Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 10


Introduction In digital world like today, it is deniable that every aspect of live grow and change very fast like consumers behaviour. In hours or days, trends, fashion, consumers motivation to buy goods may change. In order to keep up and understand the changing of consumers behaviour, marketers have to do a research about consumers behaviour of particular product. Consumer behaviour are all about the consumers decision in regards to the buying, consumption, and disposition of goods, people, ideas, services, activities (Jacoby 1976, 331). This report cover consumers behaviour research of Play Station 4. This report cover company and current product description, target market profile, behavioural analysis of target market, marketing mix plan and recommendations. The purpose of this report is to understand and predict the way how the consumers of Play Station 4 will act, select, and decide toward the goods. 2. Company and Current Product Description Sony Corporation is large multinational company. Sony was founded in 7 May 1946 by Masaru Ibuka. Today, Sony Corporation is engaged in Electronic products, Games products, Entertainment products, and Financial Services (SONY 2013). Play Station is one of their popular products. It has 3 generations, Play Station 1, Play Stations 2, and Play Stations 3. The advanced one is Play Stations 3. It was released on 2006 worldwide. On that day, they already used an advanced disc technology called Blue-Ray Disc. Blue-Ray Disc itself was released on June 2006 and it was expensive. It was used for game discs by Sony. Therefore, in order to play games on Play Stations 3, consumers need to buy the expensive Blue-Ray disc. So as expected, the first year of the Play Stations 3 had been hard because it had high price. In order to solve this issue, Sony had lowered the price in hopes of increasing sales (Moats 2008, 7). As the time pass by, nowadays Sony Play Station 3 is well known as Games Console. Sony introduce It Only Does Everything as their new tagline for Play Stations 3 (Dille 2009). In fact, it is true that it does almost everything. Sony Play Stations 3 have a lot of features. It offers a wide range of entertainment including TV programme, Radio Online, Retail, Movies, Songs, and Social Networking outlets. This all features are integrated in Play Stations Network. With Play Stations Network, Consumers can download HD movies, watching TV online, radio online and so on. Consumer no need to worry about the storage of Play Stations 3. Play Stations 3 use Blue-Ray Disc which can hold up to 100GB per disc. So, it does everything for consumers enjoyment. Therefore, Play Stations 3 has a high quality in Entertainment, Games Technology, and it also has a good brand image, since Sony Group is well known for its high products quality.

3. Target Market Profile In order to understand the way how consumer of Play Stations 4 will act, we need to identify and predict who are the target market of Play Stations 4. The main recommendation of Play Stations 4s target market are young man or people who aged 12-39 years old or Generation Y. because in this stage, people especially young man are comfortable and attracted with advanced technology like Play Stations 3 has. In this stage also, people tend to spend most of their leisure time to play games or watching movies. According to the research, researchers found that male gamers show greater activation in their brain than their female counterparts. This greater activation is the main reasons why male tend to more addict to video games (Gitlin 2008). Therefore, Play Stations 4 should focus more on male since they have greater chance that they will become loyal customers or hard-core gamers. Next recommendations are Play Stations 4 should targets a country that has advanced technology or Internet to support the people who loves to play games. Sydney, Australia is one of the country that has advanced technology and fast internet. Therefore, Play Stations 4 should make Sydney Australia as their target market. Value and Lifestyle Survey (VALS) also can be used to determine potential target markets. The next recommendations are Play Stations 4 should use Experiencers as their VALS. People in Experiencers are the people who are young, entertainment seeking, and enthusiastic (Hoyer, Maclnnis, and Pieters 2012, 396). This all criteria match with Play Stations 4 which provide a lot of great games for enthusiastic gamers, entertainment, and a lot of fun for their consumers. Needs also can be used to segment target market. For Play Stations 4 is Hedonic needs, because Play Stations 4 offers enjoyment, pleasure, and entertainment to consumers. Hedonic itself means needs for cognitive and sensory stimulation, needs for play, and desires for sensory pleasure (Hoyer, Maclnnis, and Pieters 2012, 396). So people who seek enjoyment and entertainment can play Play Stations 4 to satisfy their needs. 4. Target Market Behavioural Analysis I. Consumer Personality Personality can be described as psychological characteristic that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment. Although personality tends to be consistent and enduring, it may abruptly in response to major life events, as well as gradually over time. There is theories of personality that prominent in study of consumer behaviour: Phenomenological theory (Hoyer, Maclnnis, and Pieters 2012, 396).

Phenomenological approaches says that personality is shaped by individuals interpretations of their life events (Rogers 1947, 358). The primer concept of this theory is locus of control, or why specific events occur (Weiner 1990, 465). There are two type of locus of control, external and internal. Internal locus of control means if something happen, consumers may blame themselves for bad or good outcomes. External locus of control means if something happen, consumers may blame others for bad or good outcomes. As a result, parents who always go to work may find that their children lonely and not energetic to do activities at home. They may blame themselves or others for what happened. So when parents see an advertisements about how to make your children happy and energetic, they will likely put more attention on the ads and even they will put more attention if the product is popular. Therefore, Sony Play Station, who well known because of their console games, may advertise their product using the detailed picture about child who play Play Stations 4 happily and energetically and expose it to business district in hopes they buy the product to make their child happy. There are also certain types of personality that may related to consumer behaviour like Optimal Stimulation Level, Need for Cognition, and Competitiveness. Optimal Stimulation Level means consumers tend to feel more arousal when to do some activities like playing horror games or shooting games. As a result, Play Station encourage consumers to buy their product by releasing horror games like Silent Hill and Resident Evil 5 and shows them how great to play horror games with friends. Need for cognition means consumers enjoy thinking extensively about things like products, features, and benefit. So marketers can use this trait to communicate with consumer. For example, Sony Play Station release a lot of information about Play Station 4 concept that are going to be launched. By doing so, consumers who have high need for cognition will try to find these information and fulfil their curious. So when they find it, they feel satisfy and feels like they want to try or even buy the products. Competitiveness means consumers want to outdo others in many terms like have a lot of electronic gadgets, having a lot of achievement of Play Station in Play Station Network, or having a good score in particular game. So when consumers see people or their friends having Play Station 3, they are more likely to beat it by buying high generation of Play Stations, Play station 4. II. Needs and Motivation In This world, every technologies are used to help people to working, including entertainment. The one that help people entertain them are Sony Play Station. Sony Play Station 4 is the item that will be launched in near future. People motivated to buy something that might entertain themselves. Motivation means that internal and external factors that stimulate desire in people to make them interested and do the job, role, subject, or effort to reach the goal. (Murcko 2013). One of the affection the motivation is needs. People who needs something will be motivated to find that something to their own benefit and fulfil their needs. The meaning of needs is a motivating

force that drive the action for the satisfaction. Needs can be divided by survival need to satisfy the necessities, cultural need, intellectual needs, and social needs (Murcko 2013).

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs (Hoyer, Maclnnis, and Pieters 2012, 50) In Maslow Hierarchy of needs, PlayStation 4 is in Esteem needs or egoistic needs, because they want the goods that entertain themselves and for the hardcore gamers, some of the games of the previous Play Station have achievement function and upload their achievement in the internet that can make the Play Station users get reputation from play that game so hard. There are two important types of needs. Functional needs and hedonic needs. Hedonic needs reflect our imprescriptible desires for sensory pleasure. If desire strong enough and the goods is interesting. It can make the consumers fantasizing about the goods that they are focus on. Functional needs means you likely to buy a product because of its function. For example that you might consider buy something that make you safety. (Hoyer and Macinnis 2010, 53). For the PlayStation, this goods considered in social hedonic needs (play) and functional needs because PlayStation is created to entertain the consumers with the varieties of the game and have a function to play any entertainment like watching HD movie and playing games. This can influence the motivation by stimulate the fantasizing in the consumers mind about what the feature of the PlayStation 4 and how sharp that the graphic of the PlayStation 4 have. Usually, the one who needs the PlayStation 4 is the male generation Y, because male generation Y have high level of fantasizing something and generally like to find out something new. So, it can motivate the target market to buy the PlayStation 4 and PlayStation 4 have a good chance to motivate people to buy because Sony Play Station corporation is an entertainment company that is one of the top ten in the world that offer high quality of the entertainment.

III. Consumer Attitude According to dictionary, Attitude means an overall expressions of thinking or feeling reflects how much we dislike or like an object or typically reflected in a persons behaviour (Oxford Dictionary 2011, 4th ed., 2008). Attitudes are very important because they can lead our thoughts, influence our feelings, and influence our behaviour towards something (Hoyer, Maclnnis, and Pieters 2012, 128). By understanding the way how attitude are formed, marketers can influence consumers attitudes toward the goods. There are two approach of attitude formation, Cognitions or beliefs and emotions. Cognitions means that attitudes are formed depends on information received from an external source or information we recall from memory (Fishbein and Ajzen 1975). Furthermore, researchers have found that messages with information of what the products for, like products features and function, can stimulate positive attitudes towards the products (White, Brashear, and Weinberger 2003, 57). The second approach is emotions. Emotions means that attitude are formed based on consumers feeling towards the goods. If they have positive feeling towards the goods, they may have s good attitudes towards the goods like become loyal customers. In fact, researcher also have found that both the utilitarian aspect (products function) and the hedonic aspect (experiences of using the product) influence attitudes towards the goods (Voss, Spangenburg, and Grohmann 2003, 310). So in order to stimulate positive attitudes towards Play Stations 4, Sony Play Station has to have an interesting advertisement that contains the capability of Play Stations 4, like watching HD movies, hear radio online, downloading torrent, playing awesome games, and so on. Furthermore it also has to contain a positive feeling, like advertisements that show how happy and great to play Play Station 4. So with cognitions and emotions, we can hope that consumers may have a positive feelings and attitude towards Play Stations 4. Marketers can influence consumer attitudes by cognitively (influencing thoughts) or affectively (influencing feelings). By cognitively means marketers can use five cognitive models to influence consumers attitude. For Play Stations 4, Marketers only need one cognitive models: direct or imagined experience. Direct or imagined experience means having an actual experience or imagine experiences with a products or services can help consumers to form positive or negative attitudes (Hoyer, Maclnnis, and Pieters 2012, 131). So when consumers have more favourable attitude towards a product like a brandnew car if consumers use imagery to think on the positive aspects of buying and using it (Bone and Ellen 1992). According this models, it tells marketer that if they want their customers have positive attitudes towards Play Stations 4, make them play it and have experience by opening a free demo Play stations 4 counters and show them how good the experience of playing Play Stations 4.

Furthermore, marketers also can use Theory of Reason Action (TORA) to provide an explanation of why, how, and when attitudes predict behaviour (Bagozzi et al. 2000, 428).

The Theory of Reasoned Action (Hoyer, Maclnnis, and Pieters 2012, 134) According to this models, attitude toward the act are determined by consumers belief and evaluation. However, it is also influenced normative belief (important people) and motivation to comply with significant person. With all together will create behavioural intention that eventually become behaviour. By understanding this model, marketers can change or influence consumers attitudes and behaviour through several strategies. One of the strategies are encourage attitude formation based on imagined experience. It means that Play Stations 4s marketers can communicate information through ads that contains vivid language, detailed pictures, or free-demo games to encourage consumers to imagine the experience of playing Play Station 4. So if Play Stations 4 offers a free demo to play it. Consumers may experience a positive thought about the products and in the end, creating a positive brand attitudes towards Play Stations 4. Marketers also can influence consumers attitude affectively or through feelings. For example, Play Station 4 has an interesting advertisement that shows happiness feeling (emotional appeal) of playing Play Station 4 games. Consumers will generate feelings and images about happily playing Play Stations 4 games at home in response to the message, this is called affective response (Batra and Ray 1986, 234)

5. Marketing Mix Recommendations I. Product

Sony Play Station 4 should have all of the features that Play Stations 3 has. Like using Play Station 3 to play Blue-Ray disc movies. So Play Station 4 also can be used for watching any HD movies from Blue-Ray disc. The next feature that Play Station 4 should have are Online TV Movies, downloading HD movies, listening online radio, and many more. This all feature will surely satisfy people who want to fulfil their hedonic needs. For people who have high need for cognition, Sony Play Station should use the latest technology in their Play Station 4. For example, using High Class AMD A10 Accelerated Processing Unit that combines CPU and Graphic processing unit on a single chip. It is believed that processor can run games in 1080p resolution at 60 frames per second, even in 3D without any slowdown. They also can use up to 16GB of memory or 256GB of storage SSD. By doing so, people who have high need for cognition will curious about this product and they will search more information. They also want to try this product and buy it. This information also can stimulate consumers to create positive attitudes towards the goods. For people who want Optimal Stimulation Level, Sony Play Station should release more horror games, like Silent Hill, that can trigger players adrenaline to play the games. Sony Play Station also can attract more costumer by increasing competitiveness in their product. Like releasing Sony Play Station Network where people can posted their games scores. So when one player see another players games score on PC games that also available in Play Station 4, he want to beat it by having a new Play Station 4,which better than PC, and play the games to beat the score. For parents who always work, they want their child having fun instead of making a mess at home because of their games. Sometimes parents blame their children or even themselves (locus of control) and want to get rid of it. Therefore, Play Station 4 should have a simple design, wireless controller, higher storage capacity to store games so less disc and easy to arrange the disc, and the important thing durable. So Parents dont want to waste their time just to repair games console many time and also with all this features Play Station will be more interesting. II. Price In the past when Sony launched their Sony Play Station 3, they use price skimming. Because Play Station 3 is a unique product, elastic product and there are only a few substituted like Xbox360. By using this pricing strategy, Sony Play Station 4 can gain significant cash flow quickly and gradually reduce the price to gain more market. From consumers point of view, when they see the price is quite high they will think why the price is like that, is it because of the quality, features or the hardware. So with this strategy, Sony can encourage people to search more about Play Station 4 and enhance their curiosity about why the price is high. For people who have high need for cognition will like to do this since they gain a lot of information.

Sony also can offer bundles. Like selling a one Play Station 4 with two wireless controller free two games. Sony also should use psychology pricing. Like using S$599 instead of $600, because in consumers mind it is not 600 but 500. So this strategy influence consumers psychologically or we can say affectively. III. Promotion For the Promotion Recommendation, we recommended that for advertising, using the competitive advertising. Competitive advertising is using advertising to promote the features or attributes of the product to compete. We recommended it because the target market (Generation Y Male) is have the high level of fantasizing something and like with something unexpected. So, advertise the features and attributes that will surprise the target market will likely interested in the product and with the information the features and attributes of the product will stimulate positive attitudes in form of beliefs towards the product. It also can stimulate positive attitudes in form of emotion towards the product if Sony PlayStation can make an advertisement and show the audiences how great and happy when children playing Play Station 4. The other reasons is to win the consumers attention in term of the consumers personality of the high cognition because if the PlayStation release the new feature, new hardware, and new software, that make the consumers with high cognition will find out the information to clear their own curious. The other promotion recommendation is the consumer sales promotion, for exactly the premium offers. Because to create the positive attitude in form of emotion, we need to something bonus. Who do not happy get the bonus? So, with the premium offers, we hope that will make the consumers happy with the bonus offers and will buy the product. Sony should provide free demo play in their store or intermediaries. So let their consumer have direct experience in hopes that they will have positive attitude and feeling towards Play Station 4. Sony also should advertise Play Station 4 at strategic place at business district (as we discussed at locus of control, consumer personality), Mall, Shopping Centre, Game Centre, near McDonald and others. IV. Place The distribution system for Play Station 4 can be directly from Sony (Official Stores of Sony Play Station 4) or indirectly through other department stores in Sydney (Intermediaries). By distribution to all area of Sydney, consumer will familiar with Play Station 4 because they can find Play Station 4 anywhere. Sony also can offer online purchasing through their official site because a lot of generation why love to surfing the Internet.

6. Conclusion Sony should understand first what their consumers want and how their consumers behaviour towards the Play Station 4. This all will bring advantage to Sony like High profit, gain reputation,

gain large market and so on. Furthermore by understanding all consumer behaviour theory and apply it, it will make consumers have a positive attitude and feeling towards all products of Sony not only Play Station 4. This will generate more and more loyal customers.