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DEVELOPMENT ON SARAWAK POTTERY

NURAINI BINTI DAUD

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Science (Industrial Design)

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering University Technology Malaysia

MAY 2010

2 PSZ 19 : 16 (Pind.1/97)

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA


DECLARATION OF THESIS PAPER AND COPYRIGHT

Authors full name Date of birth Title Academic session

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NURAINI DAUD 23 MAY 1988 DEVELOPMENT OF SARAWAK POTTERY 2009/2010

I hereby declare that I have read this thesis and in my opinion I declare that this thesis is classified as:

This thesis is sufficient in terms of scope and quality for


( Contains confidential information under the Official Secret act

the award of the degree of Bachelor Science of Industrial Design 1972)*


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_________________________________ PM. Abdul Mutaali bin Othman

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VALIDATION OF E-THESIS PREPARATION

Title of the thesis Degree Faculty Year

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DEVELOPMENT OF SARAWAK POTTERY BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (INDUSTRIAL DESIGN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 2009

I _______________________NURAINI BINTI DAUD_______________________ declare and verify that the copy of e-thesis submitted is in accordance to the Electronic Thesis and Dissertations Manual, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UTM

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Name of Supervisor: ASSOC. PROF ABDUL MUTAALI BIN

No. 31, TMN SRI CEMPEDAK 71600, JELEBU, NEGERI SEMBILAN

OTHMAN

Faculty: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

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I hereby declare that I have read this report and in my opinion this report is sufficient in terms of scope and quality for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Science (Industrial Design)

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_____________________________________ ASSOC. PROF ABDUL MUTAALI BIN OTHMAN 23 MAY 2010

I declare that this thesis entitled Development on Sarawak Pottery is the result of my own research except as cited in the references. This thesis has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted in candidature or any other degree

Signature Name Date

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__________________________ NURAINI BINTI DAUD 23 MAY 2010

To my beloved parents, my siblings, Assoc. Prof. Abdul Mutaali bin Othman, My beloved one, Staff at Museum Sarawak, Kuching Staff at Kraftangan Sarawak, and my dearest friends, Thank you for everything

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Special gratitude to my supervisor, Assoc. Prof Abdul Mutaaali bin Othman for his guidance and patience in helping me completing my thesis. Not to forget, En.Kamal Azam bin Bani Hashim, for his opinion about my field of study.

To my father and my mother, without both of them, I will not have the strength and energy in fulfilling the requirements to complete my degree and thesis literally. Only Allah will bless you.

Other than that, millions of thank you to all the staff at the Museum of Sarawak especially the curator and to Puan Nabilah Huda and Encik Fendi of Kraftangan Sarawak for all the willingness to share their knowledge with me.

Also to my dearest mates and seniors, really appreciated the ideas and willing to spend times discussing with me. Finally, to those who have assisted me directly or indirectly to complete my thesis.

Thank you Nuraini Daud, 23 May 2010

ABSTRACT

Sarawak, one of Borneo state in Malaysia, is rich with unique crafts such as shields, colorful mats, bead jackets, pottery and pua kumbu. One of the most sought after craft when visiting Sarawak is the Sarawak pottery. Pottery in Sarawak comes from two distinct types, one by the natives and one by the Chinese potters from Swattow. Every each of the pottery has different design aspects in term of the shapes, form and surface design. The curiosity of the pottery in Sarawak was what Sarawak pottery is as it has an origin from two distinctive types; the natives and the Chinese. Eventhough at present it is called Sarawak pottery. It is the interest to investigate how do these two distinctive types being able to compromise to become Sarawak Pottery. Generally, the revolution on Sarawak pottery happened since the natives and the traders from China come and started to exchange their goods. This is believe the beginning of Chinese pottery elements start to spread and slowly influence the pottery industry in Sarawak. This thesis is to study and to investigate the development and the influences factors that have change the design of Sarawak pottery. On the design area, there will be focusing more on the aspect of the native surface design, in which eventually been influenced by the Chinese and what make a Sarawak pottery. As technology improved, the process of making pots also changed from the traditional methods to slip casting methods. Further research will be conduct to study the development in production process of Sarawak pottery.

ABSTRAK

Sarawak ialah salah satu dari Tanah Borneo yang kaya dengan kraftangan yang unik dan menarik seperti perisai, tikar mengkuang yang berwarna-warni, jaket bermanik dan kain pua kumbu. Antara kraf yang sering menarik perhatian oleh pelancong ketika menziarahi Sarawak ialah tembikar Sarawak. Tembikar di Sarawak terbahagi kepada dua jenis iaitu satu dari kaum-kaum di Sarawak iaitu tembikar tradisioanl dan satu lagi diperbuat oleh pembuat tembikar dari Swattow, China. Setiap tembikar mempunyai rekabentuk yang berbeza dari segi bentuk dan ragam hias. Persoalan yang timbul disini ialah apakah tembikar Sarawak, yang terdiri daripada dua jenis; kaum-kaum dan dari China. Ini telah menimbulkan minat untuk menyelidik bagaimana dua jenis tembikar yang berbeza pembuatnya menjadi Tembikar Sarawak. Tembikar Sarawak mengalami perubahan yang sangat ketara semenjak etniketnik dan pedagang-pedagang dari China saling membuat pertukaran hasil-hasil dari tempat masing-masing. Ini menunjukkan bahawa titik permulaan elemen Tembikar Cina telah bermula dan mempengaruhi industri tembikar di Sarawak. Thesis ini bertujuan untuk menyelidik perubahan dan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi perubahan terhadap rekabentuk tembikar Sarawak. Di dalam aspek rekabentuk, thesis ini memfokuskan kepada rekabentuk luaran tembikar tradisional yang mana telah dipengaruhi oleh tembikar China dan ianya menjadi persoalan apakah itu tembikar Sarawak. Proses pembuatan tembikar telah berubah sedikit sebanyak dari tradisional ke teknik menggunakan acuan selari dengan kemajuan teknologi kini. Penyelidikan lebih lanjut akan dijalankan untuk mengetahui perubahan didalam proses membuat tembikar Sarawak.

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TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER TITLE DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRAK ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENT LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES

PAGE i ii iii iv v vi vii viii

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction 1.2 Objective 1.3 Scope 1.4 Research Methodology

1 5 5 6

POTTERY IN SARAWAK

2.1 Introduction 2.2 Ceramics and the usages 2.3 The present after the past 2.4 Conclusion

8 10 15 17

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ORIGIN

3.1 Introduction 3.2 Sarawak pottery 3.3 Traditional pottery 3.4 Contemporary pottery 3.5 Conclusion

18 21 22 26 27

SURFACE DESIGN

4.1 Introduction 4.2 Motif and pattern in caingr 4.2.1 Tree of Life 4.2.2 Types of Kelok 4.2.3 Motif Daun Ukir 4.2.4 Pattern 4.2.5 Cunggit 4.2.6 Mata 4.2.7 Types of carving 4.2.8 Anatomy in carving 4.3 The usage on carving 4.3 Conclusion

28 29 30 32 33 35 36 36 37 38 39 43

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PRODUCTION PROCESS

5.1 Introduction 5.2 Traditional pottery production process 5.3 Sarawak pottery 5.4 Conclusion

44 45 57 69

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

6.1 Introduction 6.2 Development in design 6.3 Development in product usage 6.4 Development in production processes 6.5 Conclusion

70 71 72 72 79

REFERENCES

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LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO 3.1 4.1 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 6.1 6.2 6.3

TITLE Types of Pottery in Sarawak Types of Daun Ukir production process (traditional method) production process Decorating techniques Firing process The development of Sarawak Pottery (design aspect) The development of Sarawak pottery (usage aspect) The development of Sarawak Pottery (preparation of material)

PAGE 21 34 45 57 63 67 71 73 74

6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8

The development of forming process in Sarawak pottery The development of decorating process in Sarawak pottery The development of firing process of Sarawak pottery The development of finishing process in Sarawak pottery The factors that influenced the Development of Sarawak pottery

75 76 77 78 79

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LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE NO 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2.1 Pua Kumbu The bead jacket The Shields Basketry and mat

TITLE

PAGE 2 2 3 4 9

Precious jars in Rumah Panjang Tuai Rumah Kunding, Sunagi Merurun, Julau, Sarawak.

2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6

The dragon jar The Fa hua or Fa-Fa vase A dead body of the Melanau ethnic Melanau Ulou Berian bride wealth Ceramic assorted with Melanau marriage ceremony Kang-his ceramic vessels Ceramics plates for the Ian hornbill (kenyalang) ritual The revolution of Sarawak pottery Labu Sayong from Perak Terenang from Pahang Mambong from Kelantan Sarawak pottery Nuan from Iban ethnic Anatomy pottery

11 11 13 13 14 14 15 16 19 19 20 20 22 23

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FIGURE NO 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 Nuan from Iban ethnic

TITLE

PAGE 24 24 25 25 26 27 29 30 31 31 32 32 33 35 35 36 37 37 38 40 41 42 42 46 46 47 48 49 49

Form and shape of Nuan Nuan pots in Ibanese kitchen Kudin from Kelabit ethnic Sarawak Pottery by the Chinese from Swattow Sarawak pottery Design inspired by crab Design inspired by prawn Tree of Life at the Museum Sarawaks entrance Tree of Life 2 Tree of Life 3 Types of Kelok Types of Daun Ikir Patterns Types of Cunggit Types of Mata Type : Balance Type : Unbalance Parts in carving Sarawak pottery Shield The Ibanese with variety of tattoos design Sarawak pottery A roundish stone A piece of rattan The beaters Clay A moist rattan ring on the top of cylinder Making hole

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FIGURE NO 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 5.25 5.26 5.27 5.28 5.29 5.30 6.1 6.2 Flatten the clay

TITLE

PAGE 50 51 51 52 53 53 55 56 58 59 59 60 60 61 61 61 62 62 64 64 65 65 66 66 72 72

Form the neck of the pot The wooden beaters The patterns Beating the pot After finished beating Firing the pots using traditional method Pot with the rattan carrier The electric mixing machine Electric-powered potters wheel A potter shapes a piece of pottery One piece mould slip casting 1 One piece mould slip casting 2 Two pieces mould The clays The clays poured in the moulds The thickness were formed The clay were shaped Carving technique Sarawak pottery : Carving technique Perforating technique Sarawak pottery: Perforating technique Painting technique Sarawak pottery: Painting technique The ashtrays with Sarawak motif The vases with Sarawak motif

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Introduction

Sarawak is one of two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo, also known as Bumi Kenyalang which has more than 40 ethnics such as Iban, Melanau, and Kelabit.

Every ethnic has own culture and believe and one of the well-spoken ethnic is Iban. One of the spiritual events to the Ibanese is Hari Gawai which they celebrate it on 1st June every year and now, Hari Gawai become a state holiday for the Sarawakian.

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In Sarawak, there are numerous of craft work made by the ethnics and one of it is pua kumbu (Figure 1.1). Pua kumbu is a traditional cloth worn by the Iban for ceremonial purpose and have multicolored patterned which are weaved by the native women. The Ibanese wore pua kumbu for lifecycle rituals and special events including the birth of a child. Other than pua kumbu, the rare bead jackets (Figure 1.2) which are worn by the Murut ethnics are crafted in techniques that very delicate and intricate.

Figure 1.1: pua kumbu

Figure 1.2: The bead jacket

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The Iban and Bidayuh ethnics carved human images and motifs from the jungle on their shields (Figure 1.3) and wooden pillars. The images carved on the shields reflect the courages and bravery of the warriors while the wealthy people carved the wooden pillars around their long house.

Figure 1.3: The shields

Pottery, colorful mat and basketry (Figure 1.4) are made by the women ethnics group. The composition of details in the design reflects the fine of womens ethnic artwork that able to make it look appealing and stand out. The pottery made by the women is for daily usage especially for cooking. Even though the pots were use for cooking, the patterns on the pots are very much different from the other pottery in states of Malaysia.

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Figure 1.4: basketry and mat from Sarawak

The Ibanese called their pottery as Nuan and the Nuans has rounded base for easy cooking and eating. The Kelabits ethnic used their pot for storing water and cooking rice which they called it Kudin. The ethnics in Sarawak have their own pots to meet various functions and purposes and each of the pottery crafted by the ethnic have adapted different surface design, shapes and forms.

The migrations of Chinese from Swatow create a very high impact for the pottery industry in Sarawak. In recent years, the Sarawak potteries produced by the Chinese potteries have become most sought after souvenirs compare with the traditional pottery. Most of the tourists are looking for the vibrant and attractive potteries that represent Sarawak. Based from Heidi Munan, a researcher on Sarawak pottery, she stated that pottery in Sarawak is from two distinct types, one done by the ethnics and the other done by the Chinese potters from Swatow.

In conclusion, there are two different designs of pottery that come from mainland Sarawak. Further research will conduct to identify the evolution of Sarawak potterys design.

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1.2

Research objective

The research is to investigate the influences factors in the development of pottery in Sarawak.

1.3

Research scope

The research will focus on:

The Ethnics pottery in Sarawak The surface design of the Sarawak pottery The development of production methods

1.4

Research Methodology

Research methodology is a method of collecting data needed in completing the research. In these investigation will focus more on the historical and the ethnics pottery in Sarawak, the development of the pottery and analyzing on the ethnics pottery and the Swattow pottery and how it become the Sarawak pottery.

After finish the research, the collected data can categorize into primary data and secondary data. Below are some descriptions of the about primary data and secondary data:

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1.4.1

Primary Data

Primary data are data that are collected where the research or investigation will deal directly with the subject studied. Two methods are selected as describe below:

i.

Interview

In this method, several places has been visit such as Museum Sarawak, Kraftangan Malaysia, cawangan Sarawak and manufactures along Batu 5, Kuching. The expected data are including:

o The history of Sarawak pottery o Development of Sarawak pottery in surface design area o Decorating techniques o Production methods and techniques

ii.

Observation

During the observation on the practitioners and manufactures of Sarawak pottery in Kuching and Sarawak pottery outlets, the expected data are the development of Sarawak pottery, the motif and pattern on the pottery and production process.

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1.4.2

Secondary data

Secondary data is data that has already been collected and collated by somebody for some reason other than the current study. Secondary data can further be divided into two parts which are Qualitative data and Quantitative data. The data are acquired from internet, books, articles, journals, videos and others are as below:

i.

Literature Review

o Development of Sarawak pottery o Differences between Sarawak pottery from the ethnics and the Chinese potters o History of Sarawak pottery o Production methods

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CHAPTER 2

HISTORY

2.1

Introduction

South China Sea is the first leg on the long distance Trans-Asia route leading from China to the Mediterranean. Through its southern ports, China export its natural and manufactured product to South East Asia, the Indian Ocean countries, the Middle East and Europe.

This barter trade system between the traders from China and the ethnics in Borneo Land started since thousand years ago. The traders from China are interested in exchanging the goods from Sarawak such as resins, rattan and bark while the natives are looking for the dragon jars brought by the Chinese. The collection of the

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glazed dragon jars symbolized the wealth among the ethnics. The more collection they have, the higher their status among the community.

During the 10th-13th century (song Dynasty), the jars also refered as Songs Jars and most of it decorated with dragons and floral scrolls. The natives stated that the jars are the subject of many legends, which intimately connected with the spiritual life of the owners.

Figure 2.1: Some of the precious jars belong to the ethnics in Rumah Panjang Tuai Rumah Kunding, Sunagi Merurun, Julau, Sarawak.

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2.2

Ceramics and the usages

Ceramics objects, ancient glass beads and brass objects such as sireh boxes, gongs and cannons have been found among the every ethnic group including the Kelabit who lives in the upland, 4,000 feet above sea level in central Borneo. These ceramics been treasured and guarded by the ethnics as their heirlooms and valuable and handed down from one generation to one generation. They form the traditional symbols of status and wealth and are appropriately and proudly worn in longhouse.

2.2.1

The jars

Between 1945-1955, a researcher named Tom Harrisson, has been living and studying the culture of uplands people who live in the Northern interior of Borneo. Along the upland houses, the existing of precious large and small jars, plates, and other ceramic object have been there since thousand years ago.

Each of the jars has its own value, the rarest being the most treasured. The common jars are those brown dragon jars, known as Martaban stoneswares and the rarest are the olive glazed type known as Dusun jars(Figure 2.2) of the 15th 17th Centuries. It is belived that only wealthy people among the ethnics can afford the olive glazed jars. The dragons motif and folaral patterns( Figure 2.3) appear at the ceramic represent courages and the ethnic feel like the dragon will protect them from the enemy.

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Figure 2.2: the dragon jar

Figure 2.3: A very rare Fa-Hua or Fa-Fa vase decorated with turquoise, olive and black glaze, Ming Dynasty (Museum Cat. No. 59/47)

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Most of the ethnics used the jars fro utilirian purposes such as for storing rice grains, for brewing rice wine (tuak), and as containers for medicines and ointments, while some of the jars been used for the ceremonial functions. For the Melanau ethnics, they used ceramics in their wedding and healing ceremonies, the Kelabit used the head rites and the Iban Bird Festival (Gawai Burong) as well as the bride wealth, as fines for offences and as gravegood.

2.2.2

Plates

Besides the jars, the other ceramics product is the plate. Based from the Kelabit myth, rich people did possess half of dozen such plates, kept hanging along above their jars in special frames made from a vine in the long house. The most common Kelabit plates are Ming export with a bare central ring. The collection has been made of these plates, which have been manufactured over a long period of time.

Traditionally when a Melanau died, the body was first laid out in the house. After it had been dressed, a blue and white plate was put under the head, the smaller ceramic plates under the feet and hands, added with some brass objects were also placed near the body. A string of ancient blue glass beads was then tied around the wrist of the dead body (Figure 2.4).

The Melanau will keep the body for at least a year and the bones collected and placed inside a large jar. The others such as plates, jarlets, bowls and beads were buried as gravegoods with the jar containing the bones.

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Figure 2.4 : a dead bo of the M ody Melanau ethn with the plates nics

In tra aditional wedding Melan Ulou Be nau, erian (Figure 2.5) was th Head of e he bride wealth given by th bridegroo b h he oms father t the brides father befo the to s ore wedding. Th Ulou Beri of an upp class brid was a blu and white plate with a w he ian per de ue Chinese cha C aracter in it with a gold b w bracelet whic wound rou the wris nine times ch und st s and a a kris, all placed in a round woo oden box wh was wra hich apped up in a cloth.

Figur 2.5: Melan Ulou Be re nau erian bride wealth

able was lepak timun which is the containmen e nt One of the valua plates w called sel to t placed an oil named nyo tejak. Ny tejak mad of coconut was rubbed on the n yo de t d forehead, elb f bows and kn nees of the young couple on the first three nights after the e s marriage cer m remony. The oil was kep in the selep timun ab e pt epak bove and thr other ree

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bowls called makok timu below it a finally a blue and wh plate called meluku b d un and hite underneath a of them ( Figure 2.6). u all

Figure 2.6: C F Ceramic asso orted with M Melanau marr riage ceremo ony

The Kelabit head K d-rite is the K Kang-his po olychrome v vessels in the form of e duck, crayfis and crane d sh ebird (Figure 2.7). These were used i making lib e e in bations to th he enemies hea and then in passing ric e ad ce-wine (bor rak) were so valuable an able to o nd scare the out s tsiders not to disturb the o em.

Figure 2.7: Kang-his ceramic vess (crayfish duck, and cranebirds) of 17th 18tth c sels h, cen nturies, associated with Kelabit head K d-rite

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Gawai Day is one of the annual events celebrated by the Ian in honour of their god, Sengalang Burong. A tall-carved pole is erected at the open verandah (tanju) of the longhouse and the heads of enemies are hung from it. A wooden statue carved in the form of rhinoceros hornbill is placed on top of the pole and plates with foods are placed around the foot of it. (Figure 2.8)

Figure 2.8: Ceramics plates containing offerings made to the Iban Hornbill (Kenyalang) ritual

2.3

The present after the past

According to Tom Harrison, potteries made by China have their own strength and beauty. They are never very lavish or oppressively ornate especially in the Vhing dynasty from the 17th century on. The simplicity of those potteries create own identity and easy to accept by others. In fact, the potters from Teochew, Swattow area working now at Kuching (at Tanah Puteh) and Sibu in Sarawak, near Papar in

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North Borne at Balikp N eo, papan adapt t their traditio the brown onn-glaze, eare dragon ed; jars j of Ming around 195 g 56.

The Chinese real create hig impacts o the traditi C lly gh on ional pottery by the y ethnics. As the demand for the tradit e t tional potter become le and its n worth for ry ess not r the t ethnics to spend man days to m ny make their po ottery

Figu 2.9 : The revolution of Sarawak p ure o pottery

The conte emporary po otteries are completely d c different with the h traditional in many aspe such as o t n ects outlook, prod duction proc so do with the cess decorating te d echniques. T Thus, the rev volution on Sarawak pot ttery started to occur from the t system b barters were bring in and slowly the China potter elements indulge in d ry Sarawak. S

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Figure 2.9 show how the pottery in Sarawak evolve from traditional pottery and slowly Chinese Jar came and finally contemporary Sarawak pottery that have both elements, Chinese and traditional elements. The changes in design aspects look very ketara as well as the development in production process. Nuan as the traditional pottery made by the Iban ethnics use hand-mould method and changed to slip casting method used by the contemporary pottery.

In design aspects, the basic pattern been decorated by the ethnics women had change to the Sarawak motif and pattern and for the shapes, most of the contemporary pottery been influenced by the Chinese pottery. The development that happened makes the traditional pottery elements immersed.

2.6

Conclusion

The revolution of Sarawak pottery started to occur since Song Dynasty and yet the dragon jars really give high crash for the native that produces traditional pottery. The authorities should play important roles in order to make sure the heirlooms not faded away.

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CHAPTER 3

POTTERY IN SARAWAK

3.1 Introduction

The traditional pottery has enriched the heritage of our country with variety of design and motif. The beauty of it symbolizes the delicate of traditional society that came from different culture. Other than that, the motif shows the creativity of the potters that been inspired from the flora and fauna elements.

Based from Perbadanan Kemajuan Kraftangan Malaysia, there are still traditional potters exists in Perak, Pahang, Kelantan, Sabah and Sarawak. As what we can see here, different states have different pottery design and also the shapes and forms mostly been adapt from things around them.

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There are several of potteries in Malaysia, but the most prominent are Labu Sayong from Perak (Figure 3.1), Terenang from Pahang (Figure 3.2), Mambong from Kelantan (Figure 3.3) and pottery from Sarawak (Figure 3.4).

Figure 3.1 : Labu Sayong from Perak

Figure 3.2: Terenang from Pahang

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Figure 3.3: Mambong from Kelantan

Figure 3.4: Sarawak pottery

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3.2 3

Sara awak Potter ry

Potte in Saraw is of two distinct type one done by ethnics such as Iban, ery wak es s , Murut, and Kelabit and t other one by the Chi M K the inese potters from Swatt (Chart 3). s tow The T pottery made by the ethnics gro such as th Iban is do by the w e oup he one women and is s simple low-f s fired pottery It is hand m y. molded by th common p he paddle and a anvil method d. The T Nuan (Figure 3.5) Iban potter are made for ceremo ), ries e onies connec with dye cted e mixing for w m weaving pua kumbu.

Toda the most sought after product wh tourists v Sarawak is Sarawak ay, r hen visit k k pottery made by the Chi p e inese potters The unique of design t appear on the pottery s. e that o y able a to attrac tourists to get close w it and appreciate each detail it. B ct o with Based from the t history, a craftsman from Teoche province China was making pot ew e, ttery on a floor-level k wheel. T changes from utility ware-storage and brew f kick The y wing jars, cooking pots to tourist ware took a f years. Th Chinese p c s w few he potters apply the basic y design on Sa d arawak on th pottery to attract the tourists inter he rest.

Potte ery

ETHNIC

CHINES SE

Iban

LunBawang

Kelab bit

Melanau

Orang gUlu

Chart 3.1 : T C Types of Pott tery in Saraw wak

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3.3

Traditional pottery

Sarawaks tribal communities used pots for cooking and storage purpose. the making of pots are practised by the women in the trobal community and being traditionally handed from generation to generation. The pots surface were decorated with pattern by beating them with patterened wooden paddles. For examples, pattern on the Nuan ( Figure 3.5) that were made by the Ibanese and Kudin by the Kelabit for cooking purpose. Besides that, jars were also one of precious pottery that produces for spiritual use especially burials.

The pots that been used by the ethnics usually look almost the same,but the differences are on the pattern. The traditional potters, Nabila Huda said most of the potters carved pattern of the basic geometric shape on the paddles and the design of the pattern depend on the creativity of the crafters. That why the differences on each ethnics only on the pattern. The shapes and forms are almost the identical.

Figure 3.5 Nuan from Iban ethnic The rattan is tied around the pot is for stability as the Nuan is rounded bottom pot

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3.3.1

Anatomy Pottery

The pottery of Sarawak as any other pottery in Malaysia has its anatomy to describe its function and visual appearance. The anatomy of pottery in Sarawak is as below:

Figure 3.6: Anatomy pottery

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3.3.2

Nuan is a pot name by the Ibanese

Figure 3.7: Nuan from Ian ethnics The surface design of the pot is from geometrical pattern. The patterns are unstructured and unplanned while the colors of Nuan are grey and black due to the process of firing. The rounded form shaped of the bottom of the Nuan for its stability when place on the cooking stove.

Figure 3.8: form and shape of Nuan

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Figure 3.9: Nuan pots in Ibanese kitchen

3.3.3

Kudin from Kelabit

Figure 3.10 Kudin from Kelabit ethnic Kudin is a pot from Kelabit ethnic. The shape of Kudin look like a big pot or a jar (diameter around 6cm-28cm) due to its function to store tuak. the geometrical pattern was applied on the surface of the pot and most of the pot were brownish color. This is due to the color of the soil.

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3.4 Contemporary pottery

Besides the traditional pottery, the other type of pottery which also known as wheel-thrown Chinese pottery has develop from utility ware to souvenier items. There are several factors that contributes to the evolution of these pottery such as cheaper price and ideal size that enough to place into a travelling bag. As far as manufacturing process are concern, the changes of method of making pots from hand-moulded to casting production also influence the evolution of Sarawak pottery nowadays.

Figure 3.11 Sarawak Pottery by the Chinese from Swattow

Based on the jar in figure 3.11, the surface design has indicate the evolution of design in Sarawak pottery. The basic patterns on surface design which can be found on the traditional motif of Sarawak is being applied on the jar such as the fern motif with curvy lines. The color of the jar is in the shade brownish to associate it with nature color. Geometric pattern being applied on the neck and bottom of the jars. To enhance the visual effect of the jar, the potters paint the jars with bright colors.

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Figure 3.12: Sarawak pottery Figure 3.12 is one of the contemporary potteries that available in most Kuching Craft Outlet. Most of the jars in Sarawak are decorated with images of the lifestyle of the ethnics in Sarawak. The images of the jar as in Figure 3.12 is decorated by Gawai Day ceremonial with figures of warrior holding a shield and dancing and the women playing the musical instruments. Most of the Sarawak craft outlets sell contemporary Sarawak pottery jars that were decorated with the ethnics lifestyle.

3.5 Conclusion

Based from the facts, the traditional pottery are still available in some of the long houses. The uplands still used the pots when cooking, but only several of them, while the contemporary potteries are everywhere in Sarawak. Here, we can see how Sarawak pottery changed from the traditional to Chinese pottery.

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CHAPTER 4

SURFACE DESIGN IN SARAWAK

4.1

Introduction

The unique crafts in Sarawak are very famous in Malaysia even international level. The detailing in each craft portrays the delicates of the craftmans. In Sarawak communitu, there are well-known craft such as pua kumbu, colorful mat, shields even pottery been designed to symbolized the uniqueness of Sarawak culture.

In each of the surface design of the craft carry different meanings, the shields were designed to represent the braveness of the warrior as well as the pua kumbu are purposely made for spiritual events for the Ian ethnics. This chapter will explain more on the surface design in ethnic community of Sarawak.

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4.2

Motif and pattern in carving

In Sarawak community especially the Iban ethnics explained that each of the Ukiran in Sarawak been carved full with meanings and expression and guided with the traditional elements. Actually, what is the usage of carving among the ethnics? Is it to protect themselves from enemies only? Is it for prevent themselves from disease and illness?

Based from the myth, dewa-dewa such as Dewa Keling Nading Bujang, Dewa Berani Kempang is some of the legends behind carving history. In carving, the ethnics believed only selected people can carved and for those who are poor extremely prohibited to carve their room, otherwise the enemies will attack them.

Variety of materials been used in carving and most of the materials came from the jungles such as woods, rattan, and mengkuang due to their surrounding that live in the jungles. Each of the ethnics has their own style and personality in designing products and most of them were inspired by the flora and fauna motif. The Ibanese are very familiar with animal motif such as dear, dog, monkey and bear. Figure 4.1 and Figure 4.2 show design that been inspired from prawn and crab.

Figure 4.1: Design inspired by crab

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Figure 4.2: Design inspired by prawn

4.2.1

Tree Of Life

Tree of Life is the principle that been apply mostly in each Sarawaks design especially in Ukiran Salur Paut. The uplands people believe that Tree of Life is a potent symbol, which closely connected to the well-being, indeed the origins of humankind. In their rainforest, jungle worldview an upper world creeper impregnates an underworld tree and this delivers up the first human beings, man and woman.

Thus, the form of the tree with a proper trunk and at the same time outwardly and upwardly spiralling tendrils. As a symbol of life, the hornbill ( the Burung Kenyalang) is always at its crown, signifying and pointing to the Celestial Upperworld. (This symbolism has been adopted by Christian Catholic communities in these tribal areas although not without controversy.)

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Figure 4.3: Tree of Life at the Museum Sarawaks entrance

Figure 4.4: Tree of Life 2

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Figure 4.5: Tree of Life 3

4.2.2

Types Of Kelok

Figure 4.6 : Types of kelok

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4.2.3

Daun Ukir

Daun ukir is part of motif in Sarawaks carving. below are the types of daun ukir.

Figure 4.7 : Types of Daun Ikir

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a. Kelok lemiding

b. Kelok kepala biola

c. Kelok cula kenyalang

d. Kelok terus

e. Kelok dan runcing ke atas

f. Kelok ke bawah

g. Kelok tunduk

h. Kelok tunduk bertakik dua

i. Kelok berkait

j. berkelok keatas dan bertakik tiga m. kelok paku kelindu p. daun sirih liar s. Kelok taji

k. berkelok tunduk terus n. kelok paku kebok q. kuku beruang t. semunjing

l. kelok hulu parang jempul o. kelok paku resam r. kelok bercula u. Kelok tunduk melingkung ke atas

v. Kelok menggenggam y. Ikat-ikatan (tumbuhan liar)

w. Bentuk sejenis bunga liar z. Lembing udang

x. Kelok kubuk tunduk terus aa. Kelok melentik ke atas melentik tiga

Table 4.1: Types of Daun Ukir

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4.3.4

Pattern

After knowing the daun ukir motif, there are some techniques to use it. There are some techniques

Figure 4.8 : Patterns 4.3.5 Cunggit

Cunggit is one more type of motif that is small but useful. There are 7 types of cunggit. Usually cunggit are use as additional when carving.

Tajam Mata lembing

Buah semunjing

Lidah rama

Hujung kayu yang tugal Sesungut udang

Setengah bulatan

Figure 4.9; Types of Cunggit

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4.3.6 Mata

In carving, the shape of an eye is so essential as the eye shape itself can form can beautiful of carving based on legend. Based on Asas Ukiran Iban, Dayaks people believe that the eye shape is essential in their carving because most of their carving inspired from the fauna such as dragon and hasil laut.

Other than that, the eye shape look very simple for those who dont know carving, but when the carver choose the wrong eye shape, the appearance of the ukiran will give different impression. Below are some types of the eye that derived from humans eye, monsters eye, dragons eye and animals eye. In fact, as what Ive observed, the eye shape itself present attractive appearance to the products.

Figure 4.10 : Type of Mata

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4.3.7 Type of carving 4 es

In ca arving, there are two maj types; Ba jor alance and U Unbalance. For the F balance carv b ving, the pucuk daun in ncluding the branches at the right par balance rt with w the left part. So as t unbalance carving, if the pucuk d to e daun at the right side have 4 leave at the left side have ab h es, t bout 3 or 5 l leaves.

Figure 4 4.11: Type: Balance B

Figure 4 4.12: Type: U Unbalance

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4.3.8

Parts in carving

There are four important parts in carving, which are pohon, batang, pucuk and daun. Overall, all the parts are Bunga Ukir. In carving, all types of flora and fauna like birds, human, dragon and else can be carve. Figure below shows the part of carving.

Figure 4.13: Parts in carving

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4.4

The usage of carving

In Sarawak communities, the art of carving already be a nature for them and based from the story, initially, carving technique only van be used by the rich people. Those who are rich will carved each area in the long house. The ethnics usually caved the pillars, the shield, the head of perahu, the styling even the stairs in the long houses.

Each of the products they carved will apply the entire basis in Sarawak carving for an example, the shield used by the warrior. The purposes of the shield are to protect them and to scare enemies when they see it. Each of the shields has their own story behind it.

Other than that, most of the ethnics believe in tattooing. Each of the tattoos have different meanings because itll depends with the person on how they want to be represent. For the women in Kenyah ethnics, only those who are rich and berdarjat allow for tattoing. While for the Kelabit and Kayan, they preferred to tattoing on the legs area. Most of the tattoos design looks less complex with the shield and they always applied faunas motif as the inspiration.

Pottery is one of the famed craft in Sarawak as its also most sought craft when visiting Sarawak. There are some changes in Sarawak pottery as stated in chapters before such as the revolution of traditional pottery to Chinese from Swattow pottery.

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Sarawak pottery as we can see now, still have the elements that are a sign of Sarawak but, the elements of basic patterns (in traditional pottery) slowly faded. In fact, most of the tourist will search for the pottery that have the elements of Sarawak like those that also have in other products such as the shields and the perahu. Most of the potters will applied the entire basis in Sarawak carving on their pottery.

Figure 4.14: Sarawak pottery

From figure 4.11, all of the pottery applied the basis of Sarawak carving that been invented by the Chinese potters. Based from The Encyclopedia of Malaysia, volume 14, Crafts and the Visual Arts, much of todays pottery is decorated with friezes of Sarawak natives design or what passes for such. Others are painted with picturesque renditions of Sarawak scenery or native lifestyle. Thousands of tourist comments that they bought crafts that represent Sarawak as price are the main factors.

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Pattern bertimpa

bulat

Tajam cunggit Daun Ukir kelok and runcing ke atas

Figure 4.15: Shield

Based from Figure 4.11, the artisan applied the bulat eyes at the center of the shield that also act as the center of the view. Other than that, the shield look balanced and used several patterns such as bertimpa and berbelit.

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Figure 4.16: The Ibanese with variety of tattoos design

kelok tunduk

Pattern bertimpa

lingkaran bulat eyes Cunggit tajam

Figure 4.17: Sarawak pottery

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4.5

Conclusion

The basis in Sarawak carving plays important roles in designing certain products. As a designer, the fundamental in designing must strong and others is depends on how creative you are in the way to express yourself towards the products. We also have to pay attention on our traditional value because we do not want it faded away.

Other than that, decorating techniques are crucial in order to create impacts on the pottery. Each of the technique will form different beautifulness of the pottery and it also depends on the potters how they want it to be.

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CHAPTER 5

PRODUCTION PROCESS

5.1

Introduction

In making pottery, there are variety of methods that been practiced over years, for an example, hand-building method that are practice by cottage industry. The ethnics in Sarawak are still practiced their traditional methods however technology has improved. As for the manufacturer (mass producer) adopted to the more advance method to meet the demand of customers nowadays.

In this chapter, it will discuss on the production process of pottery in Sarawak from the traditional methods to new technologies been introduced.

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5.2 5

Trad ditional Pott tery Produc ction Proces ss

In th upland com he mmunities, m making potte is domin by the w ery nant women and they call the t emselves as Rurin wher else the men helps in carving the beaters re m (which will b describe later). There are several steps in pro ( be e oducing the p pottery. Below is the flow chart of the produ B e uction proces This proc been pra ss. cess acticed by th he Iban to prod I duce Nuan.

essential to ools

pr reparation of clay f

forming process f

de ecorating process

resin

firing

Chart 5.1: product 5 tion process (traditional m method)

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5.2.1

Essential tools

Before start making pottery, there are several tools need to be prepared. i. One or more smooth roundish stones

Figure 5.1: A roundish stone

ii.

A piece of rattan bent and tied into the shape of a ring called (simpai) which is big enough to allow the potters hand to slip through easily.

Figure 5.2: A piece of rattan

iii.

One or more wooden beaters sometimes called penimba. The beaters are about 13 long of which 7-8 are made up of a blade(carved motif) about thick and 1 wide. The beaters are usually carved

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by men; the only occasion when men are involved in the pottery process which is otherwise entirely a womans task.

Figure 5.3: The beaters

5.2.2

Clay

The first step in making pottery is to choose the right choice of clay. Clay is abundant in Sarawak but the best choice of clay is the grey clay that comes from a river bank along Tanah Puteh, Kuching. The excavated clay clay is then dried in small lumps, once dried it will then pounded to the consistency of powder form in the large wooden mortar at other times used for husking padi. The powder is then put through a fine rattan sieve to separate it with coarser parts such as the stones and pebbles.

The sieving process which is sometimes repeated several times until the clay form a consistent malleable mixture. This mixture is then pounded thoroughly for about 15 minutes with a heavy pestle (alu) on a large flat boulder or in a big wooden trough until the clay has the right plasticity. The pounding will also remove all remaining air bubbles which might otherwise cause breakage in the firing.

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5.2.3

Forming Process

Once the preparation of the clay has completed, the next process is forming process. The clay is then shaped into a cylinder form to the size of an average cooking pot which is Usually, for the average cooking pot about 3 5 high and 23 in diameter (Figure 5.3)

Figure 5.4: Clay

The cylinder is put in an upright position by the Rurin and at the top side of the cylinder will be beat repeatedly with the smooth side of the beater until the size of it is almost the twice as wide as the bottom. A moisten rattan ring, about smaller in diameter than beaten cylinder top is buried into it and then the Rurin will roll-in the outer of the beaten cylinder over it. This part will be the top or neck of the pot. The rattan ring determines the size of the neck of the pot and will prevent the clay from tearing open during the beating.

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Figure 5.5: A moist rattan ring on the top of cylinder

A baton called pemaluk are use to make a hole in day by gently pressing the cylinder from the middle and plunging one of the smooth round stones into the centre until the hole is big enough to hold a stone inside comfortably. Later, the clay are left to dry for ten minutes for the beating process. (Figure 5.6)

Figure 5.6: Making hole

Figure 5.6 illustrate the Rurin is holding a smooth rounded stone inside (refer Figure 5.2) inside the pot with her left hand while the right hand she held the beater. The Rurin will create the pattern on the pot by beating it with the patterned side of the beater starting from the bottom of the pot, about 4 strokes upwards which all slightly overlapping not including the neck of the pot where the rattan ring was buried.

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Figure 5.7: Flatten the clay

The pattern impressed by the beater will clearly appeared on the part of the pot that are beaten. The Rurin will ensure that the area are only beaten once at each round thus keeping an even thickness of the wall of the pot. The Rurin then turned the beater and repeated the process; by using the smooth side of the beater for the second round, the raised relief pattern was hammered flat again; this made the wall thinner and at the same time enlarged the pot.

The neck of the pot now being clearly recognisable. The Rurin beat the walls of the pot alternately with the smooth and the carved side of the beater until the pot had the desired shape and the walls were thin enough. The Rurin beat the walls of the pot alternately with the smooth and the carved side of the beater until the pot had the desired shape and the walls were thin enough. After that, the Rurin beat the pot one more time all around with the smooth side of the beater, checking and correcting any imperfections at the same time.

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Figure 5.8 : Form the neck of the pot

5.2.4

Decorating process

One the Rurin are satisfied with the overall shape of the pot, in this case Nuan, next step is decorating process. A patterned paddles are use in these decorating process (figure 5.9). The rurin will prepared several paddles with variety of pattern carved on it as shown in figure 5.10.

Figure 5.9: The wooden beaters

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Figure 5.10: The patterns

Figure 5.11 illustrate the beating process by the rurin. This will enhanced the shape and appearance of the pot and made it easier to handle for later use. The whole of the pot is now almost having the even thickness : about 1/8. Figure 5.12 show a finished Nuan.

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Figure 5.11 : Beating the pot

Figure 5.12: The Iban ethnic pottery called Nuan

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5.2.5

Resin process

Resin process is very important by creating a layer or coating of a vitreous substance which are fired to fuse it color, decorate, strengthen or waterproof the pots. For the uplands people in Sarawak, the pots were covered with dammar powder (resin) during the firing process the dammar will melt and infiltrate into the porous clay, which will sealed and hardened the surface of the pots. The rurin use the dammar to avoid leakage in their pots when the pots are use for cooking or storing purpose.

5.2.6

Firing Process

In the firing process, the Rurin will selected a sheltered clearing area near the long house and gathered a pile of dry firewood-sticks of about 3 in length and 2-3 thickness. The rurin will erect 4 strong branches into a rectangle frame (2feet x 3feet) onto the dry ground. This frame was held piled sticks parallel to the long branches and on top of the frame, the rurin then placed glowing cinder sticks, which she/he had brought with her/his from the fire place.

After that, Rurin quickly built up the pile, cross-cross, layer by layer, until the pile was about two feet high. She supported this pile by putting up four strong sticks vertically, one at each corner of it. These supports were not destroyed by the fire. Then Rurin put the pots on and built a cage around them with interlocking sticks. This cage and the pots were covered with more sticks. By that time, quite a lot of smoke had developed and a few minutes later, Rurin fanned it now and again to ensure that the fire kept going evenly.

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After about thirty minutes, the fire burned down and the pots could be seen lying in the ashes. Rurin took the pots one by one with a stick out of the still glowing ashes and dipped them into samak (liquid obtained by first soaking and boiling pounded mangrove bark chips in water and then squeezing them out). This caused a lot of steam and sizzling as the pots are still very hot.

Rurin then put the pots back into the wood ashes and turned them around several times. This, Rurin explained, made them water proof, but it also added to their beauty. While before, the pots were light brown in colour and showed dark patches caused by flames, they now had an even dark brown bronze-like colour which looked more attractive after the pots had been used for a while.

Figure 5.13 : Firing the pots using traditional method

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5.2.5

Finishing

After done with the firing, the pots are ready to use. The rurin will enhance the appearance of the pot by adding carriers to act as the supports for carrying and cooking. The pot, being rounded at the base, needs a stand or holder when it is not in use. This pot stand is usually made of unsplit rotan about 9 long 1/8 thick.

Figure 5.14: Pot with the rattan carrier

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5.3

Sarawak Pottery

As the technology developed, the method of produce pottery in Sarawak have shown some improvement in several aspects especially in the forming process. Other than that, the decorative patterns on the pottery also develop with variety of techniques and glazing methods. These development happened because of the demand from the tourist and also been influenced by the changes of technology.

5.3.1

Production Process

preparation of clay

forming process ( potter's wheel and slip casting)

decorating process

firing process ( kiln)

finishing

Chart 5.2: production process

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5.3.2

Preparation of clay

The traditional methods of making Nuan, Rurin have to collect the clay manually using their own hands. As the technology improve, the clay now is dogged up using machine and gathered in a big container. After that, the clay will be transferred to the factory for mixing process.

Figure 5.15: The electric mixing machine

5.3.3

Forming process

5.3.3.1

Potters Wheel

Potters wheel is a machine used in the shaping of pottery. For the first step, the potters will place a piece of clay at the center of a turntable while the potters rotate the turntable with a stick or with paddle.

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ure ectric-power potters w red wheel Figu 5.16: Ele

le dly, ers g nd Whil the wheel rotates rapid the potte throwing the clay an the solid soft s clay is p pressed, sque eezed and pu ulled gently upwards and inwards in a hollow d nto shape. The p s process of sq queezing and pulling are repeated un the desira shape ar d ntil able re reach. Basic r cally, most of the potters will use this method if s of the pottery is hug s size ge and a have mo detail par ore rts.

Figu 5.17: A p ure potter shapes a piece of p s pottery

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5.3.3.2 5

Slip Cast ting

The other method on forming the clay is slip casting. Slip casting is a o g g technique fo the mass-p t or production o pottery, es of specially not easily achie on a eve wheel. These process us mold tha made from plaster of P w sed at m Paris. There a two type are es of o mould, which are one piece moul and two-p e ld piece mould. The advanta ages of slip casting processes is it ar can save ti c re imes and lab bor

5.3.3.2.1 5

One Piec Mould ce

1.

Pour t clay when the one piec mould the n ce is ready y

2. . Wait u until the clay freezed and cu the unneces ut ssary clay ar round the mould

3 3.

After that, pour th unnecessary r he y clay ( the center of the mould (at d).

Figure 5.18 : One piece mould slip c F casting 1

4.

'Terbalik'

5.

Fina ally, the clay i ready for th is he deco orating proces ss

Figure 5.19 : One piece mould slip c F casting

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5.3.3.2.2

Two-Pieces Mould

Twopiecesmouldsareready

Figure 5.20 : Two pieces mould

The clays Figure 5.21 : The clays

Before start pouring the clay, the moulds have to be tight with the rubber to make sure no leaking while waiting it freeze.

Figure 5. 22: The clays poured in the moulds

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After that, throw the clay at the center because want to have the thickness of the pottery.

Figure 5.23: The thickness were formed

Finally, the clays are formed and ready for the next process.

Figure 5.24: The clay were shaped

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5.3.4 Tech 5 hniques in decorating d

The art of carvin is crucial a the purpo to attract people to ap a ng as ose ppreciate the e design of it. Pottery is on of media for the artist or potters t express th feeling d ne to heir while want t convey the techniques that they us w to s sed.

In de ecorating the pottery, the are sever technique such as tra e ere ral es acing technique, marking tech t m hnique, perfo orating techn nique, carvin technique, and paintin ng , ng technique. As Sarawak p t A pottery is concern, most of the potter practiced carving, rs perforating a painting technique. p and g

decoratin technique ng

car rving

perfo orating

pai inting

ating techniqu Chart 5.3: Decora ues

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5.3.4.1 Carving technique

Carving technique is the most popular technique been practiced by the potters. They will sketch the design on paper and construct it on the pottery. The tools they used are art knives, pencils and papers.

At first, when the design was ready, the potters will do parting lines and follow all the design on the paper. After that, they used art knives to start carving. Figure 4.11 showed how the potters carved the pottery.

Figure 5.25: Carving technique

Figure 5.26: Sarawak pottery : Carving technique

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5.3.4.2 Perforating technique

Other than carving technique, perforating technique also used by the potters in Sarawak. If we observed it, this technique can create different impacts and is a new technique compare with the beating technique (traditional technique).

Using this technique, the potters should aware with the surface of the pottery while perforating because to avoid some crack. Most of the potters will perforate the pottery using art knives. This technique usually took longer time to finish it compare with others technique.

Figure 5.27: Perforating technique

Figure 5.28: Sarawak pottery: Perforating technique

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5.3.4.3 Painting technique

Painting technique is one of technique been used by the potters during decoration process. This technique look similar with carving technique because the potters will sketch the design on the paper and draw it back on the potterys surface.

After done with the design, the potters will start painting and usually the colors been used will represent Sarawak itself for examples nature color (brownish and yellowish) and colorful colors.

Figure 5.29: Painting technique

Figure 5.30: Sarawak pottery: Painting technique

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5.3.5

Firing process

Previously, the ethnics fired the pottery using traditional method. Now, as technology improves, there are several methods on firing pottery for an example-using kiln. Kilns are thermally insulated chambers or ovens, which controlled temperature regimes, are produces. The function of kiln is used to harden, burn or dry material.

In addition, kiln plays an important role in manufacturing of all ceramics. Manufactures in Kuching used two type of kiln, which is electric kiln and gas kiln. When using these new technologies during firing process, the manufacturer can produce hundreds of pottery in a short period and avoid dust during the firing.

firing process

electric kiln

gas kiln

Chart 5.4: Firing process

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Figure5.29 : gas kiln in Kraftangan center, Kuching.

Figure 5.30: elctric kiln used by the manufacturers in Kuching

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5.3.6

Finishing

The final process in producing pottery is the finishing process. Most of the manufacturers use glazing technique to enhance the pottery appearance more outstanding. The glaze, a mixture of ground glass, coloring materials and water, is applied to the bisque pot by spraying, pouring, brushing, sponging or some combination of the techniques. After that, the pots are then placed on the glaze racks and wait until it dry.

Figure 5.31 : Some of the glazes used by the Kraftangan Sarawak

5.4

Conclusion

In conclusion, there are major improvements in making pottery in Sarawak. Start with the beating technique till variety of techniques been introduced in order to create differents outlook yet still represents Sarawak. These will be the next steps to expend the Sarawak potetry globaly.

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Chapter 6

CONCLUSION

6.1

Introduction

This chapter will conclude the whole research from the traditional pottery until the contemporary pottery that are also known as Swattow pottery. Based from the research, the developments on Sarawak pottery are based from few factors such as the production processes, usage and design of the pottery.

In addition, this chapter will elaborate more on how to develop and improve Sarawak pottery for the future and also the suggestions on how to inculcate interest in pottery. It is crucial for younger generations to have the understanding and appreciation of the traditional elements yet think globally towards improving the pottery industry.

8 87

6.2 6

Deve elopment in design n

Char 6.2 describ the flow of developm in desig on Sarawa pottery rt bes ment gn ak from the trad f ditional pottery to contem mporary pot ttery.

SARA AWAK POTTERY

TRAD DITIONAL

CONTEMPO C ORARY

SURFACE DESIGN

basic geometry pa atterns

Sarawak mo and otif pattern ns

FORM AND M SHA APES

utilitry w = jars an ware nd po form ots

tourist ware = any e shapes esp. vases

DECOR RATING TECHN NIQUES

beating technique g

*p perforating t technique * carving tec chnique * painting te echnique

Chart 6.1: Th developm of Saraw Pottery ( C he ment wak (design aspe ect)

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6.3

Development in product usage

The usages of pots in the natives community are more of the utility ware. As the Nuans (Figure 2.1) purposely made for the cooking while, the Kudins (Figure 2.6) were for storing water for the Kelabit ethnics. The changes on the potteries in Sarawak occur since system barter between the Chinese trades happened. The switch from utility ware to tourist ware took a few years. The pottery made by the Chinese is the most sought after gift by the tourist. The main shapes are jars, round container with or without lids, astray, plats. Drinking mugs also others possible shapes.

Figure 6.1: The ashtrays with Sarawak motif

Figure 6.2: The vases with Sarawak motif

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USAGE IN SARAW WAK POTTE ERY

traditional

co ontemporary y

cook king

storing w water

spiritual purpose

decorative items

Chart 6.2: Th developm of Saraw pottery (usage aspec C he ment wak ct)

6.4 6

Deve elopment in production processes n n

From one or 2 pi m ieces of pots per day unt hundreds of pottery ca be produc s til an ce every day. T developm on prod e The ment duction proc in Saraw pottery i cess wak industry improved sin the new technologie we introdu i nce es uced. The ne machines contribute a ew s lot l of improv vement as fo the formin process, f or ng finishing pro ocess even fi iring process s.

The charts on the following p c e pages will ex xplained the developmen in e nt production p p process start from the pre eparation of material, fo f orming proce ess, decorating p d process, firin process an finally fin ng nd nishing proce ess.

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6.4.1 Prep 6 paration of m material

preparation of material m

tradi itional

conte emporary

1. dry the clay y 2. pounded 3. sieving 4. ready

1. dry the clay 2. sieve 2 3. mix in mix xing machine e 4. ready 4

Chart 6.3: The dev velopment o Sarawak Pottery (prep of P paration of material) m

In pr reparation of materials, t ethnics used hands an wooden scoop to f the u nd s collect the clays while fo the contem c or mporary pot ttery, they us machine to collect th sed he clay c and placed it in a bi container. The improv ig . vements in c collecting the clay help e the t pottery makers work faster and reduce labor cost. m k

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6.4.2 Form 6 ming proces ss

forming pr rocess

trad ditional

con ntemporary

1. formed into d cylinder shapes 2. pressin method ng

potter wheel rs

slip casting g

1. squ ueezing and p pulling me ethod (repe eated)

one piec ce mould d

two piece mould

Ch 6.4: the developmen of forming process in S hart nt g Sarawak pot ttery

The process of fo p orming the c clays has trem mendously i improved fro hand om mould to usi machines. The techn m ing niques such as using pott wheel an slip a ters nd casting make the work o forming th clay easie and save lo of time. c e of he er ots

9 92

6.4.3 Deco 6 orating proc cess

decorating p d process

tradit tional

contemporary y

be eating metho with carve od ed wooden paddles

1. carving 2. perforati ing 3. painting g

Char 6.5 : The development of decoratin process in Sarawak p rt d t ng n pottery

In de ecorating pro ocess, variety of techniqu practiced by the pott now suc y ues d ters ch as a painting and carving techniques, w a t while the na atives only used the beati techniqu ing ue for f the appea arance of the pots. To cr e reate interest of the touri in appreci t ist iating one of f valuable her v ritage in Mal laysia, some changes in decorating t e techniques need to be develop and yet still mai d d intain the tra aditional valu ue.

9 93

6.4.4 6

Firin process ng

firing process

tra aditional

contemp porary

1. open fire f 2. 'salai' technique

electric ki iln

ga kiln as

Chart 6.6: The developme of firing process of S e ent Sarawak pott tery

Usin electric kiln and gas k can save time and co because th ng kiln ost he preparation to fire the po p t ottery using kiln consum less time c me compare wit the open th fire f techniqu by the eth ue hnics.

9 94

6.4.5 Finis 6 shing proce ess

finishi process ing

tr raditional

contem mporary

1. resin (damar) ( 2. add ra attan for carr rier

1. glazing techniques ing - sprayi - pourin ng - brushi ing - sponging mbination of techniques f - or com

Cha 6.7: The developmen of finishin process in Sarawak po art nt ng n ottery

9 95

6.5 6

Conc clusion

product u usage

desi ign *forms an shapes nd * motif and patterns d

prod duction pro ocess

Developm ment Of Sara awak Potter ry

Chart 6.8: The fact that influ 6 tors uenced the Developmen of Sarawak pottery D nt k

Base from char 6.8, there a three mai factors tha influenced the ed rt are in at d Developmen of Sarawa pottery; pr D nt ak roduct usage design and production process. It i e, d n is not n complete for a touris when visit e st ting Sarawak without bu k uying Sarawa pottery as ak s gift g for the relatives and friends that increase the demand tow r d t e wards Saraw pottery. wak With W all the unique moti and pattern plus with the shapes a forms th looks if ns h and hat outstanding. o .

In ter of usage, the pottery are more fo on souveni items com rm , or ir mpare with th he traditional pottery that p t purposely ma for utility ware. The improvemen in ade y nts production p p process creat a big impa to the tra te act aditional pott ters. The exi istances of machines red m duce the skills and arts i making po in ottery eventh hough it save time and e cost. Howev the new technology m c ver, makes the pr rocesses eas and faste so the sier er, pottery indu p ustries have a bright futur re.

96

REFERENCES

1. Augustine Anggat Ganjing, Asas Ukiran Iban, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 1991 2. Tom Harrison, Ceramics Penetrating Central Borneo, The Museum Sarawak Journal, Vol. V1 , Museum, Kuching, Sarawak, December 1955

3. Datuk Syed Ahmad Jamal, Pottery and Earthenware, Sarawak pottery, Craft and Visual Arts, Volume 14

4. Sarawak Museum Occasional Paper No.5, Iban pottery

5. Syed Ahamd Jamal, Rupa dan Jiwa, Penerbit Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

6. Mohd. Shahrim Senik & Mohd Zainuddin Abdullah, Tembikar dari Warisan ke Wawasan, Lembaga Muzium Selangaor, 2001

7. Tembikar Tradisional. Perbadanan Kemajuan Kraftangan Malaysia, 2005