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Substation Main Functions and Classification | EEP

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Substation Main Functions and Classification


Pr im a r y dist r ibu t ion - A lst om 1 4 5 k V Ga s-in su la t ed sw it ch g ea r - GIS (F3 5 ) a t t h e Sh u qa iq HV su bst a t ion in Sa u di A r a bia

electrical substation is an assemblage of electrical components including busbars, switchgear, power transformers, aux iliaries etc. These components are connected in a definite sequence such that a ckt. can be switched off during normal operation by manual command and also automatically during abnormal conditions such as short-ckt. Basically an electrical substation consists of number of incoming ckt. and outgoing ckt. connected to a common Bus-bar sy stems. A substation receiv es electrical power from generating station v ia incoming transmission lines and deliv ers elect. power v ia the outgoing transmission lines. Substation is integral part of a power sy stem and form important links between the generating station, transmission sy stems, distribution sy stems and the load points.

Main tasks of major sub-stations in the T&D

Main tasks associated with major sub-stations in the transmission and ditribution sy stem include following: 1 . Protection of transmission sy stem.
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Substation Main Functions and Classification | EEP

2. Controlling the Ex change of Energy . 3. Ensure steady State & Transient stability . 4. Load shedding and prev ention of loss of sy nchronism. Maintaining the sy stem frequency within targeted limits. 5. V oltage Control; reducing the reactiv e power flow by compensation of reactiv e power, tap-changing. 6. Securing the supply by prov ing adequate line capacity . 7 . Data transmission v ia power line carrier for the purpose of network monitoring; control and protection. 8. Fault analy sis and pin-pointing the cause and subsequent improv ement in that area of field. 9. Determining the energy transfer through transmission lines. 1 0. Reliable supply by feeding the network at v arious points. 1 1 . Establishment of economic load distribution and sev eral associated functions.

Types of substation
The substations can be classified in several w ays including the follow ing:

1 Classification based on voltage levels

e.g. : A.C. Substation : EHV , HV , MV , LV ; HV DC Substation.

2 Classification based on Outdoor or Indoor

Outdoor substation is under open skv . Indoor substation is inside a building.

3 Classification based on configuration

Conv entional Air insulated outdoor substation or SF6 Gas Insulated Substation (GIS) Composite substations hav ing combination of the abov e two

4 Classification based on application

Step Up Substation Associated with generating station as the generating v oltage is low. Primary Grid Substation Created at suitable load centre along primary transmission lines. Secondary Substation Along secondary transmission line. Distribution Substation Created where the transmission line v oltage is step down to supply v oltage. Bulk supply and industrial substation Similar to distribution sub-station but created separately for each consumer.
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Substation Main Functions and Classification | EEP

Mining Substation Needs special design consideration because of ex tra precaution for safety needed in the operation of electric supply . Mobile Substation Temporary requirement.

Important Notes:
Prim ary Substations receiv e power from EHV lines at 400KV , 220KV , 1 32KV and transform the v oltage to 66KV , 33KV or 22KV (22KV is uncommon) to suit the local requirements in respect of both load and distance of ultimate consumers. These are also referred to EHV Substations. Secondary Substations receiv e power at 66/33KV which is stepped down usually to 1 1 KV . Distribution Substations receiv e power at 1 1 KV , 6.6 KV and step down to a v olt suitable for LV distribution purposes, normally at 41 5 v olts.

Substation parts and equipment

Each sub-station has the following parts and equipment:

1 Outdoor Switchyard
Incoming Lines Outgoing Lines Busbar Transformers Bus post insulator & string insulators Substation Equipment such as circuit-beakers, isolators, earthing switches, surge arresters, CTs, V Ts, neutral grounding equipment. Station Earthing sy stem comprising ground mat, risers, aux iliary mat, earthing strips, earthing spikes & earth electrodes. Ov erhead earthwire shielding against lightening strokes. Galv anised steel structures for towers, gantries, equipment supports. PLCC equipment including line trap, tuning unit, coupling capacitor, etc. Power cables Control cables for protection and control Roads, Railway track, cable trenches Station illumination sy stem

2 Main Office Building

Administrativ e building
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Substation Main Functions and Classification | EEP

Conference room etc.

3 Switchgear and Control Panel Building

Low v oltage a.c. Switchgear Control Panels, Protection Panels

4 Battery Room and D.C. Distribution System

D.C. Battery sy stem and charging equipment D.C. distribution sy stem

5 Mechanical, Electrical and Other Auxiliaries

Fire fighting sy stem Diesel Generator (D.G.) Set Oil purification sy stem

Secondary Distribution

Distribution Substation




Substation Main Functions and Classification | EEP

Secon da r y su bst a t ion - V ila lon g a V LG 6 6 /2 0 k V




Substation Main Functions and Classification | EEP

Dist r ibu t ion su bst a t ion - 2 0 /0 4 k V MCset m et a l-cla d sw it ch g ea r (Sch n eider Elect r ic)