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AP European History 1 February 2012 The Age of Napoleon and the Triumph of Romanticism The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte

o Chief threat to the Directory came from royalists who hoped to restore the Bourbon monarchy by legal means Spring elections replaced most incumbents with constitutional monarchists Antimonarchist Directory put their supporters into the seat their opponents had won, emposed censorship, and exiled some of the enemies Napoleon sent a subordinate to Paris to guarantee success

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Early Military Victories o o o o Treaty of Campo Formio: Took Austria out of the war and crowned Napoleon with success Napoleon wanted to take out Britain by attacking its interests he overran Egypt easily but the invasion was a failure Russia, Austria, Ottoman Empire, and Britain form Second Coalition against France Ottoman Empire realized it had to reform itself to resist other European encroachments

The Constitution of the Year VIII o o o Abbe Sieyes proposed new constitution with executive body independent of the electoral politics and based on principle of confidence from below, power from above. Napoleon joined Sieyes and ensured the coup detat Napoleon pushed Sieyes aside and issued the Constitution of the Year VIII: universal male suffrage checks and balances

The Consulate in France o o o o o o Ended revolution in France Warfare accounted for French internal instability Treaty of Amiens: brought peace to Europe Issued a general amnesty and employed men from all political factions Only required that they be loyal to him Ruthlessly suppressed opposition Used and invented opportunities to destroy his enemies Provoked foreign opposition

Concordat with the Roman Church o Napoleon had concordat with Pope Pius VII

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Required both the refractory clergy and those who accepted the revolution to resign, state named bishops and paid their salaries, church gave up its claims to its confiscated property, clergy had to swear loyalty to state Organic Articles of 1802 established the supremacy of state of church Similar laws were applied to other religions

The Napoleonic Code o o o o Plebiscite ratified Napoleon as consul for life and new constitution that gave Napoleon full power The Napoleonic Code safeguarded all forms of property and tried to secure French society against internal challenges The conservative attitudes towards women and labor received full support Primogeniture remained abolished

Establishing a Dynasty o o Napoleon argued that becoming an Emperor would made the new regime secure and new constitution declared him Napoleon I, Emperor He crowned himself, not allowing anyone to think his power came from the church

Napoleons Empire o o o Conquered most of Europe Wars put the Old Regime to an end Unleashed the powerful force of nationalism

Conquering an Empire o o o The Peace of Amiens was merely a truce UK was scared that France would try to make a new French empire in America The Treaty of Campo Formio had required a redistribution of territories along the Rhine River Reduction of Austrian influence and emergence of fewer/larger German states all dependent on Napoleon UK declared war on Napoleon and created Third Coalition Lord Nelson destroyed the French and Spanish fleets at Battle of Trafalgar Trafalgar ended all hope of invading Britain and guaranteed British control of the sea for the rest of the war Treaty of Pressburg: Austria withdrew from Italy and left Napoleon in control Confederation of the Rhine was created Led to the dissolution of HRE Berlin Decrees: forbidding his allies from importing British goods The Treaty of Tilsit: Prussia lost half its territory. Prussia openly became an ally on Napoleon and Russia did secretly

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Napoleon put his family in positions of power Led to political opposition

The Continental System o o The Milan Decree: attempted to stop neutral nations from trading with Britain Napoleons tariff policies favored France and increased resentment in other countries because his system hurt their economies

European Response to the Empire o o Imposed Napoleonic Code and abolished hereditary social distinctions wherever he ruled The Continental System demonstrated that Napoleons rule was to benefit France rather than all of Europe

German Nationalism and Prussian Reform o o o o o o o o Nationalistic writers emphasized unique and admirable qualities of German culture Many German intellectuals urged resistance to Napoleon Many sought to solve their internal political problems by attempting to establish a unified German state, reformed to harness the enemies of the entire people German nationalists fled to Prussia to get reforms Baron vom Stein and Prince von Hardenberg did not reduced the power of Prussian monarch but did get reforms Stein broke monopoly off Junker landholding Serfdom was abolished Sought to inspire patriotic feeling in the soldiers, opened officers to commoners, and promoted based on merit

The Wars of Liberation o o o Spanish peasants rebelled against Napoleons rule with guerrilla warfare Peace of Schonbrunn deprived Austria of lots of land Napoleon married Marie Louise, daughter of Francis I of Austria

The Invasion of Russia o o o o o Russia withdrew from the Continental System and prepared for war Russia followed scorched-earth policy Borodino was bloodiest battle but Russians were still going and Napoleon won nothing substantial Russia set fire to Moscow Napoleon abandoned his army and returned to Paris

European Coalition

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Prince Klemens von Metternich offered to leave Napoleon on the throne of a smaller France but he refused Patriotic pressure and national ambition brought together the last and most powerful coalition against Napoleon Napoleons new army was inexperienced and poorly equipped but still waged skillful campaign The Battle of Leipzig/of the Nations: the allies defeated Napoleon Napoleon abdicated and went into exile on Elba

The Congress of Vienna and the European Settlement o o Treaty of Chaumont which provided for the restoration off the Bourbons to the French throne and the contractions to France to previous borders Quadruple Alliance with Prussia, Russia, Austria, and Britain to preserve peace

Territorial Adjustments o o o o o o o Stated above Strengthened the states around France to serve as barriers Established kingdom of Netherlands Prussia was given new territories along Rhine River Austria gained full control of northern Italy HRE was not revived France remained great European power

The Hundred Days and the Quadruple Alliance o o o o o o Napoleon escaped to France and regained power, promising liberal constitution and peaceful foreign policy Wellington and Field Marshal von Bluche defeated Napoleon at Waterloo Napoleon abdicated again and was exiled to St. Helena where he died in 1821 Holy Alliance where monarchs promised to act together in accordance with Christian principles Became symbol of extreme political reaction Renewed Quadruple Alliance Vienna settlement remained intact for almost half a century

The Romantic Movement o o o Romanticism was a movement against the Enlightenment though Revival of Christianity Folklore & fairy tales

Romantic Question of the Supremacy of Reason o Raised questions about whether rationalism was sufficient to explain human nature

Rousseau and Education o o o o o Society and material prosperity had corrupted human nature Children should be able to mature with maximum freedom Girls and boys would grow into their separate spheres Concept of human development vindicated the rights of nature over artificial society Humankind, nature, and society were organically interrelated

Kant and Reason o o o Sought to accept the rationalism of the Enlightenment and still preserve belief in human freedom, immortality, and the existence of God Subjective character of human knowledge Categorical imperative: inner command to act in every situation as one would have all other people always act in the same situation Incontrovertible proof of humankinds natural freedom

Romantic Literature o Term came to be applied to all literature that did not observe classical forms and rules and gave free play to the imagination

English Romantic Writers o o o o Artists imagination was God at work in the mind Coleridge was mast of Gothic poems of the supernatural The child, being closer in time to its eternal origin and undistracted by worldly experience, recollects the supernatural world much more easily Lord Byron was regarded as the embodiment of the new person the French revolution had created

Romantic Art o Often portrayed scenes from medieval life. Middle ages represented the social stability and religious reverence that was disappearing from their own era

The Cult of the Middle Ages and Neo-Gothicism o o o Church and British constitution seen as intimately related Associated liberal reforms with the devil Idealized rural life because they believed it was connected to the medieval past and was oppose to the increasingly urban, industrializing, commercial society that was developing

Nature and the Sublime o Sought to portray nature in all of its majestic power as no previous generation has ever done

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The sublime: subjects from nature that aroused strong emotions and raised questions about whether and how much we control our lives Saw nature as a set of infinite forces that overwhelmed the smallness of humankind Sense of the power, awe, and mastery of nature coupled with the sense that the advance of industry represented a new kind of awesome human power that could challenge or even surpass the forces of nature itself

Methodism o o o o Originated in the middle of the 18th century as a revolt against deism and rationalism in the Church of England John and Charles Wesley brought Methodism to the masses Became a separate church Stressed inward, heartfelt religion, and the possibility of Christian perfection in this life

New Directions in the Continental Religion o o o o Strong Roman Catholic revival took place in France Argued that the essence of religion is passion Friedrich Schleiermacher said religion is not dogma nor a set of ethics, its an intuition or feeling of absolute dependence on an infinite reality Believed every world religion was ok

Herder and Culture o o o Resented French cultural dominance in Germany Revived German folk culture Use of a common language and universal institutions were a form of tyranny

Hegel and History o o Thesis holds sway until an antithesis challenges it and then a synthesis emerges and becomes the new thesis No one period of history was better than others because they were all necessary and all cultures are necessary too

Islam, the Middle East, and Romanticism o o o o Crusades fired up imagination Championed the Greek revolution Herder thought Arab culture was one off the numerous communities that composed the human race and manifested the human spirit Hegel thought Islam represented an important stage of the development of the world spirit but was out of significant parts to play