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# Groups

1. The binary operator multiplication modulo 14, denoted by *, is defined on the set
S = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12}.
(a) Copy and complete the following operation table.
*
2 4 6 8 10 12
2
4 8 2 10 4 12 6
6
8
10 6 12 4 10 2 8
12
(4)

(b) (i) Show that {S, *} is a group.
(ii) Find the order of each element of {S, *}.
(iii) Hence show that {S, *} is cyclic and find all the generators.
(11)

(c) The set T is defined by {x * x : x

## S}. Show that {T, *} is a subgroup of {S, *}.

(3)
(Total 18 marks)

2. (a) Consider the set A = {1, 3, 5, 7} under the binary operation *, where * denotes
multiplication modulo 8.
(i) Write down the Cayley table for {A, *}.
(ii) Show that {A, *} is a group.
(iii) Find all solutions to the equation 3 * x * 7 = y. Give your answers in the
form (x, y).
(9)

(b) Now consider the set B = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9} under the binary operation

, where

denotes
multiplication modulo 10. Show that {B,

} is not a group.
(2)
IB Mathematics Higher Level 1
(c) Another set C can be formed by removing an element from B so that {C,

} is a group.
(i) State which element has to be removed.
(ii) Determine whether or not {A, *} and {C,

} are isomorphic.
(3)
(Total 14 marks)

3. The binary operator * is defined for a, b

by a * b = a + b ab.
(a) (i) Show that * is associative.
(ii) Find the identity element.
(iii) Find the inverse of a

## , showing that the inverse exists for all values of a except

one value which should be identified.
(iv) Solve the equation x * x = 1.
(15)

(b) The domain of * is now reduced to S = {0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} and the arithmetic is carried out
modulo 7.
(i) Copy and complete the following Cayley table for {S, *}.
* 0 2 3 4 5 6
0 0 2 3 4 5 6
2 2 0 6 5 4 3
3 3
4 4
5 5
6 6

(ii) Show that {S, *} is a group.

(iii) Determine the order of each element in S and state, with a reason, whether or not
{S, *} is cyclic.
Groups
(iv) Determine all the proper subgroups of {S, *} and explain how your results
illustrate Lagranges theorem.

(v) Solve the equation 2 * x * x = 5.
(17)
(Total 32 marks)

4. The binary operation * is defined on the set S = {0, 1, 2, 3} by
a * b = a + 2b + ab (mod 4).
(a) (i) Construct the Cayley table.

(ii) Write down, with a reason, whether or not your table is a Latin square.
(4)

(b) (i) Write down, with a reason, whether or not * is commutative.

(ii) Determine whether or not * is associative, justifying your answer.
(5)

(c) Find all solutions to the equation x * 1 = 2 * x, for x

S.
(4)
(Total 13 marks)

5. (a) Show that the set of matrices of the form

,
_

b
a
0
0
, where a, b

+
is a group G under matrix multiplication.
(You may assume that matrix multiplication is associative.)
(7)
IB Mathematics Higher Level 3
(b) Given that the set of matrices of the form

,
_

ab
b
a
0 0
0 0
0 0
, where a, b

+
is a group H under matrix multiplication, show that G and H are isomorphic.
(9)
(Total 16 marks)

6. The group {G, * } is defined on the set G = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} where * denotes multiplication
modulo 7.
(a) Draw the Cayley table for {G, * }.
(3)
(b) (i) Determine the order of each element of {G, * }.
(ii) Find all the proper subgroups of {G, * }.
(6)
(c) Solve the equation
x * 6 * x = 3 where xG.
(3)
(Total 12 marks)

7. Consider the group {G, *} and let H be a subset of G defined by
H = {x G such that x * a = a * x for all a G}.
Show that {H, * } is a subgroup of {G, * }.
(Total 12 marks)

8. A binary operation is defined on {1, 0, 1} by
A B =

'

>

<
. if 1,
if , 0
if , 1
B A
B A
B A

Groups
(a) Construct the Cayley table for this operation.
(3)

(b) Giving reasons, determine whether the operation is
(i) closed;
(ii) commutative;
(iii) associative.
(7)
(Total 10 marks)

9. Two functions, F and G, are defined on A = \ {0, 1} by
F(x) =
x
1
, G(x) = 1 x, for all x

A.
(a) Show that under the operation of composition of functions each function is its own
inverse.
(3)

(b) F and G together with four other functions form a closed set under the operation of
composition of functions.
Find these four functions.
(7)
(Total 10 marks)

10. Determine, giving reasons, which of the following sets form groups under the operations given
below. Where appropriate you may assume that multiplication is associative.
(a) under subtraction.
(2)

(b) The set of complex numbers of modulus 1 under multiplication.
(4)

(c) The set {1, 2, 4, 6, 8} under multiplication modulo 10.
(2)

(d) The set of rational numbers of the form
IB Mathematics Higher Level 5
1 3
1 3
+
+
n
m
, where m, n

under multiplication.
(5)
(Total 13 marks)