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Contract of Sale. By the contract of sale one of the contracting parties obligates himself to transfer the ownership of and to deliver a determinate thing and the other to pay therefore a price certain in money or its equivalent. Contract of Sale Title over the property passes to the buyer upon delivery unless there is a contrary agreement Non-payment of the purchase price is a negative resolutory condition, meaning the sale becomes ineffective upon the happening of such condition After delivery of the objective, the seller loses ownership over it. Unless, the contract is set aside, he cannot recover the object Contract to Sell Ownership is retained by the seller whether or not there is delivery. Ownership passes to the buyer only upon full payment of the price The payment in full is a positive suspensive condition, meaning, if the purchase price is not paid, the obligation to deliver and to transfer ownership on the part of the seller does not become effective Whether there is delivery or not, the seller retains the ownership of the object. If the seller, due to nonpayment of the price is ousting the buyer from the property, he (seller) is not rescinding the contract of sale but is precisely enforcing it. Contract to Sell No contract to sale only, a preparatory contract No delivery yet. No sale yet No specific performance/rescissionno contract yet Payment will not complete transaction

Pactum Reservatii Domini Conditional Sale there is already a contract of sale There is already delivery but ownership retain by seller Specific Performance/Rescission Payment completes the transaction

Phases or Stages of A contract of Sale 1. Preparation, conception or generationthe period of negotiation and bargaining, ending at the moment of agreement of the parties 2. Perfection or Birth of the Contract 3. Consummation or deathwhich is the fulfilment or performance of the terms agreed upon Characteristics or Features of Contract of Sale (NBC-COP) 1. NominateIt has a specific name given by law. 2. Bilateralboth parties are obliged to fulfil reciprocal obligations to one another. 3. ConsensualIt is perfected by mere consent 4. CommutativeThe thing sold is equivalent of the price paid 5. OnerousThe thing sold is conveyed in consideration of the purchase price and the purchase price is paid in consideration of the conveyance of the thing. 6. PrincipalIts existence does not depend upon the existence and validity of another contract Elements of Contract of Sale 1.Essential Elementsnecessary for the validty of the sale. a. Meeting of the minds of the seller and the buyer b. Object which is certain and determinate c. Price certain 2. Natural Elementsthose which are inherent in the contract and are deemed to exist in the contract of sale in the absence of clear contrary agreement. a. Warrant against eviction b. Warranty against hidden defects 3. Accidental ElementsMay or may not exist depending on the stipulations of the parties like conditions, payment of interest, place and time of payment. Object Must be Licit or Lawful. There are two kinds of illicit things: a. Illicit per sewhen by its nature it is heinous, immoral or wrongful b. Illicit per accidenswhen it is prohibited by law When is a thing determinate? a. When it is particularly designated or physically segregated from all others of the same class. b. The thing is capable of being made determinate, at the time the contract is entered into, w/o the necessity of a new or further agreement between the parties.

SALES Emptio rei sperataea sale of an expected thing subject to the condition that the thing will come to existence. If the thing did not come into existence, the contract is not effective and the buyer has no obligation to pay the price. Presumption is in favor of this kind of sale, because it is more in keeping with the commutative character of a sale.

Emptio speia sale of a hope or expectancy. The contracting parties intended that contract of sale to exist at all events, whether or not the expected thing will come into existence such that the buyer will have to pay the purchase price, such that the contract becomes aleatory in nature. Emptio rei speratae vs. Emptio spei Emptio rei speratae Sale of a thing having a potential existence The uncertainty is with regard the quantity and quality but not with regard the existence of the thing The contract deals with a future thing The sale is subject to the condition that the thing should exist, so that if it does not, there is no contract for lack of an essential requisite Emptio spei Sale of a mere hope or expectancy The uncertainty is with regard the existence of the thing The contract deals with a present thingthe hope or expectancy The sale produces effects eventhough the thing itself does not come into existence, since the subject matter is the hope itself

Future Goods that may be subject of a contract of sale 1. Goods to be manufactured yet 2. Goods to be acquired by the seller after the perfection of contract of sale 3. Goods that depends upon a contingency that may or may not happen Purchase of an Undivided Share in Specific Mass of Fungible Goods. Rules: 1. If the aliquot part purchased from the seller is more than the whole undetermined mass after it had been weighed or measured, then the buyer becomes the owner of the entire mass. 2. If the aliquot part purchased is less than the whole undetermined mass, the purchaser will become the co-owner of the whole mass in the proportion in which the number, weight or measure of what had been purchased bears to the number, weight or measure of the mass or stock. Sale vs. Agency SALE The buyer pays for the price of the goods/property purchased The buyer becomes the owner of the goods/property purchased Buyer cannot return the goods/property when the sale is defective The seller warrants the goods/property sold The seller has full freedom to enter into any terms or conditions on the contract of sale AGENCY The agent does not pay for the price. He merely accounts for the proceeds of the sale. The agent does not become the owner of the goods/property delivered to him for sale. The agent returns the goods/property if he was not able to sell the same The agent does not make any warranty as long as he acts within his authority and in the name of the principal The agent must follow the instructions of the principal

Contract for a Piece of WorkThe article sold is specially manufactured and upon the special order of the customer. Article is not sold in the ordinary course of business. (See. Concrete Aggregates vs. CTA) Contract for a piece of work The thing transferred is one not in existence and w/c never would have existed but for the order of the party desiring to acquire it The services dominate the contract eventhough there is a sale of goods involved Not w/in the Statute of Frauds Contract of Sale The thing transferred is one which would have existed and would have been the subject of sale to some other person, even if the order had not been given The primary objective of the contract is a sale of the manufactured item; it is a sale of goods eventhough the item is manufactured by labor furnished by the seller and upon previous order of the customer Governable by the Statute of Frauds

SALES Rules if Consideration is partly Money and Partly Goods 1. Determine the intention of the parties. 2. If intention could not be determined, consider the value of the thing given: a. If value of the thing more than value of the money, it is BARTER b. If value of the thing less than value of the money, it is SALE c. If both values are the same, SALE Money Exchange. If local currency is exchanged for foreign currencythere is purchase and sale. If the local currency is exchanged with other denominations of the local currency also, there is barter (Same rule if Foreign Currency exchanged in the Philippines for another foreign currency) PRICE - the sum stipulated as the equivalent of the thing sold and also every incident taken into consideration for the fixing of the price, which was agreed upon by both parties. Rules if there is no specific amount stipulated as purchase price 1. It is still certain if it is determinable by making reference to another thing which is itself certain 2. It is still certain if determination is entrusted to the judgment of a specified person or persons 3. By reference to certain fact or facts (such as in Art. 1472when the price is fixed is that which the thing sold would have on a definite day or a particular exchange) Effect if 3rd Person fixed the price General Rule: It is binding upon the parties Exceptions: 1. When the 3rd person acts in bad faith 2. When the 3rd person disregards the specific instructions or the procedure marked out by the parties

Effect when the price is not fixed by the 3rd person designated 1. If the 3rd person refuses or cannot fix the price, the contract shall become ineffective, unless the parties subsequently agree upon the price 2. If the 3rd person is prevented from fixing the price by the fault of the seller or buyer, the party not in fault may obtain redress against the party in fault. Effect of Gross Inadequacy of Price. No effect. Exceptions: (meaning, sale is set aside) 1. If consent is vitiated, such as VIMFU (Violence, Intimidation, Mistake, Fraud, Undue influence) 2. If the parties intended a donation or some other act or contract 3. If the price is so low as to be shocking to the conscience Effect of Simulated Price. Sale is void, unless it could be shown that the parties intended a donation or some other act of liberality. Price Simulated- No price to support a contract of sale, such that neither party had any intention that the amount will be paid void Price is False- there is a real price not declaredcontract is valid, but the underlying deed is subject to reformation to indicate the real price upon which the minds of the parties have met. When Price Cannot be determined, effect: Sale is inefficacious. (1474) Is appropriation of the thing delivered in an inefficacious contract allowed? Yes, buyer must pay a reasonable price to that part delivered. (Reasonable price is generally the market price at the time and place fixed by the contract or by law for the delivery of the goods) PERFECTION OF CONTRACT OF SALE. Meeting of the minds upon the thing and price. Effect: Parties may reciprocally demand performance RULES ON AUCTION SALES 1. Each lot is subject of a separate contract of sale 2. Auction sale is perfected when the auctioneer announces its perfection by the fall of the hammer or in other customary manner. * Pending announcement: Any bidder may retract his bid Auctioneer may withdraw the goods, unless auction is w/o reserve 3. A right to bid may be reserved expressly by or on behalf of the seller, unless otherwise provided by law or stipulation

SALES 4. Notice is essential for the seller or his representative to be able to bid. By-bidders or puffers: persons employed by auctioneer who will bid w/o being bound but whose bids will have a tendency to induce or provoke higher bids from interested buyers, thus misleading the latter because of the inflated bid price. **It is the secrecy of the puffing and not the authorized bidding by the seller which makes it fraudulent.

OPTION CONTRACT. A Privilege existing in one person, for which he had paid a consideration, which gives him the right to buy, certain merchandise or property from another person at anytime within the agreed period at a fixed price. In case of breach of promise to buy or to sell, injured party can only seek damages. (See Art. 1479) Test to Determine whether a Contract is A contract of Sale or An Option. Whether or not the agreement could be specifically enforced. If such stipulation could be independently enforced from the contract, then such stipulation is an option. EARNEST MONEY vs. OPTION MONEY Earnest Money It is part of the purchase price It is given only when there is already a perfected sale When it is given, the buyer is bound to pay the balance of the agreed purchase price If the sale does not materialize, the earnest money paid must be returned, unless a contrary agreement had been stipulated

Option Money It is given as a distinct consideration for an option contract which gives the buyer a specific period within which to purchase the thing It is given at a time when the sale had not yet been perfected. What had been perfected only is the option contract Even if option money is paid by the would-be-buyer he is not bound to buy the thing If the buyer decides not to buy the thing, he cannot recover the option money he paid as consideration for the contract of option

LOSS, DETERIORATION OF THING BEFORE PERFECTION. No contract to talk about. Would-be-seller bears the loss. AT THE TIME OF PERFECTION OF CONTRACT OF SALE1493 *contract without any effect: it never came to existence. Tthere could be no contract of sale without a thing to be sold. Wouldbe-seller bears the loss. AFTER PERFECTION BEFORE DELIVERY. I. 1480 Applicability, correlate to: (Fungibles sold independently and for a single price covered by the law)
Art. 1163. Every person obliged to give something is also obliged to take care of it with the proper diligence of a good father of a family, unless the law or the stipulation of the parties requires another standard of care Art. 1164. The creditor has a right to the fruits of the thing from the time the obligation to deliver it arises. However, he shall acquire no real right over it until the same has been delivered to him. Art. 1165. When what is to be delivered is a determinate thing, the creditor, in addition to the right granted him by Article 1170, may compel the debtor to make the delivery. If the thing is indeterminate or generic, he may ask that the obligation be complied with at the expense of the debtor. If the obligor delays, or has promised to deliver the same thing to two or more persons who do not have the same interest, he shall be responsible for any fortuitous event until he has effected the delivery Art. 1262. An obligation which consists in the delivery of a determinate thing shall be extinguished if it should be lost or destroyed without the fault of the debtor, and before he has incurred in delay. When by law or stipulation, the obligor is liable even for fortuitous events, the loss of the thing does not extinguish the obligation, and he shall be responsible for damages. The same rule applies when the nature of the obligation requires the assumption of risk.

SALES II. 1504 Applicability. Principle of Res Perit Domino. Vendor bears risk of loss until ownership is transferred by delivery. Exceptions: a) Where delivery of goods has been made but ownership is retained by the seller merely to secure performance of buyers obligation b) Where actual delivery is delayed through fault of the buyer.

Sale of Goods By Description- where a seller sells a thing as being of a certain kind verbally describing them and the buyer simply relies on the sellers descriptions of the things, not knowing whether the sellers representations are true or not. Sale by Sample- Where the seller warrants that the bulk of goods being sold correspond with the sample or samples exhibited not only in kind but also in quality and character. Sale by Description and Sample- Where the seller has to satisfy the requirements in sale by description and sample. There are twofold warranty here: (a) the goods purchased matched with the description and (b) the goods also matched in kind, quality and character with that of the sample or samples exhibited to the buyer or his representative RECTO LAW (ART. 1484) Applicability: Sales of Personal Property in Installments and Leases of Personal Property w/ Option to Buy Remedies: (1) Exact fulfillment of the obligation, should the vendee fail to pay; (2) Cancel the sale, should the vendee's failure to pay cover two or more installments; (3) Foreclose the chattel mortgage on the thing sold, if one has been constituted, should the vendee's failure to pay cover two or more installments. In this case, he shall have no further action against the purchaser to recover any unpaid balance of the price. Any agreement to the contrary shall be void. The stipulation that the instalments or rents shall not be returned to the vendee or lessee shall be valid as long as it is not unconscionable. (1486) ART. 1489. Two Kinds of Incapacity: 1. Absolute Incapacity- Party cannot bind himself in any case. 2. Relative Incapacity- Certain Persons under certain circumstances cannot buy certain property. ** Minors in contract for necessaries must pay reasonable price. Necessariesthose things which are needed for sustenance, dwelling, clothing and medical attendance, in keeping with the financial capacity of the family of the incapacitated person. ART. 1490. Prohibition against Husband and Wife. Exceptions. Rationale: PID a. To avoid Prejudice to 3rd Persons b. To prevent one spouse from unduly influencing the other. c. To avoid by indirection the violation of the prohibition against donations. Who may assail illegality? a. Creditors prior to the sale b. Heirs of either spouse. ** Either spouse may not assail illegality because they are parties thereto. ** A spouse designated as agent of the other spouse may sell the latters exclusive property. ART. 1491. Persons Relatively Incapacitated to Buy. (PAGEJO) 1. Public Officers and employeesProperty Of State. 2. AgentsProperty of Principal unless with consent. 3. GuardianProperty of Ward. 4. Executors and administratorsEstate 5. Justices, Judges, Prosecuting Attorneys, Clerks and employees of courtProperty/Rights under litigation.


6. Others disqualified by law. (Ex. *aliens who are disqualified to purchase private agricultural lands; *an unpaid seller having a right of lien or having stopped the goods in transitu, who is prohibited from buying the goods either directly or indirectly in the resale of the same at a public or private sale w/c he may make. Art. 1533, par.5) Rationale: Fiduciary relationship Status of Sale: Voidable (1-3); Void (4-6) ART. 1492. 1490 and 1491 Applicable to Legal Redemption, Compromises and Renunciations. ART. 1493. Loss of Object Before Sale. Complete and Partial Loss. Partial Loss Rules: 1. Vendee may withdraw from the contract 2. Demand the remaining part, paying its price in proportion to the total sum agreed upon ART. 1494. Loss/Substantial Deterioration of Specific Goods without sellers knowledge. 1. Buyer may avoid the sale or 2. May treat sale as valid w/ respect to the existing goods ART. 1495. Obligations of Vendor. (TDWP) 1. Transfer Ownership (not waivable) 2. Deliver (not waivable) 3. Warrant Object (waivable and may be modified) 4. Preserve Thing from perfection to delivery (Art. 1163) 5. Pay for the execution and registration of the sale unless there is a contrary agreement **Execution sales do not require the delivery of thing since a one year period of redemption is available to seller. ART. 1496. Delivery Transfers Ownership. ART. 1497. Control and Possession necessary in Delivery. Exception: Art. 1478. Stipulation as to full payment of price. Delivery- a mode of acquiring ownership as a consequence of a contract of sale by virtue of which actually or constructively the object is placed in the control and possession of the vendee. KINDS OF DELIVERY 1. Actual or Real. (1497) 2. Legal or Constructive a. Legal Formalities (1498); execution of public instrument. b. Symbolical Tradition (1498 par 2)- keys delivered. c. Traditio Longa Manu- by mere consent /agreement. If the movable sold cannot yet be transferred to the possession of the buyer at the time of the sale. (1499) d. Traditio Brevi Manu- if the buyer had already the possession of the object even before the purchase. (lessee becomes owner) e. Traditio constitutum possessorium- possession as owner changed. (Owner becomes lessee) 3. Quasi-Tradition- Delivery of Rights, credits or incorporeal property made by: a. Execution of public instrument b. Placing titles of ownership in the hands of a lawyer. c. Allowing the buyer to make use of the rights (1501) ART. 1498. Constructive delivery. Requirements: 1. Sellers Control. 2. Sellers Control transferred to buyer. 3. Intention to deliver for ownership. ART. 1499. Traditio Longa and Brevi Manu ART. 1500. Traditio Constitutum Possessorium. ART. 1501. Delivery of Incorporeal Property. (Constructive and Quasi-Tradition)

SALES ART. 1502. Transaction on Sale or Return. Subject to Resolutory Condition. Difference with Delivery with option to purchase- Ownership is transferred in Sale or Return Transaction on Approval or Trial/Satisfaction. Subject to Suspensive Condition. Rules: 1. Risk of loss to seller until the sale becomes absolute. (Exceptions: Buyer in default; Buyer agreed to bear the loss) 2. Buyer must give goods a trial except when it is evident that it cannot perform the work intended. 3. Period of signifying acceptance commences to run only when all the parts essential for operation has been delivered. 4. A provision that a 3rd person must satisfy approval is valid but he must be in Good faith. 5. Generally the Sale and Delivery to an expert buyer is not a sale on approval/trial. Sale or Return vs. Sale on Approval Basis Sale or Return Condition Subject to Resolutory condition Premise It depends upon the will of the buyer Transfer of ownership Ownership immediately passes to the buyer on delivery Sale on Approval Subject to suspensive condition It depends upon the suitability, quality or character of the goods Ownership does not immediately pass to the buyer. It passes only upon approval or satisfaction of the buyer duly manifested after trial There is no revesting of ownership because it is retained by the seller until the sale becomes absolute The risk remains in the seller while the goods are on trial

Revesting of ownership in the owner Risk of loss or deterioration

Ownership is revested in the seller if the buyer so decides The risk rests on the buyer before the revestment of ownership

Art. 1503- RESERVATION OF POSSESSION OR OWNERSHIP BY THE SELLER WHEN SPECIFIC GOODS ARE SHIPPED. 1. When a contrary intention appears by the terms of the contract. 2. When the goods are shipped, and by the bill of lading(BOL) the goods are deliverable to the seller or his agent, or to the order of the seller or of his agent. Exception: Form of bill of lading not conclusive if for security purposes only. 3. When the goods are shipped and by the BOL the goods are deliverable to the order of the buyer or of his agent, but possession of the BOL is retained by the seller or his agent. 4. Where bill of lading is sent forward to the buyer with bill of exchange attached and the buyer did not pay the bill of exchange. EFFECT OF BUYERS OBTAINING POSSESSION OF BILL OF LADING WITHOUT HONORING THE DRAFT. ** If the BOL provides that the goods are deliverable to the buyer or to the order of the buyer or is indorsed in blank or is indorsed to the buyer by the consignee named therein, a purchaser in GF for value of the BOL or goods from the buyer will obtain the ownership in the goods although the BOE has not been honored. Kinds of Delivery to the Carrier 1. C.I.F. (Cost, Insurance, Freight)signify that the price fixed covers not only the costs of the goods, but the expense of the freight and the insurance to be paid by the seller 2. F.O.B. (Free on Board)goods are to be delivered free of expense to the buyer to the point where they are F.O.B. The point of F.O.B. (either at point of shipment or the point of destination) determines when the ownership passes. *CIF and FOB merely make rules of presumption. 3. C.O.D. (Collect on Delivery)the carrier acts for the seller in collecting the purchase price, which the buyer must pay to obtain possession of the goods. ART. 1505. SALE BY A PERSON NOT THE OWNER/WITHOUT AUTHORITY OF OWNER. General Rule: Buyer acquires no better title to the goods than the seller had. Exceptions: SOLVAM 1. Where the sale is sanctioned by statutory or judicial authority. (See Art. 559) 2. Where the owner of the goods is by his conduct, precluded from denying the sellers authority to sell. 3. Where the law enables the owner to dispose of the goods as if he were the true owner thereof.

SALES *** Factors Acts (Agency); Recording Laws (PD 1529, RA 4136-Land Transportation and Traffic Code, Revised Administrative Code); NIL; Warehouse Receipts Law. 4. Where the seller has a voidable title which has not been avoided at the time of the sale. 5. Where seller subsequently acquires title. 6. Where the sale is sold at merchants stores, fairs or markets. ART. 1506. SALE BY ONE HAVING A VOIDABLE TITLE-BUYER ACQUIRES GOOD TITLE. 1. Bought before the title of seller has been avoided. 2. in GF for value 3. without notice of the sellers defect of title. ART. 1507. DOCUMENTS OF TITLE.

Document of Title of Goodsincludes any bill of lading, dock warrant, quedan, or warehouse receipt or order for the delivery of goods, or any other document used in the ordinary course of business in the sale or transfer of goods, or authorizing or purporting to authorize the possessor of the document to transfer or receive, either by indorsement or by delivery, goods represented by such document. Nature and function: 1. Receipts of, or orders upon, a bailee of goods represented. 2. Evidence of transfer of title and possession of goods and contract between the parties. Some Forms of Documents of Title 1. Bill of Lading- It is a contract or receipt for the transport of goods and their delivery to the person named therein, to order or to bearer. It usually involves three persons: the carrier, the shipper and the consignee. 2. Dock Warrant- it is an instrument given by dock owners to an importer of goods warehoused on the dock as a recognition of the importers title to the said goods, upon production of the bill of lading. 3. Quedan- a warehouse receipt for commodities or goods such as sugar, tobacco, rice or hemp 4. Warehouse ReceiptA receipt wherein it is stated that certain goods were received by the bailee to be delivered to the bearer or to the order of any person named in such receipt or to a specified person 5. Letter of Creditit is nothing more than a commitment by the issuer that the party in whose favor it is issued and who can collect upon it will have his credit against the applicant of the letter duly paid in the amount therein specified. Classes of Documents of Title: 1. Negotiable- those by the terms of which the bailee undertakes to deliver the goods to the bearer and those by the terms of which the bailee undertakes to deliver the goods to the order of a specified person. 2. Non Negotiable- those by the terms of which the goods covered are deliverable to a specified person. ART. 1508. NEGOTIATION OF NEGOTIABLE DOCUMENT BY DELIVERY. 1. Where by the terms the carrier, warehouseman or other bailee undertakes to deliver the goods to the bearer. 2. Where by the terms the carrier, warehouseman or other bailee undertakes to deliver the goods to a specified person and such person or subsequent indorsee has indorsed it in blank or to bearer. Where negotiable document of title the goods are deliverable to bearer or where a negotiable document of title has been indorsed in blank or to bearer, any holder may indorse the same to himself or to any specified person, and in such case the document shall thereafter be negotiated only by the indorsement of such indorsee. ART. 1509. NEGOTIATION OF NEGOTIABLE DOCUMENT BY INDORSEMENT. Indorsement is made by the person to whose the goods are deliverable. It may be in blank, to bearer or to a specified person. ART. 1510. NEGOTIABLE DOCUMENTS OF TITLE MARKED NON-NEGOTIABLE -No effect on negotiability. The obligations of carrier,warehouseman, or bailee not limited. ART. 1511. TRANSFER OF NON-NEGOTIABLE DOCUMENT. -Though non-negotiable may be transferred but transferee acquires rights under 1514. Even if document indorsed transferee has no additional rights. ART. 1512. PERSONS WHO MAY NEGOTIATE A DOCUMENT. 1. By the owner thereof

SALES 2. By any person to whom possession or custody has been entrusted by the owner, if bailee undertakes to deliver the goods to the order of the possessor of the document OR document is in such form that it may be negotiated by delivery at the time it is entrusted. ART. 1513. RIGHT OF PERSON TO WHOM DOCUMENT HAS BEEN NEGOTIATED. 1. The title of the person negotiating the document over the goods covered by the document. 2. The title of the person(depositor or owner) to whose order by the terms of the document the goods were to be delivered. 3. The direct obligation of the bailee (warehouseman or carrier) to hold possession of the goods for him, as if the bailee had contracted with him. ART. 1514. RIGHTS OF PERSON TO WHOM DOCUMENT HAS BEEN TRANSFERRED. Applicability: (a) Transferee of Negotiable document of title not duly negotiated (b)transferee of a non-negotiable document. Rights acquired: 1. Title to the goods as against the transferor. 2. The right to notify the bailee of the transfer thereof. 3. The right, thereafter to acquire the obligation of the bailee to hold the goods for him.

**Rights not absolute. They are subject to the terms of any agreement with the transferor. **Before Notification the bailee is not bound to the transferee whose right may be defeated by a levy of an attachment or execution upon the goods by the creditor of the transferor or by a notification to such bailee of the subsequent sale of the goods. ART. 1515. TRANSFER OF ORDER DOCUMENT WITHOUT INDORSEMENT. Rights of transferee: 1. The right to the goods as against the transferor. 2. The right to compel the transferor to indorse the indorsement. **Ascertain the intention if contrary appears as to necessity of negotiation. ART. 1516. WARRANTIES ON SALE OF DOCUMENTS BY THE TRANSFEROR. (indorsement /delivery) (GRIT) 1. That the document is Genuine 2. That he has legal Right to negotiate or transfer it. 3. The he has no knowledge of fact which would Impair the validity or worth of the document. 4. That he has the right to transfer the Title to the goods and goods are merchantable or fit for a particular purpose. ART. 1517. INDORSER NOT GUARANTOR. THEREFORE NOT LIABLE FOR BAILEES FAILURE OR PREVIOUS INDORSERS. ART. 1518. WHEN NEGOTIATION NOT IMPAIRED BY FRAUD, MISTAKE, DURESS, LOSS, THEFT, OR CONVERSION. OR THERE WAS BREACH OF DUTY OF TRANSFEROR. --If the transferee paid value, without notice of such factors, therefore in Good Faith ART. 1519. ATTACHMENT OR LEVY UPON GOODS COVERED BY A NEGOTIABLE DOCUMENT NOT ALLOWED, WHILE IN POSSESSION OF BAILEE UNLESS DOCUMENT BE FIRST SURRENDERED OR ITS NEGOTIATION PROHIBITED BY THE COURT. ART. 1520. CREDITORS REMEDIES ON PROHIBITION ON ATTACHMENT/LEVY.- Injunction or TRO. ART. 1521. A. PLACE OF DELIVERY OF GOODS 1. Agreement. 2. Usage of trade. 3. Sellers place of business 4. Sellers residence. 5. Specific Goods: Place where goods are at the time of contract known to parties. B. TIME OF DELIVERY OF GOODS 1. Agreement. 2. No time fixed, within a reasonable time.



C. DELIVERY OF GOODS AT THE POSSESSION OF THIRD PERSONS. Seller is relieved if 3rd person acknowledges to be the bailee of the buyer. D. Demand or tender of delivery effective if made at a reasonable hour. E. Seller bears the expenses incidental to putting goods in deliverable state. ART. 1522 A. DELIVERY OF GOODS LESS THAN THE QUANTITY CONTRACTED. 1. Buyer may reject. 2. Buyer may accept by paying: a. price at the contract rate if he knew that no more were to be delivered b. fair value (reasonable market value) of the goods if he did not know that the seller is going to be guilty of breach of contract. B. DELIVERY OF GOODS MORE THAN QUANTITY CONTRACTED 1. Accept and reject excess. 2. Accept all- Liable for all of them. C. DELIVERY OF GOODS MIXED WITH OTHERS 1. Accept in accordance with the contract and reject the rest. 2. Accept all. ** If goods are indivisible the buyer may reject the whole of the goods. ** Rules may be controlled by usage or agreement. ART. 1523. DELIVERY OF GOODS TO THE CARRIER is DELIVERY TO THE BUYER- Exceptions: 1503 (1) (2) (3) and when Contrary intention appears. Sellers duty after delivery to carrier. 1. To enter on behalf of buyer into such contract reasonable under the circumstances. (If seller omits this buyer may decline to treat delivery to carrier, delivery to him, if goods were lost/damaged) 2. To give notice to buyer regarding necessity to insure goods while in transit if under circumstances it is usual to insure. (risk during transit is borne by him if he fails) ART. 1524. NO DUTY TO DELIVER IF VENDEE HAS NOT PAID OR NO PERIOD FOR PAYMENT FIXED IN THE CONTRACT. ART. 1525. UNPAID SELLER. 1. When the whole of the price has not been paid or tendered. 2. When a BOE or other Negotiable Instrument has been received as conditional payment but was dishonored or the buyer became insolvent. Seller- includes agent of the seller to whom the BOL has been indorsed; or a consignor or agent who has himself paid or is directly responsible for the price. ART. 1526. REMEDIES OF AN UNPAID SELLER. [LS RRW] 1. A lien on the goods or right to retain them for the price while he is in possession of them; 2. Right of stopping the goods in transitu after he has parted with the possession of them; 3. Right of Resale 4. Right to Rescind 5. Right of withholding the delivery when ownership has not yet passed to buyer. ART. 1527. WHEN UNPAID SELLERS POSSESSORY LIEN MAY BE EXERCISED. [SEI] 1. Sales without stipulation as to credit. 2. Expiration of term of credit. 3. Insolvency of the buyer. ART. 1528. LIEN ON THE REMAINDER WHEN THERES PART DELIVERY, UNLESS INTENT TO WAIVE THE LIEN OR RIGHT OF RETENTION. ART. 1529. WHEN UNPAID SELLER LOSES POSSESSORY LIEN. [DPW] 1. Delivery to agent or bailee of buyer.

SALES 2. Possession by buyer or his agent. 3. Waiver of lien. *** When unpaid seller becomes judgment creditor he does not lose his lien. ART. 1530. REQUISITES FOR THE EXERCISE OF RIGHT OF STOPPAGE IN TRANSITU 1. The seller must be unpaid (1525) 2. The buyer must be insolvent 3. The goods must be in transit (1531) 4. The seller must either actually take possession of the goods sold or give notice of his claim to the carrier. (1532.1) 5. The seller must surrender the negotiable document of title, if any, issued by the carrier or bailee. (1532.2) 6. The seller must bear the expenses of delivery of the goods after the exercise of the right. ART. 1531. When Goods are in transit 1. after the delivery to a carrier or other bailee and before the buyer or his agent takes delivery of them 2. if the goods are rejected by the buyer, and the carrier or other bailee continues in possession of them. When Goods No longer in Transit (after delivery to buyer/agent) 1. if the buyer or his agent obtains possession of the goods at a point before the destination originally fixed. 2. if the carrier or bailee acknowledges to hold the goods on behalf of the buyer 3. if the carrier or bailee wrongfully refuses to deliver the goods to the buyer. *** Goods delivered to a ship, freight, train, truck or airplane chartered by the buyercircumstantial whether they are in possession of the carrier or as agent of the buyer. *** Part of Delivery made to buyer or agentremainder may be stopped in transitu, unless there is showing an agreement with buyer to give up possession of the whole of goods.


ART. 1532. WAYS OF EXERCISING THE RIGHT TO STOP. 1. Taking actual possession of the goods 2. giving notice of his claim to the carrier or bailee. --Notice to be effectual must be given in such time and circumstance that the principal by the exercise of reasonable diligence may prevent a delivery to the buyer. --Redelivery necessary according to directions of seller. --If goods are covered by negotiable document of title carrier or bailee has no obligation to deliver to seller unless document is cancelled. ART. 1533. WHEN RESALE IS ALLOWABLE Where seller has either a right of lien or a right of stoppage in transitu and under the following cases: PRD 1. Where the goods are perishable in nature 2. Where the right to resell is expressly reserved in case the buyer should make a default 3. Where the buyer delays in the payment of the price for an unreasonable time. ART. 1534. WHEN THE SELLER MAY RESCIND 1. Where the right to rescind is expressly reserved in case the buyer should make a default 2. Where the buyer delays in the payment of the price for an unreasonable time. ART. 1535. EFFECT OF SALE OF GOODS SUBJECT TO LIEN OR STOPPAGE IN TRANSITU. 1. Where Goods not covered by negotiable document of title.Seller can give no larger right than he has. Also with a buyer who sold goods to another. 2. Where Goods covered by negotiable document of titleSellers lien cannot prevail against the rights of a purchaser for value in GF to whom the document is indorsed. Article 1536Right to Withhold delivery of thing sold by the vendor in case the vendee lose the right to make use of the term, as provided in Art. 1198: (IFIVA) 1. When after the obligation has been contracted vendee becomes insolvent, unless he gives a guaranty or security for the price 2. When he does not furnish to the vendor the guaranties or securities which he has promised



3. When by his own acts he has impaired said guaranties or securities after their establishment, and when through fortuitous event they disappear, unless he immediately gives new ones equally satisfactory 4. When the vendee violates any undertaking, in consideration of which the vendor agreed to the period 5. When the vendee attempts to abscond Article 1537Vendor is bound to deliver the thing sold and its accessions and accessories in the condition in which they were upon the perfection of the contract. All fruits pertain to vendee from the day on which the contract was perfected. Article 1538Loss, Deterioration or Improvement of Object before its delivery governed by Article 1189. 1. If the thing is lost w/o the fault of the seller, the obligation shall be extinguished 2. If the thing is lost through the fault of the seller, he shall be obliged to pay damages; it is understood that the thing is lost when it perishes, or goes out of commerce, or disappears in such a way that its existence is unknown or it cannot be recovered. 3. When the thing deteriorates w/o the fault of the seller, the impairment is to be borne by the buyer 4. If it deteriorates through the fault of the seller, the buyer may choose b/w rescission or fulfilment with indemnity in either case 5. If the thing is improved by its nature, or by time, the improvement shall inure to the benefit of the buyer 6. If it is improved at the expense of the seller, he shall have no other right than that granted to the usufructuary Article 1539What delivery includes? It includes the placing in the control of the vendee all that is stated in the contract in conformity with the following rules: a. Sale OF REAL ESTATE by unit of measure or number: The vendor must deliver all that may have been stated in the contract. If it is not possible to deliver all, the vendee may choose between: LACKING/SMALLER AREA OR NUMBER 1. Proportional reduction of the price or 2. Rescission of the contract provided the lack in area is at least 1/10 of the area stated in the contract The above rules are applicable also in case there is no lack in area but the quality is not the same as specified in the contract. Rescission shall take place only if inferior value of the thing sold exceeds 1/10 of the price. But if the vendee would not have bought the immovable had he known of its smaller area or inferior quality he may rescind the sale. GREATER AREA OR NUMBER (1540) Vendee may accept the area stated in the contract and reject the excess OR Vendee may accept the whole but must pay for the same at the contract rate No Right of Rescission since the vendee is not prejudiced at all. The Above Rules (Art. 1539 and 1540 shall be applicable to judicial sales) b. Sale of REAL ESTATE by lump sum(1542): There should be no increase or decrease of the price, although there be a greater or lesser area or number than that stated in the contract. Rule applicable to Sale of two or more immovables for a single price. What if the area or number of the immovable is stated together with its boundaries? Then the vendor is bound to deliver all that is included w/in the BOUNDARIES, although the same exceeds the area or number specified in the contract. The BOUNDARIES prevail because it contains the real and true area of the land. What if the vendor cannot deliver all that is included w/in the designated boundaries? Vendee has the option to: a. Reduce the price in proportion to the deficiency in the area OR b. Rescind the contract for breach of stipulations. PRESCRIPTION OF ACTIONS for rescission or exaction of proportionate reduction of the purchase price against the vendor under Art. 1539 and 1542: Six Months from the day of delivery. [1543] DOUBLE SALE (1544) General Rule: FIRST IN TIME, PRIORITY IN RIGHT Applicability of General Rule: Only when the requisites in Article 1544 are not present Requisites for DOUBLE SALE to EXIST (VOCS) 1. Two or more sales transactions must constitute valid sales 2. Two or more sales transactions must pertain to the same object or subject matter 3. Two or more buyers at odds over the rightful ownership of the subject matter must each represent conflicting interests 4. Two or more buyers must each have brought from the very same seller



Rules of Preference of Ownership Movable or Personal Property: Owner is the one who is in first possession in good faith. Immovable 1. First to register in good faith 2. No inscription, first to possess in good faith 3. No inscription and no possession in good faithPerson who presents oldest title in good faith What is REGISTRATION? It is any entry made in the books of the Registry, including both registration in its ordinary and strict sense, and cancellation, annotation, and even the marginal notes. It is the entry which records solemnly and permanently the right of ownership and other real rights. CASES WHERE ARTICLE 1544 CANNOT BE INVOKED 1. When the earlier transaction is a pacto de retro sale of an unregistered land and the subsequent conveyance is a donation of the land in favor of another by the vendor a retro. The vendee a retro has the better right over the donee. The donor had nothing more to donate because of failure to repurchase the property. 2. Where one of the deeds of sale is a forgery. 3. Where one sale is absolute and the other is a pacto de retro where the period to redeem has not yet expired. 4. Where one of the sales is subject to a suspensive condition which condition was not complied with and the other is an absolute sale. Even if the conditional sale was made prior to the absolute sale. 5. Where one transaction is a sale and the other a mortgage 6. Where one claim is based on prescription and the other is on sale 7. Where the subject land is not registered under PD 1529 8. In a contract to sell, there being no previous sale of the property. Article 1544 applicable to Double Donations as provided by Art. 744. CONDITIONS AND WARRANTIES Article 1545. What are the options of a party to a contract of sale subject to a condition, when such condition was not fulfilled by the other party? a. Refuse to proceed with the contract OR b. Waive performance of the condition and proceed with the contract What if the condition agreed upon is in the nature of a promise that it should happen? Then the non-fulfillment of such condition is considered a breach of warranty. Article 1546. WARRANTY. --It is a collateral undertaking in a sale of either real or personal property, express or implied, that if the property sold does not possess certain incidents or qualities, the purchaser may either consider the sale void or claim damages for breach of warranty. Express Warrantyany affirmation of fact or any promise by the seller relating to the thing if the natural tendency of such affirmation or promise is to induce the buyer to purchase the same and if the buyer purchases the thing relying thereon. Affirmation of the value of the thing or statement of the sellers opinion is not warranty, unless the seller made such affirmation or statement as an expert and it was relied upon by the buyer. Implied WarrantyIt is inherent in a contract of sale and presumed to exist although nothing has been mentioned about it. Implied Warranties in Contracts of Sale (1547) 1. Implied warranty as to the right of the seller to sell at the time when ownership has to pass. (Warranty against eviction) 2. Implied warranty against hidden defects or faults or charge or encumbrances unknown to the buyer 3. Implied warranty as to fitness and merchantability 4. Warranty against encumbrances or non-apparent servitudes (1560) Cases where implied warranty is not applicable 1. Sale made by a sheriff, auctioneer, mortgagee, pledge or other person professing to sell by virtue of authority in fact or law (1547) (The judgment debtor is responsible here for eviction)



2. Sale under as is and where isthis carries no warranty as to the quality or workable condition of the goods and the buyer takes them as they are. However, such condition does not include those that could not be discovered by a physical examination of the goods sold. 3. Sale of second hand articles does not carry any warranty as to the condition, adaptation, fitness or suitability for purposes for which they have been purchased. 4. Sale of property sold at public auction for tax delinquency. There is no warranty on the part of the State as to the title of the owner. WARRANTY AGAINST EVICTIONThe seller guarantees that he has the right to sell the thing sold and to transfer ownership to the buyer who shall not be disturbed in his legal and peaceful possession thereof. EvictionA judicial process by virtue of which the vendee is deprived of the ownership of the whole or part of the thing he purchased by final judgment or by an act imputable to the vendor. Elements (DVJ-SW) 1. Vendee is deprived in whole or in part of the thing purchased 2. The deprivation is by virtue of a final judgment (1557) 3. The judgment is based on a prior right to the sale or an act imputable to the vendor 4. The vendor was summoned in the suit for eviction at the instance of the vendee (1558) 5. No waiver of warranty by the vendee Failure of the vendee to appeal does not relieve vendor from responsibility [1549] Effect of Prescription/Adverse Possession (1550) 1. Prescription consummated before saleVendee can claim warranty against eviction (deprivation is based on right prior to sale) 2. Prescription consummated after saleVendee cannot claim warranty against eviction If Property is sold for non-payment of taxes due and not made known to the vendee before the sale, vendor is liable for eviction (1551) Judgment debtor is responsible for eviction in judicial sales unless otherwise decreed in judgment (1552) Any stipulation exempting vendor from responsibility for eviction is void if he acted in bad faith (1553) Kinds of Waiver in eviction (1554) Applicable to total eviction only. 1. Conscientethe waiver is voluntarily made by the vendee w/o the knowledge and assumption of the risks of eviction. (Vendor shall only be liable to pay the value w/c the thing sold had at the time of the eviction) 2. Intencionadathe waiver is made by the vendee w/ knowledge of the risk of eviction and assumption of its consequences. (Vendor here shall not be liable) Rights of Vendee in case of eviction (1555) To demand to the vendor the following (VICED) 1. Value which the thing sold had at the time of eviction, be it greater or less than the price of the sale. 2. Income or fruits, if vendee was ordered to deliver them to the party who won the suit against him 3. Costs of the suit which caused the eviction, and those suit brought against the vendor for warranty 4. Expenses of the contract, if the vendee paid them 5. Damages and interests and ornamental expenses, if the sale was made in bad faith. * Rescission is not a remedy in case of Total eviction because rescission contemplates that the one demanding it is able to return whatever he has received under the contract. Since the vendee can no longer restore the subject-matter of the sale to the vendor, rescission cannot be carried out. Rights of Action of Vendee in case of Partial Eviction (1556) 1. Enforce the vendors liability for warranty against eviction OR 2. Demand the rescission of the contract of sale w/ obligation to return the thing w/o other encumbrances than those w/c it had when acquired Applicability: A part of the thing sold of such importance was lost because of eviction, that the vendee would not have bought it w/o said part. Same rules apply to a case where two or more things are jointly sold for a lump sum or for separate price for each, when the vendee would not have bought one w/o the other. Warranty against encumbrances or non-apparent servitudes (1560)

SALES Requisites: 1. Immovable sold is encumbered with non-apparent burden or servitude not mentioned in the agreement 2. Nature of non-apparent servitude or burden is such that it must be presumed that the buyer would not have acquired it had he been aware thereof. Remedies of the vendee 1. Rescission of the contract OR 2. Indemnity


Warranty is not applicable if non-apparent servitude is recorded in the Registry of Property, unless there is an express warranty that the thing is free from all burdens and encumbrances. Prescription of actions for rescission of damages: W/in 1 year from the execution of contract If what was chosen was rescission but was not filed w/in 1 year, vendee may still sue for damages w/in one year from the discovery of burden or servitude. WARRANTY AGAINST HIDDEN DEFECTS Requisites: (HIPANN) 1. Defect must be hidden. it cannot be discovered by an ordinary inspection or examination. 2. Defect must be important or grave. a) defect renders the thing sold unfit for the use for w/c it is intended; b) diminishes its fitness for the use intended, to such an extent that the vendee would not have acquired if he had been aware thereof or would have given a lower price for it. 3. Defect must be present at the time of the execution of the sale. 4. Action for rescission or reduction of price must be filed w/in the prescriptive period. 5. No waiver of the warranty against hidden defects. 6. Notice by the vendee to the vendor within a reasonable time. REDHIBITORY DEFECTSan imperfection or defect of such nature as to engender a certain degree of importance REDHIBITION--claim against the seller of a product in which the buyer demands a full refund or a reduction of the purchase price due to a hidden defect that prevents the product from performing the task for which it was purchased. Art. 1562Implied Warranty or Condition as to quality or fitness of goods Applicability: Goodsall chattel personal but not things in action or money of legal tender, this includes growing fruits or crops 1. IMPLIED WARRANTY OF FITNESS. General Rule: there is no implied warranty of fitness Exceptions: a) Buyer expressly makes known the particular purpose or by implication; skill or judgment

b) Buyer relies upon the sellers

2. IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY. Applies when goods are bought by description. * Merchantabilityquality and condition of goods that a reasonable man would after a full examination accept the same under the circumstances of the case, in the performance of his offer to buy, whether for his own use or for resale. --fitness for the general purpose for which they are sold. There is no warranty as to fitness for particular purpose in a contract of sale of a specified article under its patent or other trade name unless there is a contrary stipulation. (1563) A warranty as to quality or fitness for a particular purpose may be attached to a contract by usage or trade in place of execution. (1564) Merchantability of goods in sale by sample is implied. Defect should not be apparent on reasonable examination of the sample for the vendor to be liable (1565) Vendor is liable eventhough not aware of hidden defects, unless there is a contrary stipulation and he is in good faith (1566) Caveat VenditorLet the Seller Beware Vendor is liable eventhough not aware of hidden defects Caveat EmptorLet the Buyer Beware Requires the purchaser to be aware of the supposed title of the vendor and one who buys without checking the vendors title takes all the risks and losses consequent to such failure. Remedies of Buyer (1567) 1. Accion Redhibitoriaaction seeking withdrawal from the contract

SALES 2. Accion quanti minores or estimatoriaaction for proportionate reduction in the price Nature of Remedies: Alternative; both with damages Loss of Thing Sold due to Hidden Defects (1568) Vendor in Bad Faith Bears the loss Must return the price Must refund expenses of the contract Pay damages Vendor in Good Faith Does not bear the loss Must return the price with interest Must refund expenses of the contract Not obliged to pay damages


Loss of Thing Sold w/ Hidden defects through fortuitous event or vendees fault (1569) * Vendee may demand price paid less value of the thing at the time of loss plus damages if vendor acted in bad faith. Warranties against hidden defects, merchantability and fitness are applicable to judicial sales but judgment debtor is not liable for damages, because the latter is only forced to sell and therefore did not take part in the conduct of the sale and determination of price which precludes possibility of bad faith (1570) Prescription of Actions: 6 Months from delivery of thing (1571) Joint Sale of two or more animals (1572) Where one suffers redhibitory defect this shall not affect others Exception: If the buyer would not have purchased the sound animals w/o the defective ones. In such case, sale may be rescinded. Presumption of Exception: If a team, yoke or pair or set is bought even if a separate price has been fixed for each The following rules shall be applicable to joint sale of two or more things (1573) * There is no warranty against hidden defects of animals sold at fairs or at public auctions or of livestock sold as condemned.(1574) Rationale: Animals are not bought because of their quality or capacity for work; and in such circumstance defects are clearly known to buyer. When is Sale of Animals Void? (1575) 1. When suffering from contagious diseases 2. If use or service for which they are acquired has been stated in the contract and they are found to be unfit Remedy: Declaration of Nullity of Contract Redhibitory defect of Animalssuch defect that even in case of professional inspection it is of such nature that even expert knowledge is not sufficient to discover it.(1576) Prescription of Redhibitory Actions in defective animals40 days from delivery(1577) Vendor is liable if animal should die w/in 3 days after its purchase, if cause of death existed at time of contract (1578) Animal should be returned in the condition in which it was sold and delivered if sale was rescinded. Vendee is answerable for any injury due to his negligence and not arising from redhibitory defect (1579) Remedies of Buyer in Sale of Animals w/ Redhibitory defect (1580) 1. Accion Redhibitoriaaction seeking withdrawal from the contract 2. Accion quanti minores or estimatoriaaction for proportionate reduction in the price Form of sale of large cattle shall be governed by special laws. (1581) Article 1582. Primary Obligations of the Vendee: a. To accept the delivery of the thing b. To pay the purchase price simultaneously upon the delivery of the thing unless a period or term has been agreed upon. EXCEPTION TO SIMULTANEITY OF ACTS: if parties agreed, such as in sale by instalments. Payment shall be made at the stipulated time and place of delivery. If there is no stipulation at the time and place of delivery of the thing. *** The failure of the vendee to pay the price after delivery if ownership had been transferred, does not cause the ownership to revert back to the seller until and unless the bilateral contract of sale is first rescinded. [Chua Hoi vs. Kapunan] Article 1583.



Rules in case of Contract of Sale of goods to be delivered in stated instalments. Two instances contemplated: a. Seller makes defective deliveries in one or more instalmentsBuyer may reject the defective portion and accept the good ones b. Buyer refuses w/o just cause to take delivery or pay one or more instalmentsdetermine whether breach is material to warrant refusal to proceed with the entire contract of sale. When the breach is severable the injured party can seek damages or compensation but not to rescind the whole contract. Article 1584. Buyers Right to examine goods. a. Delivery w/o previous examination: The buyer is not deemed to have accepted the same unless he had a reasonable opportunity of examining them for the purpose of finding out whether they conform with the specifications agreed upon. b. Tender of Delivery by the seller: If seller tenders delivery, he should give the buyer if the latter requested, the reasonable opportunity of examining the goods to determine whether they conform with the contract. When right of examination not allowed? a. If there is an express stipulation to the contrary b. When the goods are deliveres collect on delivery, the buyer cannot examine the goods unless he pays first the price. Exception: He need not pay the price if there is a contrary agreement or the examination is permitted by usage of trade at the place of delivery. Article 1585. Signs or Evidence of Acceptance by the buyer of Goods delivered to him. (CPR) a. When he communicates with the seller expressly manifesting his acceptance thereof. b. When he performs an act in relation to the goods inconsistent with the ownership of the seller. Examples: (a) continuous possession and use of goods (b) reselling the goods (c) mortgaging the goods c. When after the lapse of a reasonable time following the delivery, he retains the goods w/o complaining to the seller or w/o intimating that he has rejected them. Article 1586. Acceptance of Goods. Mere Acceptance does not necessarily discharge the seller from liability for the breach of any promise or warranty. However to make the seller liable the buyer must notify the seller w/in a reasonable time about the breach of promise or warranty. Purpose of Notice: To insulate the seller from belated claims of defects and to allow him to make urgent investigation on the validity of claims. Article 1587. Effects of Justifiable refusal to accept delivery by the buyer 1. Buyer has no duty to return the goods to the seller but must notify the seller of his refusal to accept the goods. (Risk of Loss here is on the seller) 2. Buyer may voluntarily constitute himself as depositary of the goods, but he will be liable for damages if he does not fulfil the duties of a depositary as required by law. (Risk of loss is on the buyer) Article 1588. Effect of Unjustifiable Refusal to accept goods by the buyer: Title or ownership passes to him from the time goods were placed at his disposal. Exceptions: a. If there is contrary agreement b. If the seller reserves ownership as security for payment of the price [1503 & 1523] Article 1589. When vendee is bound to pay interest (period b/w date of delivery and date of payment) after delivery: a. if the parties stipulated b. if the thing sold and delivered produces fruits or income c. if the vendee is in default, from the time demand is made upon him either juidicially or extra-judicially. Article 1590. When can the vendee suspend payment of the price (total or remaining)? 1. If he is disturbed in his possession or ownership of the thing brought 2. If he has a well-grounded fear that his possession or ownership would be disturbed by a vindicatory action or foreclosure of mortgage. Length of suspension: While the danger or disturbance exists. Situations where vendee cannot suspend payment despite presence of disturbance (SSS-TP) 1. When the vendor has given security for the return of the price 2. When the parties have stipulated

SALES 3. 4. 5. When the vendor has succeeded in eliminating the danger or disturbance If disturbance is mere act of trespass If vendee has fully paid the price **Other causes for suspension: non-compliance by vendor of certain conditions; warranty of eviction Article 1591. Immediate rescission in sale of immovables, if the vendor has reasonable ground to fear the loss of the immovable. ** Vendor however has the alternative of compelling specific performance if the ground to fear loss does not exist. Article 1592. Exception to the general rule on rescission in case of sale of immovables.


General Rule on Rescission: The court may fix the period of payment when there is just cause. Exception: Court is not allowed to grant a new period. Once there is a judicial demand by notarial act received by the vendee, the court may not grant him a new term. The reason is that the vendee already enjoyed the advantage of paying beyond the time originally fixed in the contract, during the time when no demand for rescission either judicially or extra-judicially has taken place. *Art. 1592 Not applicable in: 1. Sales by instalments where parties have laid down the procedure to be followed in the event the vendee failed to fulfill his obligation 2. A mere promise to sell where the title remains with the vendor until full payment of the price. Article 1593. Automatic Rescission of sale of movables. Conditions for applicability: 1. if the vendee upon the expiration of the period fixed for the delivery of the thing purchased, refused to receive it w/o justifiable cause 2. if he failed to pay the price unless granted a longer period w/in w/c to pay. Reason why judicial or notarial act not required: Personal things do not generally keep a stable price in the market, any delay in their disposal may prejudice the vendor. Actions for breach of contract of sale of goods Article 1594. Actions available to vendor when there is breach of contract of sale on the part of the vendee: (PDR) 1. Action for payment of the price of the goods [1595] 2. Action for damages due to wrongful neglect and refusal to accept and pay for the goods [1596] 3. Action for rescission if buyer has repudiated the contract or has manifested his inability to perform his obligation [1597] Actions available to the vendee, in case of breach by the vendor (SDR) 1. Action for specific performance in case of failure of the vendor to deliver the goods [1598] 2. Action for damages for breach of warranty but accepting the goods [1599] 3. Action for rescission for breach of warranty where the vendee may validly refuse acceptance of the goods, or even if the goods had already been received, he may return them [1599 par. 4] Article 1595. Action for collection of price, available in the following cases: (OPR) 1. When the ownership of the goods has passed to the buyer and he wrongfully neglects or refuses to pay for the price according to the terms of the contract 2. When the price is payable irrespective of delivery or transfer of title, on a certain day and the buyer wrongfully neglects or refuses to pay such price. Defense of Buyer: He may establish the fact that the seller has at anytime before judgment, manifested his inability not to comply with the contract 3. When the goods cannot readily be resold for a reasonable price and the buyer refuses to receive the goods when offered for delivery except when 1596 par. 4 is applicable (there is notice of stopping the contract), with notification that the seller is holding them as bailee for the buyer Article 1596. Damages for non-acceptance of goods. Measure of damages: 1. As a rule: estimated loss directly and naturally resulting in the ordinary course of events from the buyers breach (no available market) 2. When there is available market: difference between contract price and market or current price at the time when the goods ought to have been accepted or if not time has been fixed at the time of refusal (If there are special circumstances establishing proximate damages of a different amount than the difference described then liability is based on the proximate damages) Proximate Damages: refer to damages other than unrealized profits



* Repudiation of the contract or notice of stopping the contract, such as in the case of a sale where goods are to be manufactured. Buyer here shall be liable for the cost of: 1. labor performed 2. expenses for materials used before receiving the notice of repudiation for stoppage 3. unrealized profits Article 1597. When seller may rescind contract in case there is no delivery yet 1. When buyer repudiated the contract 2. When the buyer has manifested his inability to perform his obligations 3. When the buyer has committed a breach of the contract * Notice must be given to the buyer to totally rescind the contract. Article 1598. Remedy of buyer in Contract to deliver specific goods: Specific Performance w/o giving the seller option to retain the goods on payment of damages. Article 1599. Remedies of buyer when seller commits breach of warranty. 1. Recoupmentwhereby the buyer accepts the goods but he sets up against the seller the reduction or extinction of the purchase price. 2. Action for damageswhereby the buyer may (a) accept the goods but w/ damages or (b) refuse to accept the goods for the breach of warranty but also with damages. 3. Rescissionwhereby the buyer seeks the cancellation of the sale and as a consequence there will be restoration on both sides. **Situations when buyer cannot choose or elect rescission (KNR) 1. If he knows of the breach of warranty when he accepted the goods w/o protest 2. If he fails to notify the seller w/in a reasonable time of the election to rescind 3. If he fails to return or offer to return the goods to the seller in substantially the same condition as they were at the time the ownership was transferred to him. Extinguishment of Sales Art. 1600- Causes for Extinguishing Sales 1. Ordinary Causescauses which extinguish ordinary contracts such as: a. Payment b. Loss of the things c. Novation d. Merger of rights of creditor and debtor e. Rescission f. Fulfillment of resolutory condition g. Prescription 2. Special Causesrefer to conventional redemption and legal redemption CONVENTIONAL REDEMPTION. Art. 1601. Requisites REV-CR a. The vendor reserves the right to repurchase the thing sold b. He shall shoulder the expenses of the contract and other legitimate payments made by the buyer. c. He shall pay the value of the necessary and useful expenses made on the thing incurred by the buyer d. He shall comply with other stipulations agreed upon. e. He shall return the price of the sale Characteristics of Conventional Redemption [EAR RPR] a. It begins to exist at the time of the perfection of the contract. (It becomes a mere promise to sell if stipulated upon after the sale had been consummated) b. It is an accidental stipulation because it is a right created by the parties c. It is reciprocal when the right to redeem is exercised. (both vendor and vendee has obligations with each other) d. It gives rise to a real right when properly registered because it affects third persons. e. It is potestative as its exercise depends upon the sole will of the vendor. f. It is a resolutory condition because when it is fulfilled, the ownership of the vendee over the thing is extinguished



PACTO DE RETRO SALE vs. MORTGAGE PACTO DE RETRO SALE Ownership is consolidated in the vendee if vendor does not repurchase w/in time agreed upon No obligation on the part of the vendee to foreclose Vendor has no more right to redeem after expiration of period to redeem

Vendee may alienate property Vendee becomes automatically the owner in case of vendors failure to redeem Vendee is entitled to reimbursement for necessary and useful expenses

MORTGAGE Failure of mortgagor to pay his obligations on time does not deprive him of his interest in the property Mortgagee must foreclose if he wants to secure a perfect title Mortgagor may redeem before foreclosure and even after, w/in one year from registration of the sale in extra-judicial foreclosure. In judicial foreclosure redemption may be made before confirmation of the sale by the court. Mortgagee cannot alienate property Mortgagee does not automatically become owner, there must be foreclosure sale first Mortgagee is not entitled to reimbursement for improvements he made

Art. 1602Presumption of Equitable Mortgage. (IPERTOD) 1. When the price of a sale with right to repurchase is unusually inadequate 2. When the vendor remains in possession as lessee or otherwise 3. When upon or after the expiration of the right to repurchase another instrument extending the period of redemption or granting a new period is executed. 4. When the purchaser retains for himself a part of the purchase price 5. When the vendor binds himself to pay the taxes on the thing sold. 6. In any other case where it may be fairly inferred that the real intention of the parties is that the transaction shall secure the payment of a debt or the performance of any other obligation. 7. When there is doubt as to whether contract is Pacto de retro or an equitable mortgage Equitable Mortgageone which lacks the proper formalities, form of words or other requisites prescribed by law for a mortgage, but however shows the intention of the contracting parties to make the property subject of the contract as security for a debt and contains nothing impossible or contrary to law. Consequences of Declaration of Pacto de Retro Sale as an Equitable Mortgage (PTFR) 1. The repurchase price paid by the vendor is considered the principal of the loan. 2. Title remains in the vendor or if the title has already been transferred to the vendee, the same must be revested into the vendor by a deed of reconveyance. 3. Any money fruits or other benefits received thereafter by the vendee are considered interests on the loan. 4. If the vendor does not redeem on time the remedy of the vendee is to foreclose the mortgage. Art. 1603In case of doubt, a contract purporting to be a sale with right to repurchase shall be construed as an equitable mortgage. Rationale: Least transmission of rights. *Although in conflict with Art. 1378, where it provides that if the contract is onerous, the doubt shall be settled in favor of the greatest reciprocity of interests, Art. 1603 is the exception. This is justified by the condemnation of pactum commissorium (which is a stipulation that creditor automatically becomes owner of a property upon non-payment by the debtor) Art. 1604Art. 1602 also applicable to contract purporting to be an absolute sale Art. 1605Vendor may ask for reformation of instrument in cases referred to in 1602 & 1604 Art. 1606Time to redeem in conventional redemption 1. If there is a period agreed upon then this shall be observed, but this should not exceed 10 years 2. If there is no period agreed upon, the redemption shall be exercised within 4 years from the date of contract. 3. If an action was brought by the seller claiming that the contract was an equitable mortgage but later on proven that it was Pacto de retro Sale, he is given 30 days from the time final judgment was rendered to repurchase.

SALES Art. 1607Judicial Order is required for the registration of the consolidation of ownership of a real property in the vendee by failure of the vendor to redeem. Rationale: To accord the vendor the maximum safeguards for the protection of his legal rights under the true agreement of the parties.


Art. 1608The vendor may exercise his right of redemption against every possessor whose right is derived from the vendee, even if the second contract does not mention of the right of redemption. Art. 1609Vendee is subrogated to the vendors rights and actions As owner, vendee may: a. transfer his rights to a 3rd person b. mortgage the property c. enjoy the fruits thereof d. recover the property against every possessor e. perform other acts of ownership Art. 1610Creditors of the vendor must exhaust first all the other properties of vendor before they could exercise the right of redemption against the vendee. Art. 1611Applicability. 1. The vendee entered a Pacto de Retro Sale of a part of an undivided immovable. 2. The vendee later acquired the whole of the property. 3. The vendor in the Pacto de Retro Sale of a part wishes to exercise his right of redemption over the part. If the abovementioned are present the vendee may compel the vendor in the Pacto de Retro Sale of a part to redeem the whole property. Rationale: Co-ownership is not favored, because the co-owners are reluctant to make improvements on the property due to the state of instability in its ownership. Art. 1612Joint Pacto de Retro Sale by Co-Owners or Co-Heirs of an Undivided Immovable. Each Co-Owner/Co-Heir can exercise right of redemption with respect to their share Art. 1613In the case referred to in Art. 1612, vendee may demand that all the vendors or co-heirs come to an agreement upon the repurchase of the whole thing, if they failed to do so vendee cannot be compelled to accept partial redemption. Art. 1614Separate Sales of Shares of Co-owners of an undivided immovable. Each vendor may exercise their right of redemption independently and the vendee cannot compel any of them to redeem the whole property Art. 1615If the vendee dies and property is left to several heirs, the action for redemption can only be brought to each of them independently with respect to their share, whether or not the property is still undivided or already partitioned. Art. 1616Obligations of the Vendor a Retro if he desires to redeem a. Return to the vendee the price of the sale b. He shall shoulder the expenses of the contract and other legitimate payments made by the buyer. c. He shall pay the value of the necessary and useful expenses made on the thing incurred by the buyer Art. 1617Rule in case there is no agreement on the sharing of the fruits of the property. 1. If there are fruits at the time of the sale and the vendee paid them, he shall be reimbursed by the vendor. 2. Where there are no fruits at the time of the sale but there are existing at the time of redemption, the vendee shall be entitled to the fruits gathered for one year reckoned from the last anniversary of the date of the effectivity of the contract of sale. Art. 1618The vendor who recovers the thing shall receive it free from all charges or mortgages constituted by the vendee, but shall respect the lease contract constituted on the property in good faith and in accordance with the customs of the place. LEGAL REDEMPTION (1619) --is the right to be subrogated upon the same terms and conditions stipulated in the contract, in the place of one who acquires a thing by purchase or dation in payment, or by any other transaction whereby ownership is transmitted by onerous title. Art. 1620A co-owner of a thing may exercise the right of redemption when the shares of all the other co-owners or any of them are sold to a 3rd person. If the price of alienation is grossly excessive, redemptioner shall pay only a reasonable price.

SALES --If two or more co-owners desire to exercise right of redemption they may only do so in proportion to their share. Art. 1621Redemption by adjacent owner of rural lands. Requisites: (RATSO) 1. The adjacent lands involved must be rural land. 2. The rural land alienated and to be redeemed must not exceed one hectare in area 3. The alienation must be made in favor of a third person, not in favor of another adjacent owner 4. The two lands involved must not be separated by brooks, drains, ravines, roads and other servitudes for the benefit of other estates. 5. The vendee or grantee must already be an owner of a rural land. If he does not own any, redemption is not allowed. If two or more adjoining owners desire to exercise the right of redemption at the same time, the one with a smaller area shall be preferred. If both have same area, the one who first requested. Art. 1622Applicability: Piece of Urban Land which is so small and so situated that a major portion cannot be used for any practical purpose w/in a reasonable time, having bought merely for speculation and is about to resold. *Speculationmeans buying or selling with expectation of profiting by a rise and fall in price.


Rights recognized by Article 1622. 1. Right of Pre-emptionthe right of an adjacent owner to purchase the property before it is sold to a third person or before the projected sale to a 3rd person is consummated. 2. Right of Redemptionthe right of an adjacent owner to redeem the property after the sale had been perfected and consummated. Pre-emption Arises before sale No Rescission because no sale as yet exists The action is directed against the prospective seller Redemption Arises after sale There can be rescission of the original sale Action is directed against the buyer

* Preference when two or more owners of adjoining lands wish to exercise the right of redemption or pre-emption: To the owner whose intended use is best justified. Art. 1623Period of Legal Pre-emption or Redemption. Must be exercised within 30 days from the notice in writing by the prospective vendor. The deed of sale executed by the vendor is not registered if not accompanied by an affidavit that he has given the required written notice. The right of redemption of co-owners is superior to the right of adjoining owners. Instances of Legal Redemption under the Civil Code (CHURC) 1. Sale of a co-owner of his share to a stranger (1620) 2. Sale of an heir of his hereditary rights to a stranger (1088) 3. Sale of adjacent small urban lands bought merely for speculation (1622) 4. Sale of adjacent rural land not exceeding one hectare (1621) 5. When a credit or other incorporeal right in litigation is sold (1634) Instances of Legal Redemption under special laws (THEJA) 1. Redemption in tax sales 2. Redemption of homesteads 3. A right of redemption in cases of extra-judicial foreclosures 4. An equity of redemption in cases of judicial foreclosures 5. Redemption by an agricultural tenant of land sold by the landowner ASSIGNMENT OF CREDITS AND OTHER INCORPOREAL RIGHTS Assignment of Creditan agreement whereby credits, rights or actions pertaining to a person (called assignor) are transferred by him to another (called assignee) either onerously or gratuitously who acquires the power to enforce the same against the debtors. Nature of Assignment of Credits and other incorporeal rights: Has all the elements of a contract of sale: (1) consent (2) Object which is the credit, right , action assigned and (3) consideration which is the price paid for the assignment, or liberality of the assignor if the assignment is gratuitous.



Distinction between Contract of Sale and Assignment of Credits Basis Contract of Sale Object Property Manner of Delivery of Object Subject obligated Ownership when transferred It need not be through public instrument The whole world Transfer of ownership need not be upon delivery of the thing. The parties may agree that ownership be transferred only after full payment (1478) It is always a requisite

Assignment of Credits Credit, incorporeal rights or rights of action It must be through a public instrument (1625) A definite third person Ownership is transferred upon delivery of the documents evidencing the credit or incorporeal rights It is not always a requisite. Action may be maintained by the assignee based on his title even if there is no consideration.


Distinction between Dation in Payment and Assignment of Credits Basis Dation in Payment Nature It is an alienation of property of a debtor in satisfaction of a debt in money Object Determinate property Effect Obligation is extinguished

Assignment of Credits The alienation of credits or rights, need not be in satisfaction of debtors debt Credits, incorporeal rights or rights of action Obligation is not extinguished

Consent of debtor is not necessary for the assignment. He is therefore released from the obligation if he pays the creditor before having knowledge of the assignment (1626) Scope of Assignment: All accessory rights, such as guaranty, mortgage, pledge or preference (1627) Art. 1628 What the Assignor of the Credit Warrants? (ELS) 1. The existence of the credit at the time of the assignment 2. The legality of the credit unless he sold the thing as doubtful, meaning, he is not sure of the validity of his acquisition of the thing sold which fact he has disclosed to the assignee 3. The solvency of the debtor, if expressly stipulated or if the insolvency of the debtor was prior to the sale and of common knowledge Scope of Liability in case of breach of warranty 1. In good faith: Assignor shall pay (a) consideration of price which he received from the assignee; (b) expenses of the contract (c) other legitimate expenses occasioned by the assignment 2. In bad faith: Same liabilities as in above but with damages Art. 1629 Duration of the Liability of the Assignor in Good Faith (in case there is no agreement) 1. One year from the date of the assignment of the credit if the period of payment of the credit has already expired 2. One year after maturity of the credit if the period of payment has not yet expired Art. 1630 Sale of Inheritance (Hereditary Rights) without specification of things. --Seller shall only be answerable for his character as an heir. He warrants the fact of his heirship in the estate of the decedent. If it turns out that he is not an heir, then he is liable for the breach of warranty. Sale of Hereditary Rightspresumes the existence of a contract or deed of sale between the parties Waiver of Hereditary Rightsa mode of extinction of ownership, where there is intentional relinquishment of a known right with knowledge of its existence and intention to relinquish it in favor of other persons who are co-heirs in the succession

SALES Lump-Sum Purchase of the whole of certain rights, rents or products (1631) Vendor warrants the legitimacy of the whole of the rights, rents or products but not the various parts of which the whole is composed of. Exception: If the vendee is evicted from the whole or the part of the greater value (more than half) of the credits in which case warranty stays. Art. 1632If vendor profited from the fruits or received anything from the inheritance sold he must restore it by paying the vendee, unless there is a contrary stipulation. Art. 1633Charges and debts on the estate paid by the vendor must be reimbursed by the vendee, unless there is a contrary stipulation. Assignment of Credit or right in Litigation. (1634) debtor is given the right to extinguish the obligation by reimbursing the assignee: (PIJ) a. The price paid for the credit or right b. Interest on the said price from the time the day it was paid c. Judicial costs incurred by the assignee When is credit or right in litigation? From the time the complaint concerning the same is answered. Prescriptive Period: 30 days from the date the assignee demands payment from debtor Exceptions to the Right of Extinguishment by the debtor (1635) Assignments or sales made to: (CCP) a. A co-heir or co-owner of the right assigned b. A creditor in payment of his credit c. The possessor of a tenement or piece of land which is subject to the right in litigation assigned.