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Chapter I
FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
I. THE BASICS OF THE CIVIL LITIGATION
PROCESS
A significant element of the Philippine judicial process is
its employment of the adversarial system as an indispensable
tool in dispute resolution. Under this system, the contending
parties present before a court their conflicting versions of an
occurrence by shaping both the facts, the issues and even
the evidence to suit their own perspectives, designs and
strategies in accordance with a body of rules that provides the
framework for the entire litigation process. This body of rules
likewise not only guides the court in its determination of legal
controversies but also prevents it from rendering arbitrary
orders, resolutions and decisions. In this jurisdiction, these
rules have been collectively called the Rules of Court.
Lawsuits are inventions neither of the court nor of the
judicial system because litigations inevitably arise within
any social environment. The system is in reality a passive
entity. A court for example, while having jurisdiction over
certain subject matters, does not on its own accord call on the
parties to litigate between or among themselves. Even the
rules of procedure on their own are mere mishmash of letters
and words, mere assortments of sentences and paragraphs,
dormant and virtually lifeless.
Lawsuits actually originate from an individual, from
one who feels aggrieved by the acts of another. A litigation
arises because someone goes to court and seeks redress
from it for a perceived transgression committed against his
1

CIVIL PROCEDURE

person or property. It is actually the individual who decides


to start the litigation process and breathes life into the rules
of procedure by invoking the jurisdiction of the court. When
a lawsuit is commenced, the judicial machinery is activated,
is infused with life and continues to grind until the dispute is
resolved and the decision executed. From an initially passive
entity the judicial system becomes an active machinery in the
dispensation of justice.
The material that follows presents the most basic aspects
of the civil litigation process and does not pretend to be an
exhaustive treatise of all the issues which may arise in all
litigations. There are certain matters in the litigation process
which suddenly occur in the course of the proceedings and
which cannot be reasonably foreseen. Besides, there are topics
which, due to the demands of both scope and priorities, have to
be intentionally left out. This work contains only those topics
deemed indispensable to the acquisition of the core knowledge
required to pass the bar examinations and to start a career
in trial practice. The other more complicated situations in
remedial law would later on automatically present themselves
to the new lawyer as he acquires experience in the field.
Care has been taken to avoid the use of impenetrable
legalese because emphasis has been made in bringing civil
procedure to a more understandable and workable level.
Topics in the Rules of Court have been rearranged to help the
reader break free from an overly technical approach to the
subject, release the mind from the book mode developed in
law school and to approximate the application of procedural
rules in both the bar examinations and the real world.
Experience has told us fairly well that it is the ability to
conceptualize the relationships among procedural rules, which
enables one to respond with ease to even the most cerebrally
formulated questions in the bar and even to unexpected twists
in the field of litigation. Although there are aspects of the
Rules, in fact a substantial number of them, which have to
be committed to memory, route memory has never been the
key to success in both litigation and the bar examinations in

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS

procedural law. Hence, the materials that follow have been


presented to allow the reader to develop on his own a more
practical approach to procedural principles.
Whenever necessary, principles in substantive law have
been included in the discussion of the topics found in this work
so the reader may see the rules from a better perspective.
Substantive law after all, constitutes the foundation of
procedural law.
The concepts that follow represent the most fundamental
stages in the civil litigation process. The mastery of these
concepts will enable the reader to grasp the most essential
procedural principles, so he may later on proceed to a higher
level of understanding of those principles and consequently
help him demystify important aspects of remedial law, a
subject traditionally but quite erroneously regarded as both
abstract and difficult.
I.

Complaint

Both experience and common reason have taught us that


before a person learns how to walk, he should learn how to
crawl and before he learns to run, he should learn how to
walk.
Similarly, before one could appreciate the intricacies of
remedial law, one has to start with its basics. These so-called
basics are actually the elementary processes of ordinary civil
actions. The practitioner and the student of remedial law have
to know that an overwhelming majority of Supreme Court
decisions involve issues relating to fundamental procedural
matters and that the most frequently tested bar concepts
during the past thirty years of bar examinations, involve the
operations of ordinary civil actions.
As a starting point, it must be emphasized that the rules
of civil procedure will come into play only with the filing of
a complaint or in some actions or proceedings, a petition.
Without a complaint being filed, said rules would simply be
meaningless. It is the filing of a complaint that gives life to
procedural rules and triggers their application.

FOREWORD
Some portions of this work have been rewritten for greater clarity and to incorporate the latest decisions of the Supreme Court as well as recent amendments to certain rules.
This work, as the one before it, is written primarily for
the law student, the bar reviewee and the aspiring lawyer. It
is a humble attempt to bring down the study of procedure to
a more workable and understandable level. It is an attempt
to use an approach that would hopefully strip civil procedure
of the traditional and mechanical presentation of procedural
principles.
The topics in these materials have veered away from the
original arrangement of the rules appearing in the Rules of
Court. The experienced among us know fully well that a strict
adherence to such presentation leads to the impression among
the uninitiated that remedial law is both abstract and circuitous. While this impression is so far from the truth and is
more of the mythical than the real, there still arises a need to
provide a fresh look at the subject so the reader may see how
the various pieces of the procedural puzzle t into a beautiful and logical scheme. Procedural principles have been rearranged in this work for the reader to appreciate the connection
among scattered and seemingly unconnected provisions of the
Rules of Court and for that reason, this material is called a
restatement.
Every effort has been made to incorporate the latest doctrines of the Supreme Court in every topic found in this work
for the ready reference of every reader including the practitioner. Examples of past bar examinations have been liberally
used for the student and the bar examinee to see how bar exiii

aminers have applied procedural principles in the framing of


specic bar questions.
The overwhelming support generously given to our earlier work, the Fundamentals of Civil Procedure, by students,
practitioners and even members of the bench has motivated
us to expand quite substantially on the content of the original
material by including other aspects of civil procedure provisional remedies and special civil actions.
We have been very fortunate enough to have friends like
Atty. Ernesto C. Salao, Atty. Charm Nolasco and Ria Cabayan
who encouraged us to go on with this work despite the constraints of both work and time and who helped us tremendously in its publication. It was from Atty. Salaos suggestions
that the term, a restatement originated, truly a tting expression for the very purpose of this work.
Again, as we did before, we wish to acknowledge our deep
gratitude to our students and bar reviewees whose intense desire to become members of the legal profession has become a
primary source of energy in the development of this material.
We look forward to meeting them as they take their oaths as
members of the bar.
Quezon City, Philippines
March 30, 2009

WILLARD B. RIANO

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DEDICATION
NiaDaddyMommy
NonongNeneng

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CONTENT
Chapter I
Fundamental Concepts
I. The Basics of the Civil Litigation Process
I.

Complaint ........................................................................
A. Right of Action and Cause of Action ......................
B. Jurisdiction, Venue and Parties,
Prescription and Conditions Precedent .................
C. Preparation of the Complaint ................................
D. Filing of the Complaint ..........................................
E. Dismissal of the Action by the Plaintiff.................
F. Amendment of the Complaint ................................
II. Summons .........................................................................
III. Answer .............................................................................
IV. Pre-Trial...........................................................................
V. Trial ...............................................................................
VI. Judgment .........................................................................
VII. Post Judgment Remedies ................................................
VIII. Execution .........................................................................

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II. Powers of the Supreme Court


Rule-Making Power of the Supreme Court ............................
Limitations on the Rule-Making Power of the
Supreme Court ................................................................
Legislative Power and the Rule-Making
Power of the Supreme Court...........................................
Liberal Construction of the Rules of Court
(Bar 1998) ........................................................................
Illustration (Bar 1998) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Power of the Supreme Court to Suspend its Own Rules .......
Power to Amend the Rules ......................................................
Power to Stay Proceedings and Control its Processes ...........
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III. The Rules of Court


The Procedural Rules Under the Rules of Court
Are Not Laws ...................................................................
Substantive Law Distinguished from Remedial
Law (Bar 2006) ................................................................
Prospective Effect of the Rules of Court .................................
Applicability to Pending Actions; Retroactivity .....................
When Procedural Rules Do Not Apply to Pending
Actions..............................................................................
Applicable Actions or Proceedings ..........................................
Inapplicable Actions or Proceedings .......................................
Scope of Civil Procedure ..........................................................

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IV. Nature of Philippine Courts


Courts of Law and Equity........................................................
Application of Equity; Equity Jurisdiction .............................
Principle of Judicial Hierarchy ...............................................
When the Doctrine of Hierarchy of Courts
May Be Disregarded ........................................................
Doctrine of Non-Interference or Doctrine of
Judicial Stability .............................................................
Constitutional and Statutory Courts ......................................
Civil and Criminal Courts .......................................................
Courts of Record and Courts Not of Record ............................
Superior and Inferior Courts ...................................................
Courts of General and Special Jurisdiction ............................
Courts of Original and Appellate Jurisdiction .......................
Original and Exclusive Jurisdiction Distinguished ...............
Concurrent Jurisdiction...........................................................
Meaning of Court .....................................................................
Court Distinguished From a Judge.........................................
Katarungang Pambarangay Law (Secs. 399-422,
Chapter 7, Title One, Book III, R.A. 7160) ....................
Initiation of Proceedings ..........................................................
Personal Appearance of Parties ..............................................
Parties to the Proceedings .......................................................
Subject Matters for Settlement ...............................................
Referral to the Lupon by the Court.........................................
Form of Settlement ..................................................................
Effect of Amicable Settlement and Award..............................
Execution of Award or Settlement ..........................................
Importance of Barangay Conciliation Proceedings ................
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V. Pleadings in Civil Cases


Nature of Pleadings .................................................................
Necessity and Purpose of Pleadings .......................................
Construction of Pleadings........................................................
Construction of Ambiguous Allegations in Pleadings ............
System of Pleading in the Philippines ....................................
Pleadings Allowed by the Rules of Court (Bar 1996) .............
Pleadings Allowed Under the Rules on Summary
Procedure .........................................................................
Pleadings Not Allowed in a Petition for a Writ of Amparo
or Habeas Data ................................................................
Caption of the Pleading ...........................................................
Title of the Action.....................................................................
Variance Between Caption and Allegations in
the Pleading .....................................................................
Body of the Pleading ................................................................
Designation of Causes of Actions Joined in
One Complaint.................................................................
Allegations of Ultimate Facts ..................................................
Relief ........................................................................................
Signature and Address ............................................................
Effect of an Unsigned Pleading ...............................................
Signicance of the Signature of Counsel (Bar 1996)..............
When Counsel is Subject to Disciplinary Action ....................
Verication in a Pleading ........................................................
How a Pleading is Veried ......................................................
Signicance of a Verication ...................................................
Effect of Lack of a Verication ................................................
Other Requirements ................................................................
Certication Against Forum Shopping ...................................
Meaning of Forum Shopping ...................................................
Rationale Against Forum Shopping ........................................
How to Determine Existence of Forum Shopping ..................
Who Executes the Certication Against Forum
Shopping (Bar 2000)........................................................
Liberal Interpretation of the Rules on the Signing
of the Certication Against Forum Shopping ................
Signing the Certication When the Plaintiff is a
Juridical Entity ...............................................................
Pleadings Requiring a Certication Against
Forum Shopping ..............................................................
Effects of Non-Compliance with the Rule on
Certication Against Forum Shopping (Bar 1996)........
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No Appeal Form an Order of Dismissal ..................................


Effect of Willful and Deliberate Forum Shopping ..................
Effect of Submission of a False Certication..........................
Effect of Non-Compliance with the Undertakings .................

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VI. Filing and Service of Pleadings, Judgments


and Other Papers in Civil Cases
Meaning of Filing .....................................................................
Meaning of Service ...................................................................
Upon Whom Service Shall be Made ........................................
Manner of Filing ......................................................................
How to Prove Filing .................................................................
Papers Required to be Filed and Served.................................
Modes of Service .......................................................................
Personal Service .......................................................................
When Personal Service is Deemed Complete .........................
Service by Mail .........................................................................
When Service by Mail is Deemed Complete ...........................
Substituted Service ..................................................................
When Substituted Service is Complete...................................
How to Prove Service ...............................................................

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VII. Motions in Civil Cases


Denition of a Motion ..............................................................
Form of Motions .......................................................................
Contents of a Motion ................................................................
Hearing of the Motion ..............................................................
Notice of the Motion .................................................................
Service of the Motion ...............................................................
Motion Day ...............................................................................
Effect of Failure to Set the Motion for Hearing,
to Include a Notice of Hearing and to Serve
the Motion (Secs. 4, 5, 6 of Rule 15) ...............................
The Omnibus Motion Rule ......................................................

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Chapter II
Cause of Action and Actions
I. Cause of Action (Rule 2)
Meaning ...............................................................................
Elements of a Cause of Action .................................................
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Concept of Cause of Action as Applied to


Administrative Cases ......................................................
Cause of Action in Specic Cases ............................................
Illustration (Bar 1999) .............................................................
Suggested Answer ....................................................................
Illustration (Bar 2004) .............................................................
Suggested Answer ....................................................................
Action Distinguished From Cause of Action (Bar 1999) ........
Failure to State a Cause of Action ..........................................
Failure to State a Cause of Action and Lack of a
Cause of Action ................................................................
Test of the Sufciency of the Statement of a Cause
of Action ...........................................................................
Allegations of the Complaint Determine Whether
or not Complaint States a Cause of Action ....................
Allegations of the Complaint Also Determine
the Nature of the Cause of Action ..................................
How to State the Cause of Action ...........................................
Conditions Precedent ...............................................................
Pleading a Judgment ...............................................................
Pleading an Ofcial Document or Act.....................................
Pleading to Sue or be Sued ......................................................
Pleading, Fraud, Mistake or Condition of the Mind ..............
Pleading Alternative Causes of Actions or Defenses .............
Pleading Actionable Documents..............................................
How to Contest an Actionable Document ...............................
When an Oath is Not Required ...............................................
Illustration (Bar 1987) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Defenses Cut-off by the Admission of Genuineness
and Due Execution ..........................................................
Defenses Not Cut-off by the Admission of
Genuineness and Due Execution ....................................
Illustration (Bar 2005) .............................................................
Suggested Answer ....................................................................
Illustration (Bar 2004) .............................................................
Suggested Answer ....................................................................
Illustration (Bar 1991) .............................................................
Suggested Answer ....................................................................
Splitting a Single Cause of Action ..........................................
Prohibition Against Splitting a Single Cause of Action .........
Illustration (Bar 1999) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
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Illustration (Bar 2005) ....................................................


Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 2005) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1996) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Anticipatory Breach .................................................................
Effect of Splitting a Single Cause of Action
(Bar 1998; 1999) ..............................................................
Joinder of Causes of Action (Bar 1999) ...................................
Illustration (Bar 2005) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 2002) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 2002) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1999) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1996) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1996) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Remedy in Case of Misjoinder of Actions ...............................

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II. Actions
Denition ...............................................................................
Civil Actions and Criminal Actions.........................................
Actions Distinguished from Special Proceedings
(Bar 1998; 1996) ..............................................................
Real and Personal Actions (Bar 2006; 2004) ..........................
Illustration (Adapted from Bar 1978
and 1976) .........................................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Signicance of the Distinction Between a Personal
and Real Action ...............................................................
In personam and in rem actions (Bar 1994) ...........................
Quasi in rem actions ................................................................
Signicance of Distinction Between Actions
in rem, in personam and quasi in rem ...........................
Jurisdiction over the Res .........................................................
Extraterritorial Service; Other Rules on Summons
(Bar 1989) ........................................................................
Application of Principles ..........................................................
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Chapter III
Jurisdiction, Venue and Parties
I. Jurisdiction
Meaning of Jurisdiction ...........................................................
Power of the Court ...................................................................
Test of Jurisdiction ..................................................................
Matter of Substantive Law ......................................................
Not Subject to Waiver or Stipulation ......................................
Duty of a Court to Determine its Jurisdiction........................
Jurisdiction Versus the Exercise of Jurisdiction....................
Error of Judgment and Error of Jurisdiction;
Distinctions (Bar 1989) ...................................................
Lack of Jurisdiction and Excess of Jurisdiction .....................
Jurisdiction and Cause of Action (Bar 1988) ..........................
Jurisdiction Over the Subject Matter .....................................
How Jurisdiction Over the Subject Matter
is Conferred .....................................................................
How Jurisdiction Over the Subject Matter is
Determined ......................................................................
Jurisdiction is not Determined Either by the
Defenses or by the Evidences in the Trial .....................
Applicability to Criminal Actions............................................
Exception to the Rule that Jurisdiction is Determined
by the Allegations of the Complaint ...............................
Doctrine of Primary Jurisdiction ............................................
Doctrine of Continuity of Jurisdiction
(adherence of jurisdiction) ..............................................
Law Which Governs Jurisdiction ............................................
Objections to Jurisdiction Over the Subject Matter ..............
Illustration (Bar 2004) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Effect of Estoppel on Objections to Jurisdiction.....................
Tijam Ruling, an Exception Rather Than the Rule ...............
Jurisdiction Over the Parties ..................................................
Illustration (Bar 1981) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 2005) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1994) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
When Jurisdiction Over the Person of the
Defendant is Required ....................................................
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Voluntary Appearance of the Defendant ................................


Objections to Jurisdiction Over the Person of the
Defendant ........................................................................
Illustration (Bar 1990) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Effect of Pleading Additional Defenses Aside
from Lack of Jurisdiction Over the
Person of the Defendant..................................................
Jurisdiction Over the Issue .....................................................
How Jurisdiction Over the Issue is Conferred and
Determined ......................................................................
Distinction Between a Question of Law and a Question
of Fact (Bar 2004) ............................................................
When an Issue Arises Even if Not Raised in the
Pleadings..........................................................................
Illustration (Bar 2004, No. 1) .........................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 2004) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Jurisdiction of Municipal Trial Courts, Metropolitan
Trial Court and Municipal Circuit Trial
Court (Under B.P. 129 as Amended by R.A. 7691) ........
Actions for Forcible Entry and Unlawful Detainer ................
Real Actions Other than Forcible Entry
and Unlawful Detainer ...................................................
Demand not Exceeding P300,000.00 or P400,000.00 .............
Illustration (Bar 2008) ...................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Actions Involving Personal Property ......................................
Admiralty and Maritime Cases ...............................................
Probate Proceedings; Provisional Remedies ...........................
Delegated Jurisdiction .............................................................
Special Jurisdiction..................................................................
Cases Subject to Summary Procedure (Bar 2004;
1995; 1993; 1991; 1989; 1988) .........................................
Determination of Jurisdictional Amount................................
Illustration (Bar 2004) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Totality Rule.............................................................................
Territorial Extent of Court Processes .....................................
Review of Judgments of the MTC ...........................................
Jurisdiction Over small claims Cases .....................................
Jurisdiction of Regional Trial Courts
(Under B.P. 129 as amended by R.A. 7691) ...................
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Special Jurisdiction to Try Special Cases ...............................


Jurisdiction Over Intracorporate Controversies ....................
The RTC is a Court of General Jurisdiction ...........................
Actions Incapable of Pecuniary Estimation ...........................
Illustration (Bar 2000) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Extent of Trial Courts Jurisdiction When Acting
as a Probate Court...........................................................
Jurisdiction of the Court of Appeals
(Under B.P. 129 as amended by R.A. 7902) ...................
Power to Try and Conduct Hearings.......................................
Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court ..........................................
Illustration (Bar 2005) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
The Supreme Court is not a Trier of Facts .............................
Exceptions ...............................................................................
Cases Which Under the Constitution Must be
Heard En Banc ................................................................
Jurisdiction of the Family Courts ...........................................

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II. Venue (Rule 4)


Meaning of Venue ....................................................................
Venue is not a Matter of Substantive Law .............................
Dismissal Based on Improper Venue ......................................
When Court may make a Motu Proprio Dismissal
based on Improper Venue ...............................................
How Venue is Determined .......................................................
Illustration (Bar 2008) ...................................................
Suggested Answers..........................................................
Stipulations on Venue..............................................................
Adopted Illustrations ...............................................................
Denial of a Motion to Dismiss Based on Improper
Venue; No Appeal ............................................................
Improper Venue is not Jurisdictional .....................................
Venue Distinguished from Jurisdiction
(Bar 2006) ........................................................................

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III. Parties (Rule 3)


Parties to a Civil Action ...........................................................
Who May be Parties .................................................................
Judicial Persons as Parties .....................................................
Entities Authorized by Law to be Parties...............................
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Entity Without a Juridical Personality as a Defendant ........


Remedy When a Party Impleaded is not
Authorized to be a Party .................................................
Averment of Capacity to Sue or Be Sued ................................
A Minor or an Incompetent as a Party ...................................
Real Party in Interest ..............................................................
Illustration (Bar 1989) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1988) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Prosecution/Defenses of an Action in the Name
of the Real Party in Interest ...........................................
Failure to Include the Name of a Party in the Pleading........
Rule on Standing as Distinguished From the
Concept of Real Party in Interest ...................................
Indispensable Parties ..............................................................
Illustration (Bar 1996) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Compulsory Joinder of Indispensable Parties ........................
Dismissal for Failure to Implead an
Indispensable Party ........................................................
Necessary Parties.....................................................................
Distinction Between an Indispensable and a
Necessary Party...............................................................
Effect of Justied Failure to Implead a Necessary
Party (Bar 1998) ..............................................................
Duty to of Pleader When a Necessary Party is
Not Joined ........................................................................
When Court May Order Joinder of a Necessary
Party (Bar 1998) ..............................................................
Effect of Failure to Comply With Order of the
Court (Bar 1998) ..............................................................
Unwilling Co-Plaintiff..............................................................
Alternative Defendants ...........................................................
Misjoinder and Non-Joinder of Parties ...................................
Unknown Defendant ................................................................
Effect of Death of a Party on the Attorney-Client
Relationship .....................................................................
Duty of Counsel Upon the Death of His Client ......................
Action of Court Upon Notice of Death; Effect
of Death on the Case .......................................................
When There is no Need to Procure an
Executor or Administrator ..............................................
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No Requirement for Service of Summons ...............................


Purpose and Importance of Substitution
of the Deceased ................................................................
Examples of Actions Which Survive the Death of a Party ....
Actions for the Recovery of Money on
Contractual Claims .........................................................
Incompetency or Incapacity of a Party During
the Pendency of the Action .............................................
Transfer of Interest ..................................................................
Indigent Parties .......................................................................
Role of the Solicitor General....................................................
Suit by or Against Spouses ......................................................
Class Suit; Requisites ..............................................................
Commonality of Interest in the Subject Matter .....................
No Class Suit When Interests are Conicting .......................
No Class Suit by a Corporation to Recover
Property of its Members..................................................
No Class Suit to Recover Real Property
Individually Held.............................................................
No Class Suit to Recover Damages for Personal
Reputation .......................................................................
Common or General Interest in the Environment
and Natural Resources....................................................
Illustration (Bar 2005) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1994) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1991) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................

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Chapter IV
Filing, Amendment and Dismissal by the Plaintiff
A. Filing of the Complaint (Rules 1 & 13)
Meaning of ling ......................................................................
Signicance of Filing of the Complaint...................................
Payment of Docket Fees and Acquisition of Jurisdiction ......
Payment of Docket Fees for Cases on Appeal ........................

243
243
243
244

B. Amendment of Complaint (Rule 10)


Amendment as a Matter of Right............................................
Applicability of Mandamus .....................................................
xvii

245
246

A Motion to Dismiss is not a Responsive Pleading


(Bar 1979; 2005) ..............................................................
Amendment by Leave of Court (Bar 1994; 1986) ...................
Amendment to Cure a Failure to State a Cause of Action ....
Amendment Where No Cause of Action Exist ........................
Illustration (Bar 2008) ...................................................
Suggested Answers..........................................................
Alternative Answer .........................................................
Amendment to Correct a Jurisdictional Defect
Before a Responsive Pleading is Served.........................
Amendment to Correct a Jurisdictional Defect After
a Responsive Pleading is Served ....................................
Illustration (Bar 2005) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Amendment to Conform to the Evidence ................................
Illustration (Bar 2004) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1992) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Effect of the Amendment on the Original Pleading ...............
Effect of the Amendment on Admissions Made i59
the Original Pleading ......................................................
Illustration (Bar 1993) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
When Summons not Required After Complaint
is Amended ......................................................................
Illustration (Bar 1999) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Supplemental Pleadings ..........................................................
Cause of Action in Supplemental Pleadings...........................
Answer To a Supplemental pleading; not Mandatory ...........

246
247
248
249
251
251
252
253
254
255
255
256
256
257
258
258
258
259
259
259
260
260
261
261
261
262

C. Dismissal by the Plaintiff (Rule 17)


Dismissal by Mere Notice of Dismissal...................................
Illustration (Bar 1989) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Dismissal Without Prejudice ...................................................
Two-Dismissal Rule .................................................................
Illustration (Bar 1989) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Dismissal by Filing a Motion to Dismiss ................................
xviii

263
264
264
264
265
265
266
266

Effect of Dismissal Upon a Counterclaim


Already Pleaded ..............................................................
Illustration (Bar 2008) ...................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Dismissal Without Prejudice ...................................................
Dismissal Due to the Fault of Plaintiff ...................................
Effect of Dismissal on the Counterclaim Under Sec. 3 ..........
Dismissal With Prejudice ........................................................

266
267
267
268
268
268
271

Chapter V
Summons
Nature of Summons (Rule 14) .................................................
Purpose of Summons ...............................................................
To Whom Summons is Directed ..............................................
Who Serves Summons .............................................................
Duty of Server Upon Completion of Service ...........................
Uniformity of the Rules on Summons .....................................
Contents of the Summons........................................................
Service of Summons Without Copy of the Complaint ............
Service Upon an Entity Without a Juridical Personality ......
Service Upon a Prisoner ..........................................................
Service Upon a Minor and an Incompetent ............................
Service Upon a Private Domestic Juridical Entity ................
Service Upon a Public Corporation .........................................
Service Upon a Defendant Whose Identity or
Whereabouts are Unknown ............................................
Service Upon a Resident Temporarily Out of the
Philippines .......................................................................
Service Upon a Foreign Private Juridical Entity ...................
Acquisition of Jurisdiction Over the Person of the
Defendant ........................................................................
A. Service in Person on the Defendant ...............................
B. Substituted Service of Summons ....................................
How Substituted Service is Made ...........................................
When Defendant Prevents Service of Summons ....................
Illustration (Bar 2006) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 2004) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
C. Summons by Publication ................................................
Extraterritorial Service of Summons ......................................
xix

272
272
273
273
273
274
274
274
275
276
276
281
281
281
283
284
285
286
288
290
291
293
294
294
295
295
296

Modes of Extraterritorial Service............................................


Illustration (Bar 2008) ...................................................
Summons when Complaint is Amended .................................

297
301
303

Chapter VI
Proceedings After Service of Summons
Preliminary Statements ..........................................................

305

A. Motion for Bill of Particulars


When to File the Motion ..........................................................
Purpose of the Motion ..............................................................
Requirements for the Motion ..................................................
Action of the Court ...................................................................
Illustration (Bar 2008) ...................................................
Suggested Answers..........................................................
Effect of Non-Compliance with the Order of
the Court or Insufcient Compliance .............................
When the Movant Shall File his Responsive Pleading ..........

306
307
308
308
308
309
310
310

B. Motion to Dismiss
A Motion to Dismiss is not a Pleading ....................................
Hypothetical Admissions of a Motion to Dismiss ...................
Omnibus Motion.......................................................................
Contents and Form of the Motion ...........................................
Time to File the Motion ...........................................................
Grounds for Motion to Dismiss ...............................................
Laches as a Ground for a Motion to Dismiss
Under Rule 16..................................................................
Res Judicata as a Ground for Motion to Dismiss ...................
Concepts of Res Judicata .........................................................
Elements of Res Judicata ........................................................
Application of Res Judicata to Quasi-Judicial
Proceedings ......................................................................
No Res Judicata in Criminal Proceedings ..............................
Pleading Grounds as Afrmative Defenses ............................
Remedy of the Defendant if the Motion is Denied .................
Remedies of the Plaintiff if the Motion to Dismiss
is Granted ........................................................................
When Complaint Cannot be Reled ........................................
Effect of Dismissal of Complaint on the Counterclaim ..........
xx

311
311
312
313
313
314
315
315
316
317
317
317
318
318
319
321
321

Chapter VII
Answer, Other Pleadings, Default, Judgment
on the Pleadings, Summary Judgment
A. Answer
Nature of an Answer ................................................................
Defenses in the Answer ...........................................................
Effect of Absence of a Specic Denial .....................................
Purpose of a Specic Denial ....................................................
Kinds of Specic Denials .........................................................
Negative Pregnant ...................................................................
When a Specic Denial Must be Coupled with an Oath ........
Matters Not Deemed Admitted by the Failure
to Make a Specic Denial................................................
Afrmative Defenses................................................................

323
323
323
324
324
327
327
329
329

B. Counterclaim
Nature of a Counterclaim (Bar 1999) .....................................
Compulsory Counterclaim .......................................................
Incompatibility between a Compulsory Counterclaim
and a Motion to Dismiss .................................................
Permissive Counterclaim.........................................................
Distinctions Between a Compulsory and a
Permissive Counterclaim ................................................
How to Set up an Omitted Compulsory Counterclaim ..........
How to Set up a Counterclaim Arising After the
Filing of the Answer ........................................................
Period to Answer a Counterclaim ...........................................
Effect of the Dismissal of a Complaint on the
Counterclaim Already Set Up.........................................

330
331
334
334
335
338
339
339
339

C. Cross-Claim
Nature of a Cross-Claim ..........................................................
Distinctions Between a Counterclaim and a
Cross-Claim (Bar 1999) ...................................................
Period to Answer a Cross-Claim .............................................

340
341
342

D. Third (Fourth, Etc.) Party Complaint


Nature of a Third-Party Complaint ........................................
Leave of Court ..........................................................................
xxi

340
344

Answer to a Third-Party Complaint .......................................

344

E. Intervention
Nature of Intervention .............................................................
Requisites for Intervention (Bar 2000) ...................................
Procedure for Intervention ......................................................
Meaning of Legal Interest .......................................................
Time for Intervention ..............................................................

344
345
346
346
347

F. Reply
Nature of a Reply .....................................................................
Filing of Reply, not Mandatory ...............................................
When Filing of Reply is Advisable ..........................................

347
347
348

G. Default
Nature of Default .....................................................................
Requisites Before a Party May Be Declared in
Default (Bar 1999) ...........................................................
No Motu Proprio Declaration of Default.................................
Failure to File an Answer Under the Rule
on Summary Procedure...................................................
Effect of a Declaration/Order of Default .................................
Effect of partial Default ...........................................................
Action of the Court After the Declaration/Order
of Default .........................................................................
Judicial Discretion to Admit Answer Filed Out of Time .......
Remedies of a Defending Party Declared in
Default (Bar 1998) ...........................................................
Current Judicial Trend on Default .........................................
Implied Lifting of the Order of Default ..................................
Extent of Relief in a Judgment by Default .............................
Cases Where a Declaration/Order of Default
Cannot be Made...............................................................
Judgment by Default for Refusal to Comply
with the Modes of Discovery ...........................................

348
349
351
352
352
352
353
353
354
355
355
359
359
359

H. Judgment on the Pleadings (Bar 1999; 1993; 1978)


Nature of Judgment on the Pleadings ....................................
Motion Required.......................................................................
xxii

360
360

Cases Where Judgment on the Pleadings Will


Not Apply .........................................................................

360

I. Summary Judgment (Bar 1989)


Nature of Summary Judgment (Bar 1986; 1989;
1996; 1999) .......................................................................
Distinctions Between a Judgment on the Pleadings and
a Summary Judgment (Bar 1989) ..................................

361
363

Chapter VIII
Pre-Trial and Modes of Discovery
A. Pre-Trial
Nature and Purpose of a Pre-Trial..........................................
Referral to the Philippine Mediation Center..........................
How Pre-Trial is Called (Bar 1999).........................................
The Meaning of Last Pleading ................................................
Notice of Pre-Trial (Bar 1977) .................................................
Appearance in the Pre-Trial (Bar 1992) .................................
Effect of Failure to Appear by the Plaintiff
(Bar 1989; 1981; 1980) ....................................................
Effect of Failure to Appear by the Defendant ........................
How Non-Appearance is Excused ...........................................
Filing and Contents of Pre-Trial Briefs ..................................
Importance of Identication and Marking of Evidence .........
Legal Effect of Representations and Statements
in the Pre-trial Brief........................................................
Effect of Failure to File a Pre-Trial Brief ...............................
No Termination of Pre-Trial for Failure to Settle ..................
Questions to be Asked by the Judge .......................................
Pre-Trial Order ........................................................................
Pre-Trial in Civil Cases Compared to Pre-Trial in
Criminal Cases (Bar 1997)..............................................
Preliminary Conference Under the Revised
Rules on Summary Procedure ........................................
The Enhanced Pre-Trial Proceedings .....................................

364
365
366
366
367
367
367
368
368
369
370
370
370
371
372
372
373
374
374

B. Modes of Discovery
Meaning of Discovery...............................................................
Purpose of Discovery ................................................................
Duty of the Court in Relation to the Modes of Discovery ......
xxiii

375
375
375

Modes of Discovery Under the Rules of Court


(Bar 2000) ........................................................................
Depositions (Rules 23-24) ........................................................
When Leave of Court is Required and not Required
for Taking a Deposition Pending Action ........................
Deposition of a Prisoner...........................................................
Before Whom Taken (Depositions Pending Action) ...............
Examination of the Deponent .................................................
Use of Depositions Pending Action .........................................
Deposition Upon Written Interrogatories ..............................
Perpetuation of Testimony Before Action or
Pending Appeal ...............................................................

376
376
376
378
378
379
380
380
381

Interrogatories to Parties (Rule 25)


Purpose of Interrogatories to Parties......................................
Distinguished From a Bill of Particulars ...............................
Distinguished From Written Interrogatories in a
Deposition ........................................................................
Procedure ...............................................................................
Effect of Failure to Serve Written Interrogatories.................

381
381
382
382
383

Admission by Adverse Party (Rule 26)


Purpose of Admission by Adverse Party .................................
Filing of Written Request for Admission ................................
Filing and Service of a Sworn Statement of Admission
or Denial; Effect of Failure to File and Serve ................
Deferment of Compliance ........................................................
Withdrawal of Admission ........................................................

383
383
384
384
384

Production or Inspection of Documents or


Things (Rule 27)
Purpose
...............................................................................
Filing of a Motion; Order of the Court ....................................

385
388

Physical and Mental Examination of Persons


(Rule 28)
Applicability .............................................................................
Procedure ...............................................................................
Waiver of Privilege ...................................................................
Refusal to Comply with the Modes of Discovery (Rule 29) ....
A. Refusal to Answer Any Question .........................
xxiv

389
389
390
390
390

B.

C.
D.
E.

Refusal to Answer Designated or Particular


Questions or Refusal to Produce
Documents or Things or to Submit to
Physical or Mental Examination ................
Refusal to be Sworn ..............................................
Refusal to Admit ...................................................
Failure to Attend Depositions or to Serve
Answers to Interrogatories ..........................

391
391
392
392

Chapter IX
Trial, Demurrer to Evidence and Judgment
A. Trial
Nature of Trial .........................................................................
Trial and Hearing ....................................................................
When Trial is Unnecessary (Bar 1996) ...................................
Notice of Trial...........................................................................
Calendaring of Cases ...............................................................
Session Hours ...........................................................................
Adjournment and Postponements ...........................................
Limitation on the Authority to Adjourn .................................
Postponement on the Ground of Illness ..................................
Postponement on the Ground of Absence of
Evidence (Bar 1975) ........................................................
Postponement is not a Matter of Right ...................................
Reception of Evidence ..............................................................
Issues in the Trial ....................................................................
Agreed Statement of Facts ......................................................
Consolidation or Severance .....................................................

394
394
394
395
395
395
396
396
396
397
397
397
398
398
398

B. Demurrer to Evidence
Motion to Dismiss in Rule 16 Distinguished from
Demurrer to Evidence .....................................................
Effect of Denial of the Demurrer to Evidence ........................
Effect of Granting of the Demurrer to Evidence ....................
Demurrer in a Civil Case as Distinguished From
a Demurrer in a Criminal Case ......................................

399
400
400
401

C. Judgment
Meaning of a Judgment ...........................................................
Judgment and Decision ...........................................................
xxv

402
402

Requisites of a Valid Judgment ..............................................


Orders Granting or Denying a Motion to Dismiss .................
Denials of a Petition for Review or of a
Motion for Reconsideration .............................................
Conict Between the Dispositive Portion and
Body of the Decision ........................................................
Ambiguity in the Judgment; Claricatory Judgment ............
Resolutions of the Supreme Court ..........................................
Interlocutory Orders ................................................................
Memorandum Decisions ..........................................................
Meaning of Rendition of Judgment .........................................
Period Within Which to Render a Decision ............................
Extension of the Period to Render a Decision ........................
Judgment Penned by a Judge who did not Hear
the Evidence ....................................................................
Judgment Penned by a Judge who had Ceased to
be a Judge ........................................................................
Judgment Penned by a Judge who was Transferred .............
Judgments of the Supreme Court ...........................................
Rule of Stare Decisis ................................................................
Obiter Dictum ..........................................................................
When a Judgment Becomes Final ...........................................
Conclusiveness of Judgments (Immutability
of Judgments) ..................................................................
Exceptions to the Rule of Immutability
of Judgments ...................................................................
Res Judicata Effect of a Final Judgment
or Final Order ..................................................................
Judgment on the Merits ..........................................................
Doctrine of Law of the Case.....................................................
Several Judgment ....................................................................
Separate Judgment ..................................................................
Conditional Judgment .............................................................
Judgment Sin Perjuicio ...........................................................
Judgment Nunc Pro Tunc........................................................
Judgment Upon a Compromise (Bar 1996) ............................
Judgment Upon a Confession (Cognovit Actionem) ...............
Judgment Against an Entity Without a Juridical
Personality .......................................................................
Entry of Judgment; Date Thereof ...........................................
Relevance of Knowing the Date of the Entry
of a Judgment ..................................................................
xxvi

402
404
404
404
405
405
406
406
407
408
409
409
410
411
411
412
413
413
414
415
416
418
419
419
420
420
420
421
421
423
424
424
425

Chapter X
Post Judgment Remedies
I. Remedies Before a Judgment Becomes Final
and Executory
Available Remedies to the Aggrieved Party ...........................

426

A. Motion for Reconsideration (Rule 37)


Object of the Motion .................................................................
When to File .............................................................................
Effect of the Filing the Motion on the Period to Appeal ........
Grounds for a Motion for Reconsideration .............................
Pro Forma Motion ....................................................................
Resolution of the Motion ..........................................................
Denial of the Motion; the Fresh Period Rule ..........................
Order of Denial, Not Appealable .............................................
Remedy When Motion is Denied .............................................
Effect of Granting a Motion for Reconsideration ...................
Partial Reconsideration ...........................................................
The Single Motion Rule ...........................................................

427
427
428
428
429
430
430
433
434
434
435
435

B. Motion for New Trial (Rule 37)


When to File .............................................................................
Effect of the Filing of the Motion on the Period to Appeal ....
Form of a Motion for New Trial ..............................................
Grounds for a Motion for New Trial .......................................
Afdavit of Merit ......................................................................
Gross Negligence of Counsel not a Ground
for New Trial....................................................................
Resolution of the Motion ..........................................................
Denial of the Motion; the fresh period Rule ........................
Order of Denial, not Appealable..............................................
Remedy When Motion is Denied .............................................
Effect of Granting the Motion for New Trial ..........................
Partial New Trial .....................................................................
Second Motion for New Trial ...................................................

435
436
436
436
437
437
438
438
438
438
439
439
439

APPEALS
General Principles on Appeal ..................................................
Judgments or Orders that are Not Appealable ......................
xxvii

440
441

Remedy in Case the Judgment or Final


Order is Not Appealable .................................................
Issues that may be Raised on Appeal .....................................
Issues that the Appellate Court Decides on Appeal...............
When Errors Not Raised on Appeal may
be Considered ..................................................................
Appeals in Criminal Cases ......................................................
Payment of Docket Fee ............................................................
Record on Appeal; Notice of Appeal ........................................

443
443
444
445
446
447
448

A. Appeal from Municipal Trial Courts to the


Regional Trial Courts (Rule 40)
Where to Appeal from a Judgment or Final
Order of a Municipal Court.............................................
When to Appeal ........................................................................
How to Appeal ..........................................................................
Perfection of the Appeal...........................................................
Duty of the Clerk of Court .......................................................
When Case is deemed Submitted for Decision .......................
Appeal from an Order Dismissing a Case
for Lack of Jurisdiction ...................................................

450
450
454
451
451
452
452

B. Appeal from The Regional Trial Courts


to the Court of Appeals (Rule 41)
Modes of Appeal from the Decision of the Regional
Trial Court .......................................................................
Application of Rule 41 ..............................................................
When to Appeal ........................................................................
How to Appeal ..........................................................................
Questions That may be Raised on Appeal ..............................
Residual Jurisdiction ...............................................................

453
454
454
454
456
456

C. Petition for Review from the Regional Trial


Courts to the Court of Appeals (Rule 42)
Application of Rule 42 ..............................................................
When to Appeal ........................................................................
How to Appeal ..........................................................................
Dismissal of the Appeal ...........................................................
Residual Jurisdiction ...............................................................
Stay of Judgment .....................................................................
xxviii

457
457
457
459
460
460

D. Appeal by Certiorari to the Supreme Court


(Rule 45)
Application of Rule 45 ..............................................................
Provisional Remedies ...............................................................
Not a Matter of Right...............................................................
Questions of Law ......................................................................
Exceptions to the Rule .............................................................
Appeal from Judgment in a Petition for a
Writ of Amparo Or Writ of Habeas Data .......................
Certiorari Under Rule 45 is not the Certiorari
Under Rule 65 (Bar 1998; 1999) .....................................
When to Appeal ........................................................................
How to Appeal ..........................................................................
Provisional Remedies in a Rule 45 Petition ...........................
Appeals from Quasi-Judicial Bodies .......................................
Review of Decision of the NLRC (Bar 2006) ...........................
Appeals from the Sandiganbayan ...........................................
Review of the Rulings of the Ombudsman (Bar 2006) ...........
Appeals from Judgments of the Court
of Tax Appeals (Bar 2006)...............................................
Review of Judgments of the Commission on Elections ..........
Review of Judgments of the Commission on Audit ................
Appeals from Judgments of the Civil
Service Commission ........................................................
Appeals from Judgments of the Ofce
of the President ...............................................................

461
462
462
463
464
466
466
469
470
471
471
472
472
472
475
475
476
476
476

II. Remedies After a Judgment has Become Final


and Executory
Illustration (Bar 1995) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................

477
477

A. Petition for Relief or Relief from Judgments.


Orders or Other Proceedings (Rule 38)
Nature of the Petition ..............................................................
Grounds for a Petition for Relief; Proper Court .....................
Petition is Available Only to the Parties ................................
Petition is Available to Proceedings after the Judgment ......
When to File .............................................................................
Form of the Petition; Afdavit of Merit ..................................
Order to Answer .......................................................................
xxix

477
477
478
479
479
480
480

Hearing of the Petition ............................................................


Action of the Court ...................................................................
Preliminary Injunction Pending the Petition for Relief ........
No Petition for Relief in the Supreme Court ..........................

480
480
481
482

B. Annulment of Judgments or Final Orders or


Resolutions (Rule 47)
Nature of the Action ................................................................
Grounds for Annulment ...........................................................
Extrinsic Fraud ........................................................................
Lack of Jurisdiction .................................................................
Period for Filing the Action .....................................................
Who May File the Action .........................................................
Basic Procedure ........................................................................
Effect of a Judgment of Annulment ........................................
Application of Rule 47; Annulment of
Judgments of the MTC....................................................
Annulment of Judgments of Quasi-Judicial Bodies ...............

483
484
485
485
486
486
487
487
488
488

C. Certiorari (Rule 65)


Nature of the Remedy ..............................................................
Motion for Reconsideration .....................................................
Material Data (Date) Rule .......................................................
Certication Against Forum Shopping ...................................
Observance of Hierarchy of Courts .........................................
Amendments to Rule 65 ..........................................................

489
490
492
492
492
492

D. Collateral Attack of a Judgment


Distinction Between a Direct from a Collateral Attack .........

493

Chapter XI
Execution of Judgments
Meaning of Execution ..............................................................
Part of the Judgment to be Executed......................................
When Execution Shall Issue....................................................
How Execution Shall Issue ......................................................
Where Application for Execution Made ..................................
No Appeal from an Order of Execution...................................
Form and Contents of Writ of Execution ................................
Writ of Execution Must Conform with Judgment ..................
xxx

494
494
494
495
496
496
497
497

Lifetime of the Writ of Execution (Bar 1995) .........................


When Execution Will be Denied..............................................
Quashal of a Writ of Execution ...............................................
Duty of Sheriff ..........................................................................
Modes of Execution of a Judgment
(Bar 1982; 1987; 1997) ....................................................
Revival of judgment (Bar 1997)...............................................
Illustration (Bar 1997) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
When the Five-Year Period is Interrupted (Bar 1993) ..........
When the Five and Ten-Year Periods Do Not Apply .............
Stay of Execution of a Judgment; Exceptions ........................
Judgments Not Stayed by Appeal ...........................................
Discretionary Execution (Bar 1991; 1995)..............................
Requisites for Discretionary Execution ..................................
Discretionary Execution is to be Strictly Construed..............
Good Reasons ...........................................................................
Illustration (Bar 1995) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Frivolous Appeal as Reason for Discretiona
Execution .........................................................................
Posting of Bond as Reason for Discretionary
Execution (Bar 1991).......................................................
Financial Distress as Reason for Discretionary Execution ...
Where to File an Application for Discretionary Execution ....
Remedy Where the Judgment Subject to Discretionary
Execution is Reversed or Annulled ................................
Execution in Case the Judgment Obligee Dies ......................
Execution in Case the Judgment Obligor Dies ......................
How to Execute Judgments for Money ...................................
Garnishment of Debts and Credits .........................................
Execution of a Judgment for the Performance
of a Specic Act................................................................
Execution for a Judgment for the Delivery or
Restitution of Real Property (Bar 1995) ........................
Contempt is not a Remedy ......................................................
Removal of Improvements on the Property Subject
of Execution .....................................................................
Property Exempt from Execution (Bar 1981) .........................
When the Property Mentioned is not Exempt
form Execution ................................................................
Proceedings When Property Levied Upon is Claimed
by Third Persons; Terceria (Bar 1982; 1984; 1993) .......
xxxi

499
499
500
501
501
502
508
508
509
510
510
510
511
512
512
512
514
514
514
515
515
516
516
516
516
517
518
519
519
520
520
521
522
522

Illustration (Bar 1993) ....................................................


Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Miscellaneous Principles to be Remembered in
Execution Sales ...............................................................
Sale and Redemption of Real Property ...................................
Effect if no Redemption is Made .............................................
Rents, Income and Earnings of the Property
Pending the Redemption .................................................
Remedy When the Judgment is Unsatised
(Bar 1983; 2002) ..............................................................
Effect of Final Judgments .......................................................

525
525
526
528
528
529
529
529

Chapter XII
Provisional Remedies
Nature of Provisional Remedies ..............................................
Purpose of Provisional Remedies (Bar 1996)..........................
Court Which Grants Provisional Remedies ............................
Kinds of Provisional Remedies (Bar 1999) .............................
Deposit as a Provisional Remedy ............................................
Provisional Remedies (interim Reliefs) in
a Petition for a Writ of Amparo ......................................
Availability of Interim Reliefs to Respondent
in a Petition for a Writ of Amparo ..................................

532
532
532
533
533
536
536

I. Preliminary Attachment (Rule 57)


Nature of Preliminary Attachment .........................................
Purpose of Preliminary Attachment .......................................
Kinds of Attachments; Distinctions
(Bar 1975; 1999) ..............................................................
Cases in Which Preliminary Attachment is Proper ...............
Illustration (Bar 1981) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1982) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1983) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1990) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
When to Apply for Preliminary Attachment ..........................
By Whom Applied For..............................................................
Ex Parte Issuance of the Writ (Bar 2005; 2001;
1996; 1993; 1991) .............................................................
xxxii

537
539
539
540
545
546
546
546
546
547
548
548
548
548
549

Illustration (Bar 2005) ....................................................


Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 2001) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1996) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1993) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1991) ....................................................
Suggested Answers..........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1978) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Why Ex Parte Grant of the Writ is Allowed ...........................
Stages in the Grant of Preliminary Attachment ....................
When Contemporaneous Service is not Required ..................
Requisites for the Issuance of an Order/Writ
of Preliminary Attachment .............................................
Grant of Preliminary Attachment, Discretionary ..................
Strict Construction of the Rule ...............................................
How to Prevent the Attachment .............................................
How to Have the Attachment Discharged ..............................
Damages for a Wrongful Attachment .....................................
Illustration (Bar 1999) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Attachment of Property in Custodia Legis .............................
Illustration (Bar 1999) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Proceedings Where Property Attached is Claimed
by a Third Person ............................................................
Illustration (Bar 2000) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
No Sale of Property Covered by a Writ of Preliminary
Attachment Before Entry of Judgment; Exception .......

549
550
550
550
551
551
551
552
552
553
553
554
554
554
555
555
556
557
557
557
558
560
560
560
561
561
561
563
563
564

II. Preliminary Injunction (Rule 58)


Nature of Preliminary Injunction ...........................................
Main Action for Injunction Distinguished from
a Preliminary Injunction (Bar 2006) ..............................
Purpose of Preliminary Injunction..........................................
Illustration (Bar 1978) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Preliminary Injunction Distinguished from a
Final Injunction ...............................................................
xxxiii

564
567
568
568
568
569

Prohibitory and Mandatory Injunctions .................................


Prohibitory Injunction Distinguished from Prohibition ........
Mandatory Injunction Distinguished from Mandamus .........
Stage of Proceedings When Granted.......................................
Court that Issues Preliminary Injunction ..............................
Requisites for Issuance of a Writ of Preliminary
Injunction (Bar 2006) or Temporary
Restraining Order ...........................................................
Quantum of Evidence Required ..............................................
Notice and Hearing (Bar 2001; 1998) .....................................
Temporary Restraining Order (Bar 2006) ..............................
Illustration (Bar 1993) ...................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1998) ....................................................
Suggested Answers..........................................................
Illustration (Bar 2001) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 2001) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Issuance of Temporary Restraining Order by
the Court of Appeals (Bar 2006) and the
Supreme Court ................................................................
Illustration (Bar 1988) .............................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Nature of an Order Granting a Preliminary
injunction .........................................................................
Examples of Cases Justifying the Issuance
of a Writ of Preliminary Injunction ................................
Illustration (Bar 2003) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1984) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 2002) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Examples of Cases in Which Injunction/
Preliminary Injunction Will Not be Issued ....................
Illustration (Bar 1999) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1996) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
How to Dissolve a Writ of Preliminary
Injunction or Restraining Order .....................................
Duty of the Court that Issued the Writ ..................................
xxxiv

569
569
570
570
570

571
573
574
574
576
576
577
577
578
578
578
578

579
579
579
579
580
581
581
581
582
582
583
583
588
588
588
588
589
589

III. Receivership (Rule 59)


Nature of Receivership ............................................................
Illustration (Bar 2001) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1995) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Court That Can Grant Receivership .......................................
Procedure for Appointment of a Receiver ...............................
Powers of a Receiver ................................................................
Investment of Funds by Receiver ............................................
Suits Against a Receiver ..........................................................
Appointment of a Party as a Receiver ....................................

590
590
591
591
591
592
592
592
593
593
593

IV. Replevin (Sec. 60)


Illustration (Bar 1999) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Procedure for the Application for Replevin ............................
Illustration (Bar 1976) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1996) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Undertaking of the Replevin Bond .........................................
Order of the Court and Duty of Sheriff ...................................
How Adverse Party Can Seek the Return
of the Property .................................................................
Replevin Distinguished form Preliminary
Attachment ......................................................................

594
594
594
595
595
595
596
596
596
597
597

V. Support Pendente Lite (Rule 61)


Illustration (Bar 2001) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1999) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Procedure for Application for Support
Pendente Lite ..................................................................
Illustration (Bar 1981) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Enforcement of the Order ........................................................
Restitution ...............................................................................

xxxv

599
599
599
600
600
601
601
601
601

Chapter XIII
Special Civil Actions
Preliminaries ............................................................................

602

I. Interpleader (Rule 62)


Meaning of Interpleader (Bar 1998) .......................................
Illustration (Bar 1988) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1996) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1978) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Basic Procedure ........................................................................
Court With Jurisdiction ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1997) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Distinctions Between Interpleader and
Intervention .....................................................................

605
606
607
607
607
607
608
608
610
611
611
611

II. Declaratory Relief and Other Similar


Remedies (Rule 63)
Preliminaries ............................................................................
Subject Matter in a Petition for Declaratory Relief ...............
Illustration (Bar 1998) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Court With Jurisdiction ...........................................................
Purpose of the Petition ............................................................
The Petitioner and Other Parties ...........................................
Filing Before Any Breach or Violation;
Justiable Controversy ...................................................
Summary of Requisites for the Petition .................................
Reformation of an Instrument ................................................
Consolidation of Ownership ....................................................
Quieting of Title .......................................................................

612
613
614
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
623

III. Review of Judgment and Final Orders or Resolutions


of the Commission on Elections and the
Commission on Audit (Rule 64)
Preliminaries ............................................................................
Remedy of the Aggrieved Party...............................................
xxxvi

623
624

Rule 64 does Not Apply to the Civil Service Commission .....


Findings of Fact; Not Reviewable ...........................................
Motion for New Trial or Motion for Reconsideration .............
Basic Requirements for the Petition .......................................
Order to Comment; Outright Dismissal .................................
Filing of Petition Does not Stay Execution.............................
Oral Arguments; Memoranda; Submission for Decision .......

624
624
625
625
626
627
627

IV. Certiorari; Prohibition and Mandamus (Rule 65)


A. Certiorari
Nature and Purpose of the Remedy ........................................
Illustration (Bar 2005) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Correction of Errors of Jurisdiction ........................................
Certiorari Distinguished From Appeal ...................................
Necessity for Writ of Injunction; Certiorari not Sufcient ....
Duty of the Court When a Petition for Certiorari is Filed.....
No Petition for Certiorari in a Summary Proceeding ............
Illustration (Bar 2004) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Certiorari Not Substitute for Lost Appeal ..............................
Illustration (Bar 1991) ....................................................
Suggested Answers..........................................................
When Certiorari is Available Despite the Loss of Appeal .....
Essential Requisites for a Petition for Certiorari ..................
Respondent Must Exercise Judicial or
Quasi-Judicial Functions ................................................
Jurisdictional Issue ..................................................................
Excess of Jurisdiction Distinguished From
Absence of Jurisdiction ...................................................
Grave Abuse of Discretion .......................................................
Necessity for a Motion for Reconsideration ............................
Exceptions to the Requirement of a
Motion for Reconsideration (Bar 1989) ..........................
Illustration (Bar 1989) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Absence of Appeal or Any Plain, Speedy and
Adequate Remedy (Bar 1999) .........................................
Illustration (Bar 2002) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1999) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
xxxvii

628
629
629
629
630
631
632
632
632
633
634
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
640
643
643
645
645
645
647
648
648
648

How to Avail of the Remedy of Certiorari ..............................


When to File .............................................................................
Certication Against Forum Shopping ...................................
Material Dates in the Petition; Material Date Rule ..............
Court Where Petition is Filed .................................................
Observance of the Hierarchy of Courts Principle...................
Parties to the Petition ..............................................................
Public Respondent is Not Required to Appear or
File Answer of Comment; Exception ..............................
Injunctive Relief .......................................................................
Order to Comment ...................................................................
Proceedings After Comment; Judgment .................................
Sanction in Case of Unmeritorious Petitions .........................
Service of Copy of Judgment to Public Respondent ...............
Relief ........................................................................................
Distinctions Between Certiorari Under Rule 45
and Certiorari Under Rule 65
(Bar 1999; 1998; 1991) ....................................................
Illustration (Bar 1991) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
When a Rule 45 Petition is Considered as
a Rule 65 Petition ............................................................
Distinctions Between Certiorari Under
Rule 64 and Certiorari Under Rule 65 ...........................

648
649
650
650
650
651
652
652
653
653
654
654
654
655

655
657
657
657
658

B. Prohibition (Rule 65)


Nature and Purpose of the Remedy ........................................
Requisites for a Writ of Prohibition ........................................
Prohibition Distinguished From Injunction ...........................
Prohibition Distinguished From Certiorari ............................
Basic Requirements of Both Certiorari and Prohibition .......
Illustration (Bar 1980) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................

658
659
660
660
661
662
662

C. Mandamus (Rule 65)


Nature and Purpose of Mandamus .........................................
Ministerial Act or Duty............................................................
Discretionary Acts not Compelled by Mandamus ..................
Illustration (Bar 1991) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Contractual Duties not Compellable by Mandamus ..............
Mandamus Distinguished form Injunction ............................
xxxviii

662
663
665
665
666
666
666

Mandamus Distinguished from Quo Warranto ......................


Illustration (Bar 2001) .............................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Requisites for Mandamus ........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1978) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................

667
667
667
667
668
668

V. Quo Warranto (Rule 66)


Nature and Purpose of the Action ...........................................
The Petitioner ..........................................................................
Jurisdiction and Venue ............................................................
Illustration (Bar 2001) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Period for Filing .......................................................................
Illustration (Bar 1980) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Right to Damages .....................................................................
Quo Warranto Under the Omnibus Election Code ................
Quo Warranto in an Elective Ofce Against
Quo Warranto in an Appointive Ofce Distinguished ..
Quo Warranto Proceedings and Election Protests .................
Quo Warranto Against Corporations ......................................

669
669
670
670
670
671
671
671
671
671
672
673
673

VI. Expropriation (Rule 67)


Preliminaries ............................................................................
Exercise of Eminent Domain by Local
Government Units ...........................................................
Stages in the Expropriation Process .......................................
How Expropriation is Commenced..........................................
Court with Jurisdiction ...........................................................
Answer of the Defendant .........................................................
Counter-claims, Cross-Claims or Third-party Complaints....
Waiver of Defenses or Failure to Answer; Effect ...................
When an Answer is Not Required ...........................................
Entry Upon the Property or Possession Thereof ....................
Effect of Making the Required Deposit ...................................
Purpose of the Deposit .............................................................
Sec. 2 of Rule 67 Deemed Modied by R.A. 8974 ...................
Order of Expropriation ............................................................
Appeal from the Order of Expropriation ................................
Matters Not Affected by the Appeal .......................................
Rule If the Trial Court is Reversed on Appeal .......................
xxxix

674
676
677
678
679
679
680
680
681
681
682
682
683
685
685
685
686

Ascertainment of Compensation .............................................


Judgment as to Compensation ................................................
Appeal from the Judgment as to Compensation ....................
Meaning of Just Compensation ...............................................
Point of Determination of Just Compensation .......................
Payment of Just Compensation ..............................................
Right of Plaintiff After Payment .............................................
Recording of the Judgment and its Effect ..............................
Nonpayment of Just Compensation; Effect ............................

686
688
688
688
691
692
693
693
694

VII. Foreclosure of Real Estate Mortgage (Rule 68)


Preliminaries ............................................................................
Alternative Remedies of a Creditor ........................................
Splitting of a Single Cause of Action ......................................
Illustration (Bar 1999) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Modes of Foreclosure of Real Estate Mortgage ......................
Applicability of Rule 68 ...........................................................
Complaint for Foreclosure .......................................................
Procedure ...............................................................................
Judgment on Foreclosure ........................................................
Equity of Redemption ..............................................................
Right of Redemption ................................................................
Illustration (Bar 2000) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Sale of the Mortgaged Property ..............................................
Conrmation of the Sale ..........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1984) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Effect of Conrmation of the Sale ...........................................
Effect of the Finality of the Conrmation of the Sale ............
Registration of the Sale ...........................................................
Disposition of the Proceeds of the Foreclosure Sale...............
Deciency Judgment ................................................................
Rule in Case There is a Surplus Instead of a Deciency .......
Summary of Distinctions Between Judicial
Foreclosure and ExtraJudicial Foreclosure
of Real Estate Mortgage..................................................

694
697
698
698
699
699
699
700
700
701
701
702
703
704
704
706
706
707
707
707
708
709
709
710

710

VIII. Partition (Rule 69)


Preliminaries ............................................................................
Modes of Partition ....................................................................
xl

711
712

Action for Partition ..................................................................


Order of Partition.....................................................................
Partition by Agreement ...........................................................
Partition by Court-Appointed Commissioners .......................
Report of the Commissioners ..................................................
Judgment of Partition ..............................................................
Rule When There are Expenses to be Paid
from the Estate ................................................................

712
713
716
716
717
717
718

IX. Forcible Entry and Unlawful Detainer (Rule 70)


Actions to Recover Possession of Real Property .....................
Accion Interdictal .....................................................................
Accion Publiciana and Accion Reivindicatoria .......................
Possession as the Issue ............................................................
Summary Nature of the Actions .............................................
Real and in Personam Actions ................................................
Illustration (Bar 1991) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Jurisdiction of the MTC; Summary Procedure.......................
Effect of the Pendency of an Action Involving
Ownership on the Action for Forcible
Entry and Unlawful Detainer.........................................
Examples of Cases in the RTC Which do not
Bar an Action for Forcible Entry or
Unlawful Detainer...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 2000) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Distinctions Between Forcible Entry and
Unlawful Detainer...........................................................
When Defendant Occupies Premises by Mere Tolerance ......
Demand in Unlawful Detainer Cases .....................................
Form of Demand ......................................................................
Effect of Non-Compliance With the Demand .........................
Illustration (Bar 1990) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
When Demand is not Required in Unlawful
Detainer Cases ................................................................
Illustration (Bar 1997) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Tacita Reconduccion ................................................................
Defense of Tenancy ..................................................................
Defense of Ownership ..............................................................
Judgment Not Binding on Ownership ....................................
xli

718
719
719
720
720
721
721
721
722

722

723
723
723
724
725
726
728
728
728
728
729
729
729
730
730
731
732

How to Obtain Possession of the Premises


During the Pendency of the Action.................................
Damages Recoverable ..............................................................
Immediate Execution of Judgment .........................................
How to Stay Immediate Execution of the Judgment .............
Illustration (Bar 1997) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1990) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Where to Appeal .......................................................................
Persons Bound by the Judgment in Ejectment Cases ...........

733
733
734
734
735
735
735
736
736
736

X. Contempt (Rule 71)


Meaning of Contempt ..............................................................
Functions of Contempt ............................................................
Kinds of Contempt According to Nature.................................
Kinds of Contempt According to the Manner
of Commission..................................................................
Direct Contempt .......................................................................
Acts Constituting Direct Contempt ........................................
No Formal Proceeding Required .............................................
Penalty
...............................................................................
Remedy of a Person Adjudged in Direct Contempt ................
Indirect Contempt ....................................................................
Examples of Specic Acts Constituting indirect
Contempt .........................................................................
Illustration (Bar 1995) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Illustration (Bar 1993) ....................................................
Suggested Answer ...........................................................
Criticism of Courts ...................................................................
Court where the Charge for Indirect Contemt
is to be Filed.....................................................................
Contempt in Relation to Execution of Judgments .................
How a Proceeding for Indirect Contempt
is Commenced ..................................................................
Necessity for Hearing ..............................................................
Punishment for Indirect Contempt .........................................
Imprisonment ...........................................................................
Remedy of a Person Adjudged in Indirect Contempt .............
Contempt Against Quasi-Judicial Entities.............................

xlii

737
738
738
739
739
740
741
741
741
742
742
743
743
744
744
744
749
746
747
748
750
750
751
751

APPENDICES
Appendix A
Republic Act No. 7691 .....................................................

753

Appendix B
Revised Rules on Summary Procedure ..........................

757

Appendix C
A.M. No. 02-11-09-SC ......................................................

763

Appendix D
A.M. No. 04-1-12-SC-PhilJa............................................
Appendix E
Rule of Procedure for Small Claims Cases.....................
Appendix F
Amendments to Rules 41, 45, 58
and 65 of the Rules of Court .........................................

765
771

777

General Index ...........................................................................

781

Case Index ...............................................................................

802

xliii