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CHAPTER 2: HYDROSTATIC

By: Mohamad Hidayat Jamal Department of Hydraulics and Hydrology Faculty of Civil Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Recap???
Classification gasses and liquids Real and Ideal fluids Fluid properties Density, specific gravity, viscosity and etc. Any questions???

Contents
Introduction To Hydrostatics Pressure in Fluids Pressure at a points and Pressure Variations (Pascals Law) Pressure measurements Hydrostatics Forces on Submerged Plane Surface Pressure Distribution in Fluids

CHAPTER 2: HYDROSTATICS
WHAT HYDROSTATICS?
Defined as the balance of forces in a fluids at rest (fluid static) free from any shear stresses and forces due to static pressure.

Pressure? A normal force exerted by a fluid per unit area.

P = Force/Area or (F/A) Units: 1 N/m = 1 Pa 1 Bar = 105 Pa = 100 kPa 1 atm = 101,325 Pa = 101.325 kPa = 1.01325 Bar

Pressure in Fluid
Hydrostatic equation or pressure in fluid:

P gh
Pressure will increase if the water depth increases (from the water surface)

Atm., Absolute, Vacuum & Gauge Pressure

Atmospheric pressure (Pressure in the air around us), Pa Called reference pressure (10.35 m H2O or 760 mm Hg +ve pressure above atm. -ve pressure/vacuum below atm. Vacuum pressure Below atm. Absolute Pressure (mutlak) P gh Pa Actual pressure at a given point Measured relative to absolute vacuum (absolute zero pressure). Mostly to read zero in the atm. Gauge Pressure (measured using pressure gauge) Difference between the absolute pressure and the atm. - P gh

Atm., Absolute, Vacuum & Gauge Pressure

Pressure at a Point

Pressure at any point in a fluid is the same in all direction (known as Pascal Law) It has magnitude but not at specific direction P1 = P2 = P3 = P

Pressure variation with elevation (Pascals Law)

Fluid at rest is independent of the shape or cross section of the container. Pressure is the same at all points on a horizontal plane Pressure changes with vertical distance.

Pressure variation with elevation (Pascals Law)

Pressure Measurement

Barometer Piezometer Manometer - Simple - Differential, right U-tube - Differential, inverted U-tube

Barometer

Device to measure atmospheric pressure By inverting mercury tube into mercury container that is open to the atmosphere

Patm m gh

Patm 105 N / m 2 Patm m gh Patm 105 h 760mmHg g 13.56*9.81

Piezometer

To measure a pressure in flowing liquid using piezometer tube Principle; The liquid rises up the piezometer tube until atmospheric pressure and the weight of the column of liquid in the tube generate a pressure equal the pressure in the pipe/conduit. The pressure at the center line of the pipe flow is given as:

P gh

Manometer (a) Simple

Pressure can be estimated by measuring fluid elevation Commonly used to measure small or moderate pressure P1 = P2 = gh

Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Plane Surface

Submerged plate/plane surface will having force exerted from the liquid The force on each element area normal to the surface e.g.: Dam, storage tank, ship and etc. When analyzing forces on submerged surfaces, the atmospheric pressure can be subtracted.

P gAx

Pressure on a plane immerged surface

Location of the pressure:

IG h x Ax

Pressure on a curved surface

x (h h1 ) h1 / 2
A h1 *1 area / mwidth

V volume / mwidth

IG h x Ax

PH gAx
R ( PH Pv
2 2

Pv gV
Pv tan PH
1

Pressure Distribution

Pressure Distribution

Pressure is calculated per unit width only x h / 2 P gh2 Rectangular distribution P 1/ 2 gh2 Triangular distribution x h / 3
Pa (h / 3) Pb (h / 2)........ x P
P 1/ 2 gh2 .........

SUMMARY OF CHAPTER 2
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Pressure in Fluids types of pressure Pressure at a points and Pressure Variations (Pascals Law) depends on their elevation. Pressure measurements Barometer, Manometer and piezometer. Hydrostatics Forces on Submerged Plane Surface Due to difference shape (circular, rectangular and triangular) Hydrostatics Forces on Submerged Curved Vane Pressure Distribution in Fluids Application to sluice gate, dam and etc.