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The Hydrosphere

ChE 150 Environmental Process Engineering 2 nd Semester AY 2012-2013

LECTURE OUTLINE

Hydrosphere

Water and its Properties

Hydrologic Cycle

Water Systems

Water Resources Issues

HYDROSPHERE

Liquid portion of the

atmosphere

Primarily H 2 O

HYDROSPHERE • Liquid portion of the atmosphere • Primarily H 2 O

BENEFICIAL USES OF WATER

Aquatic life and fisheries

Drinking water resources

Domestic uses

Recreation

Agricultural use

Industrial uses

Transportation

WATER PROPERTIES

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES:

Very stable compound

Polar molecule

WATER PROPERTIES CHEMICAL PROPERTIES: • Very stable compound • Polar molecule
WATER PROPERTIES CHEMICAL PROPERTIES: • Very stable compound • Polar molecule

WATER PROPERTIES

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES:

Water is called the "universal solvent" because it dissolves more substances

than any other liquid.

Ionic substances

Some gases

Sugars

Other biologically important

compounds

WATER PROPERTIES

WATER PROPERTIES

WATER PROPERTIES

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES:

Ability to form hydrogen bonds

Pure water has a neutral pH of 7, which is neither acidic nor basic.

WATER PROPERTIES

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:

Water is unique in that it is the only natural substance that is found in all

three states -- liquid, solid (ice), and

gas (steam) -- at the temperatures

normally found on Earth.

WATER PROPERTIES

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:

Water is unusual in that the solid form, ice, is less dense than the

liquid form, which is why ice floats.

Water has higher density than most

other liquids.

Colorless, tasteless, odorless liquid

WATER PROPERTIES

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:

Transparent to visible and longer- wavelength fraction of ultraviolet

(UV) light.

Has a very high surface tension.

WATER PROPERTIES

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:

Has higher heat capacity than any other liquid except ammonia.

Has higher heat of evaporation than any other material.

Has higher latent heat of fusion than any other liquid except

ammonia.

WATER RESOURCES

WATER RESOURCES

WATER RESOURCES

WATER RESOURCES

HYDROLOGIC CYCLE

The movement of water from one

reservoir to another.

Three main reservoirs of water:

- oceans

- atmosphere

- continents

HYDROLOGIC CYCLE

Powered by the sun

Possible because of the different phase changes that water can

undergo:

- evaporation and condensation

- sublimation

- melting and freezing

HYDROLOGIC CYCLE

PROCESSES IN THE CYCLE:

Precipitation the change of atmospheric water vapor to liquid (rain) or solid (snow)

Evaporation the phase change of water

from liquid to vapor

Transpiration the release of water into

the atmosphere by plant and animal cells

HYDROLOGIC CYCLE

PROCESSES IN THE CYCLE:

Infiltration the movement of liquid water downward from the land surface into and

through the soil and rock

Runoff the total amount of water from continents flowing into a stream

HYDROLOGIC CYCLE

Residence Time the amount of time that

a water molecule typically resides in a

given reservoir

Typical Residence Times of Reservoirs:

Oceans 2650 years

Atmosphere about 8 days

Continents 403 years

Hydrologic budget compares inflow and outflow of water in a certain reservoir

HYDROLOGIC CYCLE

HYDROLOGIC CYCLE

WATER SYSTEMS

Fresh Water

Surface Water

Ground Water

Saline Water

Marine Water

Coastal Water

SURFACE WATER SYSTEMS

Drainage channels and enclosed bodies of

water that regulate the supply of fresh

water in the continents.

Include rivers, lakes, ponds , and wetlands .

Store some precipitation and glacial melt

water and carry the run-off to replenish

the ocean.

Supports an ecology of interdependent

plant and animal.

SURFACE WATER SYSTEMS

Surface water is water on the ground or in

a stream, river, lake, sea or ocean; as

opposed to groundwater.

Important sources of public water supplies because of the high withdrawal rates they

can normally sustain.

RIVERS

Drain into oceans.

Characterized by uni-directional current with a relatively high velocity

(0.1 1.0 m/s).

Thorough and continuous vertical

mixing.

Lateral mixing may take place only

over considerable distances.

LAKES

Characterized by a low, average

current velocity of 0.001 to 0.01 m/s

(surface values)

Currents are multi-directional.

Shows alternating periods of

stratification and vertical mixing, the

periodicity of which is regulated by

climactic conditions and lake depth.

LAKES

LAKES

LAKES

LAKES

LAKES

LAKES

LAKES

LAKES

LAKES

LAKES

LAKES

LAKES

WETLANDS

Poorly drained, low relief areas in

which the soil is seasonally or

perennially saturated or covered

with water.

Examples include rice paddies, mangrove forests, and marshes.

Rich in organic matter.

Destroyed mainly through draining and filling.

WETLANDS

Provide habitat for plants and animals in

the watershed.

Help to absorb and slow floodwaters.

Absorb excess nutrients, sediment, and

other pollutants before they reach

rivers, lakes, and other water bodies.

Great spots for fishing, canoeing, hiking, and bird-watching.

GROUNDWATER

“Underground water”

Characterized by steady flow patterns in terms of direction and

velocity.

Velocity is between 10 -10 to 10 -3 and largely governed by permeability and porosity of the

geological material.

Poor mixing.

GROUNDWATER

Water that has percolated

downward from the ground surface

through the soil pores.

Not as susceptible in pollution as surface water but once polluted,

restoration is difficult and long

term.

GROUNDWATER

GROUNDWATER

GROUNDWATER

Water table determines the boundary

where groundwater starts.

GROUNDWATER Water table – determines the boundary where groundwater starts.

GROUNDWATER

GROUNDWATER

GROUNDWATER

Environmental hazards associated

with groundwater:

Land subsidence

Groundwater mining

Saline intrusion in coastal areas

Groundwater pollution

GROUNDWATER

When water is withdrawn, the soil

compacts and sinks, a process called subsidence.

Excessive withdrawal of water threatens

the long-term prospects for irrigated

agriculture.

called subsidence . • Excessive withdrawal of water threatens the long-term prospects for irrigated agriculture.
called subsidence . • Excessive withdrawal of water threatens the long-term prospects for irrigated agriculture.

GROUNDWATER

Groundwater overdraft drains swamps

and ponds at times drying them up

completely.

GROUNDWATER • Groundwater overdraft drains swamps and ponds at times drying them up completely.

GROUNDWATER

Groundwater overdraft leads to

saltwater intrusion.

GROUNDWATER • Groundwater overdraft leads to saltwater intrusion.

GROUNDWATER

GROUNDWATER

GROUNDWATER

GROUNDWATER Saltwater intrusion

Saltwater

intrusion

GROUNDWATER

GROUNDWATER

GROUNDWATER

Major sources of

groundwater pollution:

Leaking underground storage tanks and

septic tanks

Leachate from landfills and dumpsites

Pesticides and fertilizers from

agricultural fields

Accidental spills

GROUNDWATER

Contaminants flow in groundwater

thru dispersion.

Contaminated groundwater is

cleaned by containment,

containment withdrawal and

bioremediation.

GROUNDWATER

GROUNDWATER

GROUNDWATER

GROUNDWATER

GROUNDWATER

GROUNDWATER

GROUNDWATER

GROUNDWATER

GROUNDWATER

GROUNDWATER

SEA WATER

Sea water is water from sea or ocean.

On average, sea water in the world's

oceans has a salinity of ~3.5%

Seawater can be turned into drinkable

(potable) water by one of a number of

desalination processes.

salinity of ~3.5% • Seawater can be turned into drinkable (potable) water by one of a

SALINE WATER

Saline because the rate of addition of ions

from rivers exceeds their rate of depletion.

Surface currents are driven by winds.

Deep-ocean currents occur because

gravity pulls water along a density

gradient created by vertical differences in

temperature and salinity.

SALINE WATER

SALINE WATER

POLLUTION IN OCEANS

Source

% of total

Runoff and discharge from land

44

Airborne emissions from land

33

Shipping and accidental spills

12

Ocean dumping

10

Offshore mining and oil gas drilling

1

WATER USE

Consumptive renders water unavailable

for future use; either because of

evaporation, extreme pollution, or seepage

underground; until the hydrologic cycle

returns as rain.

Non-consumptive leaves the water

available (after treatment if necessary) for

reuse without going through the hydrologic

cycle.

RECLAIMED WASTEWATER

Water that has been

treated sufficiently for

direct reuse in

industry and

agriculture and for

limited municipal

reclamation.

that has been treated sufficiently for direct reuse in industry and agriculture and for limited municipal

WATER USE

FACTORS AFFECTING AVAILABILITY AND

QUALITY OF WATER:

Erosion Flooding Drought
Erosion
Flooding
Drought

WATER SUPPLY PROBLEMS

Unequal distribution of

accessible water

Rapidly rising demand

Pollution of water supplies

WATER SUPPLY PROBLEMS

WATER SUPPLY PROBLEMS TRADITIONAL APPROACHES TO WATER SHORTAGES : • Groundwater withdrawals • Dams and reservoirs

TRADITIONAL APPROACHES TO

WATER SHORTAGES:

Groundwater withdrawals Dams and reservoirs

WATER SUPPLY PROBLEMS TRADITIONAL APPROACHES TO WATER SHORTAGES : • Groundwater withdrawals • Dams and reservoirs
WATER SUPPLY PROBLEMS TRADITIONAL APPROACHES TO WATER SHORTAGES : • Groundwater withdrawals • Dams and reservoirs
WATER SUPPLY PROBLEMS TRADITIONAL APPROACHES TO WATER SHORTAGES : • Groundwater withdrawals • Dams and reservoirs

DAMS AND RESERVOIRS

POSITIVE EFFECTS:

Help prevent recurrent catastrophic

floods

Generate electricity

Provide needed water for farms and

cities during drought periods

Increase certain forms of recreation

DAMS AND RESERVOIRS

NEGATIVE EFFECTS:

Inundate wildlife habitat, farmland,

and towns

Reduce stream flow into the ocean

resulting in changes in salt concentration of receiving waters

Reduction in the flow of nutrient-rich

sediment to coastal waters

MEETING PRESENT AND FUTURE

DEMANDS

How Water is Used in a Typical

Household:

MEETING PRESENT AND FUTURE DEMANDS How Water is Used in a Typical Household:

FLOODING:

PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

CAUSES OF FLOODING

Heavy rainfall

Precipitation that do not evaporate

either runoff or percolate into the soil

-- Forest and grasses retard water flow

and promote percolation

--

--

Heavily vegetated watersheds act as

sponges.

Light vegetation increases surface

runoff and, hence flooding.

CAUSES OF FLOODING

Stripping of vegetation by farmers,

urban planners, and developers

Increasing number of highways,

shopping centers, office buildings, and

homes, which greatly increase the

amount of impermeable surface

CONTROLLING FLOODING

Dams

Watershed management

Zoning