Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 21

FEMALE MIGRATION IN UKRAINE: DETERMINANTS AND CONSEQUENCES Iryna Kyzyma

Candidate of Science, Department of Economic Theory and Law Kirovohrad National Technical University Prosp. Universitetskii, 8 25006 Kirovohrad Ukraine E-mail: iryna_kyzyma@list.ru

Abstract The period of transition in Ukraine is accompanied not only by a great number of political and socio-economic changes but also by a deep demographic crisis, substantial component of which is migration. The fact that 65% of migrants are women let us speak about so called female face of migration in Ukraine. Thus, the main objectives of this paper can be described in the following way: to assess the scale and analyze peculiarities of female migration in Ukraine, to find out what factors affect it and how strong is their influence, to ascertain socio-economic and demographic consequences of female migration for Ukrainian society. The research is performed on the basis of the data provided by Ukrainian State Committee of Statistics, Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and diplomatic representatives of Ukraine in foreign countries. Moreover, we use the results of the survey conducted by NGO Womens perspectives among Ukrainian female migrants working abroad in order to find out factors which make Ukrainian women to look for a job in a foreign country and establish consequences of such experience. By using some mathematic techniques we also build the portrait of a typical Ukrainian female migrant. Research results show that female migration is the problem of a great concern for contemporary Ukraine. At present about 3.25 million Ukrainian women work abroad, almost 90% of them illegally. The majority of female migrants are at the most reproductive age (between 2039 years old), have husbands and children in Ukraine. Among the most crucial factors which influence womens decision-making concerning migration are the following: age, availability of children, place of living, educational and professional background, availability of relatives or friends abroad, need of money. Mass international migration of women has very dangerous consequences: it deeps demographic crisis in Ukraine, causes family break-ups and changes gender roles within society. Moreover, due to fulfilling low-qualified work abroad women lose their qualification and cannot undertake previous positions after coming back home. They also complain about psychological difficulties and social unprotectiveness in a foreign country. Key words: international female migration, Ukraine, determinants, consequences, mobility

I. INTRODUCTION The period of transition in Ukraine is accompanied not only by a great number of political and socio-economic changes but also by a deep demographic crisis, substantial component of which is migration. According to the scientific estimations, in 1990-2006 about 5 million people left Ukraine for living and working in other countries. The fact that 65% of them were women let us speak about so called female face of migration which has very dangerous consequences for any society such as fertility reduction, family break-ups and children left without mother care. Perhaps, the situation would not seem so bad if Ukrainian women had the opportunity to find abroad job positions, which were appropriate to their educational background and professional skills. Instead, the reality shows that while working in a foreign country they experience cultural and social difficulties, fulfill unprestigious and low-paid work and, as a result, cannot achieve selfactualization both in professional sphere and private life. In spite the fact that this is a hot-button issue, a little has been done to explore it. The majority of the existent studies analyze migration processes in a whole without taking into consideration gender perspective. Those studies, which examine female migration, are performed basically for well-developed or Asian countries. With respect to Ukraine the problem of female migration needs further in-depth investigation. The main objectives of this paper can be described in the following way: to assess the scale and analyze peculiarities of female migration in Ukraine, to find out what factors affect it and how strong is their influence, to ascertain socio-economic and demographic consequences of female migration for Ukrainian society. The research is performed on the basis of the data provided by Ukrainian State Committee of Statistics, Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and diplomatic representatives of Ukraine in foreign countries. Moreover, we use the results of the survey conducted by NGO Womens perspectives among Ukrainian female migrants working abroad in order to find out factors which make Ukrainian women to look for a job in a foreign country and establish consequences of such

experience. By using some mathematic techniques we also build the portrait of a typical Ukrainian female migrant working abroad. The paper is organized as follows. Section II Literature Review outlines the main studies devoted to the problem of female migration. Data and estimation strategy used for the research are described in section III. Section IV sheds the light on the main trends and peculiarities of international migration of Ukrainian women, determinants and consequences of this process for Ukrainian society. Section V draws the conclusions.

II. LITERATURE REVIEW The review of existing theories of migration shows that none of them considers migration in gender dimension. It can be easily explained by the fact that up to the 1980s migration had been seen as a male phenomenon since the majority of migrants were men. The phrase migrants and their families was a code for male migrants and their wives and children (Boyd and Grieco, 2003). However, over the past two decades the situation has changed dramatically and the number of women within migration flows significantly increased. In response to the reality some scholars tried to theorize international female migration by considering it separately from male mobility. They proved that even though migration is often seen as gender-neutral because it deals with the process of the movement of persons, however, it is in fact gender-related because migration impacts differently men and women, and different groups of men and women in their process of movement. The experiences men and women have as migrants differ, and most of the differences are due to the role, behavior, and relationships that society assigns to, and expects from, a woman or man in a country of origin and a country of destination. Moreover, the role which gender plays in the decision of an individual to migrate or not also illustrates why it is important to take into account gender issues when considering and formulating migration policy options (International Organization for Migration, 2005).

In the report of the United Nations it is stated that the interaction of womens roles, status, and age within a particular socio-cultural context result in a migratory probability which can also affect the ability of women to migrate. The impact of womens status and roles on their propensity to migrate is proposed to be considered at three levels: individual, familial and societal (United Nations Publications, 2002). Individual factors include age, birth order, race/ethnicity, urban/rural origins, marital status (single, married, divorced, widowed), reproductive status (children or no children), role in the family (wife, daughter, mother), position in the family (authoritative or subordinate), educational status, occupational skills, labour force experience and class position. Family factors include size, age / sex composition, life-cycle stage, structure (nuclear, extended, etc.), status (single parent, both parents, etc.) and class standing. Social factors include those community norms and cultural values that determine whether or not women can migrate and, if they can, how (i.e., labour or family reunification) and with whom (alone or with family). In their article Monica Boyd and Elizabeth Grieco have noted that in addition to determinants stated above certain macro characteristics of the country of origin can also influence gender-specific migration propensities (Boyd and Grieco, 2003). These characteristics can interact with gender relations and the position of women in the sending society and affect decisions about who moves and when. These characteristics include: the state of the economy (agrarian, industrial, level of development); the types of economies present within various communities (i.e., all developed, mixed agrarian / industrial, some subsistence horticulturalists); the level of displacement caused by economic changes and shifts in production technologies; land tenure laws; labor market conditions and conditions of work (wage levels, benefits); the ability of the economy to provide jobs and the type of jobs available (number of industries); the ability of the national government to provide related infrastructure (education, job training); the geographic location of the country and the language of sending society; the relation and integration of the national economy into the world

economy; the supply and demand conditions for the factors of production in sending and related receiving communities; and the presence or absence of established migration systems with other areas. From her own side N. Oishi has also proposed so called integrative approach for analyzing female migration which adopts three levels of analyses: macro-level (the state), microlevel (individual) and meso-level (society) (Oishi, 2002). She agues that the state plays a major role in determining the patterns of international female migration. Some countries do not restrict male migration but do restrict and even ban female migration. These countries tend to be non-sending countries of migrant women. On the other hand, major sending countries of migrant women seemed to have relatively open emigration policies for women. Thus, these emigration policies would explain the basic patterns of female migration. N. Oishi states that for a large-scale international female migration to take place, there must be strong conductive factors at the agent level, such as willingness and motivation of individual women. Besides, social environment accommodating for international female migration at the meso-level also plays very important role. If society ostracizes women who go abroad and return home, a large-scale female migration is not likely to take place. Women must feel comfortable with leaving their community, and the community also has to provide an environment which does not penalize women who come back from abroad. It is worth noting that there are also a number of studies devoted to the issues of female migration in Ukraine. Thus, O. Yarova has examined the migration of Ukrainian women to Italy and its impact on their families in Ukraine (Migration Processes in Central and Eastern Europe: Unpacking the Diversity, 2006). Similar study has been undertaken by T. Chernynska who has analyzed the impact of female migration on gender roles within families of migrants (Foundation for Safe Society Publications, 2007). I. Markov has analyzed the results of the survey of Ukrainian migrants in Italy carried out by Western Ukrainian Center Womens Perspectives (Markov, 2006) while A. Popok has assessed the number of temporary Ukrainian labor migrants in foreign countries

(Popok, 2006). But, nevertheless, there is no studies giving complex analysis of international labor migration of Ukrainian women and determining factors which influence their decisions with respect to it. Moreover, it is very important to set out demographic and socio-economic consequences of female migration for Ukrainian society. So, this paper purports to shed the light on the scale and peculiarities of female labor migration in Ukraine, factors which influence womens decisions about whether to migrate or not and consequences of such a process for the society.

III. DATA AND RESEARCH DESIGN The study is based on the data provided by Ukrainian State Committee of Statistics, Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and diplomatic representatives of Ukraine in foreign countries. Moreover, we use the results of the survey conducted by NGO Womens perspectives among Ukrainian female migrants in order to find out factors making Ukrainian women to look for a job in a foreign country and build the portrait of a typical Ukrainian female migrant. The latter is based on the following characteristics: age (04, 59, 1014, 1519, 2024, 2529, 3034, 3539, 4044, 4549, 5054, 5559,

6064, 6569, 7074, 7579, 8089 years); ethnicity (Ukrainian, European, American, Asian, African, Australian); marital status (married, not married); availability of children (with children, without children); place of living (urban or rural area); educational level (higher university education, college education, completed secondary

education, without education); working position in Ukraine (specialist, worker, unemployed, student or housewife, other); reasons for migration (low salary, necessity to buy a house, unemployment, high costs of

education for children, necessity of repaying, home violence, other reasons);

ability to speak a foreign language (yes, partially, no); availability of relatives or friends abroad (yes, no); availability of official permission for working abroad (yes, no, undetermined); previous experience of international migration (yes, no); country of destination (European, American, Asian, African, Australian); duration of staying in a foreign country (13 months, 36 months, 6 months 1 year, 1 year,

1 2 years, 2 3 years, more than 3 years); In order to build the portrait of a typical Ukrainian female migrant we will present the characteristics stated above in the following way: informational shear an aspect of the monitoring: age, ethnicity, educational level etc.; sorted group identifiable gradation of an aspect: for the aspect ethnicity Ukrainian, European, American, Asian, African; for the aspect educational level higher university education, college education, completed secondary education etc.; z = 1, 2, 14 an identifier of an informational shear; q = 1,2, an identifier of a sorted group; s, r indexes which show what group of information (statistical or calculated (information received by modeling)) the data belong to; ps (z, q), Ps (z, p) probabilities (determined by the statistical data) of migrants belonging to the groups identified by the features (z, q); ns (z, q), Ns (z, p) quantities of migrants (determined by the statistical data) who belong to the groups identified by the features (z, q); nm (z, q), N quantities of migrants (determined by the modeling results) who belong to the groups identified by the features (z, q); N total quantity of migrants used for modeling (in our case 1 000).

Taking into account the formalization system which has been described above, the mathematical model for building the portrait of a typical Ukrainian female migrant can be presented in such a way:
Ps (z, q) = N s (z, q) = N s (z, q)
q

N s (z, q) n s (z, q)
q v

(1)

n m (z, q) = Ps (z, q) N The results received by the estimation are described below.

(2)

IV. RESEARCH RESULTS Trends in international migration of Ukrainian women

The data on migration provided by Ukrainian Ministry of Statistics shows that in 2006 total net migration in Ukraine was positive due to a great number of immigrants from the NIS countries (44227 people arrived in the country while 29982 left it). Quite demonstrative is the fact that among those who came to Ukraine more than 54% were men whereas among those who left it on a permanent basis 56% were women. Such figures let us speak about so called female face of emigrants from Ukraine. The main countries of destination for those who leave Ukraine on a permanent basis are Russian Federation, the USA, Germany, Moldavia, Belarus, Israel, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Canada, Spain, Italy and Austria (see Figure 1). Insert Figure 1 here In addition to total emigration, at present Ukraine is facing mass labor migration. Official data provided by the diplomatic representatives of Ukraine abroad shows that at least 300 000 Ukrainians works in Poland, 500 000 in Italy, 200 000 in Czech Republic, 300 000 in Germany, 300 000 in Portugal, 200 000 in Great Britain, 150 000 in Spain, 150 000 in France, 35 000 in Turkey, 20 000 in the USA. But in reality these figures are much higher due to illegal migration. Only in Russian Federation the number of labor migrants is estimated to be higher than 1 million.

Thus, Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs states that about 5 million Ukrainians work abroad on a temporary basis. Among them more than 65% are women. Significant peculiarity of Ukrainian temporary labor migration is gender differentiation of those who migrate between countries:

Portugal (migrants are basically male workers); Italy (migrants are women at the age of 40 and more); Spain (migrants are both men and women); Greece (the majority of migrants are women); Poland and Czech Republic (both men and women migrate to these countries in order to fulfill low-qualified jobs);

Russian Federation (mainly men who are engaged in building, especially in Moscow); Germany (mainly women who perform housekeeping and babysitting work).
Determinants of international labor migration of Ukrainian women

In order to find out which factors influence womens decisions concerning migration most of all we analyze such characteristics as age, ethnicity, availability of children, place of living, educational and professional background, knowledge of foreign languages, availability of relatives or friends abroad and previous experience of migrating. Distribution of emigrants by age reveals that the majority of them are 2039 years old (see figure 2). In total, about 46% of those who left Ukraine for other countries in 2006 were at that age. As we can see from the Figure 2, migration activity of both women and men increases as they become older and achieves its peak at the age of 2529. Then, it begins to decrease. Insert Figure 2 here Distribution of emigrants by ethnicity proves that migration between contemporary Ukraine and other countries does not have ethnical character any more. The data shows that more than 9.5% of emigrants left Ukraine for Asian countries although only 3.57% of them were their citizens.

Similarly, about 80.7% of emigrants from Ukraine went to European countries in spite the fact that only 4.28% of them were Europeans. The availability of children also influences womens decision-making concerning migrating abroad. Thus, 90% of female migrants have at least one child and the necessity to maintain and educate it makes them look for a job abroad. Moreover, almost 60% of Ukrainian women working in foreign countries are married. The fact that 78% of female migrants are from urban areas of Ukraine let us assume that the main driver of international labor migration is not a high unemployment rate which is registered in rural areas but low salary which does not correspond with high cost of living in cities and towns. In addition to it, significant gap between earnings of women and men in Ukraine (an average monthly salary of a male worker is 37.5% higher than female one) can partly explain enhanced female labor mobility. Analysis of educational background of female migrants shows that 37% of them have higher university diplomas, 36% college diplomas, 22% have completed secondary education and only 5% have not received basic education. These figures demonstrate direct relationship between educational level of a woman and her intentions to migrate abroad. Moreover, 56% of those who migrate from Ukraine on a temporary basis have been working as specialists in their home cities and villages for a long period of time. Only 30% of female migrants were employed as workers or unemployed while being in Ukraine. Thus, it is obvious that the higher is educational and professional level of a woman the stronger is her readiness to look for a job (even low-qualified) abroad. The availability of relatives or friends abroad also significantly influences womens decisions about migration. Thus, more than 62% of those who work abroad state that they have relatives or friends in foreign countries who have helped them to migrate there. Contrarily, the availability of previous experience of migrating and ability to speak at least one foreign language do not play very important role in decision-making concerning migration.

Only 25% of women working abroad have previous experience of migration. As for foreign languages, more than 69.5% of female migrants can not speak any of them and, as a result, experience difficulties with understanding of native speakers. Among the main reasons of migration the majority of women name low salary which does not correspond with the cost of living, high unemployment rate and socio-economic and political instability in Ukraine. Some of migrants (especially, those who are 2030 years old) state that they have migrated in order to study foreign languages, raise educational level, obtain useful working experience or see new countries. As for the duration of migration, about 8% of women have been staying abroad from one to three month, 6% from 3 to 6 months, 10.5% from 6 months to one year, 13% for a year, 30% from one to two years, 18% 23 years and 14.5% more than 3 years. It is worth noting, that only 13% of those Ukrainian women who work abroad have official permission for it while 87% work there illegally.
The portrait of a typical Ukrainian female migrant

On the basis of the estimation strategy stated in the Section III we worked out the portrait of a typical Ukrainian female migrant (see Tables 1 and 2). It is a woman at the age of 2029 who lives in a city (town) in the Western part of Ukraine and is Ukrainian by the nationality. Moreover, she is married and has at least one child. As for her professional background, she has higher university or college diploma and some experience of working as a specialist in Ukraine. As the main reasons for migrating to another country a typical Ukrainian female migrant names low salary which makes it impossible to buy a house or cover childrens university fees. At the same time, high unemployment rate sometimes leaves no other choices than look for a job position abroad. Among the main possible countries of destination Ukrainian women mention European countries, first of all Italy, Greece, Germany or Spain. It is worth noting, that a typical Ukrainian female migrant does not have previous experience of international migration and can not speak any foreign languages but she has some

relatives abroad which makes it easier for her to migrate. It gives concern that in spite the fact that such a woman has been working in a foreign country for one or two years she does not have an official permission to do it.
Consequences of female migration for Ukrainian society

Female migration has a number of positive and negative consequences both at the state and family level. At the state level it leads, first of all, to significant reduction of unemployment. Thus, in 2006 unemployment rate in Ukraine calculated by the methodology of ILO was 6.8% (in rural areas more than 7.3%). Thanks to international labor migration, the majority of unemployed people managed to find a job abroad and maintain their families by sending them money. Such kind of investment very often results in organization of family business or deposition of money on banks accounts which stimulates further economic development of Ukraine. But unfortunately, female migration has more negative than positive effects on the society. First of all, it leads to fertility reduction (as the majority of migrants are women at the reproductive age) and, therefore, intensified demographic crisis in Ukraine (at present the replacement fertility rate in Ukraine is the lowest in Europe). Secondly, female migration is the main reason of family break-ups. Thirdly, it causes changing of gender roles within a family and society. Thus, migrants husbands refuse to work for a salary, which is higher than in the capital, because they receive enough money from their wives working abroad. Instead, they admit that women are bread-winners in their families and prefer to fulfill the duties of housewife. But as they still look at themselves as at the heads of the families, the return of their wives can become a gender challenge for the family, very complicated phenomenon with unpredictable results (Foundation for Safe Society Publications, 2007). And finally, the absence of the mother changes children understanding of gender roles within family and society. Boys become accustomed to female labor and do not want to play the role of bred-winners in the future. They identified themselves as housekeepers and are not interested in receiving university education.

Quite contradictive are consequences of migration for female migrants themselves. On the one hand, by working abroad women can improve financial conditions of their families. On the other hand, their social status decreased, as they have to do low-qualified jobs. As a result, they lose their qualification and cannot find appropriate work after coming back home. What is more, labor conditions of Ukrainian migrants abroad do not meet the requirements established by International Labor Organization and Ukrainian legislation. The majority of them have a working day, which lasts more than 8 hours, and only 1015% have written agreements with their employers. The survey of female migrants in Ukraine shows that they have different views on their past migrant experience. About 71.5% of them notice that thanks to migrating they have improved their living standard, 15.26% have become more broad-minded, 7.23% have improved their language skills and only 13% of migrants can not indicate any positive consequences of their work abroad. At the same time, respondents complain about moral and psychological difficulties of living and working in a foreign country. That is why they advise potential migrants to learn foreign language before going abroad, collect information concerning possible job offers, prepare morally to the life in unfamiliar environment, learn legislation of the country of destination and, what is very important, be courageous (Markov, 2006). We must also take into account that temporary labor migration can result in total emigration in the future. The evidence shows that the desire to go abroad on a permanent basis is more typical for people who have some experience in labor migration than for those who have never been or worked in a foreign country. Thus, temporary labor trips abroad can turn into irreversible losses of population in the future.

V. CONCLUSIONS

Research results show that female migration is the problem of a great concern for contemporary Ukraine. According to the data provided by Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, at present about 5 million Ukrainians work abroad, 65% of them are women.

The majority of female migrants are at the most reproductive age (between 2039 years old), have families in Ukraine and at least one child. They also have very good professional background: higher university or college diplomas and experience of working as a specialist in a Ukrainian firm or organization. As the main reasons of migrating they name low salary, which does not correspond with the cost of living in Ukraine, and high unemployment rates in some regions of Ukraine (mainly in the western part of the country). The research proves that among the most crucial factors which influence womens decisionmaking about migration are the following: age, availability of children, place of living, educational and professional background, availability of relatives or friends abroad, need of money. Mass international migration of women has very dangerous consequences. It deeps demographic crisis in Ukraine, causes family break-ups and changes gender roles within society. Moreover, due to fulfilling low-qualified work abroad women lose their qualification and cannot undertake previous positions after coming back home. They also complain about psychological difficulties and social unprotectiveness in a foreign country.

LITERATURE

BOYD M. (2003) International Labour Migration of Women: Past, Present and Future Challenges in North America and Europe, http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/meetings/consult/Sweden03docs.htm BOYD M. and GRIECO (2003) Women and Migration: Incorporating Gender into International Migration Theory, Migration Information Source Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute, http://www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?id=106 FOUNDATION FOR SAFE SOCIETY PUBLICATIONS (2007) Female Migration: The Change of Gender Roles (author T. Chernynska), http://fsb.net.ua/news.php?lng=ua&pg=72 (in Ukrainian) INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR MIGRATION (2005) Migration and Gender, Developing Migration Policy, Vol. 2 JOLLY S. and REEVES H. (2005) Gender and Migration: Overview Report. Institute of Development Studies: BRIGE MARKOV I. (2006) Some Peculiarities of Ukrainian Labor Migration, Ukraine Poland: Borders perspectives (electronic journal), http://www.ji-magazine.lviv.ua/ji-junior/loginov/markov.htm (in Ukrainian) MIGRATION PROCESSES IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE: UNPACKING THE DIVERSITY (2006) (Alice Szczepanikova, Marek Canek and Jan Grill (Eds.)). Prague OISHI N. (2002) Gender and Migration: An Integrative Approach, http://www.ccisucsd.org/PUBLICATIONS/wrkg49.PDF POPOK A. (2006) Modern Emigration from Ukraine: Problems of Integration and Collaboration with Historical Homeland, Bulletin of NADU, 1, pp. 307313 (in Ukrainian) UKRAINIAN STATE COMMITTEE OF STATISTICS (2007) Migration of Population in Ukraine in 2006. Kyiv (in Ukrainian) UNITED NATIONS (2002) International Migration Report 2002. New York: United Nations Publications. WOMENS PERSPECTIVES (WESTERN UKRAINIAN CENTER) (2003) Causes and Consequences of the Work of Ukrainian women in Italy, unpublished report. Lviv

Figure 1. Distribution of emigrants by the countries of destination, % (2006)

Austria Italy Spain Canada Hungary Poland Czech Republic Moldavia Izrael Germany Belarus the USA Russia 0 5000 10000 15000 20000

number of emigrants

Source: Ukrainian State Committee of Statistics

Figure 2. Distribution of Ukrainian emigrants by gender and age, people (2006)

95-99 years 90-94 years 85-89 years 80-84 years 75-79 years 70-74 years 65-69 years 60-64 years 55-59 years 50-54 years 45-49 years 40-44 years 35-39 years 30-34 years 25-29 years 20-24 years 15-19 years 10-14 years 5-9 years 0-4 years 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500

men women

Source: Ukrainian State Committee of Statistics

Table 1. Formalization elements for building the portrait of a typical Ukrainian female migrant
Informational shear Designation Name 1 z1 Age Sorted group Designation Name 1 q1,1 0-4 years 2 q1,2 5-9 years 3 q1,3 10-14 years 4 q1,4 15-19 years 5 q1,5 20-24 years 6 q1,6 25-29 years 7 q1,7 30-34 years 8 q1,8 35-39 years 9 q1,9 40-44 years 10 q1,10 45-49 years 11 q1,11 50-54 years 12 q1,12 55-59 years 13 q1,13 60-64 years 14 q1,14 65-69 years 15 q1,15 70-74 years 16 q1,16 75-79 years 17 q1,17 80-84 years 18 q1,18 85-89 years 19 q1,19 90-94 years 1 q2,1 Ukrainian 2 q2,2 European 3 q2,3 American 4 q2,4 Asian 5 q2,5 African 6 q2,6 Australian 1 q3,1 Married 2 q3,2 Not married 1 q4,1 With children 2 q4,2 Without children 1 q5,1 Urban area 2 q5,2 Rural area 1 q6,1 Higher university education 2 q6,2 College education 3 q6,3 Completed secondary education 4 q6,4 Without education 1 q7,1 Specialist 2 q7,2 Worker 3 q7,3 Unemployed 4 q7,4 Student or housewife 5 q7,5 Other 1 q8,1 Low salary 2 q8,2 Necessity to buy a house 3 q8,3 Unemployment 4 q8,4 High costs of education for children 5 q8,5 Necessity of repaying 6 q8,6 Home violence 7 q8,7 Other reasons 1 2 3 10 11 z10 z11 Availability of relatives or friends abroad Availability of of official 1 2 1 q9,1 q9,2 q9,3 q10,1 q10,2 q11,1 Yes no Partially Yes no Yes

z2

Ethnicity

3 4 5 6

z3 z4 z5 z6

Marital status Availability of children Place of living Educational level

z7

Working position in Ukraine

z8

Reasons for migration

z9

Ability to speak a foreign language

permission for working abroad 2 3 12 13 z12 z13 Previous experience of international migration Country of destination 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 q11,2 q11,3 q12,1 q12,2 q13,1 q13,2 q13,3 q13,4 q13,5 q14,1 q14,2 q14,3 q14,4 q14,5 q14,6 q14,7 No undetermined Yes no European American Asian African Australian 1-3 months 3-6 months 6 months 1 year 1 year 1-2 years 2-3 years More than 3 years

14

z14

Duration of staying in a foreign country

* Calculated according to the results of the female migrants survey conducted by the Western European Center Womens perspectives and data provided by Ukrainian State Committee of Statistics

Table 2. The portrait of a typical Ukrainian female migrant


z z1 q q1,1 q1,2 q1,3 q1,4 q1,5 q1,6 q1,7 q1,8 q1,9 q1,10 q1,11 q1,12 q1,13 q1,14 q1,15 q1,16 q1,17 q1,18 q1,19 q2,1 q2,2 q2,3 q2,4 q2,5 q2,6 q3,1 q3,2 q4,1 q4,2 q5,1 q5,2 q6,1 q6,2 q6,3 q6,4 q7,1 q7,2 q7,3 q7,4 q7,5 q8,1 q8,2 q8,3 q8,4 q8,5 q8,6 q8,7 q9,1 q9,2 q9,3 q10,1 q10,2 q11,1 q11,2 q11,3 q12,1 q12,2 ps 0.032 0.035 0.043 0.057 0.120 0.127 0.101 0.074 0.058 0.054 0.041 0.470 0.323 0.063 0.400 0.440 0.026 0.006 0.001 0.908 0.043 0.001 0.036 0.004 0.008 0.600 0.400 0.875 0.125 0.533 0.467 0.370 0.360 0.220 0.050 0.560 0.210 0.09 0.03 0.11 0.548 0.333 0.296 0.254 0.302 0.476 0.102 0.305 0.517 0.178 0.623 0.377 0.129 0.662 0.209 0.254 0.746 nm 32 35 43 57 120 124 101 74 58 54 41 470 323 63 400 440 26 6 1 908 43 1 36 4 8 600 400 875 125 533 467 370 360 220 50 560 210 90 30 110 548 333 296 254 302 476 102 305 517 178 623 377 129 662 209 254 746

z2

z3 z4 z5 z6

z7

z8

z9 z10 z11 z12

z13

z14

q13,1 q13,2 q13,3 q13,4 q13,5 q14,1 q14,2 q14,3 q14,4 q14,5 q14,6 q14,7

0.807 0.093 0.095 0.004 0.001 0.078 0.060 0.105 0.130 0.303 0.181 0.143

807 93 95 4 1 78 60 105 130 303 181 143