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Scattering: The random change in the direction of a beam of light or energy due Secondary Immune Response: Antibodies made

in response to a second or subsequent to a collision with particles. Selective to an antigen. exposure Toxicity: Toxicity for a microorganism but not the host. Selective tox Septum: icity isAadividing wall or membrane between bodyagents. cellular spaces, or tis desirable property for antimicrobial spaces, Septic sues. Shock: A sudden drop in blood pressure due to an infection by Gram-negati Serum: The straw-colored liquid remaining after blood plasma has clotted. The se ve bacteria. Sludge: A general term for any precipitated solid matter produced during water a rum contains the immunoglobulins. Small Molecule: A molecule of relatively low molecular weight, such as a monomer nd sewage treatment. Sparging: The agitation of a liquid caused by a gas entering through a pipe or t of a macromolecule. Spectrophotometer: A photometer used to measure light intensity at a particular ube. Structural A sac-like Sporangium: Activity: expanded form of a molecular formula that shows the bond Spectrum of spectrum. The range that contains spores. part of theFormula: Thestructureof antimicrobial activity of a drug. Supercoiled: A Sulfonolipid:Having an additional twist that is not covalently added to it. s between atoms.lipid with a sulfur-containing grouppresent in an unstrained dou Symbiotic: ble helix. A relationship in which organisms of two species live in very close p Taxonomist: Taxa: Categories in a formal system the general principles of classification of roximity. A scientist who studies of biological nomenclature. Tissue Specificity: The localization of a pathogen or molecule in a particular t organisms. Transmembrane Protein: A protein that traverses biological membrane one or mor Toxin: issue. A product of an organism that is toxic toaanother organism. Transposon: A The piece of synthesizing RNA to another region of Transcription:smallprocessof DNA that can move from a DNA template. DNA. Transpo e times. Turgor: The osmotic pressure generated by the cytoplasm and exerted resistance. sons often carry genes for selectable phenotypes, such as antibioticagainst the Typhus: A cell wall.deadly bacterial disease that occurs in two forms: epidemic typhus (ca used by Rickettsia prowazekii and transmitted by infected lice) and murine typhu Valence: by number of typhi and transmitted a substance that are s (causedThe Rickettsiasites on the surface ofby infected fleas). available fo r interaction. Examples of valences include the number of antigen binding sites Valence Electrons: Electrons in the outer shell of an atom that are responsible on an antibody or the number of bonds an atom can form. Valence Shell: The outer shell or layer of atom. for the chemical bonding properties of thatelectrons, where the chemical bonding Vegetative Cell: Aatom are determined. in nutritive functions and growth by ase properties of an cell that is engaged Virion: A complete that particle, consisting Viable Cell: xual means. A cellvirus is alive and capable of reproduction. a protein coat, a nucleic acid, and occasionally an external envelope. Virions are the extracellular and infect Virulent: Capable of ive forms of viruses.causing disease characterized by a rapid, severe, and malig Vitamin: An nant course.organic substance that is essential to the nutrition of an organism but does not provide energy or serve as a monomeric unit. Vitamins are often coe Zygomycoses: Infections caused by nzymes or precursors of coenzymes.a Zygomycetes fungus.