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Stairs

Second edition
Alan and Sylvia Blanc

7 Detailed construction: iron, steel and other metals

7.1 Ladders and ladder steps


Cast- and wrought-iron work in ladders and stairs has a tradition that stems fi-om the Industrial Revolution (Figures 7.1U and 7.1b). Another source is the spiders web of steps that straddle the Eiffel Tower. The lattice girders were designed as ladders to enable the repainting to be carried out without cradles or scaffold. The addition of lightly framed steel stairs and handrailing can be less intrusive th:m inasonry construction when making ruins accessible for tourists. At Rochester Castle, John Winter was asked t o insert floors and add a roof to the open shell of the ruined tower. He was also asked t o construct a staircase in such a position that the puldic could enter the castle

through the original doorway. It is not known 11c)w the original stairs o r roof were constructed, so it w;is decided to make these model-n structures, hut t o keep them discreet so that the famous \ric.n,s o f the c:istle wei-e not Liffected. llic staircxe is ;i siniple structure o f stwl Inr-s and plate with oak treads. It is

Detailed construction: iron, steel and other metals

1 15

7.2 Fire escape stairs

116 Stairs

Cast iron grid

Angle frame to tread

Detailed construction: iron, steel and other metals

117

_-

7.3 Standard internal stairs

118 Stairs

7.4 Spiral stairs

Tread and string details

Well end

Flights at landing

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119

ing. Designer spir;ils ha\.e reachecl I>eyoncl the limit o f coininon sense in Fl-ance \\,it11 polislied a l u i i i i n i i i i i castings rescmhling giant teaspoons that ;ire jettiecl off :I spinal \wtelxi (Figure 7.4~). Iatterns o f nineteentli-centur~ engineering ;ii-e still iii:inu~~ictiirecl, the de\-elopmt.nts in replica c:tsting 1iie;iiis that historic fe:itures can hc. m:ttchecl. The spir:il st:iirs :incl l x i l conies a t the Ialm House, Kc.\\., ;I rase are in point (Figure 7.1L I ) , \+.liere the i i a t u r ; i listic forms still perfectly echo the n:itur:il plant iiiaterid.

120 Stairs

7.5 Special stairs

Rod balustrade supporting treads

Welded chequer plate

Flats flats for strings Rod bracing

Detailed construction: iron, steel and other metals 121

secured direct

Renewable nos;

Stoneimarble tread

Soffit fixings

Sheet steel flat Tubular rail

$ ,

x K

' ' ,

Non-slip inset Welded angle frame In-situ infill

.. . .
**\Steel Steel tray Tile filling Terrazzo filling

. ,. .
tray

Cold folded /frame

Plastic tileicork infill

,//

support at strings

Steel plate

122 Stairs

Connection bolt

Top section with end balustrade-

Stepping off platform

Balustrade section

J\

Cotter-

Centre

Stay

Stay bolt Spacer u& te b -

senkwl hy n:iked light IXIIIX - replacenient of the IXIIIX \\x effected b y sliding the light fixture along its o\w-lie:id tl-ack at the top floor :ind then \\.alking c k w n to c ~ i c hlancling (o ch:inge the, I x i l h . Tlie slencler q u ~ i l i t ~ f steel profiles c-:in o~ reduce the imlxict o f pre-cast concrete o r timlxr \\.hich ma)- he selecttd lk)r ti-e:icls. 1,aclclei. trusses \i.itli horizont:il steel trellises \\,ill c:iriy 'plank' tre:icls, tlw uppc'r line o f the trusses foi-ming ;I 1i:inclt;iil. This motif' \\':is usecl frecjuc.ntl\, by hI:ii-cel Hreuer for cxxtern:il stairs t o recluce the impact o r shaclo\\. froin the construction interfc3ring \\.it11 thy fenestration (Iigure 7.5c).

Detailed construction: iron, steel and other metals

123

7.6 Suspended stairs

124 Stairs

Compression fixings

Landing or tread trays

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125

Pre-cast concrete

Continued to form balustrade to floor above

Tube or flat bar Tubes or flats suspended from floor structure. treads framed fixed clear
IV

Vertical trellis for suspended flight Handrail fixed clear re suspenders

Strings fixed either side of central suspenders

II

Flat bar framework with lapped and rivetted joints

Continuous suspenders (for dog-leg on spine with flights either side)

126 Stairs

Vertical suspenders to carry steel plate stairs

7
Head plate

Handrail with cleats off rods

Acrylic panel

\ Each tread plate (steel or pre-cast)


carried on rods at either end
~~

Suspended stairs from floor above

Detailed construction: iron, steel and other metals

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128

Stairs

7.7 Metal balustrading

Detailed construction: iron, steel and other metals

129

Angle to suit requirements

127

S"

, 127 \
5" rad
N50-16 ANGLE BEND

--

N 5 0 19 ~ END PLUG

N50-17 SPLIT CONNECTING SLEEVE

N50w 8 CHAIN EYE PLUG

/ @ P
-102- * 5 7N50-20 4" 3' WALL RAIL BRACKET N50 21 SADDLE CROSS N50-22 ANGLED SADDLE JOINT
01

N50-7

N50-14 01

N50-15

130 Stairs

Stainless

e bolted d

bolted to plate Industrial type balustrade

to tubular string
Rod balustrade

Tubular steel

Detailed construction: iron, steel and other metals

131

132

Stairs

Circular

out and metal

Fixing to concrete
6 rnm reinforcing

Dais to case hole

tubular baluster

Edge fixing to concrete

to hold baluster

Use of sleeved fixings for baluster ends - usually standards at 120011300 centres carrying railing panels

/;i,qi/i,(, -.cS/ 7i.cieli/ioi/ril iJi(,/lil l ~ c i l i i . ~ / i ~ ~, i ) i il i~ci~ / i~o:i i . s ( ~ i ~ (ii,(,lllii/g,sc,/

.sc.i.(J/l:y,

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133

Pattern of 2 hardwood dowels to 1 bronze 60 x 120 laminated OR solid handrail (hardwood)

60 mm sinking for balusters


Constant balustrade panels

20 mm balusters (hardwood and bronze rod on 2:l ratio) to improve strength

Laminated kerb adjusted to give correct height in balustrade

120 mm sinking for balusters

Radius to hardwood cappings

Timber bound facinas

Cast in battens for fixings Hardwood __c PlY veneer

Pre-cast slab/flights

Laminated kerb

.w -

Textured paint finish to concrete

134

Stairs

Detailed construction: iron, steel and other metals

135

References