eld x may be regarded as a function of its label and time. Moreover we can write x(a, t) = t (a) (3.7)

where t (a) is a mapping from the initial particle positions at t = 0, to their current positions at time t. The subscript on the mapping function indicates that the particles are being mapped from where they were at t = 0 to their location at time t.

1 0a 1 0

1 0 x ( a,t)

time t=0

time t

The mapping itself therefore changes in time. Furthermore, 0 (a) = a. We will refer to the initial conguration of uid particles at t = 0 as labelling space as that is where all the labels sit. In addition, we will refer to the state of the uid at time t as convected space as this is where all the particles have been carried by the ow. Consider now the following important question: How is a small volume element in labelling space related to its counterpart at the later time t? Suppose we dene axes a1 , a2 , a3 in labelling space, so a = (a1 , a2 , a3 ). Then a volume element in this space is given by dV l = da1 da2 da3 . Consider now the dierential vector (da1 ,0,0) in labelling space and denote its counterpart in convected space as dx(1) . Using (3.7) and applying the chain rule we can write: dx(1) = t da1 . a1 (3.8)

At this point, we note that the expression dV c = (dx(1) dx(2) ) dx(3) represents a volume element in the convected space. Convince yourself that this is true. Therefore, using (3.8) we can write (dx(1) dx(2) ) dx(3) = t t t da1 da2 da3 . a1 a2 a3

Using the notation i to denote the ith component of t , we note that t t t i t t = det , a1 a2 a3 aj [see Exercise Sheet 1]. This allows us to relate the two volume elements as follows, dV c = J dV l , where (3.9)

1 t a1

J = det i t aj =

1 t a2 2 t a2 3 t a2

1 t a3 2 t a3 3 t a3

(3.10)

2 t a1 3 t a1

is the Jacobian of the mapping function t . Equation (3.9) therefore shows how a volume element in labelling space is related to its counterpart in convected space. The transformation between the two spaces is very useful as it allows us to relate objects which are varying in time (those in convected space) to objects which are static (those in labelling space). Its usefulness is demonstrated by trying to work out the rate of change of volume of a parcel of uid as it is convected along with the ow. Thus, dening a parcel of uid with volume Vc =

Vc

dV c =

Vl

J dV l ,

(3.11)

we have immediately managed to change an integral dened over a volume which is changing in time to one over a volume which is xed. This will make dierentiation a lot easier. 17

Vl Vl

dJ dV l = dt

Vl

DJ dV l , Dt

(3.12)

since J is a function of x, the position in convected space, and so it follows by the denition of the convective derivative that dJ J DJ = + u J dt t Dt Note that we were able to take the d/dt inside the integral in (3.12) since Vl is independent of time. Equally, we may argue as follows: Since the particles making up the parcel move with the

11 00 11 00 111111111111 000000000000 111 000 volume swept 111111111111 000000000000 111 000 111111111111 000000000000 111 000 out by surface

patch

V(t+dt) c

V(t) c u n

uid velocity u, the volume swept out by a small element dS c of its surface Sc in time dt (see gure) must equal u n dS c , where n is the surface unit normal, and thus dV c = dt

Sc

u n dS c .

Vc

Vl

We will nd this useful in the proof of the Reynolds transport theorem to be discussed below.

As was discussed above, there are two main frameworks for describing a uid ow: the Lagrangian framework and the Eulerian framework. Eulerian coordinates These are by far the most commonly used system of describing a uid motion. The main alternative is Lagrangian coordinates, to be discussed below. In Eulerian coordinates (x, t) the state of a uid (velocity, pressure, stress and so on) and described in terms of their values at a xed location in space, x, at a xed time t. The Navier-Stokes equations are usually written in these coordinates, and it is these which we shall adopt in these lecture notes. Lagrangian coordinates Alternatively, one may describe the state of a uid by making reference to the motion of individual uid elements. In this system, reference is made to the state of the system at some appropriate point in the history of the uid motion (at, say, time t = 0). Fluid elements at later times are described in terms of their original positions in this reference state. So, for example, a uid particle at a general time t is located at the point x(a, t), where t is the present time and a is the position vector of the particle in the reference state (at time t = 0, say). The velocity of this uid particle is u= x t .

a

We refer to (a, t) as Lagrangian coordinates for the ow. For the most part it is extremely cumbersome to express the equations in terms of Lagrangian coordinates. However, this is not always the case: a landmark achievement in uid mechanics concerns the analysis of the singularity which occurs in the developing boundary layer on an impulsively started cylinder. This problem was successfully taked by van Dommelen & Shen (1980, J. Comp. Phys, 38) using Lagrangian coordinates. The notion of a boundary layer is discussed later in these notes. In Appendix C we derive the boundary layer equations in Lagrangian coordinates.

3.3 The Reynolds Transport Theorem This result tells us how an integral of any scalar quantity dened over a time-dependent volume of uid V (t) changes in time. In fact, it states that d dt G dV =

V (t) V (t)

DG + G u dV . Dt

(3.15)

Proof Using (3.9), we may convert the volume integral into one dened over the equivalent volume in labelling space, Vl . So, d dt G dV =

V (t)

d dt

G J dV l

Vl

V (t) Vl

d (GJ) dV l = dt

Vl

D (GJ) dV l = Dt

J

Vl

DG DJ +G Dt Dt

dV l

by the product rule of dierentiation. Using the result (3.14), this becomes d dt G dV

V (t)

=

Vl

=

Vl

=

V

DG + GJ u dV l Dt DG + G u J dV l Dt DG + G u dV , Dt

using (3.9). . Example If we identify the scalar G(x, t) with the uid density (x, t), we can use (3.15) to write d dt dV =

V (t) V (t)

D + u dV . Dt

Since mass is conserved, it follows immediately that the integrand on the right hand side is zero, so D + u = 0. Dt We noted above that if the uid is incompressible, then D = 0. Dt It therefore follows that, for an incompressible uid, u = 0, which is a restatement of the result ekk = 0 found before using the small cube of uid argument. 20

Note: It is important to realise that incompressible does not mean constant density. This is a common mistake. For example, consider the two-dimensional ow with velocity and density elds u = u(x, y)i + v(x, y)j, = (z). D = +u +v =0 Dt t x y so the condition for incompressibility is satised, but the density eld varies with z. We will make use of the Reynolds transport theorem when we derive the Navier-Stokes equations. 3.4 Equations of uid motion Up to now, we have been concerned with the kinematics of a ow due to a predetermined velocity eld u(x, t). But how do we determine the underlying velocity eld in the rst place? To formulate the necessary equations governing the motion of a viscous uid we will apply the following fundamental principles: 1. Conservation of mass. 2. Newtons second law of motion. We will also discuss how energy is dissipated by viscous forces in a moving uid and derive an equation for the conservation of energy in a parcel of uid. 3.4.1. Conservation of mass Consider a closed volume V which is xed in space inside a moving uid. As the uid moves past, the rate of change of the mass of uid within V must equal the net amount of uid coming into (or out of) it, assuming there are no sources of uid within V . Mathematically, d dt dV +

V S

Then

u n dS = 0,

where is the uid density, S is the volume surface, and n is the normal to V pointing outwards. Using the fact that V is xed in space and applying the divergence theorem, this becomes + (u) dV = 0. t V Since our choice of volume V was arbitrary, it must be true that + (u) = 0. t 21 (3.19)

Equation (3.19) therefore expresses the principle of mass conservation. It is usually referred to as the continuity equation, which will frequently be abbreviated to cty equation. Using the denition of the convective derivative, we can re-express the continuity equation as D + u = 0. Dt This is just the equation we found above using the Reynolds transport theorem. 3.4.2. Newtons second law In order to apply Newtons second law of motion to a parcel of uid, we will need to recall the Reynolds transport theorem introduced earlier: d dt for any scalar quantity G. We are now in a position to derive the equation of motion of a uid. Let F represent some body force per unit mass acting on the uid (i.e. a long-range force such as gravity). We apply Newtons second law of motion to a volume of uid V (t), with surface area S(t) and unit outward normal n, moving with the ow. Thus, d dt ui dV =

V (t) V (t)

(3.20)

G dV =

V (t) V (t)

DG + G u dV . Dt

Fi dV +

S(t)

ij nj dS.

The left hand side expresses the rate of change of momentum of the uid; the right hand side the forces acting on the uid. The last term represents the stresses acting over the surface of the chosen volume by the surrounding uid. Applying the Reynolds transport theorem to the rst term and the divergence theorem to the last, and using (3.20) we nd

V (t)

Dui dV = Dt

Fi dV +

V (t) V (t)

ij dV . xj

(3.21)

Note that we have used the fact that Dui D D(ui ) = + ui Dt Dt Dt and that D/Dt = 0 since the uid is incompressible. If the uid is Newtonian, we may use the constitutive relation introduced earlier, 2 ij = p ij ij + 2eij , 3 22

where = u = ekk represents the local expansion of the uid. Accordingly, ij p 2 = () + 2 (eij ). xj xi 3 xi xj

V (t)

Dui p 2 Fi + + () 2 (eij ) dV = 0. Dt xi 3 xi xj

(3.22)

Since we are restricting our attention to incompressible uids, we have that = 0, (see the earlier discussion of the expansion of a small cube of uid). Assuming is constant, (3.22) therefore reduces to

V (t)

2 uj p 2 ui Dui + Fi + Dt xi xi xj x2 j

dV = 0.

(3.23)

But uj /xj u = 0. Also, since our original volume was chosen arbitrarily, the integrand in (3.23) must vanish, as the statement must be true for all possible volume choices. Finally, we have p 2 ui Dui = Fi + 2 . Dt xi xj Alternatively, we can write this as direct from (3.21). In vector form, together with the continuity equation, u = 0, Du = F p + 2 u. Dt (3.25) ij Dui = Fi + , Dt xj (3.24)

23

In Cartesian coordinates, they are written in component form as ( ut + uux + vuy + wuz ) = px + Fx + 2 u, ( wt + uwx + vwy + wwz ) = pz + Fz + 2 w, ux + vy + wz = 0. where the velocity eld u = u i + vj + wk and 2 = 2 2 2 + 2 + 2. x2 y z ( vt + uvx + vvy + wvz ) = py + Fy + 2 v,

In cylindrical polar coordinates, they are written in component form as v2 1 ut + uur + vu + wuz r r 1 uv vt + uvr + vv + wvz + r r 1 ( wt + uwr + vw + wwz ) r u 1 ur + + v + wz r r 2 u 2 v , 2 r r 2 v 1 = p + F + 2 v + 2 u 2 , r r r = pr + Fr + 2 u = pz + Fz + 2 w, = 0.

If the body force, F, is conservative, i.e. we can write it as the gradient of a scalar potential, F = , then it can be incorporated into the pressure term by writing F p = ( + p) = P, where we have dened the modied pressure P to be P = p + .

1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 111 000 Solid 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 111 000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 111 000 t 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 111 000

n

Fluid

Suitable boundary conditions must be appended to the system (3.25) in order to fully dene the ow problem in hand. We divide them into the following categories: Fluid-Solid The usual inviscid no-penetration condition applies at a solid impermeable surface. This states that u n = 0, i.e. uid cannot ow into the wall. For a viscous uid a further boundary condition is required to complete the ow description due to the extra derivatives imported by the last term in (3.25). Experiments reveal that this supplementary condition should stipulate that the uid does not slip over the solid boundary; that is to say the local uid velocity at the wall is zero. Mathematically this is stated as u t = 0, where t is any vector tangential to the wall. In summary, we require un =0 and ut=0 at the solid surface.

The latter is usually referred to as the no slip condition. Example: Fluid owing over a plane wall at z = 0.

w z

Flow

x u

The no normal ow condition states that w = 0. The no-slip condition states that u = v = 0. Note: We can use the continuity equation to deduce a further piece of information about the ow at z = 0. We know that u v w + + = 0, x y z

25

and, on z = 0,

u v v u = = = = 0, x y x y

since u and v are both zero everywhere on z = 0. Therefore, w =0 z 3.4.4 The kinematic condition This applies at any surface which is moving. If the shape of the surface is described by the equation f (x, y, z, t) = 0, it states that a particle sitting on the surface f = 0 must move along with the uid. We know from the denition of the convective derivative that the rate of change of f following the uid is Df /Dt. Therefore, if the surface is convected along with the uid, we have Df = 0 at the surface. Dt Thus, Df Dt f f f f + us + vs + ws = 0, t x y z on z = 0.

surf ace

where us , vs , ws are the velocity components of the uid at the surface. Example: A at plate moves up and down in a surrounding uid so that at time t, its position is given by z = sin t. What is the kinematic condition on the moving wall?

z

wall

f f f f + us + vs + ws t x y z

= ws = cos t.

= cos t + ws = 0,

26

3.4.5 Boundary condition at the interface between two uids This situation is more complicated as the position and shape of the interface are themselves unknown and must be found as part of the solution to the problem.

Fluid 2

Fluid 1

t f(x,y,z,t)=0

Here the function f (x, y, z, t) must be determined. Kinematic conditions: These state that the uid velocity must be continuous across the interface. Using superscripts to denote variables in each of the uids we demand that u(1) n = u(2) n and u(1) t = u(2) t on the interface.

These state that the normal and tangential components of the velocities are continuous across the interface. Dynamic condition: We also need a condition expressing the balance of forces prevailing at the interface between the uids. To obtain this condition, we consider a small rectangular volume of uid of length ds as shown in the gure below.

Fluid 2 s ds Fluid 1 n t

The height of the rectangular volume is assumed negligible in comparison with its length ds. If s measures arc length along the interface, the local unit normal and tangent vectors to the interface are denoted as n(s) and t respectively at position s. Surface tension (s) tugs on the volume at either end in the tangential direction. The force exerted on the lower portion of the rectangular volume by uid 1 is given by ( (1) n) ds, where (1) is the stress tensor in uid 1. This follows from the denition of the stress tensor given above. Similarly, the force exerted on the top by uid 2 is given by ( (2) n) ds. The minus sign is needed since the unit normal must point into the uid exerting the force. Applying Newtons second law to the rectangular control volume (and disregarding its negligible inertia), we obtain the force balance (s + ds)t(s + ds) + (s)t(s) + ds (1) n (2) n = 0. 27

The rst two terms represent surface tension at either ends of the control volume. Since ds is small, we may expand in Taylor series, so, (s) + ds d ds t(s) + ds dt + (s)t(s) + ds (1) n (2) n + O(ds2 ) = 0. ds

Expanding the rst pair of square brackets and cancelling relevant terms, ds dt d + ds t + ds (1) n (2) n + O(ds2 ) = 0. ds ds

Dividing by ds, taking the limit as ds 0, and dening the local surface curvature so that dt n = , ds we obtain, d t + (1) n (2) n = 0. n + ds Rearranging, this yields d (1) (2) n = n t ds If the surface tension is constant, as it is generally speaking, the last term disappears. In index notation, the jump in stress is then written as Fi [ij ij ] nj = 2 ni . This states that the jump in stress Fi at the interface is balanced by surface tension. A more general derivation valid for a two-dimensional curved surface can be found in Batchelor. Refer to pages 64 and 69. N.B. Surface tension is a very weak force. For example, at 20 C the surface tension between air and water is = 72.8 dyne/cm. Recall that 1 dyne = 105 N. Example: Consider a spherical bubble of radius a suspended motionless in air.

p (1) p (2) n

(1) (2)

28

The mean curvature of the spherical bubble is 1/a. Since neither uid 1 nor 2 is moving, the jump in stress, Fi = [ij ij ] nj = [p(1) ij + p(2) ij ] nj = [p(1) p(2) ] ni = 2 ni , So, the pressure jump, p = p(1) p(2) = 2 /a = = which is known as the Laplace-Young equation. In the absence of surface tension, = 0 and the right hand side vanishes. In this case the uid stresses are continuous across the interface. If = 0, since the vector on the right hand side is in the direction n, there is only a jump in the normal stress. The tangential stress is still continuous. Other examples: The interface between the atmosphere and the ocean. The interface between the tear lm on your eye and the surrounding air. ap 2

(1) (2)

3.5 The Energy Equation How much energy does a given uid ow carry with it as it ows? Suppose we track a chosen blob of uid - how does the energy within the blob change with time? We will derive an energy equation to describe how energy changes within the ow. The energy equation follows by mathematical manipulation of the equation of motion. Well start with the easier case of purely inviscid ow, and then see how viscous eects modify our observations later. 3.5.1 Energy equation for inviscid ow For an incompressible, inviscid uid ow, Eulers equation holds: Du = p + F Dt

where F is the body force per unit mass. To proceed, we take the dot product of this equation with the velocity u: u Du = u p + F u. Dt

So,

V

D Dt

1 2 u 2

dV =

u p dV +

F u dV .

V

1 2 u dV = 2

(pu) dV +

F u dV .

on using the Reynolds Transport Theorem on the LHS. Using the divergence theorem, we have nally d dt 1 2 u dV = 2 (pn) u dS + F u dV . (3.26)

Now, since pn is the pressure force acting on the blob due to the surrounding uid, the rst term on the RHS represents the rate of working of the external pressure force on the blob. Similarly, the second term on the RHS represents the rate of working of the body force on the blob. Recognising 1 2 u dV = K V 2 as the total kinetic energy in the blob, we can read the equation as meaning that in each unit of time, the Increase of K.E. of blob = work done by pressure force + work done by body force In other words, no energy at all is lost. All work put in by the pressure force and the body force goes directly into increasing the kinetic energy of the blob. This remark does not hold true if viscosity is included, as we shall see in a moment. Firstly, we recall that equation (3.26) applies for a volume V (t) moving with the uid. If instead we consider a volume V which is xed in the uid, we proceed as follows. As before, we take the dot product of the Euler equation with the velocity u: u Du = u p + F u. Dt

For a steady ow with a conservative body force such that F = V , this becomes

V

1 2 |u| 2

dV =

u p dV +

u V dV ,

30

where we have used the fact that u u = (u2 /2) for a divergence free velocity eld. Next we note that u 1 2 |u| 2 = 1 |u2 |u , 2 u V = (V u),

S

1 |u2 |u n dS = 2

pu n dS +

V u n dS.

Therefore,

S

1 |u2 | + p + gy u n dS = 0 2

is the statement of conservation of energy over a closed volume xed in space1 . 3.5.2 Energy equation for viscous ow For an incompressible, viscous uid ow, the Navier-Stokes equation holds: ij Dui = Fi + Dt xj

where Fi is the body force per unit mass (see equation 3.24). As above, we take the dot product with u. Skipping steps identical to before (albeit this time in index notation) we nd dK dt =

V

ui Fi +

ij xj

dV =

V

u F dV +

ui

V

ij dV . xj

Note that the eect of the pressure is here contained within the ij of the nal term since ij = pij + 2eij This term therefore also incorporates the new eect due to viscosity. Now, ij (ui ij ) ui = ij , xj xj xj and so ui

V

ij dV xj

=

V

(ui ij ) dV xj ui ij nj dS

ij

V

ui dV xj

1

=

S

ij

V

ui dV . xj

Compare Longuet-Higgins (1975), Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 342, equation 1.7).

31

But, writing

1 ui ui ui = + , xj 2 xj xj 1 ui ui ui 1 1 1 uj ij + ij = ij + ij 2 xj 2 xj 2 xj 2 xi

we have ij ui ui 1 ui = ij + xj 2 xj xj =

on swapping i and j in the second term and using the fact that ij is symmetric. Thus, ij To summarize, we have dK = dt u F dV + ui ij nj dS ij eij dV .

V

1 ui uj ui = ij + xj 2 xj xi

= ij eij .

(3.27)

For an incompressible uid, ij = pij + 2eij , and so ij nj = pni + 2eij nj . Also, ij eij = peii + 2eij eij = 2e2 , ij since eii = u = 0. Therefore, nally, the rate of change of the volumes kinetic energy dK = dt u F dV + (pn) u dS + 2 ui eij nj dS 2 e2 dV . ij (3.28)

Compare this with equation (3.26) for inviscid ow. If we set = 0, equation (3.28) reduces to (3.26). The rst new term in (3.28), 2

V

ui eij nj dV

is the rate of working of the deviatoric viscous stresses on the surface of the uid blob V . Thus the viscous stress makes a contribution to the increase of kinetic energy in the blob, as we would have expected. So far so good all of the rst three terms on the RHS of (3.28) represent work done on the blob to increase its kinetic energy. But... ...the second new term in (3.28), 2

V

e2 dV ij

32

is denitely negative and marks a reduction in kinetic energy. So some energy is being lost. We say is it lost due to viscous dissipation and dene the dissipation function , where = 2eij eij . This represents the rate at which energy is dissipated per unit volume by viscous action. For a compressible uid we nd = 2 eij eij (non-trivial step) = 2 eij 2 , 3

2

( = eii )

ij 3

Summary No energy is lost in an inviscid ow. This does not include such phenomena as hydraulic jumps and breaking waves - in these examples discontinuities are introduced into the ow, the preceding arguments do not work, and energy is in general lost. Energy is lost from a viscous ow. The rate of loss of energy is represented by the dissipation function, .

3.6 Conservation of energy We saw above that shear forces dissipate energy in a viscous ow. But where does this energy go to? Consider a uid moving with no body forces acting. The total energy, E, inside a moving volume of uid, V , is given by E = K + I, where K is the kinetic energy, and I is the internal energy associated with the movement of the constituent molecules within the uid. (Note there is no potential energy because weve left out body forces.) When work is done on the volume by the surrounding uid, some of the work goes into increasing the kinetic energy (K) and some into increasing the internal energy (I). From equation (3.27), we know that dK = dt ui ij nj dS 2e2 dV = ij ui ij nj dS dV ,

V

33

So, dE dt = =

S

dK dI + dt dt ui ij nj dS + dI dt dV

V

The rate of change of the total energy E in the moving volume must be balanced by the rate of working of the local stresses on the volume surface, so that dE = dt This means that ui ij nj dS.

S

dI = dt

dV ,

V

and so viscous dissipation (in the form of heat) goes toward increasing the internal energy in the volume. It seems natural, then, to ask the following question: How does viscous dissipation aect the temperature of a uid? Since we wish to focus on temperature, well generalise the argument a little to allow for the eect of heat conduction in the uid. Heat is conducted through the surface into the moving volume at a rate q given by Ficks law, q = n T per unit area of the volumes surface, where T is the local temperature. The constant is called the thermal conductivity of the uid. The First Law of Thermodynamics dictates that, in a unit of time, the internal energy of the volume is increased by (a) any work done, W , on the volume, and (b) any heat, Q, entering the volume2 . In symbols, E = Q + W, (3.29)

where E means the change in internal energy per unit time. From above, we have over the time interval dt, Q = dt

S

q dS = dt

S

n T dS = dt

2 T dV ,

W = dt

V

2

2e2 dV = dt ij

dV .

V

Note that (a) does not include work done to increase the kinetic energy of the uid in the volume. With reference to the energy equation (3.28), the rst three terms on the RHS represent work done to increase the kinetic energy, and the fourth term represents work done to increase the internal energy.

34

V

c T dV ,

where c is the specic heat capacity of the uid and T is the temperature of the uid. So, according to the First Law of Thermodynamics (3.29), d dI = dt dt c T dV =

V V

2 T + dV .

V

DT dV = Dt

2 T + dV .

V

Conclusion: The rate of increase of temperature as we move with the uid is proportional to the rate of loss of energy due to viscous dissipation. Note: In general the viscosity depends on temperature, so = (T ). However, in this course we will assume that is small and that changes in the temperature of the uid are insignicant. We will therefore take to be constant.

3.7 The momentum integral equation It is sometimes convenient to consider the balance of forces acting on a given parcel of uid. To this end, it is useful to consider a volume of uid which is xed in space, as we did for the conservation of mass argument above. However, instead of considering the mass ux into and out of the xed volume, we now examine the ux of momentum. Newtons second law states that the force acting on the xed volume V is equal to rate of change of its momentum. Hence3 , ( u) dV = t u(u n) dS + F dV +

V S

n dS.

(3.30)

In turn: The term on the left hand side is the rate of change of momentum inside the xed volume.

3

35

The rst term on the right hand side expresses the ux of momentum through the surface S. Since the volume is xed, some uid particles are entering and some are leaving the volume, carrying momentum with them. The second term on the right hand side expresses the total body force acting on the xed volume. The third term on the right hand side expresses the total of the surface forces acting on S due to the surrounding uid. For an inviscid uid, = pI, where I is the identity matrix4 . For a steady ow in the absence of a body force, we then have u(u n) + pn dS = 0.

This relation may also be obtained by integrating the Euler equations directly over a volume V and using appropriate vector identities.

3.8 DAlemberts Paradox Use may be made of the momentum integral equation to determine the drag on an object placed in an inviscid ow. Consider uniform inviscid ow past an object as shown

Ui

Suppose we now ask: what is the drag on the object due to the ow? We assume that a long way from the object the ow is the uniform stream U i in the x direction at constant pressure P . Let D be the total force on the object. Then D= where P is the surface of the object. To determine D, we use the inviscid steady form of the momentum integral equation (3.30), 0=

4

p n dS,

P

u(u n) dS

p n dS +

S V

F dV .

(3.31)

36

Assuming that the only body force acting is gravity, F = gk, and writing F = , = gz,

since gravity is a conservative force, the volume integral becomes a surface integral courtesy of the divergence theorem, F dV =

V V

dV =

S

n dS =

gz n dS,

S

where n is the unit outward normal to the bounding surface S. To determine the drag, we apply the momentum integral equation (3.30) over the volume bounded by the rectangular box of height H as shown with faces Front (F ), Back (B), Upper (U ) and Lower (L), and the object surface P .

U

n P Ui F

B H

S

n dS.

(3.32)

Assuming that the bounding box is suciently large that the disturbance caused by the object has decayed and the ow has settled to a uniform stream, then u n = 0 on U and L, and u n = U on F and u n = U on B. Also, since the uid cant penetrate the object, u n = 0 on P . So the rst integral in (3.32) gives

u(u n) dS =

U 2 i dS +

F F

U 2 i dS = 0.

To determine the second integral, we note that Bernoullis equation in the uid states that, along a streamline, 1 p + u2 + gy = C, 2 for constant C. Letting the size of the box approach innity we see that pU pL = gH 37

where pU and pL denote the pressures on U and L respectively. Also, pB = pF , with a similar notation. So the second integral gives p n dS = =D p n dS p n dS = D pL k dS +

L U

pU k dS

pU + gH k dS +

U U

pU k dS = D gHA k

where A is the area of U . Recalling that = gz, the third integral gives (assuming constant density) n dS =

B

gz i dS =

U

gz i dS +

F U

gz k dS

gz k dS +

L P

dV

gz k dS

g(z H) k dS +

dV

P

= gHA k gVP k = g[HA VP ] k. where A is the area of the upper (or lower) face and VP is the volume occupied by the object. So (3.32) gives 0 = D gH k + g[HA VP ] k. and thus D = gVP k. So the total force just involves the Archimedes upthrust of the solid object in the vertical direction. Taking the horizontal component in the direction of the ow, D i = 0, and we predict zero drag on the object! This is DAlemberts Paradox. It states that an object of an shape placed in a uniform stream in an inviscid uid experiences zero drag. It is important to realise that DAlemberts paradox does not mean than any object placed in any inviscid ow experiences zero drag. The previous argument applies for an object placed in a uniform stream. If there is a free surface, for example, an object such as a ship may experience drag to wave resistance, as is explored in the next section.

T U

z x P W

Consider the inviscid two-dimensional ow of a stream of water over an object P as shown in the gure. Assume the density of the water, , is constant. The wall is at z = 0 and the undisturbed height of the water is H. If the Froude number, F , dened as U F = , (gH)1/2 is less than 1 then the free surface of the stream, T , may develop waves as shown in the gure. Let us calculate the drag on the object P for this ow. The inviscid steady form of the momentum integral equation (3.30) in two-dimensions is 0= u(u n) dC p n dl +

C A

F dA,

over an area A enclosed by the closed contour C of incremental arc length dl. Assuming that the only body force acting is gravity, F = gk, and writing F = (gz) as in the previous section, the equation becomes 0= u(u n) dl p n dl gz n dl.

C

(3.33)

Take S to be the dotted contour shown in the gure below. Note that there is no direction associated with the contour as we are integrating with respect to arc length.

T d n F n n n P W X

The contour comprises the ends F and B, the wall W , the object P , and the free surface up to one of the crests T . Without loss of generality, we take p = 0 on the free surface, T . 39

Noting that u n = 0 on the object, on the free surface T , and on the wall W , and that nx is zero on the wall, where n = (nx , ny ), the horizontal component of (3.33) gives Dx = i D = where D= p n dl

P

F,B

u(u n) dl

F,B

p nx dl g

z nx dl,

P,F,B,T

P P

dx =

1 2L [ ]L = 0 2

H+d H

z nx dl =

F,B 0

z dz

1 z dz = [(H + d)2 H 2 ], 2

where d is the height of a wave crest over and above the undisturbed stream height (see gure). Moreover, z nx dl =

T T

1 1 f f dx = [f 2 ]X = [(H + d)2 H 2 ] 2 2

B

F,B

So, Dx = =

B

u2 dl

u2 dl

(p + u2 ) dl

(p + u2 ) dl

F

which in general is non-zero. Longuet Higgins shows how this expression may be written in terms of the potential energy of the wave train at innity downstream (see Vanden-Broeck, JFM 1980, V.96, p.610). Hence the drag on an object is non-zero if on one side there is a train of waves extending to innity. Under some circumstances, one can obtain waves trapped over the obstacle with the free surface becoming at at the same height on either side like this: In this case, since the conditions are the same a long way upstream or downstream, we get Dx =

B

(p + u2 ) dl 40

(p + u2 ) dl = 0

F

d U U

and so there is no drag on the object (see Forbes, 1982, J.Eng.Math V 16, p.171-180).

3.10 DAlemberts Paradox for a bubble It is interesting to note that a two-dimensional bubble at equilibrium within an inviscid ow eld experiences zero net force regardless of the nature of the velocity eld around it. To see this, we note that at the surface of the bubble, we have the Laplace-Young equation p = pB + . The force on the bubble is given by pn ds,

C

where C is the bubble contour and s is arc length around the bubble contour. Using the Laplace-Young equation, this becomes pB n ds n ds.

C

The rst integral is easily shown to be zero by the divergence theorem. For the second integral, we note that, by the denition of curvature, n = dt , ds

where t is the unit tangent to the bubble contour pointing in the direction of increasing arc length. The force becomes dt ds = ds dt = [t]C = 0

C

since the bubble is closed. Hence the bubble experiences no net force in any direction. A spherical bubble placed within an inviscid ow also experiences zero no force whatever the far-eld ow (i.e. we do not need a free stream at innity as in section 3.8). The force on the bubble is pn dS, D=

B

41

where B is the closed surface of the bubble. By the Laplace-Young equation given above, we have p = pB + , where pB is the constant pressure inside the bubble, and is the bubble curvature, and is the surface tension. So, pn dS = pB

B B

n dS +

B

n dS

B

Since the bubble is spherical, then is a constant and the second integral also vanishes, with the result that the bubble experiences no drag regardless of the nature of the surrounding ow. In fact, a closed three-dimensional bubble of any shape experiences zero net force in an inviscid uid since it can be shown that n dS = 0

S

where is the mean curvature at a point on the surface S, for any choice of S (see Blackmore & Ting, SIAM Review, 27(4), p.569-572). This is consistent with physical thinking: since the bubble interface has zero inertia, the resultant force acting upon it must be zero (see also the force balance on an interfacial segment in section 3.4.5). So the total force on the bubble is zero. This means that we cannot have a bubble of xed shape in a uid with gravity, since then the total force on the bubble is p+ n dS +

S S

p n dS

where p+ and p are the pressures on the inside of the bubble respectively. In a static eld, p = gy + B for constant B. So, on using the divergence theorem, the total force is =

V V

p+ dV +

p dV

+ g dV +

V

g dV = (+ )gV.

But this must be zero by the previous argument. So there must be another force to balance this buoyancy force. This comes, for example, from the visous drag on the bubble, in which case the total force acting is a combination of the pressure force and the normal viscous stress, which must sum to zero to give a total overall force of zero on the bubble. 42

Summary We have derived equations governing 1. Conservation of mass in a uid. 2. The dynamic motion of a uid. 3. Conservation of energy in a uid.

Vector identities The following vector identities are useful in uid mechanics: 2 u = ( u) ( u), u u = ( 1 |u|2 ) + u, 2 (u) = u + u , (u) = u + () u. Other vector identities are also available. See Acheson p. 348.. where = u,

4. Vorticity dynamics and the stream function 4.1 Vorticity dynamics We have dened the uid vorticity to be the local rotation of uid elements. =u

It is sometimes useful to understand the dynamics of a ow by working with the vorticity rather than the velocity eld. To this end, we would like to have a set of governing equations for rather than u. We can derive these by taking the curl of the Navier-Stokes momentum equation, u + u u = p/ + 2 u. t It is convenient to use two vector identities to rewrite (4.1) as 1 u + u2 + u = p/ ( u) t 2 = p/ . 43 (4.1)

(4.2)

Taking the curl of equation (4.2) gives + ( u) = ( ) t = 2 . Making use of the vector identity (a b) = (b )a (a )b + a( b) b( a) we obtain the vorticity transport equation + u u = 2 . t which may be written more compactly as D u = 2 . Dt Finally, we note that, since = u, we have = 0. Physical interpretation (4.6) (4.5) (4.4)

(4.3)

w1 w2

Consider a thin vortex tube made up of vortex lines pointing in the direction of the vorticity vector 1 as shown in the left of the gure above. Since the tube is thin, the vorticity | 1 | is approximately constant inside the tube. Suppose that a while later the tube has expanded a little and the vorticity inside is now | 2 |. Then the fact that = 0 means that | 2 | < | 1 |, since the ux of vorticity through the tube is conserved. The term D/Dt in (4.5) represents the convection of vorticity with the ow. The 2 in (4.5) represents viscous diusion of vorticity. The term u in (4.5) represents stretching of the vortex lines. 44

pole

x y

Example: Snow clearing at telegraph poles Wind blows in the x direction over at ground at y = 0 with velocity u = yi. The vorticity is = u = k, so the vortex lines point along the z axis as shown in the diagram. The ow encounters a telegraph pole at some x. The vortex lines wrap themselves around this obstacle, becoming very stretched close to the pole. Therefore, since = 0, thin vortex tubes experience greatly intensied vorticity at the pole and the rate of local spinning of uid particles increases. This mechanism is responsible for the cleared areas you sometimes see at the foot of telegraph poles when it snows in the winter. Notes 1. There is no vortex stretching in two-dimensional ows. This is because if u = u(x, y)i + v(x, y)j, then = (vx uy )k = k and so u = w Burgers vortex A famous example of a uid ow which exhibits all of the features described above is Burgers vortex. In terms of cylindrical polar coordinates, this ow is given by w = kz, 1 u = kr, 2 (r) = v = v(r) 1 d(rv) , r dr (4.7) (4.8) u = 0. z

= (r)k,

for some chosen constant k. Note that none of the components depend on . This is an example of an axisymmetric ow. Substituting (4.7, 4.8) into the vorticity transport equation (4.4), we obtain k d2 d d(r 2 ) + 2 r 2 + dr dr dr 45 = 0. (4.9)

Solving this for , and assuming 0 as r , the vorticity is given by = k kr2/4 e k, 4 (4.10)

for some constant . So most of the vorticity is concentrated in a core region of radius of order O( /k). It is now possible to nd v(r) by integrating the last of equations (4.8). We nd v= 2 (1 ekr /4 ). 2r

The Burgers vortex described above is a steady and, remarkably, exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. It involves a perfect balance between the three mechanisms of convection of vorticity, vortex stretching, and viscous diusion of vorticity.

4.2 The Prandtl-Batchelor theorem This pertains to the vorticity in regions of two-dimensional ow with closed streamlines when the viscosity is very weak. It states that within such regions, the vorticity is constant. Consider the steady version of the vorticity transport equation for two-dimensional ow, so that = k. Recall that in 2-D the term u is identically zero. If the kinematic viscosity is very small, we may write, to a good approximation, (u ) = 0. (4.11)

This means that the vorticity, , is constant along streamlines and hence just depends on the streamfunction , i.e. = (). Now, = (k) = i j = () i j = () u. y x y x 46 (4.12)

We can show (see Problem Sheet 2) that, if there exists a closed streamline C in steady viscous ow with vorticity , then the line integral ( ) dx = 0.

Inserting (4.12) into this result yields (since is constant along the streamline C) () u dx = () u dx = 0.

So unless by uke this line integral happens to be zero, we must have () = 0. Therefore in a region of closed streamlines the vorticity is constant.

4.3 The stream function It is sometimes convenient to describe a uid in terms of a stream function, usually represented by the symbol , which assumes constant values on streamlines. We can see how and when this is possible as follows. The equation of conservation of mass (continuity) states that u = 0. The general solution of this equation is u = A, for some vector A. However, the choice of A is not unique and we can add onto it any so-called gauge function q. For example, if we take A = A + q, then A = (A + q) = A + q = A. Now, the vorticity = u = ( A) = 2 A + ( A), using one of the vector identities. Due to the aforementioned non-uniqueness, we are at liberty to insist that A is solenoidal, i.e. A = 0. Thus = 2 A. 47 (4.13)

Examples i) Two-dimensional ow In this case, u = u(x, y) i + v(x, y) j. If we pick A = (x, y)k, then (k) = Thus we can represent the ow velocity as u = (k) = So u= and the vorticity is given by (4.13). Constant on streamlines? A useful property of the streamfunction is that it is constant on a streamline. We note that u = ux + vy = y x x y = 0, and so is constant on a streamline. ii) Axisymmetric ow a) In cylindrical polar coordinates, the velocity is u = u(r, z) + w(r, z) k r and so does not depend on the azimuthal coordinate, . If we choose A = (/r) , where = (r, z) then 1 = 0. A = (/r) = 2 r Thus we can represent the ow velocity as u= So 1 = k = w k + u . r r r r r z , y i j = u i + v j. y x , x = 0. z

v=

1 1 , u= , r r r z with the vorticity given by (4.13). This is the standard denition of the axisymmetric streamfunction. w= 48

Constant on streamlines? We note that u = ur + wz = r 1 z r + r 1 r z = 0, and so is constant on a streamline. Alternatively, we could have taken A = , where = (r, z). Then A = ( ) = and 1 = 0, r

1 (r) k = w k + u . r r u = ( ) = r r z w= 1 (r), r r u= . z

So

Constant on streamlines? We note that u = ur + wz = z r + r 1 (rr + )z = 0, and so is not constant on a streamline. However, notice that u (r) = u(rr + ) + rwz = z (rr + ) + (rr + )z = 0, and so for this denition we have that the quantity r is constant on a streamline. So the representation of a ow in terms of a stream function can therefore be done in dierent, but equivalent, ways. b) In spherical polar coordinates, the velocity is u(r, ) + v(r, ) , r so there is no dependence on the coordinate . If we choose A= then A = (r, ) , r sin

So u=

1 r 2 sin

v=

1 , r sin r

Physical interpretation For simplicity, we concentrate on 2-D ow. So u = k. Now, using the identity (A) = A + A, we can write u = ( k) = ( k) = k ( ) = 0. So the gradient of in direction u is zero. In other words, is constant along a streamline. Let and + d be two neighbouring streamlines:

y

dy dx + d x

2-D equation of motion in terms of a stream function Start with the vorticity transport equation + u u = 2 . t For two-dimensional ow, u= , y v= 50 , x w=0 (4.14)

and = k, using (4.13). So, 2 = 4 k. Recall that in 2-D, there is no vortex stretching, and so u = 0. Therefore the left hand side of (4.14) is 2 (, 2 ) k, (2 k) + (2 k) (2 k) = t y x x y t (x, y) where the Jacobian (, 2 ) 2 2 = . (x, y) x y y x = 2 ,

4.4 Deducing the velocity eld from a known vorticity distribution. Suppose we know the vorticity eld = u. Can we deduce u from ? We start with a bit of potential theory. We study the function (x0 ) =

V

(x) dV (x), r

(4.15)

where V is volume of uid surrounding the eld point x0 , and is some scalar eld. Consider now 2 0 (x0 ), where x 2 2 2 + 2 + 2. 2 0 x x2 y0 z0 0 Then, we have 2 0 (x0 ) = 2 0 x x (x) dV (x) = r 2 0 x 1 (x) dV (x). r

But recall that we can express the delta function (), where x = x x0 , in the form x ( ) = x 1 2 1 4 r

51

where r = || = |x x0 |. We can do this since G = 1/r is the Greens function for the x singularly forced Laplaces equation, 2 G = 4 ( ). x In other words, G = 1/r is a solution to this equation. So, 2 0 (x0 ) = 4 x () (x) dV (x), x

V

= 4(x0 ), by the properties of the delta function. Hence (x0 ) satises the Poisson equation 2 (x0 ) = 4(x0 ) Stated another way, (4.15) is a solution to the Poisson equation (4.16). Now consider the vorticity distribution where = u, u=0 (4.16)

for as yet unknown velocity eld u. Lets express u as the curl of its vector potential as follows, u=B where we have chosen B = 0. Then, u = ( B) = 2 B = . So, 2 B = . From the above, a solution to this Poisson equation is B(x0 ) = We need to check B = 0. So, x0 B(x0 ) = 1 x 4 0 = 1 4

V

1 4

(x) dV (x). r

x0

(x) dV (x) r

1 dV (x) r

S

where S is the surface containing the volume V . So we need n = 0 on the boundary S (see Batchelor p. 86 for a discussion). Then the velocity distribution is given by u= 1 4 x0 (x) dV (x). r

5. Exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations Exact solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations which may be written down in closed form are very rare. Most problems are far too complicated to expect to be able to write down the solution in a simple way. Instead approximate solutions to the equations have to be found numerically on a computer. However, there are a number of very well-known examples of exact solutions which can be found fairly easily. Often these are obtained by reducing the full equations using some symmetry or other special property of the problem. We begin with a discussion of ows which only move in one direction. Keep in mind that we are always trying to nd solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations, u + u u = p/ + 2 u, t with boundary conditions appropriate to the particular problem in hand. u = 0, (5.1)

Unidirectional ows These are very special types of ow for which there is only one component of velocity. We can write u = wk so that the uid is moving with speed w in the z direction only. The continuity equation gives us some useful information about w straightaway. In Cartesians, u v w u = + + = 0, x y z 53

but for this unidirectional ow, u = v = 0. So we have w =0 z which states that w does not change as we move along in the z direction. Hence w can only be a function of x and y, i.e. w(x, y). This observation leads to the following remarkable property of unidirectional ows. Consider the nonlinear term in the Navier-Stokes equations (5.1), u u = (wk )(wk) = w (wk) z = 0 since neither w nor k depend on z. So the nonlinear term vanishes! This leaves us with a much simpler, linear problem to solve. To summarize, for a unidirectional ow, we have to solve u = wk, w = w(x, y), u = p/ + 2 u, t (5.2)

together with appropriate boundary conditions. Steady examples of unidirectional ows We start with the simpler case of steady ow. Now we need to solve u = wk, In component form, 0 = px + (uxx + uyy ), 0 = py + (vxx + vyy ), 0 = pz + (wxx + wyy ). Since u = v = 0, the rst two of these equations tells us that px = py = 0. So there are no pressure gradients in the x or y directions. i) Plane Poiseuille Flow (PPF) Consider two-dimensional (y, z) ow in a channel with centre line z and with walls placed a distance 2d apart at y = d. In this case u = 0 and there is no dependence on x. 54 w = w(x, y), 0 = p + 2 u. (5.3)

y d z d

Suppose that uid is driven along the channel by a pressure gradient of size G, where G > 0, i.e. dp = G. dz We try looking for a unidirectional solution with w = w(y) in the z direction and v = 0 in the y direction. Then, from (5.3), we need to solve 0=G+ d2 w , dy 2 w(d) = w(d) = 0. (5.4)

The boundary conditions are those of no-slip at the walls y = d and y = d. Note that the normal ow condition v = 0 at y = d is satised automatically since v 0 everywhere. Integrating (5.4) twice with respect to y, we nd Ay + B = 1 2 Gy + w 2 1 2 Gd , 2 1 2 Gd 2

for arbitrary constants A, B. These are set by applying the boundary conditions: w(d) = 0 = Ad + B = w(d) = 0 = Ad + B = Solving for A and B we obtain the solution. w= G 2 (d y 2 ). 2 (5.5)

It is customary to plot the velocity prole with the velocity on the horizontal axis like this:

y

Flux One feature of the ow we might be interested in is the volume ow rate or ux through the channel. This follows from integrating the velocity prole across the channel width. So the ux

d

Q=

d

w dy = =

G 2

d d

(d2 y 2 ) dy

2Gd3 . 3

This represents the volume of uid passing through a vertical line across the channel in unit time. ii) Plane Couette Flow Consider ow in a channel whose upper wall is moving at speed U in the z-direction.

y d U

In this case the uid ow is driven purely by the upper wall motion. We expect a unidirectional solution of the form w = w(y). In that case, equations (5.3) imply 0= Integrating twice, we have w = Ay + B, for constants A, B. The boundary conditions are w(0) = 0 and w(d) = U . Thus A= So w = U y/d, and the velocity prole looks like this: iii) Circular Poiseuille Flow (CPF) This is also known as Hagen-Poiseuille ow after the work of Hagen (1839) and Poiseuille (1840). In this case we consider pressure driven ow through an innite tube of circular cross-section of radius a. For convenience we use cylindrical polar coordinates, taking 56 U , d B = 0. d2 w . dy 2

y d

r=a

dp = G, dz as the pressure gradient driving the uid ow. The continuity equation states that u = But, since w = wk and u = v = 0,

G>0

u u 1 v w + + + = 0. r r r z

w = 0. z Therefore we just have w = w(r, ). Assuming no variation in we take w = w(r). So now (5.3) requires us to solve 0=G+ d2 w 1 dw , + dr r dr w(a) = 0. (5.6)

The boundary condition at the wall is that of no-slip. We will need to apply another condition at r = 0 later on. We can re-write (5.6) as 0=G+ Integrating once with respect to r, A= 1 2 dw Gr + r , 2 dr 57 dw d r . r dr dr (5.7)

dA=rdrd

To prevent w from diverging at r = 0, we need to set A = 0. This is the second boundary condition alluded to above. The constant B is xed by requiring w(a) = 0, so 1 B = Ga2 . 4 So the solution for CPF is w= G 2 (a r 2 ). 4 (5.8)

The maximum velocity wmax = Ga2 /4 occurs on the centre line r = 0. Flux To compute the ux through the circular tube, we once more integrate the velocity over the cross-section. Recall that an element of area in the cross-section is dA = rdrd. So,

2 a

Q=

0 0

w rdrd = 2 =

G 4

a 0

r(a2 r 2 ) dr

Ga4 . 8

Furthermore, we dene the mean velocity, umean = Shear stress To calculate the axial shear stress at the wall, recall that Fi = ij nj . In this case the unit normal at the wall pointing into the uid is n = . So the stress in the z direction at the r wall is Fz = zr = 2ezr . 58 Q Ga2 Flux = = . x-sec area a2 8

r=a

= 2erz |r=a =

Ga , 2

(5.9)

which is the shear stress exerted by the uid on the wall in the downstream (i.e. z) direction. iv) Indented circular Poiseuille Flow Berker (1963)5 discusses an exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equations corresponding to pressure-driven unidirectional ow along a circular pipe whose cross-section is a circle indented with part of another circle. Specically, the domain of ow in the cross section lies in b < r < 2a cos , for constants a, b, where (r, ) are polar coordinates. Note that r = 2a cos describes a circle of radius a with centre at x = a. In Cartesians the domain of ow lies inside the circle (x a)2 + y 2 = a2 , and outside the circle x 2 + y 2 = b2 . The solution which satises the Poisson equation 2 u = 1 is 1 u = (r 2 b2 ) 2 2a cos 1 , r

where the rst factor in brackets may be identied as the solution for Poiseuille ow in a circular pipe. Note that the rst factor is identically zero on the smaller circle of radius b and the second factor is identically zero on the larger circle of radius a. In this sense the solution resembles that for undirectional ow in an equilateral triangular pipe where each factor is zero of one the three walls. A contour plot showing lines of constant velocity u is shown in the gure below for the case a = 1 and b = 0.3. Notes

5

59

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

1. CPF is often used by medical workers as a model of blood ow in arteries. The shear stress is important because of its link with the onset of atherosclerosis, the disease responsible for about a third of deaths in Western society. 2. The result (5.9) shows that, for a xed ux through the tube, the driving pressure gradient G a4 . Applying CPF to blood ow, this states that build-up of fatty deposits on the arterial walls due to an unhealthy lifestyle rapidly increases the amount of eort required of the heart to drive the same amount of blood through the body. If the arterys diameter is halved, for example, the pressure gradient needs to be 16 times larger to produce the same ux! 3. Experimentally, one might set up CPF as shown: A circular tube of length L has one

L

p

CPF

Reservoir

end in a reservoir of water so that the entry pressure p2 is held xed. The pressure at the exit, p1 , is also constant. The pressure gradient is then G= p2 p1 L = p , L say.

This experiment was rst performed by Osborne Reynolds in 1883. His original apparatus is kept in the Engineering department at Manchester University. Reynolds found that for suciently low ow rates Q, the CPF solution (5.8) was indeed observed. He injected a 60

blob of dye at the entrance to the pipe and it stretched out in a perfectly straight line, as this solution predicts.

streak of dye

However, as Q was increased, Reynolds found that at some distance along the pipe the laminar CPF ow eventually broke up and thereafter became turbulent.

As Q was increased, the start of the turbulent region moved further and further upstream. The reason for the break-up of the uid ow in a circular pipe into turbulence is still not fully understood!

Steady unidirectional ow in pipes of arbitrary cross-section Unidirectional solutions exist in pipes of general cross-section.

x z

f(x,y)=0

With a pressure gradient G in the z direction driving the ow, the problem to be solved is G 2 2 2 u = , where 2 = + 2 x2 y with u=0 on f (x, y) = 0.

For very special cross-sectional geometries (a circle, an ellipse, a triangle see Sheet 3) the solution can be found in closed form. Otherwise a solution can be sought using a complex variable - conformal mapping technique. Alternatively, we can seek a series solution, as in the next example.

61

2b

2a

Flow in a rectangular channel Consider steady undirectional ow in a channel of rectangular cross-section a x a, We need to solve uxx + uyy = G , with u=0 on x = a, y = b. (5.10) b y b,

If we look for a separable solution of type u(x, y) = X(x)Y (y), we nd that the velocity can be expressed in the series form

u=

m=0 n=0

y x cos (2n + 1) , 2a 2b

(5.11)

where the Amn are constants to be found. Exercise 1: Determine the Amn as follows. Substitute (5.11) into (5.10). Then, multiplying both sides by x y cos (2m + 1) cos (2n + 1) , 2a 2b integrate over the rectangular cross-section. The result is: Amn = (2m + 1)2 (2n + 1)2 64G(1)m+n + (2m + 1)(2n + 1) a2 b2

1

Exercise 2: Show that the channel solution above reduces to plane Poiseuille ow (PPF) in the limit b/a 0. Film ow down an inclined plane Consider the two-dimensional ow of a lm of uid of height h under gravity down an inclined plane: 62

h

x

Fix Cartesian axes as shown. The body force, F, due to gravity is given by F = (Fx , Fy ) = g(cos , sin ). The pressure at y = h is equal to atmospheric, pa . We seek a steady unidirectional solution with u = u(y), v = 0. First, check that continuity is satised: u v + = 0 + 0 = 0. x y From before, we know that for unidirectional ow u u = 0. The momentum equations are therefore, 0 = d2 u p + g cos + 2 , x dy p g sin . 0 = y

Integrating the second, p = gy sin + f (x). But p = pa at y = h and so p = pa + (h y)g sin . From this we can see that p = 0. x

gy 2 cos + y + , 2 63

for constants , . No-slip at y = 0 = = 0. At y = h there is a uid-uid interface between the water (say) in the lm and the air above it. The stress condition at y = h is given by (assuming negligible surface tension) [ij where n = (0, 1, 0) = j. So, pa ni + 2(air) eij i.e. p|y=h = pa , since e22 = v/y = 0, and 2(air) e12 |y=h = 2 e12 |y=h . But, since air is much less viscous than water, (air) , the last equation becomes just e12 |y=h = 0, i.e. du dy

y=h (air) (air) (air)

ij

(water)

] nj = 0,

= 0.

Exercise: Follow a similar argument to above to derive the shear stress condition at the surface of a liquid lm owing down the outside of a cylindrical rod of radius a. Applying the condition of zero surface stress, we nd 0= and so u= which can be re-written u= gh cos + ,

gy (2h y) cos , 2

g 2 h (h y)2 cos . 2

1 Poiseuille flow 2

h

gh2 cos . 2

=

0

u dy = gh3 cos . 3

g cos 2

h 0

(2hy y 2 ) dy

In other words, given a ux of uid F and slope angle , a steady unidirectional motion is possible for a lm of height 1 3F 3 . h= g cos What happens if F is suddenly increased by a small amount dF ? Since dF is small, we expect a corresponding increase in the layer thickness, dh = dh dF . dF

h+

dh

y

jump

F+dF

h

F

The jump travels downstream at a nite speed, V , so that, with axes xed in the jump, we have the picture: Continuity requires that net ux before jump = net ux beyond jump, 65

h+

dh

V stationary

F+dF

h

F

i.e. (F + dF ) (h + dh)V = F hV. Rearranging, and taking the limit, V = From above, dF gh2 9gF 2 cos = cos = dh But, we know that umax = and so V = 2umax . Thus, the speed of the jump is twice the maximum speed of the uid. gh2 cos , 2 dF . dh

1 3

Unsteady unidirectional flows For an unsteady, unidirectional ow, we have to solve (5.2), u = wk, w = w(x, y, t), u = p/ + 2 u. t

As in the steady case, the rst and second momentum equations imply that px = py = 0 = p = p(z, t).

1. Impulsively started ows - Rayleigh layers a) Unbounded ow Consider a semi-innite mass of uid at rest above a plane, rigid wall.

66

y

Fluid

For t < 0, the wall is at rest. At t = 0 it instantaneously acquires a speed U in the z direction. There is no variation in z so all z derivatives are zero, /z 0. So w = w(y, t) and, accordingly, continuity is satised. Since there is no imposed pressure gradient, p = 0 for all z and t. The problem for w is thus: wyy wt = 0, w(0, t) w(y, 0) = = U for t > 0, y , y > 0.

w(y, t) 0 as

0 for

If we write w = U W (y, t), this becomes Wyy Wt = 0, W (0, t) W (y, 0) = = 1 0 for t > 0, as for y > 0. y ,

W (y, t) 0

leaves the equations and boundary conditions unchanged. This motivates us to seek a solution with the same property. We note that the grouping y t1/2 is unchanged by the -transformation. Accordingly, we try looking for a solution in the form y . W = f (), where = 2(t)1/2 This is called a similarity solution, for reasons which will become clear below. It has the advantage of reducing the partial dierential equation to an ordinary one. Applying the chain rule, 1 1 2 1 2 = , = , = . t 2 t y y 2 4t 2 2(t)1/2 67

0

f = Ae ,

for

constant A. e d,

2

for constant B. But, since W = 1 at y = 0, it follows that f = 1 at = 0 and so B = 1. Also, since W 0 as y , we have f 0 as , which means

A

0

e d = 1. . 2

It is known that

0

e d = Thus

0

2 f =1

e d = 1 erf() = erfc(),

y O( t 1/2)

t increasing

Thus there is a layer of thickness O((t)1/2 ), in which the uid is most aected by the wall motion. This is called a Rayleigh layer. The (y, f ) proles shown in the gure above are self-similar. This means that they are just re-scaled versions of each other. For example, we could multiply the rst prole by a suitably-chosen and get it to lie directly on top of any of the other proles. Considering the vorticity of this impulsively-driven ow, = u = (wk) = U U dW 1 w 2 e i. i= i= 1/2 d 1/2 y 2(t) (t)

68

So, =

Now, if y 2 4t, the exponential is very small indeed and is approximately zero. However, if y 2 4t, the exponential is not small and will have an appreciable value. So, as time progresses, measurable values of vorticity lie in the approximate y range [0, 2(t)1/2 ]. This range extends in time like the square root of t. Thus the vorticity (shown as a shaded area) diuses away from the wall in time.

y O( t 1/2) O( t 1/2) z

later time

Thus, the vorticity behaves like heat diusing away from an impulsively heated plate at y = 0. Similarity solutions We can now see why we called the previous solution a similarity solution. As time changes, the velocity prole is simply rescaled, but retains its original shape. Any prole at any given time may be simply rescaled to lie on top of any other prole. A similarity solution is possible in a problem like this when there is no natural lengthscale. If the plate were nite we could choose its length, L, say, as a basis for non-dimensionalization. In this case, the plate is innite and so we cannot do this. Consider the governing equation: Wyy = Wt . We know that has dimensions [] = L2 T 1 . Thus the dimensions of the LHS are L2 1 1 [] = = 2] 2 [y T L T and those of the RHS are 1 1 = . [t] T [][t] = 1. [y 2 ] So the only possible dimensionless grouping of the variables is y (t)1/2 69

or any power thereof. So the solution must feature y, t and grouped only in this way. We can conclude that the uid velocity must be expressed in the form w = W f (), a similarity solution with similarity variable . = y , (t)1/2

2. Oscillating flows - Stokes layers Consider a similar ow to the above, but with the wall at y = 0 now oscillating in its own plane at a xed frequency.

y

z W0 cos( t)

Again, it is reasonable to assume that the pressure gradient G = 0 and that the ow is unidirectional, with w = w(y, t). So continuity is satised and the problem is wyy = wt , with w 0 as y , w = W0 cos(t) on y = 0.

Since the frequency of the wall motion is and the problem is linear, we expect the frequency of the uid velocity w also to be . Thus we seek a solution by writing w = W0 W (y)eit , where means take the real part. Then W (y) satises W iW = 0, W =1 So W = Aey + Bey , for constants A, B and where = 70 i . on y = 0, W 0 as y .

Now,

i = (1 + i)/ 2 and so, to satisfy the innity condition, we need to set A = 0. Thus, W = B exp (1 + i)y/(2/)1/2 ,

and so w = e 2 y cos t W0 This is called a Stokes shear wave. The vorticity = u = w i = W0 y y 2 cos t e . y+ 2 4 (5.12) y . 2

According to the exponentially decaying term in (5.12), most of the vorticity is conned in a region of thickness O( /). This region is called a Stokes layer. The higher the frequency, the thinner the Stokes layer. Note that the Stokes layer thickness does not grow in time. This contrasts with the growing Rayleigh layer studied above.

y

Stokes layer

1/2 O( (/) )

Note: The wall shear stress is proportional to w y cos t sin t = 2 cos(t + /4).

y=0

Therefore there is a phase dierence of /4 between the velocity w and the wall shear.

Other exact solutions 1. Stagnation-point (Hiemenz) ow. Consider the ow of a viscous uid towards a plane wall as shown in the diagram. First consider the ow as if it were perfectly inviscid and irrotational. Introducing a twodimensional stream function , dened by u= , y 71 v= , x

the inviscid, irrotational ow is governed by Laplaces equation 2 = 0.

By inspection, we see that the solution is = kxy, for some constant k. Thus, u = kx, v = ky.

Clearly this solution does not satisfy the no slip condition at y = 0. To manage to do this, we need to incorporate viscous eects. By analogy with the inviscid solution, we seek a solution to the viscous ow problem of a similar form. Specically, we write u = xf (y), v = f (y),

where f is a function to be determined. With this choice, we note that the continuity equation is satised straightaway, since ux + vy = f f = 0. To determine f , we need to solve the x-momentum equation, 1 uux + vuy = px + [uxx + uyy ]. However, we dont yet know the form of the pressure. To resolve this issue, consider the y-momentum equation, 1 uvx + vvy = py + [vxx + vyy ], 72

y

= p = p(x) +

0

Q() d,

for function of integration p(x). Rearranging the x momentum equation, we nd px = x[f + f f f 2 ]. Combining these results, we deduce that p= 1 2 x [f + f f f 2 ] + p0 , 2

for constant p0 . Since p = p(x), we have that f + f f f 2 = , for some constant . Now, as y , we expect this solution to approach the inviscid ow calculated above. Thus we require f k as y , in which case u ky as y . Letting t in (5.13), we nd that = k2 . Therefore, f must satisfy the system f + f f + k2 f 2 = 0, f = f (0) = 0 on y = 0; f k as y . (5.13)

The rst two boundary conditions are those of no normal ow and no slip at the wall. Notes 1. The solution for f must be found numerically. 2. The streamlines for this ow look like this: 3. The stagnation point ow on a plane wall is also relevant to that occuring on a curved, blu body.

73

70

60

50

40 y 30 20 10 0 -1 -0.5 0 x 0.5 1

x y

In the neighbourhood of the stagnation point, the body may be considered locally at. For small x, the external inviscid ow may be expanded in a power series U (x) = u0 x + u1 x2 + u2 x3 + , and so locally U x. Exact Navier-Stokes solutions in cylindrical polar coordinates If we express the Navier-Stokes equations in cylindrical polar coordinates (see sheet), we can make considerable simplications by assuming that the ow in question is axisymmetric. This means that nothing changes with , i.e. 0. So, for an axisymmetric ow, the velocity eld is given by u = u(r, z, t) + w(r, z, t) k. r For an axisymmetric ow with swirl, u = u(r, z, t) + v(r, z, t) + w(r, z, t) k. r 74

We have already seen an example of an exact axisymmetric solution to the Navier-Stokes equations. This was circular Poiseuille ow (CPF). Next we look at an axisymmetric swirling ow. Steady axisymmetric swirling flow between coaxial cylinders Fluid lls the annular gap between two innite coaxial circular cylinders. The inner cylinder rotates at angular speed 1 , and the outer at 2 .

r=a 1 r=b 2

and since it is just swirling around, with no dependence on the z coordinate, u = v(r) . Thus the streamlines for this ow are concentric circles. The equations of motion are 1 p v2 = , r r 0= d2 v 1 dv v 2 + r dr r 2 . dr B , r

and a line vortex u= The boundary conditions are v = a1 v = b2 Thus, A= The vorticity on on

1 . r

B , a B r = b = b2 = Ab + . b r = a = a1 = Aa + 2 1 . a2 b2

b2 2 a 2 1 , b2 a 2

B = a 2 b2

b2 2 a 2 1 k, b2 a 2

What is the couple on the inner cylinder? [Recall that couple (or torque or moment) means the turning eect of a force acting at a distance from a given point.] To determine this, we will need r at r = a. We know that (see sheet), 1 d v er = r 2 dr r Thus, r = = B . r2

2B . r2

Hence, the couple or torque per unit length in the z direction is given by

2

a =

0

So, a = 4a2 b2

Similarly, the couple on the outer cylinder is found to be b = 4a2 b2 Special cases: 76

1. Equal rotation rates In this case 1 = 2 and so B = 0, A = 1 . This means the uid swirls round as if it were just a rotating solid body, v = r1 . Note that in this case, the couples on the inner and outer cylinder both vanish. 2. No inner cylinder Now a = 0 and so we must choose B = 0 to avoid a singularity at r = 0. Again, we just have solid body rotation, v = r2 . 3. Stationary outer cylinder: Circular Couette ow If 2 = 0, we get a2 1 b2 v = 2 1 . r b a2 r 2 v= This ow is irrotational since = a2 1 . r

Letting b ,

1 (rv) k = 0. r r

Exercise: Show that taking the double limit a and b such that the dierence (b a) is held constant, we recover plane Couette ow (PCF). Steady radial axisymmetric flow with swirl between coaxial cylinders We can generalize the previous problem to include a radial component of ow, so u = u(r) + v(r) , r but still everything is independent of . We continue to assume the ow is also independent of z. The continuity equation implies, 1 d (ru) = 0, r dr ru = constant. Suppose that u = U at r = a, with U > 0, so there is suction of uid at the inner cylinder. Then aU u= , r 77

and so

and, at r = b,

aU , b so there is injection of uid at the outer cylinder. u= The r-momentum equation states that u du v 2 1 dp u d2 u 1 du = + 2 , + dr r dr r dr r dr 2

Substituting for u in the second equation, d2 v Ua v U a 1 dv 1 = 0. 2 + 1+ r dr r2 dr This is an equation for v(r). Since u is already known, once v is determined, we can in principle solve the r-momentum equation to obtain the pressure p. Dening a Reynolds number based on the suction velocity, R = U a/, we can re-write the v equation as 1 dv v d2 v 2 + (1 + R) r dr (1 R) r 2 = 0. dr Seeking a solution of the form v = kr n , we get n(n 1) + n(1 + R) (1 R) = n2 + Rn + (R 1) = (n + 1)(n + [R 1]) = 0, and so n = 1, (1 R). In the special case of R = 2, n has a repeated root of 1. So there are two possibilities: v = v = C + Dr (1R) r C ln r +D r r if if R = 2, R = 2.

We consider the special case 2 = 0 and R = 2. Then a1 = 0= Then, v = = = a2 1 b2R r 1R b2R a2R r a2 1 1 (r/b)2R r 1 (a/b)2R a2 1 1 (b/r)R2 . r 1 (b/a)R2 C + Db(1R) . b C + Da(1R) , a

Consider what happens when the Reynolds number becomes large, i.e. R 1. Then, v a2 1 a r r

R2

= a1

a r

R1

Since r > a and R is very large, this is essentially zero unless r is very close to a. In other words, the only signicant swirl occurs very near to the inner cylinder.

a=1, b=2, Omega1=1

1 R=10 R=100 0.8

1.5 r

The gure shows that the solution goes from near zero to one over a very short distance. This becomes more severe as R gets larger. This is our rst example of a boundary layer, a very narrow region over which there is a very rapid change in the solution. We will deal with these in more detail later in the course. 79

Spin down in a circular cylinder Make a cup of coee and stir it round a few times. How long does it take for the coee to come to rest? We consider a simplied version of this problem, that of how long it takes swirling uid in an innite cylinder to stop once the forcing is removed. Suppose viscous uid occupies the cylinder r = a and suppose that both the cylinder and the uid are initially rotating with angular velocity , so u = v , v = r for t < 0. This is the special case discussed above of rigid body rotation with no inner cylinder. At t = 0 the cylinder is suddenly stopped. The ensuing unsteady uid motion is governed by the -momentum equation v 2 v 1 v v = + 2 , 2 t r r r r with v = 0 on r = a for t > 0.

The left hand side is purely a function of r, the right hand side of t. So, we can set 1 H 1 H + 2 = 2 , H rH r for separation constant . Thus, which has solution G = 2 G, G = e t . This leaves or r 2 H + rH + (2 r 2 1)H = 0. 80 1 1 H + H + 2 2 H = 0, r r

2

This is Bessels equation of order 1 (see MTH-2C23). It has the general solution H(r) = AJ1 (r) + BY1 (r), where A, B are constants and J1 , Y1 are Bessel functions. Now Y1 is singular at r = 0, so we must reject it by setting B = 0. To satisfy the boundary condition at r = a, we need H(a) = 0 = J1 (a) = 0, disregarding the trivial solution provided by A = 0. The Bessel function J1 (x) looks like this:

0.6

0.4

0.2

10 x

12

14

16

18

20

0.2

Label the zeroes n . The rst few are: 1 3.83, 2 7.02, 3 10.17.

Therefore pick values of equal to n /a. Dening n = n /a, the general solution is given by

v=

n=1

An J1 (n r/a) en t/a ,

for constants An . We can exploit the orthogonality of the Bessel functions to nd the An . We know that

a

rJ1 (n r)J1 (m r) dr = 0 if

0

n = m.

81

The initial condition is that v = r at t = 0 and so, using the general solution,

r =

n=1

An J1 (n r).

Multiplying both sides by rJ1 (n ), integrating from 0 to a, and using the orthogonality property above, we nd

a

r 2 J1 (n r) dr = An

0

Thus, An =

a 2 0 r J1 (n r) dr . a 2 0 r[J1 (n r)] dr

2 J1 (n r/a) n t/a2 e , J ( ) n=1 n 0 n

When t > 0, the innite sum is dominated by its rst term, v(r, t) = 2a where 1 3.83. We can see that v will have dropped to 1/e 0.37 of its initial value when

2 t = te = a2 /(1 ).

J1 (1 r/a) 1 t/a2 2 , e n J0 (1 )

So by this time, the swirling uid has signicantly slowed. Going back to the cup of coee, if we take a = 4cm and = 106 m2 s1 (the value for water), we get te 2 minutes, which seems rather long. Experiment suggests that in fact the coee slows to 1/e of its initial value in about 15 seconds. The discrepancy lies in the crucial role played by a boundary layer (see later lectures) of uid on the bottom of the cup (see Acheson pp. 45, 165, 284). 82

6. Stokes ow (creeping ow) We have shown that the steady ow of a Newtonian, incompressible uid of kinematic viscosity and density satises the Navier-Stokes equations (written here without a body force), u = 0, u u = p/ + 2 u. (6.1)

Stokes ow, sometimes referred to as creeping ow, describes the motion of an extremely viscous or sticky uid such as treacle or golden syrup. Under these conditions, we might expect |u u| |2 u|, since the ow is very sluggish and so the magnitude of the velocity at any point is small. Therefore, since the left hand side is quadratic in the small velocity, we would expect it to be smaller than the term on the right hand side as a reasonable approximation.

Equations of Stokes ow Under the aforementioned conditions, we may approximate the uid motion using the Stokes equations u = 0, 0 = p + 2 u. (6.2)

We may derive these equations more formally as follows. Suppose that characteristic length and velocity scales are L and U respectively. For example, we may wish to model a bacterium swimming at speed U , where the length of the bacterium is L. Then, we nondimensionalize (i.e. remove all dimensions from the problem) by writing u = U u , v = U v , p= U p , L x = L x , y = L y.

Then all quantities with an asterisk superscript are dimensionless. In component form, the momentum and continuity equations for a 2D steady ow with no body force acting are: 1 uux + vuy = px + (uxx + uyy ), 1 uvx + vvy = py + (vxx + vyy ), ux + vy = 0.

83

Substituting in, we obtain (using the chain rule to convert the derivatives): U2 u ux + v u y L U2 u vx + v vy L u + vy x = U p + L2 x U = 2 p + L y = 0. U (u + u y ), y L2 x x U (v + vy y ), L2 x x

Multiplying by L/U 2 and dropping the asterisks for convenience, we have uux + vuy = uvx + vvy u x + vy ( px + uxx + uyy ) , UL ( py + vxx + vyy ) , = UL = 0.

Dening the Reynolds number R such that R= and multiplying through by R, we have R(uux + vuy ) = px + uxx + uyy , R(uvx + vvy ) = py + vxx + vyy , ux + vy = 0. UL (6.3)

Formally taking the limit R 0, we derive the Stokes equations of creeping uid motion: 0 = py + vxx + vyy , 0 = px + uxx + uyy ,

0 = p + 2 u.

The key step is taking the limit R 0, which means we are considering ows for which the Reynolds number is small enough for the nonlinear term u u to be neglected. By the denition of R, UL . R= This means that for R 1, we need U to be small, or L to be small, or for to be large. So Stokes ow arises if The characteristic velocity scale is suciently small (e.g., a bubble moving through treacle) 84

The characteristic length scale is suciently small (e.g., a swimming spermatozoa) The kinematic viscosity, , is large (e.g., golden syrup) If the scales U , L, and combine to make R small, we may use the Stokes equations (6.2) to approximate the uid ow. The great advantage of doing this lies in the fact that the Stokes equations are linear. In general, linear problems are easier to solve than nonlinear ones. Alternative forms of the Stokes equations Remembering the identity 2 u = ( u) ( u), we may re-write the Stokes equations (6.2) like this, u = 0, where = u is the vorticity. Taking the curl of the second of equations (6.4), we nd 0 = ( ), and hence we derive the equations of vorticity transport for a Stokes ow, = 0, 0 = 2 . (6.5) p = (6.4)

Instead, taking the divergence of the second of equations (6.4), we see that, for a Stokes ow, p satises Laplaces equation, 2 p = 0, and so the pressure is a harmonic function. Points of maximum/minimum pressure An interesting consequence of this is as follows. Consider Stokes ow in a closed region, , say. Then, since p is a harmonic function, its maxima and minima can only occur on the boundary of . Extrema of harmonic functions Consider a harmonic function (x) satisfying, by denition, Laplaces equation 2 = 0 85 (6.6)

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at all points x inside some bounded region D with boundary curve C. [Sketch region D] Greens third identity in two-dimensions states that, at a point x0 in D, (x0 ) = 1 2 ln r (x) n(x) dl(x) + 1 2 1 (x0 x) n(x) (x) dl(x), r2 (6.7)

where n(x) is the unit normal at a point x on the curve C, and dl(x) is the increment of arc length along C at the point x. Choose C to be a circle of radius a centred about the point x0 . Then (6.7) gives (x0 ) = ln a 2 (x) n(x) dl(x) + 1 2a2 (x0 x) n(x) (x) dl(x).

Using the divergence theorem on the rst integral, (x0 ) = ln a 2 2 (x) dS(x) + 1 2a2 (x0 x) n(x) (x) dl(x),

where dS is an element of surface area. But 2 = 0. Also, since C is a circle, n = (x0 x)/a. Thus a2 1 = a. (x0 x) n = (x0 x) (x0 x) = a a Hence we are left with (x0 ) = 1 2a (x) dl(x).

C

(6.8)

This is Gauss mean value theorem for harmonic functions in two-dimensions. It states that at a point x0 is the average of the values over a surrounding circle of radius a. Proposition: Maxima or minima of harmonic functions in a bounded region can only occur on the boundary. Proof 86

Assume that an extremum is located at x0 inside the domain of interest. Using (6.8), it is clear that there must be at least one point on any surrounding circle (lying within the domain) where the value of is higher or lower than (x0 ) in order for the mean value to be (x0 ). This contradicts the original assumption. Hence extrema can only arise on the boundary. To see this, suppose that a maximum or minimum of p exists at a point x0 within . If we integrate equation (6.6) over any small volume V of surface area S with outward unit normal n around this point, we nd 0=

V

2 p dV

=

S

p n dS

(6.9)

Clearly p n cannot be single-signed over the arbitrary surface S. It follows that p must be increasing or decreasing arbitrarily close to the point x0 , contradicting the supposition that it is either a maximum or a minimum. Therefore the points of maximum or minimum pressure in a closed-region Stokes ow can only occur on the boundary. Nifty move: This observation hints at a more profound characteristic of Stokes ows. In fact it is possible to describe a Stokes ow entirely by the values the various ow variables assume on the boundary. This leads to a very ecient means of computing Stokes ows, known as the boundary integral method. For more information on this advanced procedure, see Pozrikidis, Boundary Integral and Singularity Methods, Cambridge (1992). Two-dimensional Stokes ow If the ow in question is two-dimensional with velocity eld u = ui + vj, we may introduce a stream function dened by , v= . u= y x Calculating the vorticity, we obtain = u = 2 k. Then, by equation (6.5), since the unit vector k is constant, we nd that the stream function satises the biharmonic equation 4 = 0. (6.10)

We will make use of this feature of two-dimensional Stokes ows later when we study ow in corners. Uniqueness theorem for Stokes ow Consider Stokes ow in a region V bounded by a closed surface S with unit outward normal n. If u is prescribed on the boundary S, then the equations of Stokes ow have at most one solution. 87

Proof Suppose that there exist velocity elds u and u satisfying u = 0, and u = 0, with u = u on the boundary S. Let eij , e be the stress tensors associated with (u, p) and (u , p ) respectively. ij Then, (eij e )eij dV ij = 1 2 (ui u ) + (uj u ) eij dV i j xj xi 2 u = p 2 u = p

V

=

V

=

V

S

(ui u ) i

eij dV xj

(since ui = u on S) = i

= (by continuity) = () (since 2 u = p) = (by continuity again) = (by divergence theorem) = (since ui = u on S) = 0. i

1 2 ui uj + 2 xj xj xi xj 1 2 ui dV 2 x2 j 1 p dV 2 xi

dV

1 2 1 2

88

V

(e eij )2 dV = 0. ij

Therefore eij = and so u and dier only by a constant. However, we know that u = u on S and so it follows that u = u everywhere in V . QED . Note the crucial step () in the above proof. It is here we use the fact that we are dealing with a Stokes ow. The proof does not work for full Navier-Stokes ow.

e ij

Minimum dissipation theorem for Stokes ow The rate of viscous dissipation in a Stokes ow is less than or equal to that in any other incompressible ow satisfying the same boundary conditions. Proof Let u, p satisfy the Stokes equations (6.2) in a bounded region V with u prescribed on the boundary surface S. In addition, let u , p satisfy u = 0, but assume that 2 u = p , i.e. (u , p) does not represent a Stokes ow. From above, we know that, (eij e )eij dV = 0, ij since 2 u = p .

but now

V

(e eij )e dV = 0 ij ij

V

e e dV . ij ij

89

V

(since Clearly

(eij e )eij dV = 0) = 2 ij

V

eij eij dV = 2

V

e2 dV . ij

Hence, = 2

V

(e eij )2 dV 0. ij QED

Notes 1. Navier-Stokes ows always dissipate more energy than Stokes ows. 2. Since plane (PPF) and circular Poiseuille ow (CPF) happen to satisfy the Stokes equations, they are therefore minimum dissipation ows.

Reversibility of Stokes ow One very striking feature of creeping ows is that they are reversible. Including a body force F, the equations of motion are u = 0, 0 = p + F + 2 u, (6.13)

so if we change u to u, p to p and F to F, we get another equally valid solution. If the boundary conditions involve u we must also switch the sign in these. This property is not valid for ows at non-zero Reynolds number, as the nonlinear term u u scuppers this sign-reversal process. It follows that if we reverse the velocity on the boundary of a Stokes ow, we also reverse the ow velocity throughout the uid. Puzzle: There is an interesting consequence of this feature of Stokes ows. A solid sphere moves slowly through a viscous uid parallel to a plane wall. Does the sphere feel any force repelling it away from or attracting it towards the wall?

90

Answer: No; it cant. It if did, when we reversed the ow it would naturally feel the same force in the opposite direction. But the symmetry of the problem makes this ridiculous. Therefore the force acting on the sphere perpendicular to the wall must be zero.

Creeping ow past a solid sphere This is the classical Stokes ow problem. Consider uid owing at low Reynolds number past a solid sphere of radius a, which is xed inside an unbounded uid.

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Fix axes in the sphere and adopt spherical polar coordinates (r, , ). The oncoming uid moves at speed U and the entire ow is taken to be steady. For this problem, it is convenient to work with the Stokes equations in the form u = 0, since 2 = ( ). The uid velocity u = u + v + w . r ( ) = 0,

Exploiting the axisymmetry of the sphere, we can assume that there are no changes in , 0, and also w 0.

We can therefore introduce a stream function (see earlier section on these), dened by u= 1 r 2 sin , v= 1 . r sin r

In spherical polars, for vector function F = Fr + F + F , r F = So the vorticity, =u= 1 1 1 1 2 sin r r sin r r r 91 , 1 1 Fr 1 1 (F sin ) r (rF ) + (rF ) r sin r r r r r .

or, = , where = Now, = 1 1 ( sin ) r (r ) r sin r r 1 1 = 2 (D 2 ) + r (D 2 ) . r sin r sin r D2 , r sin D2 1 2 sin . + 2 2 r r sin

So, straightaway we can write down ( ) = = Hence ( ) = 0 = D 2 (D 2 ) = 0 = D 4 = 0. The boundary conditions are u=0 on r = a, u free stream velocity as r . r 2 sin 1 (D 2 ) r (D 2 ) r sin r D 2 (D 2 ) . 1

1 r sin

i.e., the latter requires u U cos , These mean that and 1 2 2 U r sin 2 as r , r = a. (6.14) v U sin as r .

= =0 r

on

These boundary conditions suggest that we seek a solution of the form = f (r) sin2 . 92

In this case, the boundary conditions become f = f = 0 on In this case, D2 = = 1 sin 2 + 2 2 r r sin f f 2 2 sin2 r f (r) sin2 r = a.

where H(r) = f 2

f . r2

H 2

H sin2 r2 2 2 d2 f sin2 . 2 r2 dr

d2 2 2 r2 dr i.e.

rn = 0

2 d2 r n2 [n(n 1) 2] = 0 dr 2 r 2 so r n4 [(n 2)(n 3) 2][n2 n 2] = 0 so (n 4)(n 2)(n 1)(n + 1) = 0. Therefore n = 1, 2, 4 or 1. Hence f= for constants A, B, C, D. The innity condition (6.14) implies that B= while U , 2 D = 0, A U a2 + + Ca = 0, a 2 93 A + Br 2 + Cr + Dr 4 , r = (n2 5n + 4)(n2 n 2) = 0

r=a

= 0 =

r giving

r=a

= 0 = U a3 , 4

A + U a + C = 0, a2 3 C = U a. 4

A= Thus, or

3a a3 1 + 3 , = U r 2 sin2 1 2 2r 2r = 1 2 2 a U r sin 1 2 r

2

1+

a . 2r

Now we know , we can compute the velocity and vorticity components: r sin = f = = Also, f sin2 r2 (= D 2 )

3 Ua sin2 2 r 3U a = 2 sin . 2r

To calculate the uid pressure, we make use of the alternative form of the momentum equation p = , 1 1 ( sin ) r (r ) . = r sin r r So, 1 p r p = and, 1 1 p r 1 (r ) r r 3U a sin = r3 3U a = 2 cos + f (r), 2r = 94 = 3U a 1 2 sin cos r sin r 3U a = 2 cos + g(), arbitrary g, 2r

arbitrary f .

3U a cos + const. 2r 2 Letting r , p p , its value at innity. So, p= p= Notes: 1. The solution for is symmetric about = /2. Therefore the streamlines are symmetric fore and aft the sphere. Exercise: Use Maple to plot the streamlines around the sphere. 3U a cos + p . 2r 2

Combining these,

2. If we impose a velocity U on the solution, we can obtain results for a sphere moving through a uid at rest. 1 So = U r 2 sin2 2 a2 3 = U ar sin2 1 2 . 4 3r Exercise: Use Maple to plot the streamlines for this ow.

Drag on a moving sphere We can use the previous calculation to compute the drag on a solid sphere moving through a viscous uid at low Reynolds number. By symmetry, the drag force will only have a component in the direction of motion. Recalling the denition of the stress tensor, ij = pij + 2eij , 95

Fi = ij nj = pni +

Here the subscript i means the ith Cartesian component. But n = and so r Fi = ij nj = pni ([1, 0, 0] [0, 0, ])i = pni [0, , 0]i .

To get the desired component, we need to take the dot product of F with i, the unit vector pointing along the line of motion. Denote i as x = (1, 0, 0) in a Cartesian set of axes. Then

r x

we get (F x) = Fi xi = ij nj xi

= p cos sin 3U a cos ) cos sin . = (p 2r 2 Thus, on r = a, F x|r=a = p cos + Therefore, the total force in the x direction is: 3U p cos dS 2a

2 0 0

= p ni xi [0, , 0]i xi

3U . 2a

sphere

= 4a2

3U p 2a

a2 sin cos d d

(6.15)

since the surface element dS = a2 sin dd in spherical polar coordinates. So the total x force is 3U a2 sin cos d 2 p 4a2 2a 0

96

The integral in the second term is zero, and so the total drag on the sphere, Ftot = 6aU. Taking the Reynolds number to be R = U a/, we can dene a dimensionless drag coecient CD = Ftot 1 2 2 2 U a = 12 . R

1 The agreement with experiment is good for R < 1 and very good for R < 2 .

Consistency analysis Is the above solution for the sphere everywhere a consistent approximation to the correct solution of the full Navier-Stokes equations when R 1? In other words, are the approximations leading to the Stokes equations valid for all values of r? To answer this question, we examine the order of magnitude of the terms. We have 1 3a a3 = U cos 1 + 3 , r 2 sin 2r 2r 3a a3 1 = U sin 1 3 , v = r sin r 4r 4r u = u U 2a O r r2 2u Ua 2 O 3 r r u for large r, for large r.

and so,

Recall that we neglected the nonlinear terms, u u, from the Navier-Stokes equations. So, terms neglected terms retained U 2 a/r 2 U a/r 3 Ur = O Rr . = O a O

i.e., for any xed Reynolds number, R, no matter how small, we can still nd r suciently large such that the terms neglected are as important, or more important, than the retained viscous terms. So, although the Stokes solution is consistent near the sphere for 0 < R 1, it breaks down as a valid approximation when a . r=O R 97

This is a major problem, but at least its not as bad as the equivalent ow past a circular cylinder, where the Stokes solution doesnt work at all (see Problem Sheet 4)! The diculty in the far-eld was partially tied up by Oseen in 1910, and later more fully by Proudman & Pearson in 1957.

Motion of a liquid drop Consider a spherical liquid drop of radius a and viscosity d moving at speed U through another uid of viscosity o at low Reynolds number. The outer uid cannot mix with that in the drop.

Outer fluid

r U

Drop

The axes are xed in the moving drop, so the outer uid appears to be owing towards it at speed U . For this problem we have to consider the ows inside and outside of the drop. In both cases, we assume that the conditions of Stokes ow are satised. Thus, the equations of motion are u = 0, ( ) = 0. As for the solid sphere calculation above, we assume the ows are axisymmetric, 0, and also w 0.

We can therefore introduce a stream function , dened by u= for velocity eld 1 r 2 sin , v= 1 , r sin r

u = u + v . r

Following the results for the solid sphere, the equation of motion reduces to D 4 = 0, where D 2 2 sin 1 . + 2 2 r r sin

98

Outside the drop Label the stream function outside the drop o . At innity the ow consists of a uniform stream moving at speed U in the z direction. Thus, 1 o U r 2 sin2 as r (cf. solid sphere). 2 This suggests we look for a solution of the form o = f (r) sin2 . Then, from before, D4 = 2 d2 2 r2 dr

2

f sin2 = 0.

As above, we try solutions of the form f = r n , nding that f= for constants A, B, C, D. The innity condition (6.14) implies that B= and so f= U , 2 D = 0, A + Br 2 + Cr + Dr 4 , r

A 1 2 U r + Cr. r 2

Before we can nd A and C we need to consider the motion within the drop. Inside the drop Label the stream function inside the drop d . Since the two uids are immiscible, there must be no ow across the uid-drop interface. Thus we require the normal velocities ud = uo = 0 on r = a = d = o = 0 on r = a. (6.16)

Also we will need the tangential velocities to be continous at the interface: vd = vo = 0 on r = a = d o = r r on r = a. (6.17)

99

In addition, we need the tangential stress at the surface to be continuous (see previous discussion on uid-uid boundary conditions). Thus we want 2d ed = 2o eo r r where = d /o since er = is the viscosity ratio, on r = a = 1 d r r 2 r = 1 o , r r 2 r (6.18)

r v 1 u + 2 r r 2r in spherical polars, and u is everywhere zero on the drops surface. The form of these conditions at the interface suggest that inside the drop we also look for a solution of the form d = f (r) sin2 . Thus, f= for constants E, F, G, H. Now, using the denition of , we have u= 2 cos f (r) , r2 1 v = sin f (r). r E + F r 2 + Gr + Hr 4 , r

Therefore, to avoid a singular velocity at r = 0, we need E = G = 0. Condition (6.16) implies that F a2 + Ha4 = while condition (6.17) demands

fd (a) = fo (a) = 2aF + 4a3 H =

A 1 2 U a + Ca = 0, a 2

A U a + C, a2

1 f r2 o

on

r=a

2F 4A U 2C + 4H = 5 + 2 3 . 2 a a a a

100

Solving for the various constants we nd A= Thus, we have o = d = U r 2 sin2 a(2 + 3) a3 1 + 3 2 2r(1 + ) 2r (1 + ) outside the drop, in the drop. a3 U , 4(1 + ) C= aU (2 + 3) , 4(1 + ) F = U , 4(1 + ) H= U 4a2 (1 + ) .

U r 2 sin2 r2 1 2 4(1 + ) a

The ow inside the drop is called Hills spherical vortex. Following a similar procedure to that for the rigid sphere, we can compute the pressure within each uid and evaluate the drag on the drop as it moves with the uid. Doing this calculation, we nd that the drag D = 4U a 1 + 3 2 . 1+

Exercise: Verify the above formula for the drag on the moving drop. As the uid in the drop becomes more and more viscous, we would expect this result to approach that for the sphere. Indeed, taking the limit , we obtain

Low Reynolds number swimming The reversibility of Stokes ows has an interesting consequence with regard to the swimming of very small organisms, such as a spermatozoa. Since the lengthscale of such organisms is very small, the Reynolds number is likely to be very small and the conditions of Stokes ow apply.

If this idealised little spermatozoa swishes its tail up and down as shown, since the ow around it is reversible, it will never get anywhere! 101

We will look at an idealised model of a swimming motion which overcomes the reversibility problem.

y1

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4

=2/k

(x s ,ys )

sheet

-0.6 -0.8 -1 0 2 4 6

10

12

A thin exible sheet swims in a viscous uid under conditions of Stokes ow. A point on the sheet (xs , ys ) moves according to xs = x, ys = a sin(kx t),

i.e. the wave moves from left to right with speed c = /k. The wavelength = 2/k. Assume the uid above the sheet (y ys ) is in two-dimensional motion, satisfying the equation 4 = 0, where u = y , v = x .

The boundary condition at the sheet is that u = us , where us = (xs , ys ) = (0, a cos(kx t) ). As y , we require u to be bounded. Non-dimensionalize by writing x = x /k, y = y /k, t = t /, = k /(a).

102

k3 a

2 2 + 2 x2 y

= 0.

v =

= cos(x t ) on x

y = ka sin(x t ).

From now on we will assume that = ka 1. Dropping all the asterisks for convenience, and setting X = (xt), the boundary conditions are (x, sin X) = 0, (x, sin X) = cos X. y x Expanding in Taylor series, 2 (x, sin X) = (x, 0) + sin X 2 (x, 0) + = 0, y y y and 2 (x, sin X) = (x, 0) + sin X (x, 0) + = cos X. x x xy

In view of these boundary conditions, we seek a solution in the form of the expansion = 0 + 1 + 2 2 + , and so we obtain 4 0 + 4 1 + + n 4 n + = 0. The boundary conditions become 0 + 1 + y and 0 + 1 + x + sin X 2 0 + 1 + y 2 + = 0, + = cos X.

+ sin X

2 0 + 1 + xy

Taking the limit 0 yields all the terms in the equations of size O(0 ): 4 0 = 0, with conditions 0 = cos X, x 103 0 =0 y

on y = 0. At the next order we pick out all terms of size O(1 ), namely, 4 1 = 0, with conditions 2 0 1 + sin X = 0, x xy 1 2 0 + sin X =0 y y 2

on y = 0. We can continue in this vein for all orders O(n ), n = 2, 3, 4, . . . as far as we like. We look for a solution to the O(0 ) problem by trying 0 = f0 (y) sin X. Then, since

X = = , x x X X

2 0 = (f0 f0 ) sin X = F (y) sin X, say.

(f0 f0 ) (f0 f0 ) sin X, (iv) 2f0 + f0 ] sin X.

f0

(iv)

2f0 + f0 = 0.

m4 2m2 + 1 = (m2 1)2 = 0 = m = 1, 1, 1, 1. Accordingly, 0 = (A0 + B0 y)ey + (C0 + D0 y)ey sin X. We need A0 = B0 = 0 to satisfy the boundedness as y condition, so 0 = (C0 + D0 y)ey sin X. 104

But, on y = 0,

0 = cos X = C0 = 1. x

And, again on y = 0, 0 = 0 = C0 + D0 = 0 = D0 = 1. y Therefore the solution is 0 = (1 + y)ey sin X. The problem for 1 now becomes with conditions on y = 0, 1 = 0, x 1 1 = sin X.( sin X) = sin2 X = (1 cos 2X). y 2 4 1 = 0,

The boundary conditions suggest that we look for a solution of the form 1 = f11 (y) + f12 (y) cos 2X. Then

2 1 = f11 + (f12 4f12 ) cos 2X.

So,

4 1 = f11 + (f12 4f12 ) cos 2X 4(f12 4f12 ) cos 2X = f11 + (f12 8f12 16f12 ) cos 2X (iv) (iv) (iv) (iv)

= 0. We therefore require f11 = 0 Thus, f11 = A11 y 3 + B11 y 2 + C11 y + D11 . Trying f12 = emy , we obtain the auxiliary equation (m2 4)2 = 0 = m = 2, 2, 2, 2, 105

(iv) and f12 8f12 16f12 = 0. (iv)

and so f12 = (A12 + B12 y) e2y + (C12 + D12 y) e2y . Now, 1 =0 x 1 1 = (1 cos 2X) y 2

on on

y = 0 = f12 (0) = 0,

y = 0 = f11 (0) =

and

1 , 2

1 f12 (0) = . 2

Hence C11 = 1/2 and, because the velocities are bounded as y , we need A11 = B11 = 0. For f12 we shall also require A12 = B12 = 0 in order for the velocities to be bounded at innity. Then f12 (0) = 0 = C12 = 0. Also,

f12 (0) =

We can take D11 = 0 without loss of generality (since it is just adding a constant to a streamfunction). So, 1 1 = y(1 e2y cos 2X). 2 Hence = 0 + 1 + 1 = (1 + y)ey sin X + y(1 e2y cos 2X) + . 2 Thus, the horizontal velocity component, u = y = yey sin X + = yey sin(x t) + In dimensional form, u = kayeky sin(kx t) + a 1 + (2ky 1) e2ky cos 2[kx t] + . 2 106 1 1 + (y ) e2y cos 2X + 2 2 1 1 + (y ) e2y cos 2[x t] + . 2 2

where c = /k is the wave speed. If we take a set of axes moving at this streaming velocity, the sheet swims from right to left. In real life, similar non-symmetric motions have to be adopted at low Reynolds numbers to avoid the reversibility problem.

A more realistic picture of the spermatozoa has it wiggling its tail in a rotary motion, sending helical waves down to the tip. This overcomes the problems with reversibility and allows it to move forwards. Bacteria, which often have several tails (or agellae) adopt similar non-symmetric strategies for swimming.

Flow in corners - Moatt eddies Now we will look at slow ow of viscous uid in a sharp corner or crevice of angle 2. The uid satisifes no slip and no normal ow at = , and can be thought of as driven by some agency a distance from the corner r = 0. For example, uniform ow over a sharp indentation will drive a ow consisting of eddies inside the crevice.

U = r

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The ow is two-dimensional and satises the Stokes equations. We use a stream function, , dened by 1 u= , v= , r r for velocity eld u = u + v . r The equation of motion is 4 = 0, and so 1 2 1 2 + 2 2 + r 2 r r r r 107

2

= 0.

(6.19)

We seek a class of solutions of the form = r f (), where f and are to be determined. Substituting into (6.19), we nd 2 = r 2 [( 1) + ]f + f = r 2 2 f + f = r F (), say. and so 4 = 2 (2 ) = r 2 2 F + F = r 2 2 [2 f + f ] + [2 f + f (iv) ] . Thus, to satisfy (6.19), we will need 2 2 f + (2 + 2 )f + f (iv) = 0. Thus, since = 2, ( 2)2 2 f + [2 + ( 2)2 ]f + f (iv) = 0. Seeking a solution of the form f em , we nd m4 + 2(2 2 + 2)m2 + 2 ( 2)2 = (m2 + 2 )(m2 + [ 2]2 ) = 0 = m = i, i, ( 2)i, ( 2)i. Hence, assuming = 1 and = 2, f () = A cos + B sin + C cos( 2) + D sin( 2). If we now concentrate on solutions which are symmetric about = 0, we can set B = D = 0 to leave f () = A cos + C cos( 2). The boundary conditions are u = v = 0 at = , which translate into = and thus f = f = 0 on Hence, A cos + C cos( 2) = 0, 108 = . = 0 on = =0

sin ( 2) sin( 2)

So, for non-trivial solutions, we need the determinant of the matrix to vanish: tan = ( 2) tan( 2). Exercise: Show that this can be re-written as sin x sin 2 = . x 2 where x = 2( 1). Fixing 2, we can read B = (2)1 sin 2 from the graph (upper dotted line). For the example shown we get B = 0.217. Then we nd where the solid curve corresponds to B = 0.217. This is shown as the lower dashed line.

1

(6.21)

0.8

0.6

sin(x)/x

0.4

0.2

-0.2 0 5 10 x 15 20

If we choose 2 = 2.55, we get B = 0.217, and 0.217 just touches the global minimum of the solid curve, as shown. So if < 2.55, there will be no real solutions. In degrees, this means that there are no real solutions if 2 < 146.3 . Lets consider the two possibilities in turn: i) 2 > 146.3 . 109

In this case, (6.21) has real solutions . Thus the velocity component v = r 1 f () is single signed for all r and so the uid moves in and out of the corner something like this:

ii) 2 < 146.3 . Now the solutions are complex, so write = p + iq. In general A and C will also be complex. Since the equation of motion 4 = 0 is linear, using an overbar to denote a complex conjugate, both r f () and r f (), are clearly solutions to the equation of motion 4 = 0, and since this equation is linear we can add them together, so = is a solution. Suppose we x = 0, so we are focussing on the centre line. Then f (0) is just some complex number, call it c. Since = p + iq, the azimuthal velocity component v|=0 = { c r 1 } = {(p + i q) c r (p1)+iq }. Writing r iq = eiq log r = cos(q log r) + i sin(q log r), we have v|=0 = a r p1 cos(q log r + ), for real constants a, , which we can nd in terms of p, q and c. So the azimuthal velocity can now change sign with r and the corner ow must consist of re-circulating eddies, something like this: Intriguingly, it is clear from (6.22) that there must be an innite number of these eddies, as v will repeatedly change sign as r 0. 110 (6.22) 1 r f () + r f () = {r f ()} 2

These eddies have been visualized in experiments, although the ones very close to the corner are far too weak to be observed in practice.

Spinning of a white blood cell White blood cells are approximately spherical and are carried along in the blood along with platelets and red blood cells. In the smaller blood cells, such as the venules, capillaries, and arterioles, the Reynolds number is small and we can approximate the motion using Stokes ow theory. We will perform an idealised calculation to compute the rate of spinning and velocity of transit of a white blood cell in blood ow in a capillary. We will model this scenario by consider the spinning of a circular particle in an unbounded shear ow, as shown in the diagram. The background shear ow is given by y

111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000

u = ky,

v = 0.

The circle is of radius a and its centre has velocity u = U i and angular velocity k. We will seek a solution in polar coordinates with origin at the centre of the circle. We introduce the streamfunction dened so that u = /r, v = r . (6.23)

Then the Stokes ow around the circle satises the biharmonic equation 4 = 0. 111

where c is the height above the x axis shown in the gure above. In the sequel we take k = 1. Accordingly, far from the circle the ow should settle down to this background state, and so we require 1 1 1 1 (y c)2 = (r sin c)2 = r 2 sin2 cr sin + c2 . 2 2 2 2 as r . Noting that 1 sin2 = (1 cos 2) , 2 so that 1 1 1 r 2 cos 2 + r 2 cr sin + c2 , 4 4 2 as r , we try a solution in the form = f (r) cos 2 + g(r) sin + h(r). Substituting into (6.23) we nd the three dierential equations for f , g, and h:

Relative to the coordinate frame xed in the centre of the circle, the background shear ow is given by u = k(y c), v = 0,

(6.24)

4 18 18 2f (iv) + f 2 f + 3 f = 0, r r r 3 3 3 2 g(iv) + g 2 g + 3 g 4 g = 0, r r r r 2 1 1 (iv) h + h 2 h + 3 h = 0, r r r all of which are of Euler type, and we can seek a solution of the form f r n and so on. We nd the general solutions f = f1 + f2 r 2 + f3 r 2 + f4 r 4 , g = g1 r 1 + g2 r + g3 r log r + g4 r 3 , h = h1 + h2 log r + h3 r 2 + h4 r 2 log r. The matching condition at innity requires 1 h1 = c2 , 2 and so f f2 1 = f1 + 2 r 2 , r 4 g1 g = cr + g3 r log r, r 1 2 1 h = c + h2 log r + r 2 . 2 4 112 h3 = 1 , 4 h4 = 0, g2 = c, g4 = 0, 1 f3 = , 4 f4 = 0,

Next we insist that the horizontal velocity of the cell is U and that its angular velocity is , so the cell velocity is u = U i + r k = (U y, x). In polar coordinates, 1 ur = U cos y cos + x sin = U cos + a(sin 2 sin 2) = U cos , 2 u = U sin + a. Satisfying these conditions, we nd f a4 a2 1 = r2 2 + , 4 4r 2 a2 (U + c) 2(U + c) r log r cr + , (1 + 2 log a)r 1 + 2 log a 1 1 2 c a2 + 2 2 1 log r + r 2 . 4

g = h =

It should be noted that the term proportional to r log r in g(r) is of concern with regard to the matching condition at innity (6.24). See the comment on Stokes paradox below. The force on the cell is given by F= Now, n = pn + 2 e n, and e n = (n e n) n + (t e n) t. On a no-slip surface, n e n = 0 (see the Problem Sheets), and so on the cylinder boundary, n = pn + 2 (t e n) t = pn + 2 er t. Using the formula for er , er = we have 2er = r r r r 1 2 r r 1 ur u + r r , n dl

1 = rr + r /r + /r 2 . r2

and so p = (2 ) /r, (2 )r . We can integrate to nd p using the known formula for . Then the total force is

2 2

F = a We nd

pn d + a

0 0

2er t d.

0 2

8(U + c) i. 1 + 2 log a

x n dl = 2a2 + 1 d = a2 r2

er d

0 2 0

r r

[rr + r /r + /r 2 ] d.

Substituting the result for , we nd T = 2a2 (1 + 2 ), which agrees with formula (72a) of Chwang & Wu (Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 67, 1975). Evidently, for a force free cell, we should choose c = U, which corresponds to a symmetric shear ow above and below the cell. For a torque-free cell, we should choose 1 = , 2 so that the cell rotates at a rate equal to half the vorticity of the background shear ow. Stokes paradox: It is important to note that the above calculation is only valid in the case c = U when there is zero force on the cell. In this case the term proportional to r log r in g(r) vanishes. Otherwise this term will grow at innity and compromise the matching condition (6.24). This is Stokes paradox, namely that it is not possible to write down a consistent solution for unbounded Stokes ow past a cylinder when the uid imparts a force on the cylinder. However, as we have seen, a solution is possible if the cylinder convects in the uid with zero force. Contrast the solution for Stokes ow past a sphere, where the paradox does not arise.

Lubrication theory is the study of thin lms of uid. The key feature of such problems is that one dimension is much larger than the other. For example, you can get a coin to stick to a surface by putting a small amount of water between the two. A surprisingly large force is required to pull the coin away from the table. Compared to the diameter of the coin, the height of the lm of water is very small (h L in the gure below) and as such is amenable to lubrication analysis. We shall deal with this problem later.

F z F

111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000

x L

and make some simplications, using the fact that we are dealing with a thin lm of uid. Specically, we work on the assumption that if h and L are typical horizontal (x, y) and vertical (z) dimensions respectively, and if = h L then 1.

Let U be a typical horizontal ow speed. Then, since u = 0 at the solid walls z = 0 and z = h, u and v must change by an amount of order U as z varies over a distance h. We can estimate sizes of the terms in the equations using these type of arguments. In the lm we expect U u , z h Now, the continuity equation u= So we can estimate u u O and 2 u U U 2u U O 2 i + O 2 j + O 2 k. 2 z h h h 115 U2 U2 U 2h i+O j+O k, L L L2 u v w w U + + = 0 = O x y z z L = w O Uh . L 2u U 2, 2 z h u U , x L 2u U 2, 2 x L

These arguments suggest that we can assume UL 1. Dening the Reynolds number R = U L/ as usual, and introducing the modied Reynolds number Rm = 2 R, |u u| |2 u| if 2 this means that if Rm 1, we may neglect the nonlinear terms and approximate the thin lm ow with the lubrication equations: 0= p 2u + 2, x z 0= 2v p + 2, y z 0= 2w p + 2, z z (7.1)

u v w + + = 0. x y z Note that we do not require R 1 for this approximation; only Rm 1. Applications The applications of the lubrication approximation are manifest. Some examples: 1. Flow in a slider-bearing (see below).

(7.2)

2. Blood ow in slowly-tapering arteries. In some situations, a lubrication model is appropriate. 3. Peeling of the retina away from the choroid during retinal detachment, when part of the vitreous humour in the back of the eye has liqueed. This is a topic of current research. 4. Modelling the thin lm of uid drawn over the eye during a blink. A lubrication model predicts that this lm will break-apart after approximately 15 seconds. (Try not to blink for longer than that!) This is also the a subject of current research. Formal derivation of the lubrication equations In a typical conguration, such as that shown above, we have two lengthscales, h and L (and generally speaking we are interested in the case h L). It is therefore sensible to non-dimensionalize by setting x = LX and y = hY.

If the solid wall is moving with horizontal speed U , this suggests we take u = U U . For an order of magnitude balance of terms in the continuity equation, we expect v U h , = v O U L L h 116

y Solid h x L

and so this suggests we write v = U (h/L)V . A typical scale for the pressure comes from considering an order of magnitude balance between the pressure gradient and the largest occuring term in the momentum equation. In other words, since the layer is thin, assuming p 2u 2, x y we estimate U UL p 2 = p 2 , L h h

2

V U

Fluid

Rigid wall

suggesting that we write p = (U L/h ). p Assuming steady ow (so /t 0), we non-dimensionalize using these expressions, i.e., x = LX, u = UU, y = hY p = (U L/h ). p

2

v = U (h/L)V ,

UX + VY

Thus, for a lubricating ow, the above analysis shows that we can use an approximate form of the Navier-Stokes equations, given by 0 = px + uyy , (7.3) (7.4) (7.5)

0 = py

u = U,

v = V,

on

y = h(x).

(7.6)

The approximation is valid in the limit 0 and Rm 0. We notice that p = p(x), according to (7.4), and so we can integrate (7.3) twice with respect to y to obtain 1 2 Uy u= y yh px + . 2 h Note that the rst term in this expression corresponds locally to plane Poiseuille ow while the second represents plane Couette ow. The vertical velocity component, v, comes from integrating the continuity equation as follows.

y

v =

u dy x

(so v = 0 on y = 0 is satised).

For the next bit, we will need to use the following result (see Problem Sheet 4), x

h(x) h(x)

f (x, y) dy =

0 0

f dh dy + f (x, h) . x dx

Demanding that v = V on y = h we nd

h(x)

h(x)

= = x

u dy, x u dy U dh . dx (7.7)

h(x) 0

u dy =

0

= and so x

h(x)

Uy 1 2 y yh px + 2 h 0 3 Uh h 1 + px 2 6 2 h3 1 px x 2 6 118 + U dh . 2 dx

dy,

u dy =

0

(7.8)

Combining (7.8) with (7.7), we obtain the Reynolds lubrication equation: p 1 dh 1 h3 = U + V. 12 x x 2 dx (7.9)

This equation involves a second order derivative in x and so two boundary conditions are required. The height function h is normally given. We usually solve (7.9) subject to p = p1 at x = x1 , p = p2 at x = x2 . Note: The lubrication equation (7.9) also applies when U and V are functions of time, t, provided that 2 2. t y We will make use of this fact later.

Flow in a slider bearing When two solid bodies slide against each other, the frictional resistance and normal reaction force are comparable in magnitude. However, if there is a thin lm of uid in between the bodies, the tangential resistance may be a lot smaller than the normal, pressure force. A good example of this is a slider bearing moving over a solid wall at y = 0 with uid in between (see diagram).

pa h 1

11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 U 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000

pa x

h(x)

h2

Fluid

Assume that the angle 1. The pressure on either side of the bearing is atmospheric, which we are at liberty to set to zero. For convenience we change variable from x to h and so, since h x + const, d/dx = d/dh. Then the Reynolds Lubrication Equation becomes: dp 1 2 d h3 12 dh dh 119 1 = U . 2

E 6U + F 2, const h 2h Choosing E, F such that p = 0 at h = h1 , h2 , we nd p= E= Then, p= 6U (h2 h)(h h1 ) > 0 and h2 (h1 + h2 ) 12 U h1 h2 , h1 + h2 F =

Integrating,

E, F.

1 6U . (h1 + h2 )

(7.10)

U > 0 for

h1 < h < h2 .

If the system is closed and the forces at both ends are negligible, then a force balance shows that the lift and drag forces on the bearing are equal and opposite to those on the wall, as shown:

11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 L 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 D 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000 11111111111111111111 00000000000000000000

D L

For simplicity, we therefore compute D and L on the lower wall (LW). Drag force: D= Now, 12 dx =

LW

u v + y x

y=0

dx =

LW

u y

y=0

dx.

h dp U u = + , y 2 dx h = D = U

h2 h1

6h1 h2 4 h (h1 + h2 )2 h2

dh.

120

v y

22 dx =

h2 h1

LW

p + {

v v + }y=0 dx y y

= u = 0 on y = 0) = x =

p dh log 2(h2 h1 ) h2 . h1 h1 + h2

6U 2

But h2 h1 is of O(). Therefore, D 1 + O() = L 3 L 1/ and so L D if 1. D In other words, the normal force is much larger than the tangential force and the bearing can withstand heavy loads. =

Adhesive problems We now return to the coin problem mentioned in the introduction to this section. An object sitting on top of a thin lm of uid on a table can be surprisingly tricky to pick up. We have already seen how a thin uid layer can lead to normal forces which are much larger than tangential ones. Consider two parallel plane walls, with one of the walls moving away from the other as shown:

y

h

moving wall

p=0 a

h(t) a

p=0

x

Fixed wall

L

We assume that

Fluid

2 2, t y

We need to solve the Reynolds lubrication equation, 1 p 1 dh h3 = U + V, 12 x x 2 dx together with the boundary conditions u=v=0 on y = 0; u = 0, v = h on y = h(t).

In this case, then, U = 0, V = h and h is independent of x. Thus (7.11) becomes d dp h3 = 12h, dx dx and so, on integration, we have, p= 6 2 h(x a2 ). h3

We want to calculate the force, F , resisting the motion. As for the slider bearing, we assume the forces at the ends are negligible so the force exerted by the uid on the stationary wall is equal and opposite to that exerted on the moving wall. We can thus compute the resistance by calculating minus the force exerted on the lower wall. We know that

a a

= =

22 |y=0 dx,

a a

=

a

p dx

6h h3

(x2 a2 ) dx

Note that force is negative so the uid is trying to pull the moving wall back downwards. The most interesting thing about this result is that F O(h3 ) as h 0, which implies a huge resistance force from a very thin lm!

An adhesive problem in 3-D Consider a similar problem to the above, but this time in three dimensions. This is closer to the coin problem mentioned in the introduction. A (possibly curved) surface sits on a thin lm of uid as shown in the diagram. We will assume that the horizontal velocity components of the surface are of similar size, i.e. U V . As usual we assume h L and the modied Reynolds number Rm 1. Furthermore, we expect changes in the z direction to dwarf those in the x and y directions, by analogy with the two-dimensional case, 1 1 . , O O x y L z h 122

z z=h(x,y,t) W 1111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000 V 1111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000 U 1111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000 h L x

Fluid

where the vertical velocity scale comes from the continuity equation ux + vy + wz = 0, which we use to obtain the estimate h wO U . L As before, the pressure scale is xed by the expectation that 2u p 2, x y which suggests that p U L/h2 , so we can write p = (U L/h2 ). p Following exactly the same procedure as in the 2-D case, we non-dimensionalize the equations and take the limits 0 and Rm 0. Restoring the dimensions to the reduced set of equations, we have, 0 = px + uzz , (7.11) (7.12)

0 = pz

0 = py + vzz ,

v = V,

w=W

on

y = h(x, y, t).

Note: As for the two-dimensional problem, there is no vertical pressure gradient. Since p = p(x, y, t), we can integrate (7.11, 7.12) with respect to z twice. We nd u= Uz 1 px z 2 zh + , 2 h 123

v=

1 Vz py z 2 zh + . 2 h

z

Again, we use the continuity equation to nd the vertical velocity component: w = Thus, at z = h,

h

ux + vy dz.

0

W so W

=

0

ux + vy dz x

h

u dz +

0

h 0

v dz U hx V hy .

Using the above results for u and v, and integrating, we obtain the three-dimensional version of the Reynolds lubrication equation: 3 p 3 p h + h = 6 U hx V hy + 2W x x y y We make use of this equation in the following example. (7.13)

Impact of a sphere on a plane A sphere falls slowly through a viscous uid towards a plane wall. Close to the moment of impact, it squeezes a thin layer of uid between itself and the at surface as shown.

Sphere Fluid

h

x y z

We assume that the sphere falls slowly enough to justify a steady lubrication analysis. In other words, we assume that /t 2 /z 2 . On the surface of the sphere u = v = 0 and w = h, so U = V = 0 and W = h. In this case, Reynolds lubrication equation states that h3 p h3 p + = W. x 12 x y 12 y Alternatively, we may write this as h3 p = W. 12 124 (7.14)

Appealing to the symmetry of the problem, we expect that p = p(r), where r 2 = x2 + y 2 . It is therefore more sensible to discuss the problem in cylindrical polar coordinates.

r

x y z

Recalling that in these coordinates, (A) = (1/r)(rA)/r, equation (7.14) becomes r 1 d dp rh3 = 12W, r dr dr (integrating) rh3 pr = 6W r 2 + c.

(7.15)

But we must choose c = 0 else, since h is nite when r 0, pr as r 0. So pr = 6W r/h3 . Suppose that the spheres radius is a. For the lubrication approximation to hold, we need h a. This will be true when r is small.

a r ho h(r)

approximately.

To calculate the force on the sphere, we note that the force in the z direction on the wall, F , is equal and opposite to that on the sphere. Integrating by parts,

=

0

2rp(r) dr = r 2 p(r)

r 2

0

dp dr. dr

Now, within the lubrication limit, we found above that h = h0 + r 2 /2a. Thus, when r is large, but not large enough to destroy the validity of the lubrication approximation, we have 125

h O(r 2 ). Using the result above for the pressure, it follows that pr O We can thus set r 2 p(r)

0

r h3

1 r5

for large r.

r 2

An interesting consequence of this is that the sphere never reaches the wall!

F

mg

ho

Taking W = h0 , the equation of motion of the sphere is mh0 = 6a2 This can be written as h0 mg. h0

d h0 + (log h0 ) = g dt for positive constant . Integrating once, we nd h0 + log on taking h0 = H0 , h0 = H0 at t = 0. As t , the right hand side approaches negative innity. Since h > 0 for all time, this must be balanced by h0 0 as t on the left hand side. So it takes an innite amount of time for h0 to reduce to zero and for the sphere to reach the wall. h0 H0 = gt + H0 ,

126

Flow of a thin lm down a sloped wall A thin lm of viscous uid spreads along a plane wall which is inclined at an angle to the horizontal, as shown in the diagram. The nose of the lm is at xN (t).

z w

u 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 111 000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 111 000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 111 000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 111 000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 111 000 x

N

Starting with the two-dimensional lubrication equations (7.3, 7.4, 7.5), we need to add body force terms to account for gravity. We therefore write 0 = px + uzz + g sin , ux + wz = 0, 0 = pz g cos , (7.16)

where z is now playing the role of the vertical coordinate and w the vertical uid speed. Integrating the second equation, p = gz cos + f (x, t), for some function f . At the free surface z = h(x, t), i) the pressure must be atmospheric, pa , so p = g[h z] cos + pa , ii) the tangential stress must equal zero. Since we are implicitly assuming a rather slender lm, the normal vector points almost vertically. Consistent with the approximations already made in deriving the lubrication equations, we take the normal to point exactly vertically6 and require u w =0 + 2exz = z x as the zero tangential stress condition. Note that the tangential direction is almost in the x direction, and is taken exactly in the x direction to within a consistent approximation.

This is clearly not true near the nose of the lm where the surface is highly curved. As a rst estimate, we ignore this fact and proceed regardless. The results turn out to be surprisingly accurate, a not uncommon feature of lubrication-type analyses. More accurate calculations can be made taking into account the curvature at the nose, but these are beyond the scope of the current course.

6

127

But in the lubrication approximation, w u , z x and so we need u/z = 0 on z = h. Substituting for the pressure, (7.16) is now, uzz = g sin + ghx cos , ( = /).

Again, appealing to the fact that the lm is thin, we can drop hx as it is expected to be small. This leaves uzz = g sin , which is easily integrated. Applying no slip at z = 0 and the zero tangential stress condition at z = h we therefore nd g sin 1 u= (hz z 2 ). 2 As usual, we can nd the vertical velocity component by integrating the continuity equation: wz = (using w = 0 at z = 0) = g sin hx z, g sin hx z 2 . w = 2

Lastly we need a kinematic condition at the free surface z = h (see the section on boundary conditions earlier in the course). In fact, we need: D (z h) = 0, Dt h h i.e. w = +u t x

on

z = h(x, t).

Rearranging, we have the evolution equation for h, h g sin 2 h + h = 0. t x This equation has a solution h= g sin 128

1 2 1

(7.17)

x2 t2

1

which is only expected to be valid at large times. Since the total volume of the lm,

xN (t)

h(x, t) dx = A, say,

0

must be constant, we nd

xN (t) xN

A =

0

h(x, t) dx =

0 1 2 3 2 xN 1

g sin

1 2

x2 t2

1

dx

(7.18)

= Therefore,

2 3 g sin

(7.19)

t2 g sin 4

1/3

t1/3 .

dxN t2/3 . dt So the front of the lm spreads more slowly as time increases. Note: Despite neglecting eects associated with the curvature around the nose of the spreading lm, the prediction for the rate of spread agrees well with experiments (see Huppert (1986), Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol. 173, pp. 557-594. This journal is available in the Library). 7.5 Limitations of lubrication theory We have seen above that lubrication theory has its limitations and may become invalid in part of the ow eld. It is interesting to note, however, that certain ow features such as eddies are not necessarily precluded by the restrictions placed upon a lubrication analysis. For example, consider an annular liquid layer at rest on the inside of a cylindrical tube as shown. In practice such a uid layer would become longitutdinally unstable along the tube axis due to the Rayleigh instability and break up to form a sequence of liquid collars. Disregarding this issue, we permit the surface tension at the air-liquid interface to vary so that = cos 2. The resulting Marangoni stress will drive a ow in the liquid layer. Solving the lubrication equations in the liquid layer, we nd that the ow looks like this7 .

7

129

wall liquid

air

The thick-lined arrows indicate the direction of the driving Marangoni force = 2 sin 2. Notice that four viscous eddies are established circling the interior of the lm. The presence of the eddies might seem surprising at rst. How can the uid turn a corner and not contravence the restrictions of the lubrication analysis? This stipulates that while the streamwise velocity (here the azimuthal component) u is O(1), the vertical component (here the radial component) should be O(). Yet as an eddy turns a corner, u is zero and v is comparatively large. Careful thought shows that the restrictions are not in fact contravened. All that is happening is that, as increases, u passes through zero. Provided u still varies slowly with respect to , the requirements of lubrication theory are still met.

8. Boundary layers The Reynolds number, dened as R = U L/, for typical velocity and lengthscales U , L,

130

When R is very small we have Stokes ow, which we have already discussed. What happens when R is very large? Letting the Reynolds number in equations (8.1) tend to innity, it would appear that we can just drop the viscous term 2 u/R on the grounds that it is very small. This would leave us with Eulers equations governing an inviscid uid. In dimensional form these are u = 0, u u = p.

Suppose we ask the question: what is the drag on an object placed in a high Reynolds number ow?

Ui

From section ??, DAlemberts Paradox tells us that the drag on the object is precisely zero! But this is clearly at odds with experience. Experiments of high Reynolds number ows past a circular cylinder, for example, predict a drag on the cylinder which is most certainly not zero. What is going on?

Notion of a boundary layer Consider the following model problem f + f = a, with boundary conditions f (0) = 0, f (1) = 1. The constant a is positive and the parameter is assumed to be very small. The exact solution satisfying the boundary conditions is f = ay + (1 a) (1 ey/ ). (1 e1/ ) 131 f = f (y), (8.2)

For y = 0(1), i.e. not small, f ay + 1 a = f0 (y), say. This can be thought of as an outer, inviscid solution, valid in a region away from y = 0. It can be seen to be the solution of equation (8.2) if we na vely set to zero on the grounds that it is small. Crucially, however, it satises the condition at y = 1 but not that at y = 0. So it is not the complete solution. Suppose we now focus on what happens when y is small. To this end, we introduce the change of variables y = Y , so that if Y is of order one, y will be small. The equation becomes fY Y + fY = a. Since 1, to a rst approximation we may set the right hand side to zero (as we did to obtain f0 (y) above), leaving fY Y + fY = 0. Integrating this equation yields f = A(1 eY ), = fi , say. It is noticeable that this function satises the condition at y = Y = 0 but not that at y = 1. To summarize, we have an inner solution fi , which satises the boundary condition at y = 0, and an outer solution, fo , which satises the boundary condition at y = 1. We can tie these solutions together by using the following matching procedure

Y

for constant A

= A(1 e

y/

lim fi = lim f0 .

y0

132

The following graphs illustrate these solutions when = 0.1 and = 0.01.

Results for eps=0.1

1

0.8

0.6 f 0.4

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

0.8

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Clearly the inner solution only performs well near y = 0, while the outer works well away from y = 0. The agreement between the approximate inner and outer solutions and the exact solution improves as 0. The key feature of the above toy problem is the clear development of a region (here near y = 0) in which there is a rapid change of the solution. The outer solution has only a slight slope. However, near y = 0, the inner solution takes over and exhibits a dramatic change over a very short distance. In this very thin region, it is not appropriate to drop the term f in the equation. The thin region near y = 0 is an example of a boundary layer. Something similar is happening with the high speed ow problem discussed above. There we may indeed neglect the terms 1 2 u R 133

over most of the ow eld. However, very close to the surface of the body there is a boundary layer in which this term is no longer negligible.

High Reynolds number ow past a at plate Consider the classical problem of uid streaming at high speed past a at plate:

y U

External stream

(x)

viscous layer

The ow is taken to be steady. The external stream consists of inviscid ow moving with velocity u = U i, with U constant. Let L be a characteristic horizontal lengthscale. If the plate is nite, L can be chosen to be its length. The Reynolds number is R= and so is assumed to be very large. Following the above discussion, we anticipate that the viscous term R1 2 u will only be important in a very thin boundary layer of height (x) close to the plate. We aim to derive a set of approximate equations valid in the boundary layer. We will rst do this using an argument based on the estimation of the order of magnitude of all the terms. Later we will go through a more formal derivation. The continuity equation states u v + = 0. x y UL 1,

Since u varies from zero at the plate (no-slip) to U in the external stream, we can say that u U, typically.

Changes in the boundary layer are expected to occur on a lengthscale of typical size L parallel to the plate and perpendicular to it (i.e. there is much more rapid change in the y direction than the x direction). We can therefore estimate 1 , x L 1 . y

If V is a typical size for the vertical velocity v, a balance of terms in the continuity equation suggests that V U = V U. L L 134

Now consider the x-momentum Navier-Stokes equation 1 uux + vuy = px + [uxx + uyy ]. Following the above arguments, we can estimate 1 2 2, 2 x L 2 1 2. 2 y

So, we expect uyy to be a lot bigger than uxx . In fact uyy Also, we estimate that uux U . 2 U2 . L

The next step is crucial and is due to Prandtl (1905). Prandtls Hypothesis This states that the inertial term, uux , should balance the viscous one, uyy , inside the boundary layer, i.e. U U2 2. uux uyy = L Simplifying, we obtain the following estimate of the boundary layer thickness, L UL which can be re-stated as LR1/2 . So viscous eects are only expected to be important in a layer of thickness R1/2 . Since R is very large, this layer is very thin. Continuing, we can estimate uvy U and so these two terms balance. If we choose a scale for the pressure so that 1 px uux = p U 2 , 135 U /L U2 V =U = uux , L

1 2

then, in summary, the boxed terms in the x-momentum equation are comparable for large R, uux + vuy = 1 px + (uxx + uyy ). So, retaining the dominant terms, the x-momentum equation reduces to 1 uux + vuy = px + uyy . In the y-momentum equation, 1 uvx + vvy = py + (vxx + vyy ), we have the estimates py vxx U2 , uvx vvy U U U 2 U2 = 2 . LL L

U 1 U2 U2 V 1 U2 V = = , vyy 2 = U 2 U 2 . L2 L L2 RL L R2 In the above, we have used the fact that R = U L/ and the Prandtl hypothesis that R2 1. Therefore, for this equation, only the boxed term is important uvx + vvy = 1 py + (uxx + uyy ), i.e., the y-momentum reduces to just py = 0. This states that the pressure does not vary across the boundary layer. Collecting everything together, we have the Prandtl boundary layer equations 1 uux + vuy = px + uyy , py = 0, ux + vy = 0. The second of these implies that p = p(x). The boundary conditions include no-slip at the at plate. Also, we must match to the external stream velocity U i. Thus, u = v = 0 on y = 0; 136 uU as y . (8.3)

No condition on v can be imposed as y since the term vyy has been neglected. The above all follows through if U is a function of x, that is if the ow at innity (the external stream) is non-uniform. The special feature of the boundary layer ow, namely that py = 0, allows us to nd the pressure gradient term px by relating it to the external stream velocity. If we let y in equation (8.3), since u U (x) in general, we obtain 1 U Ux + 0 = px + 0. The rst zero follows since uy U/y = 0 and the second for a similar reason. Hence, px = U Ux , and we can write the x-momentum boundary layer equation (8.3) as uux + vuy = U Ux + uyy .

Formal derivation of the boundary layer equations We begin by non-dimensionalizing the Navier-Stokes equations. This means that we introduce length, velocity and pressure scales with which to dene dimensionless variables. Proceeding, since U and L provide typical velocity and length scales for the current problem, we may write x = Lx , y = Ly , u = U u , v = U v , p = U 2 p .

Here a denotes a dimensionless variable. Note that we have chosen U 2 as a suitable scale for the pressure. Check for yourself that U 2 has dimensions of pressure. We now enter these denitions into the Navier-Stokes equations. Lets just consider the x-momentum equation: u 1 p u +v = + 2 u u x y x So, we obtain, u U 2 u u + v L x y = U 2 u 2 u U 2 p + 2 + 2 . L x L x2 y

To save writing, we now drop the asterisks and write u where R= is the Reynolds number. A similar procedure follows for all of the momentum equations, and for the continuity equation. Finally, we have the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in dimensionless form: 1 uux + vuy = px + 2 u, R 1 uvx + vvy = py + 2 v, R ux + vy = 0, with R = U L/ and where u, v have been scaled on U , p on U 2 , and x, y on L. In the boundary layer, we expect R1/2 y for y 1. u p 1 2u 2u u +v = + + 2 , x y x R x2 y UL

Dene new variables (X, Y ) = (x, R1/2 y) and let u = u0 (X, Y ) + R1/2 u1 (X, Y ) + p = p0 (X, Y ) + R1/2 p1 (X, Y ) + u0 u0 + v0 X Y v = R1/2 {v0 (X, Y ) + R1/2 v1 (X, Y ) + }

(8.4)

Subsituting these into the Navier-Stokes equations, we obtain u0 p0 2 u0 + + O R1/2 X Y 2 p0 0 = + O R1/2 Y = = O R1/2

u0 u0 + v0 X Y u0 v0 + X Y

0 =

p0 2 u0 + , X Y 2 p0 , Y

= 0. 138

These are the boundary layer equations in dimensionless form. They can be viewed as the leading order asympotic approximation to the Navier-Stokes equations when R , y R1/2 . Restoring the dimensions, we have u u u +v x y = 1 p 2u + 2, x y p , y

0 = u v + x y

= 0.

Since the ow is two-dimensional, it may be convenient to write the boundary layer equations in terms of a stream function , where u= We nd: , y v= x

1 y xy x yy = px + yyy , py = 0.

2) Outside the layer, u matches to the external stream velocity, so u U (x) as which leads to px = U Ux , where the external stream velocity U is calculated from inviscid theory. Notes 1. The equations apply on a curved surface, with x, y measuring distance along and normal to the surface respectively. y , so y U as y ,

139

Body

2. The stream function version of the equations are 3rd order in y. Therefore we can only apply 3 boundary conditions on . The vertical velocity v = /x is xed on solving the equations. 3. The equations are parabolic in x. This means that if we specify (= f (x), say) at x = x, then is determined for x > x. There can be no upstream inuence. This means that the ow at location x = x1 has no eect on that at x = x0 if x0 < x1 . So, if we introduce a small disturbance (say an imperfection in the wall) at x = x0 , only the shaded region downstream is aected.

x0

This opens up many interesting questions about boundary layer ows. How, for example, does a boundary layer negotiate a small bump on the wall? Common experience suggests that the streamlines will start to move upwards as they near the bump on the upstream side.

1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000

But note 3 says that this is not allowed since the bump may not aect the ow upstream. Famously, some experimentalists showed that upstream eects may occur when a shock wave impinges on a boundary layer in a supersonic ow.

1111111111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000

Shock wave U

1111111111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000

Attempts to understand how such upstream inuence might be possible in a boundary layer led to the development of triple-deck theory (Stewartson, Messiter 1969). Briey, the boundary layer gets divided up into three separate superposed decks or layers, and dierent sets of equations apply in each layer. Crucially, the lower deck interacts with the upper deck, permitting information to travel upstream. For more information, see Acheson. 140

Blasius solution The solution of the boundary layer equations for high speed ow past a at plate was given by Blasius in 1908. We take the case when the external stream, U , is constant, = U0 , say. Since U0 /x 0, there is no streamwise pressure gradient and the boundary layer problem to be solved is as follows u u u +v x y u v + x y = 2u , y 2 (8.5)

= 0.

We seek a similarity solution to this problem. To motivate this, consider briey the ow when the at plate is of nite length, L. From the above arguments, at any x station in the boundary layer the ow cannot be aected by what is happening further downstream. In other words, the oncoming ow is unaware that the plate is of length L. Any solution we try to construct should therefore reect this property. We used a scaling argument to show that the typical boundary layer thickness is LR1/2 = L U

1/2

since R =

UL .

At a general x station, we expect to depend on , U and x (but not L). Since [] = L2 , T [U ] = L , T [x] = L

then, since [] = L, it must appear as the combination which is independent of L. Now, inside the boundary layer, provides a typical scale for y so y i.e. y x1/2 . 141 x U

1/2

x U

1/2

This motivates us to try looking for a solution which is a function of the order one variable = U x

1/2

y.

1/2

does not involve L. This agrees with our expectation that the solution should not know where the end of the plate is. For the innite plate problem, we seek a solution of the same form. We write the stream function as (x, y) = (2U0 x)1/2 (x, ), U0 1/2 y. 2x The factor of 2 is included purely for convenience. This is another example of a similarity solution, as we shall see below. = Note that = , x 2x U0 = y 2x

1/2

where

1/2

= U0

v =

1/2

Furthermore, U0 2 . 2

The boundary conditions suggest that we look for a solution which is purely a function of . Thus, letting = f (), we nd that f satises f + f f = 0, with conditions f = f = 0 on Notes 1. f is called the Blasius function. The existence and uniqueness of f was proved by Weyl in 1942. 2. f must be calculated numerically. 3. In terms of f , u = U0 f (). Numerical calculation of the Blasius function In order to solve the system for f (), we integrate the equation forwards in using a technique called Runge-Kutta integration. In this procedure, the equation is discretized to produce a rule to step the solution forward a small distance in . Thus, starting at = 0 we step the solution forward in with the aim of satisfying the condition at innity. Shooting and matching Since the equation for f is third order, we need three values at = 0 to step forward from. We know f (0) and f (0), but we dont know f (0). We can guess this latter value, step forward from = 0 and continue stepping until is large enough for us to have reached innity, in other words far enough for the large behaviour of f to have become apparent. We can then keep adjusting our initial guess for f (0) and shooting forwards until we obtain the desired behaviour for f , i.e. f 1 as . = 0, f 1 as .

We can do the adjusting of the value of f (0) using Newton-Raphson iteration, for example. 143

A neat trick In fact it turns out that we can get away with only having to do one integration over . To see this, suppose we integrate the system F + F F = 0, with conditions F = F = 0 and F (0) = 1 on = 0.

for some constant , which will not in general (unless were really lucky) equal one. Now let f () = aF (a) for constant a. Then f satises f + f f = 0, and f (0) = f (0) = 0. Furthermore, f () = a2 F () = a2 . So if we choose a = 1/2 , then f () = 1/2 F (1/2 ) satises f + f f = 0; f (0) = f (0) = 0, f 1 as .

So all we need to do is to solve the system for F , and we get the solution, f , to the Blasius problem straightaway by taking f () = 1/2 F (1/2 ) The computed solution to the Blasius problem looks like this:

u/U

Shear stress on the plate Suppose we wish to calculate the drag in the x direction on a portion of the plate of length L. To do this, we will need to know 12 |y=0 = Then the drag D=

0 L

u y

y=0

U0 2x

1/2

f (0).

u y

y=0

dx = 2

U0 2

1/2

f (0)L1/2 .

1/2

L1/2 .

This result agrees well with experimental observations. Displacement thickness The displacement thickness provides a measure of the thickness of the boundary layer in terms of the amount by which the oncoming streamlines have been displaced. It is dened to be 1 =

0

u dy, U0

where u = U0

f .

Physical interpretation As stated above, the displacement thickness is a measure of the upwards displacement of the streamlines of the ow by the boundary layer.

y

u(y)

U0

0

U0 u dy = U0 1 , 145

100000000000000 11111111111111

11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 U0

where 1 is the corresponding thickness of the uniform stream needed for the same ux level. The shaded areas in these two gures are the same. Rearranging, we have 1 =

0

u dy, U0

for the displacement thickness. In addition, we may dene the momentum thickness

1 =

0

u u 1 dy. U0 U0

It is sometimes possible to calculate both the displacement and momentum thicknesses in closed form. For the at plate, numerical integration yields 1 = 1.72 x U0

1/2

Example: For a Boeing 747, typically 1 = 0.1cm. Asymptotic form of f We know that f 1 as , but can we say anything more about the manner in which f approaches this unit value for large ? Since f 1 as , we have f as for constant . Suppose we now write f + g() as , where g 1. We aim to determine the function g. Substituting into the equation f + f f = 0 we have g + ( )g + gg = 0. 146

But, since g is small, we can neglect the nonlinear term and just take g + ( )g = 0. We need solutions to this equation to satsify g 0 as . Two of the possible solutions are g = const, and g = , for constant . Clearly both of these must be rejected as they dont satisfy the boundary conditions. To nd the third solution, let = g , then + ( ) = 0. Hence, = Ae() So, as , we have

2 /2

constant

2 /2

A.

f + Ae()

In fact, had we not neglected the nonlinear terms above, we would nd that, more precisely the constant A should be replaced by 0.331 . ( )2

Falkner-Skan solutions The Blasius solution is a special case of a broader class of similarity solutions to the boundary layer equations known as Falkner-Skan solutions. To motivate these, consider a general external stream velocity U (x), which is assumed to be given. We seek solutions of the boundary layer equations of the form = U (x)g(x)f (), where = y . g(x)

U(x) g(x)

This form is a more general version of that presented for the Blasius solution. By analogy with that solution, g(x) here represents the thickness of the layer. The boundary layer equations to be solved are y xy x yy = U Ux + yyy , 147

with = y = 0 on Now, u = y = g(x)U (x)y f = U f , v = x = (U g)x f yy = xy = U ggx f , g yyy = since U f , g2 x = gx /g, y = 0; y U (x) as y .

U f , g

1 (U g)x f U gx (f + f ) . g

With these, the x momentum equation becomes f + f f + (1 f 2 ) = 0, where = g(U g)x , = g2 Ux . f will satisfy an ordinary dierential equation provided that and are constants. Otherwise the equation depends on x and . So henceforth, we assume and are constant. Consider the expression (2 ) = 2g(U g)x g2 Ux = (g 2 U )x . If we rst suppose that 2 = , then (g2 U )x = 0, in which case g2 U = constant = C, say. Then g2 Ux 2 = = U = Be2x/C , for constant B. 2U g C Such forms of U (x) are of no particular physical interest. Instead, then, assume that 2 = . In this case g2 U = (2 )(x x0 ), for constant x0 . By a shift of origin we can take x0 = 0. Now, g2 Ux n = = = n = , 2U g (2 )x x (2 ) where n is a real number. 148

Therefore, U = U0 for constant U0 , L. Also, (2 )x g= U (x) Taking = 1, we have = and the Falkner-Skan solutions are given by U = U0 x L = where f satises

n 1/2

x L

(2 )L = U0 2n n+1 n+1 2

1/2

x L

1n 2

=

1/2

1/2

U x

1/2

y,

2 n+1

(U x)1/2 f (),

f + f f + (1 f 2 ) = 0, with f (0) = f (0) = 0, Notes 1. External ows with U xn arise for inviscid ow over a wedge of half-angle = n/(n + 1).

x

n x U 2

f () = 1.

2. In the special case n = 0 we recover the Blasius solution discussed above. 3. If = /2, then n = 1 and we have Hiemenz stagnation point ow Here, f + f f + (1 f 2 ) = 0, with f (0) = f (0) = 0, f () = 1.

149

stagnation point

In this case g(x) is a constant, and so the boundary layer at the wall has constant thickness. This solution was discussed before, when we noted that it formed an exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. 4. For some values of n there is more than one solution. 5. If U Ux < 0 so that px > 0 and the pressure gradient is adverse (so that the pressure increases as you move downstream), eventually the boundary layer will tend to separate from the wall.

xs

The boundary layer equations break down at the separation point xs . Here the ow encounters the Goldstein singularity and the boundary layer solution cannot be continued for x > xs .

Flow in a viscous jet Consider the motion of a high speed jet of viscous uid.

11 00 y 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00

The jet shoots out of a narrow slot in a wall into another uid which is at rest. The pressure at innity in the stationary uid is asummed to be constant, equal to p0 . We assume that the jet is very thin, so that the variation of velocity across the jet is

150

u u . y x |v| |u|,

Furthermore, we assume that so that the boundary layer equations are appropriate inside the jet. The jet is assumed symmetric about y = 0. Since the surrounding uid is at rest, we need u 0 as we leave the jet. Thus, the equations and boundary conditions are: 1 uux + vuy = px + uyy , ux + vy = 0, with uy = 0 and v = 0 y on y=0 [symmetry of jet]

u 0 as

Note: there is no pressure gradient in the momentum equation. Introducing a 2-D stream function, , as usual, we seek a similarity solution of the jet equations in the form = x f (), where = x y. Thus, u = y = x+ f ; ux = x+1 {( + )f + f }; Thus, the momentum equation becomes x+ f .x+1 [( + )f + f ] x1 [f + f ]x+2 f = x+3 f . Simplifying, x1 [( + )f 2 f f ] = f . So we need = + 1. (8.7) (8.6) v = x = x1 {f + f }, uy = x+2 f ; uyy = x+3 f .

To obtain another relation between and , we integrate the momentum equation across the jet as follows.

uux dy +

vuy dy = uy 151

Applying the boundary condition that u 0 as y , the right hand side vanishes. Now, integrating by parts,

vuy dy = [vu]

uvy dy

= =

uvy dy

uux dy.

uux dy =

d dx

u2 dy = 0,

and thus,

u2 dy = M,

for constant M . Inserting the form of the similarity solution and noting that, since the integration is performed at a xed x value, dy, d = y we nd

x2+

f 2 d = M,

(8.8)

and thus we require 2 + = 0. Combining this with (8.7), we have = 1/3, = 2/3.

The momentum equation (8.6) thereby reduces to 3f + f f + f 2 = 0. This can be integrated to yield, 3f + f f = A, for constant A. Applying the condition u 0 as y , we nd A = 0. 152

Integrating again,

1 B2 3f + f 2 = , 2 2

for constant B. Rearranging, 6 The left hand side equals 3 B We know that tanh1 x = Hence, we have df = f2 df = d,

B2

1 1 + B+f Bf

3 B+f . ln B Bf

1 1+x . ln 2 1x

B . 6

B B2 , sech2 6 6 2 B3 . 9

f 2 d =

Thus, applying (8.8), we can relate B to M , 9M B= 2 Finally, the horizontal velocity u= B2 By sech2 1/3 6x 6x2/3

1 3

and the vertical velocity 2 1 v = x2/3 { f f } 3 3 By By By B 2/3 sech2 tanh = x 2/3 2/3 3 6x 3x 6x2/3 153

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0 -40

-20

0 y

20

40

111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00

The width of the jet corresponds to where the argument of sech2 is O(1); that is, where the velocity components are signicant in magnitude. Thus, where yO 6 2/3 . x B

9. Hydrodynamic stability We have calculated quite a wide variety of solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations. We noted that at low Reynolds numbers the ow is always unique. However, in general, there may be more than one solution to the Navier-Stokes equations at a any given nite Reynolds 154

number. On this point, it is instructive to draw an analogy with the solution of some simple algebraic equations. Model problems (i) Consider the following simple quadratic equation to be solved for u: a (u u0 )2 = 0, The solution is u = u0 (R Rc )1/2 . There are three possible cases: R < Rc : No solutions for u R = Rc : One solution, u = u0 R > Rc : Two solutions, u = u0 (R Rc )1/2 If we plot u versus R, we have:

U

a = R Rc .

U0

Rc No solns 2 solns

As R increases from zero, U is said to go through a saddle-node bifurcation as R passes through the critical value Rc . At this point, the number of possible solutions jumps from none to two. A uid ow may undergo similar bifurcations as the Reynolds number increases. (ii) Now consider the following cubic equation for u: au u3 = 0, 155 a = R Rc .

R Rc : The unique solution is u = 0 R > Rc : There are three solutions: u = 0 and u = (R Rc )1/2 . If we plot u versus R, we have:

U

Rc

1 soln 3 solns

As R increases from zero, U is said to go through a pitchfork bifurcation as R passes through the critical value Rc . At this point, the number of possible solutions jumps from one to three. A uid ow may undergo similar bifurcations as the Reynolds number increases.

In the event of multiple solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations, the question arises: Which solution would you observe in a laboratory experiment? To answer this question, we need to assess a solutions stability.

Stability theory The basic idea is to take a solution of the equations and perturb it a little bit. Physically, we can think of adding a small disturbance into a ow and observing whether the ow settles back down to its original state, or if it changes dramatically into a dierent kind of ow altogether. We will only consider linear stability. This means that we will only consider innitesimal disturbances. We call the ow whose stability is to be assessed the basic ow or basic state. As usual, we take the ow to be governed by the Navier-Stokes equations, written here in dimensionless form: 1 (9.1) u = 0, ut + u u = p + 2 u, R 156

Stability of steady parallel ows A parallel ow past a solid wall is one whose streamlines are parallel to that wall. Thus, plane Poiseuille ow is an example of a parallel ow, while ow in a Blasius boundary layer is not.

y

A parallel flow

To this ow we add a small time-dependent disturbance, writing the new, perturbed ow as u = U + , u and 1. We perturb the pressure eld in a similar way, writing p = PB + . p Substituting this, together with (9.3), into the Navier-Stokes equations (9.1), we obtain U + u = 0, u p ut + U U + U + U + 2 u = PB + u u But, from (9.2), U = 0, So, 0 = pB + 1 2 U R 1 1 2 U + 2 u. R R where u = u(x, y, t)i + v (x, y, t)j, (9.3)

1 ut + U U + U + U + 2 u = + 2 u. u u u p R 157

Also, U U = 0 since U(y) represents a unidirectional ow (see previous work on unidirectional ows). Neglecting the term of O(2 ) as being smaller than the others, we are left with u = 0, ut + u U + U = + u p 1 2 u. R (9.4)

It is usual at this stage to assume that the disturbances u, v manifest themselves in the form of travelling waves. We therefore write u = {v(y)eik(xct) }, where means take the real part. In general, the functions u(y) and v(y) are complex the parameter k is real the complex wave speed c = cr + ici is a complex number. Since ik(x ct) = ik(x cr t) + kci t, {eik(xct) } = {eik(xcr t) ekci t } = ekci t cos(k[x cr t]). So the forms (9.5) represent travelling waves moving with speed cr of amplitude ekci t . Always k > 0, so it follows that if ci > 0, the amplitude of the wave will grow, the disturbance will get bigger. Eventually, the disturbance will grow so large, it will completely disrupt the basic ow. To summarise, if if if ci > 0 ci < 0 ci = 0 the ow is linearly unstable; the ow is linearly stable; the ow is neutrally stable; v = {v(y)eik(xct) }, (9.5)

as then the wave is either exponentially growing, exponentially decaying, or remaining constant in amplitude. The disturbances u and v are called modes and this whole procedure is referred to as the method of normal modes. We write the pressure disturbance in a similar way, p = {P (y) eik(xct) }.

We rst consider equation (9.4) in the limit R , and assume that it is all right to drop the nal term, u = 0, ut + u U + U = P . u Substituting in the normal modes, we have, writing the equations in component form, ik(c U )u + U v = ikP, ik(c U )v = P , iku + v = 0.

It is convenient to try to eliminate the pressure from these equations. Dierentiating the rst with respect to y, multiplying the second by ik and adding, we obtain ik(c U )(u ikv) + U v + U (iku + v ) = 0. Then, using the third equation to note that iku + v = 0 and to write u = v /ik, we have ik(c U )(v + k2 v) + ikU v = 0, and so v + This is Rayleighs equation. Example 1 Consider now the specic problem of parallel ow in a channel 0 y 1:

y 11111111111111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000000000000 11111111111111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000000000000

11111111111111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000000000000

U k2 v = 0. (c U )

In this case, U (y) = y(1 y) and we need the conditions u = v = 0 on y = 0, 1. Therefore we have v + U k2 v = 0, (c U ) with v = 0 on y = 0, 1. (9.6)

This is an eigenvalue problem for c. That is, given a particular disturbance of frequency k, we seek values of c such that this problem has a solution.

159

Physically, we might think of a exible ribbon being placed within the channel. The ribbon is vibrated so that it produces uctuations of xed wavenumber k. We are interested in the response of the uid to this disturbance. As above, we write c = ci + ici and say that the ow is stable if ci < 0 and unstable if ci > 0. The system (9.6) can be solved numerically. However, some analytical progress is still possible. If we multiply (9.6) by the complex conjugate of v, namely v, and then integrate over the channel width, we get

1 1

v v dy +

0 0

U k2 |v|2 dy = 0. (c U )

1 1 0 1

|v |2 dy +

1 0

U k2 |v|2 dy = 0. (c U )

Now

|v |2 dy +

1 0

U k2 |v|2 dy = 0. (c U )

(9.7)

1

ci

0

So if ci > 0, the only way for this equation to hold is if U changes sign at some point in the interval [0, 1]. So U must have an inection point in that interval. This gives a necessary but not a sucient condition for instability of the ow. It is known as Rayleighs inection point theorem.

we now consider O(1) values of R. This means we can no longer neglect the nal term. 160

As before we use the method of normal modes, writing u = {u(y)eik(xct) }, Therefore we have iku + v = 0, ikcu + ikU u + vU = ikp + ikcv + ikU v = p + 1 [k2 u + u ] R (9.9) (9.10) (9.11) v = {v(y)eik(xct) }, p = {P (y) eik(xct) }.

1 [k2 v + v ]. R

Multiplying (9.10) by ik and using (9.9) to write iku = v , we nd ikcv + ikU v ikU v = k2 p + 1 [k2 v + v ]. R

Dierentiating this with respect to y and then eliminating p between the result and (9.11) we obtain,

2 d2 1 d2 2 k2 v = (U c) 2 k v U v. ikR dy 2 dy

(9.12)

This is the Orr-Sommerfeld equation. Consider now the channel ow of Example 1 at nite R.

y 11111111111111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000000000000

11111111111111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000000000000 11111111111111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000000000000

The ow is driven by a constant negative pressure gradient dp/dx = G, with G > 0 and the basic solution is U (y) = y(1 y). We can now recognise this as Plane Poiseuille Flow discussed above in the Exact Solutions section. The disturbance ow is governed by the Orr-Sommerfeld equation (9.12) with boundary conditions u = v = 0 on y = 0, 1. Using equation (9.9) these can be re-expressed as v = v = 0 on y = 0, 1.

161

For this example we know that U = y(1 y). We now select a wavenumber k (so we restrict attention to disturbances of this wavenumber) and a Reynolds number, R. Then we have to solve the problem 1 [v 2k2 v + k4 v] = (y y 2 c)(v k2 v) + 2v. ikR with v = v = 0 on for c. As before, writing c = cr + ici , if if if ci > 0 ci < 0 ci = 0 the ow is linearly unstable; the ow is linearly stable; the ow is neutrally stable. y = 0, 1, (9.13)

Solving for c is generally a numerical task for a computer. Computing c in this way for many values of k and R we can plot the neutral curve, which delineates the boundary between stable and unstable solutions. For the current example the neutral curve looks like this:

cI < 0

kc

stable

cI > 0

unstable

Rc

Every point inside the hoop corresponds to a value of c with positive imaginary part, i.e. an unstable ow. Every point outside has ci < 0, i.e. a stable ow. On the curve itself, ci = 0. Modes corresponding to values of c lying on the curve are known as neutral modes. Note: Both of the tails of the hoop asymptote to the R axis as R . As we can see from the picture, there is a critical Reynolds number beneath which there are no unstable modes. It is computed to be Rc 5774. The corresponding wavenumber at the very nose of the neutral curve is found to be kc = 102. 162

A surprise We have just looked at the stability of ow in a channel. Suppose we instead look at that in a circular pipe. In cylindrical polars, the basic ow is now, U = 1 r2, which is the circular Poiseuille ow we calculated earlier in the course. Expressing the disturbance ow as r u = u + wk, (assuming there is no ow component in the azimuthal (i.e. ) direction), we can write down the corresponding form of the Orr-Sommerfeld equation for cylindrical polars, substitute in for U , pick a wavenumber k and Reynolds number R and solve for c. Somewhat surprisingly we nd that ci is always negative. In other words, the ow is stable at any value of the Reynolds number. As was mentioned earlier, this contradicts experiments which show that the ow becomes turbulent at a critical Reynolds number. The resolution of this problem is still not complete, but it is generally believed that the turbulence results from perturbations of nite rather than innitesimal amplitude. We now summarize known stability results for the classic ows discussed in this course. Plane Poiseuille ow

y 11111111111111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000000000000 11111111111111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000000000000

11111111111111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000000000000

Flow in a channel driven by a constant pressure gradient. This ow (see above) is linearly unstable at suciently large Reynolds numbers Plane Couette Flow Flow in a channel driven by the motion of the upper wall. This ow (see above) is linearly stable at any Reynolds number. Circular Poiseuille ow Flow in a circular pipe driven by a constant pressure gradient. This ow (see above) is linearly stable at any Reynolds number. 163

Capillary instability of a liquid jet Lord Rayleigh (1879) conducted a famous study of the stability of a jet of liquid shooting into an ambient gas.

gas

perturbed interface

liquid

Fix a frame of reference moving with the jet, so that in this frame the jet appears stationary. We assume that the ow in the liquid is incompressible and irrotational. This means that we can model it using Laplaces equation: 2 = 0 with u = the uid velocity. We assume that the ow is axisymmetric. In the basic state, the jet is perfectly cylindrical, of radius a. Fix cylindrical polars in the jet as shown in the diagram. At the interface between the liquid and the gas there is a pressure jump due to surface tension , which is given by P p0 = 2 (9.15) (9.14)

where p0 is the pressure in the gas (e.g. atmospheric pressure) and P is the pressure in the liquid. is the mean curvature of the interface. According to geometry, if the surface is given by r = f (x), then 1 1 + f 2 f f . = 2 f (1 + f 2 )3/2 So, for the basic ow, f = a and = 1/(2a). To assess the jets stability, we perturb the interface so that now r = f (x, t) = a + a1 (t) cos kx, for some small parameter . We assume that we can expand the potential like this: = 0 + 1 = 0 + g(r, t) cos kx. But 0 = 0 since the uid is stationary in the moving frame. Equation (9.14) gives (since / 0) g 2 1 2 1 1 1 = g + k2 g = 0. + + x2 r 2 r r r 164

So, r 2 g + rg k2 r 2 g = 0. (9.16)

This is a modied form of Bessels equation. Recall that Bessels equation of zeroth order looks like this: r 2 g + rg + r 2 g = 0. Equation (9.16) is called the modied Bessels equation of zeroth order. It has linearly independent solutions I0 (kr), K0 (kr). We can thus write the solution as g(r, t) = (t) I0 (kr) + (t) K0 (kr). In fact K0 (r) as r 0, so to get a solution which is regular on the axis, we need = 0, leaving 1 = I0 (kr) cos kx. At the interface we have the kinematic condition (see section 3.4) D (r f ) = 0 Dt on r = f.

This states the the interface at r = f (x, t) must move along with the liquid. Expanding, D Dr Df f f (r f ) = = u w , Dt Dt Dt t x on r = f . But u = and so u= = kI0 (kr) cos kx, r w= = kI0 (kr) sin kx. x (9.17)

kI0 (ka)

da1 dt

cos kx + O(2 ) = 0,

giving

To nd , we need to consider the pressure jump at the surface, given by (9.15). To nd the pressure in the liquid we apply Bernoullis equation (see Hydrodynamics I, II) in its unsteady version: p 1 + ||2 + = c(t) t 2 for some function c(t). 165 (9.18)

Assuming we can write the pressure as p = P + cos kx p then (9.18) gives 1 I0 (ka) cos kx + (P + (a, t) cos kx) + O(2 ) = c(t) p t on r = f . So at O(), d + p(a, t) = 0, dt which gives an equation for in terms of the interfacial pressure. I0 (ka) From above, da1 = kI0 (ka). dt

kI0 (ka) d 2 a1 = p(a, t). I0 (ka) dt2

So

Now, since r = f = a + a1 cos kx, the curvature 2 = = But the pressure jump p p0 = (P p0 ) + (a, t) cos kx p = 2 = So P = p0 + /a and p(a, t) = Combining this with the previous result, we have, nally, setting k = ak, kI0 (k) d2 a1 a (1 k2 ) = 0, 1 a3 I0 (k) dt2 166

d 2 a1 kI0 (ka) p(a, t) = , I0 (ka) dt2

1 a1 2 (1 a2 k2 ) cos kx . a a a1 (1 a2 k2 ). a2

or

d2 a1 2 a1 = 0, dt2

with

2 =

This equation tells us how the amplitude a1 of the disturbance to the jet varies in time. The solution is a1 = c1 exp (t) + c2 exp (t). If k > 1/a, is imaginary and the solution is bounded. If k < 1/a, is real and the solution grows indenitely. Thus, the jet is unstable if the wavenumber of the disturbance k< or if the wavelength = 2/k, > 1/a. So disturbances of large enough wavelength destabilize the interface. NOTE: If a suitable wavenumber destabilizes the jet, the amplitude of the disturbance will keep on growing. Eventually it will grow so large that the above theory is invalidated. Remember that we had to insist that is small. At this stage the disturbance interacts nonlinearly with the basic ow and disrupts it drastically. Eventually, the jet pinches into a sequence of satellite drops like this: 1 a

Appendix A: Invariants of a matrix under rotation In section 2(b) we noted that it is possible to rotate from one set of axes to a second in which the strain tensor is a diagonal matrix with non-zero entries along its diagonal and zeros everywhere else. Under this action, the trace of the matrix is invariant. In this appendix, we will see why this is the case. First, we investigate rotations of a vector. Dene a transformation matrix R such that its action on a general vector x is to map it to another vector y of the same length. Accordingly, yT y = xT x. 167

Furthermore, yT y = (Rx)T (Rx) = xT RT Rx = xT x. So, Since x is arbitrary, we deduce that xT (RT R I)x = 0. RT R = I. In other words, R is an orthonal matrix whose transpose is equal to its inverse. Also, since the length of the vector does not change, R represents a pure rotation of that vector through some determined angle. Now, if a matrix A has components a written with respect to one Cartesian frame, and ij A has components a has written with respect to a second frame rotated with respect to ij the rst, it can be shown that a = Rki Rlj akl . ij Or,

T a = Rik Rlj akl , ij

and so, A = RT AR. Consider now the determinant We can see that det(A I).

det(A I) = det(RT AR RT R) = det(RT [A I]R) = det(A I), since detR = 1. Thus, and the characteristic equation, det(A I) = det(A I), det(A I)

is independent of the choice of coordinate system. Expanding the equation, we have 3 I1 2 + I2 I3 = 0, where the coecients I1 , I2 and I3 must also be independent of the choice of coordinate system. We can I1 , I2 , I3 the invariants of the matrix A. To work out what I1 , I2 , I3 are, we exploit the fact that we can rotate to any coordinate system we like without changing their values. Rotating to a system in which A is diagonal, we nd easily that det(A I) = ( 1 )( 2 )( 3 ) = 3 (1 + 2 + 3 )2 + (1 2 + 2 3 + 1 3 ) 1 2 3 . 168

So, since I1 = trA, the trace of a matrix A is invariant under rotation. Similarly, the determinant of a matrix A is invariant under rotation, as is 1 (trA)2 tr(A2 ) . 2

Appendix B: The momentum integral equation The momentum integral equation (3.30) is derived as follows. First, we state Newtons second law for a xed volume of constant density uid V (t),

V

u dV + t

u u dV =

F dV +

V V

dV .

Note that8 u u = (uu), since u = 0. Using the divergence theorem then, we have

V

u dV + t

u(u n) dS =

F dV +

V S

n dS.

Thus, ( u) dV = t u(u n) dS + F dV +

V S

n dS,

as in (3.30).

8

Note that uu is an example of a dyadic product. In index notation, it means the matrix ui uj .

169

Appendix C: The boundary layer equations in Lagrangian coordinates. Although the equations of uid motion are more cumbersome when expressed in Lagrangian coordinates (see section 3.2.1 for an introduction to these coordinates), a landmark advance in uid mechanics was made by van Dommelen & Shen (J. Comp. Phys, 1980, 38) in the analysis of an impulsively started cylinder by rst expressing the boundary layer equations in terms of Lagrangian coordinates. The boundary layer momentum equation in Eulerian (x, y, t) coordinates is ut + uux + vuy = px + uyy . (9.20)

In Lagrangian coordinates (, , t) [here we take the vector a = (, ) in section 3.2.1] the left hand side simplies to ut . To convert the right hand side, we note that (see Mead, J. Comp. Phys, 2004, 200), Alternatively So

= =

x y + , x y x y + , x y

y y

(9.21) (9.22)

x x x y

x y

= J . ,

x y

Now

= J1

y

J1 = J J=

y

x

(x, y) x y x y = . (, )

For an incompressible ow (see equation 3.9) we have that J = 1. So, = x y y , = y 170 x x + . (9.23)

So uy = (x u + x u ), and uyy = (x (uy ) + x (uy ) ). The algebra is rather tedious and we simply present the result below. Next we need px = y p y p . Therefore the boundary layer equation (9.20) in Lagrangian coordinates is: ut = (y p y p )

+ x2 u 2x x u + x2 u x u x + (xx iu + x u )x x u u , (9.24) where the term in small brackets on the right hand side is the pressure gradient, and the large brackets on the right hand side contain the viscous term. The continuity equation transforms as follows: u x + vy = x x t + y y t = 1 J J t

from (3.14). As noted above, J = 1 for incompressible ow giving ux + vy = 0. Example: Flow past an impulsively started sphere In this case, the inviscid ow around the cylinder is such that px = sin x cos x, and the boundary layer equation is (see van Dommelen & Shen, J. Comp Phys, 38, 1980, eq. 7), ut = 1 sin 2x + x2 u 2x x u + x2 u x u x + (x u + x u )x x u u . (9.25) 2

171

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