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A Study Report on

Efficiency Measurement of Biogas, Kerosene and LPG Stoves

Submitted to: Biogas Support Program Lalitpur, Nepal

Submitted by: Center for Energy Studies Institute of Engineering Tribhuvan University Pulchowk, Lalitpur July 2001


The Center for Energy Studies, Institute of Engineering (CES/IOE) expresses its sincere gratitude to Biogas Support Programme (BSP) for entrusting CES to carry out Efficiency Measurement of Biogas. Kerosene and LPG stoves. Study and preparation of this report would not have been possible without the intensive work carried out by the core group members and associates of CES. CES is very thankful to the all members involved in this study and other people who helped us by words and deeds. I would like to thank members of Kabir Ashram. Bishal Sadan at Jhamsikhel for their co-operation in this study. Last but not the least: CES expresses its sincere gratitude to Mr. Felix ter Heegde (SNV/Nepal) and Mr. Sundar Bajgain. Project Manager of BSP. and staff of IOE and CES for their help in completing this study. Prof. J. N. Shrestha Director Center for Energy Studies July 2001


Acknowledgements 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Introduction Literature Review Methodology Result Example Conclusion Recommendation References 1 1 5 8 10 11 11 12

Annexes Calculation Software Software Execution


An agreement was signed between Biogas Support Programme (BSP) and Center for Energy Studies. Institute of Engineering (CES/IOE) on 6th July 2001 to find out the efficiency of biogas stove. For comparison, efficiency of LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) and kerosene stove (pressure type and wick type) was also studied. The biogas stove under test was manufactured by Nepal Metal Cast of Butwal. Nepal.


Literature Review
Cooking stoves operate with a variety of fuels, such as solid, liquid, gaseous and other fuels. Animal dung, agricultural waste, wood, charcoal, sawdust, biomass briquette could be considered as solid fuels. Kerosene, alcohol, and other hydrocarbons are termed as liquid fuels. LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas), natural gas. biogas etc could be considered as gaseous fuel. Efficiency of a stove could be categorized as burning efficiency and overall efficiency. Burning efficiency of a stove accounts for the capacity of that stove in terms of combustion of fuel. In other words ability of the stove to change the energy from fuel to heat energy is related with burning efficiency. The ability of the stove to change the energy from fuel into the energy gained by the specimen such as water, rice. cum', milk etc is termed as overall efficiency of the stove. Generally efficiency of stove is indicated by overall efficiency. Overall efficiency of stove depends upon different conditions such as temperature, pressure, wind speed, specific heat capacity of the vessel, bottom and overall shape of vessel, weight of vessel, size of vessel and amount of specimen. Thus different tests for efficiency could yield different results of the same stove. Calorific value (MJ/kg or kJ/ Lit) of the fuel is the input energy for stove and should be accounted in course of efficiency measurement. Calorific values of fuels may vary from sample to sample procured at different locations. Other evidences on calculation of efficiency of different types of stoves: 2.1.1 Efficiencies for major fuels used in Indian Household Stoves are depicted below in table #1. Kirk R. Smith. R. Uma. V.V.N. Kishore. K. Lata. V.


Joshi. Jufeng Zhang. R.A. Ramussen and M. A. K. Khalil carried out the research on the topics of Greenhouse Gases from Small-Scale Combustion Devices in Developing Countries for USEPA in November 1998. Table #1 Fuel / stove Biogas LPG Kerosene Wood i i ; Nominal Combustion Efficiency % 99.4 97.7 96.5 90.1 ; Overall Efficiency % : | 57.4 53.6 49.5 22.8

Methodology applied by them were as follows: Overall efficiency = hc * hr Where. hc = combustion efficiency hr = Heat transfer efficiency Overall efficiency = Percentage of chemical heat that enters the pot. Nominal combustion efficiency = A rough estimate of combustion efficiency = The fraction of airborne carbon emissions that are released as carbon dioxide.

This report could assessed in web: www.energv.demon.nl/GHG/stoves.htm. 2.1.2 The findings of Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI), on efficiency of different types of stoves are shown in table #2.

Table #2 Types of Stove Biogas Stove LPG Stove Kerosene Stove Wood Stove Improves wood stoves Electric Stove Efficiency (%) 45 60 43 10 20 70

These data could be assessed from the web site of TERI: www.teriin.org/renew/tech/biogas 2.1.3 Other evidences could be found in the research paper of Tom Red. a research student, who found out different types of stove efficiencies, which were as follows: Table # 3 Types of Stove Kerosene Stoves Charcoal Stoves Firewood Stoves Electric Stoves Efficiency Range (%) 35-50 20-35 10-25 75-85

These records could be viewed in web in following addresses: www.ikwb.com/enuff/public_html/stoves_html www.crest.org/renewables/biomass_info/carbon.shtml


Calorific value of different types of fuels used in cooking stoves

Calorific value of supplied fuel is a prime data for calculation of efficiency of a stove. Calorific value of fuel is taken as the input energy while determining the efficiency of stoves. In practical aspects, due to contamination of different substances and ways of fuel extraction, calorific values of any fuel varies from specimen to specimen.

2.2.1 Regional Wood Energy Development Programme (RWEDP) in Asia (GCP/RAS/154/NET) has mentioned calorific values of different fuels in their publication "Energy and Environment Basics" July 1997. (table # 4) Table # 4 Fuel LPG Kerosene Gasoline (Petrol) Coal Density (kg/nr) 560 806 720 N. A. Calorific Values (MJ/kg) 45.5 43.1 44.0 29.3

2.2.2 Prof. H S Mukunda (Indian Institute of Science) mentions the calorific values of cook stove fuels in his publication entitled "Understanding Combustion" as below in table ~ 5. These values are quite different from values shown in table # 4. Table # 5 Fuel Bio Gas Kerosene LPG Producer Gas 2.2.3 According to "Energy Sector Synopsis Report" of 1992/93. published by His Majesty's Government of Nepal Ministry of Water Resources. Water and Energy Commission Secretariat. Perspective Energy Plan Supporting Document No. 1. the calorific values of fuels are shown in table # 6. Table # 6 Fuel Biogas Kilo calories/kg or liter Calorific Values (MJ/kg) 24.28 49.24 36.26 33.49 Calorific Values (MJ/kg) 32 - 36 42 44

11.76 8.66 8

Kerosene Petrol

As the calorific values of fuel varies that directly affect the value of efficiency

regardless of same experimental and calculation procedure. For each specimen of fuel the calorific value has to be determined by using a bomb calorimeter. This would give accurate result in determining the efficiency of stoves under experiment.


Stove Construction

. The other major factor, which affects the efficiency of the stove, is the constructional feature of the stove. Biogas stoves are found in market in different shapes and constructional features. Constructional features of biogas stove which, affect the efficiency are: a. b. c. Burner type (holes in the burner and their orientation and burner size). Space between burner and tripod or other vessel supporting mechanism. Air control ring and vent, which ensures perfect combustion of fuel.


Efficiency of cook stoves could be calculated by several methods. In this study efficiency of cook stoves was determined by calculating the heat gained by the water subjected for heating and amount of fuel consumed during this process. In this study, heating process is classified as Low Power Phase and High Power Phase. Heating of water from initial water (subjected to boiling) temperature T|C to boiling point is termed as High Power Phase(HPP). During this phase water in vessel gains energy from fuel with the help of burning stove and that value of energy is equivalent to energy required to raise the temperature of that mass of water from T|C to boiling point. In Low Power Phase predetermined weight of water at boiling point was subjected to boil for five minutes and energy gained by this water is calculated by multiplying latent heat of vaporization (Lwboii) of water and mass of vaporized water. Fuel consumed during each process is the input energy for these phases. Overall efficiency is calculated by dividing output energy by input energy. In this process we have to include the heat gained by vessel in which water was boiled. Hence.

Heat gained by vessel = Mv * Sv * (Tb - Ti) Joule Heat gained by water in HPP= Mw * Sw * (Tb - T,) Joule Heat gained by water in LPP = (Mstesm *Lwboil) Joule Energy of fuel Where. Mv = Mass of vessel Sv = Specific heat capacity of vessel (Tb T1) = Change in temperature (from Tl to boiling Point) Mw Sw = Mass of water = Specific heat capacity of water = (Mfule * Kfuel) Joules

Msteam = Mass of evaporated water during LPP LWboil = Latent heat of boiling of water Mfuel = Mass of consumed fuel Kfule = Calorific Values of Fuel

Efficiency (overall) ={MW*SW* (Tb - T,) + (Msteam *Lwboil) + Mv * Sv * (Tb - T,) } / ( Mfule * Kfulel) Efficiency (overall) = {Heat gained by water in HPP + Heat gained by water in LPP +Heat gained by vessel} / {Quantity of fuel consumed * unit calorific values of fuel} Hence, heat gained by vessel (made from aluminium) is equal to heat gained from T1C to Tboil C and heat gained by water is equal to the summation of heat gained during High Power Phase and Low Power Phase. Fuels like Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Kerosene could be weighted by weighing machines. Mass of cylinder or stove before and after experiment gives the mass of fuel consumed. But for Biogas, measurement of flow of gas is essential, which gives the amount of biogas consumed during experiments.

Constants taken for calculation : Specific Heat Capacity of Water = 4190 J/kg C Specific Heat Capacity of Aluminium = 125 J/ kg C Calorific value of Kerosene = 42 MJ/kg Calorific value of LPG = 44 MJ/kg Calorific value of biogas = 22 kJ/Lit Experimental Setup: Setup for Efficiency Measurement of Biogas Stove:

Experimental Setup for Kerosene Stove

Source: H S Mukunda, 1998, Understanding Combustion , Macmillan India Limited


4.1 Efficiency test of biogas stove: Different testing conditions were maintained during experiment. Efficiency biogas stoves for each condition is depicted below. a. Perfectly controlled condition

Gas Gas Water Water Mass of (kg) Evaporated Consumed Consumed Vessel in HPP in LPP (kg) (kg) (Liter) (Liter) 1 36 0.118 22 0.49

T1 Deg C

T2 E1out E2out Energy gained Ein1 (kJ) (kJ) by vessel (kJ) (kJ) Deg C 95.5 266.1 3139
357 792

Ein2 (kJ)

Efficiency %



b. Semi-controlled condition
Gas Gas Water Water Mass of (kg) Evaporated Consumed Consumed Vessel (kg) in HPP in LPP (kg) (Liter) (Liter) 0.5 21 16 .072 0.48 T1 T2 E1out E2out

Deg Deg U C C



Energy gained Ein1 by vessel (kJ) (kJ) 4.26


Ein2 (kJ)


24.5 95.5 148.7 191.5



c. Uncontrolled condition
Water (kg) 0.5 Gas Mass of Gas Water Evaporated Consumed Consumed Vessel in LPP in HPP (kg) (kg) (Liter) (Liter) 33 0.096 25 0.48 T1 T2 E1out Deg Deg (kJ)) C C
24 965

E2out Energy gained Ein1 (kJ) by vessel (kJ) (kJ)

Ein2 (kJ)

Efficiency %



4 35



Where, Water (kg):- Mass of water at T|"C subjected to test. Water Evaporated: - Mass of water evaporated on low Power Phase (boiling water for five minutes), Gas HPP: - Volume of gas consumed during I high Power Phase, Gas LPP: - Volume of gas consumed during Lowe Power Phase, Tl: - Initial temperature of water subject to test, T2: - Boiling temperature of water, Elout: - Energy gained by water during High Power Phase, E2out: - Energy gained by water during Low Power Phase, Einl: - Energy content of fuel consumed during I high Power Phase and Einl: - Energy content of fuel consumed during Low Power Phase

Efficiency of cook stove were measured in different conditions for different types of stoves. For a biogas stove (single burner type manufactured by NMC Butwal, Nepal) efficiency measurement was carried out for different state of flame, namely: Perfectly controlled, semi- controlled and uncontrolled. Besides that experiment was carried out for different adjustments to air control ring. Perfectly controlled flame indicates the condition of cooking instant when flame from burner is equal or smaller than the bottom face of the cooking vessel. At that condition no flame could be seen on top view of vessel. For Perfectly controlled flame the efficiency of cook stove goes maximum. When the flame from the burner could be seen partially on top view of vessel then this condition is assumed as semi-controlled flame condition for cooking. For this condition the overall efficiency of stove is less than the perfectly controlled condition but cooking process gets faster. When size of flame from burner is large enough than the bottom size of vessel, most of the flame goes outwards and this condition is termed as uncontrolled flame condition. 4.2 Efficiency test of Kerosene stoves: a.

Pressure Stove: Down Tank. 01mm burner. Brass Tripod, one-liter capacity
Water Consumed Mass of Energy Tl T2 El out Water (kg) Evaporated Kerosene Vessel gained by "C C (kJ) (kg) (kg) Vessel(kj) 2.02 0.1414 0.06 0.56 4.9 26.5 96.5 592.5 1.01 0.075 0.03 0.49 3.89 33 96.5 273 E2out (kJ) 376.1 199.5 Ein (kJ) 2520 1260 Efficiency % 38.62 37.8

1 2

Average = 38.21% b.

Wick fed Stove: Down Tank, one-liter capacity

Water (kg) 1.515 1.01 2.02 Tl T2 El out E2out Energy Water Consumed Mass of (kJ) C (kJ) Evaporated Kerosene Vessel gained by C Vessel (kj) (kg) (kg) (kg) 0.1 0.045 0.49 4.22 27.5 96.5 438 266 0.1 0.035 0.48 4.14 27.5 96.5 292 266 0.15 0.065 0.56 4.83 27.5 96.5 584 412 Ein (kJ) 1890 1470 2730 Efficiency %

1 2 3

37.24 38.2 36.6

Average = 37.37%

4.3 Efficiency test of LPG stoves:


Water (kg) 2.02 1.515 1.58

Water onsumed Evaporated LPG (kg) (kg) 0.16

1* 2 3

0.12 0.13

0.045 0.032 0.035

Energy Tl T2 Elout E2out Mass of (kJ) "C (kJ) Vessel gained by "C Vessel (Id) (kg) 25 96. 605.2 425.6 0.56 5.005 27 96.5 441.2 319.2 0.49 4.25 0.49 4.28 26.5 96. 463.4 345.8 5

Ein (kJ) 1980 1408 1540

Efficiency % 52.31 54.30 52.82

Average = 53.15%



In case of LPG stove with aluminium vessel containing two liter of water. Energy Gained by water in High Power Phase = Mass of water x Specific Heat Capacity of Water Energy Gained by Vessel x Rise in Temperature = 2.02 x 4.19 x (96.5-25) kJ = 605.2 kJ = Mass of Vessel x Heat Capacity of Vessel x Rise in temperature = 0.56 x 0.125 x (96.5-25) kJ = 5.005 kJ Energy Gained by water in Low Power Phase = Mass of Water vaporized x Latent Heat of Boiling of Water = 0.16* 2660 kJ = 425.6 kJ Energy content of consumed fuel = Quantity of Fuel x energy content of unit amount of fuel = 0.045 x 44 xl03kJ =1980 kJ Hence, Overall Efficiency = [(Energy gained by water in HPP + Energy gained by water in LPP + Energy Gained By vessel) / Energy content of consumed fuel] x 100% = [(605.2 + 425.6 + 5.005) / 1980] x 100% = 52.31%

6. Conclusions
The efficiency of biogas stove calculated as per adopted methodology mentioned above is found to be 49.44%. 43.8% and 32.26% for perfectly controlled, semi-controlled and uncontrolled conditions. The efficiency of a given stove is not constant. It could vary on the basis of surrounding conditions and quality of fuel used. A high value of efficiency could be obtained under controlled conditions. But in practice this value is normally lower than the value found in the controlled laboratory condition. The efficiency of stove depends upon following conditions: a. b. e. d. Environmental conditions, such as wind, temperature, pressure Shape, specific heat capacity and weight of vessel. Burner size of stove and size of bottom face of cooking vessel. Energy content of fuel and quality of fuel

a. b.

Further study is essential for improvements of biogas stove and other types of stoves for different purpose of cooking and conditions. Actual efficiency measurement could be determined only when actual calorific value of fuel is known. For this, calorific values at laboratory should be measured where efficiency measurement of stoves is to be conducted.


Efficiency of biogas stoves under operation in different locations, of Nepal should carried out as soon as possible and after analyzing the result necessary actions should be taken so that energy from biogas plant is used as effectively as possible.


The users of biogas plants have to be informed on optimum application of flame flaring.



RWEDP Bangkok. (July 1997). "Energy and Environment Basics". RWEDP Report No. Mathias Gustavsson ( 2000). "Biogas Technology-Solution in Search of Problem", A Study of Small-Scale Rural Technology Introduction and Integration. Human Ecology Reports Series 2000:1 H S Mukunda. (1998). "Understanding Combustion" , Indian Institute of Science, Published by Macmillan India Limited B Lai & S. Sub. (1998). "Heat and Thermodynamics". Published by Company. India http: //www .he.au.se vvww.seen.org/energy www.rterrin.0rg/renew/biogas www. gate.gtz.de/vaxtnaring/anna/mrsminh.htm www.panasia.ore.se/nepalnet/technology www'.fao.ore/sd/EGdirect www, newenerev.ore.cn www.msek.lth.se www.climatechaneeindia.com www.citvfarmer.ore www.bspnepal.com/biogas S.Chand and

Annex-1 //Computer program in C++ to calculate the efficiency of stoves
#include<stdio.h> #include<stdlib.h> #include<conio.h> void main (void) { float Mv.Mvv.Mf.Sv.Svv.Tl.Tb.Lwb.Mew.Kf: clrscr( ); // Data input printf("\nEnter Mass of vessel in kg = "); scanf("%f. &Mv); printf("\nEnter Specific Heat CApaciry of Vessel in kJ/kg'degree centigrade = "); scanf("%f". &Sv); printf("\nEnter Initial Temperature of Water in degree centigrade = "); scanf("o/of'. &T1): printf( "'nEnter Boiling Point Temperature of Water degree centigrade = "); scanf("%f. &Tb): printf("\nEnter Mass of Water in kg= "); scanf("%f'. &Mw); printf("\nEnter Specific Heat Capacity of Water in kJ/kg'Degfree centigrade = "); scanf("%f. &Sw); printf("\nEnter Latent Heat of Boiling for Water in kJ = "): scanf("%f", &Lwb); printf("\nEnter Mass of fuel in Kg or Litre = "): scanf("%f". &Mf); printf("\n Enter Calorific value of fuel in kJ/kg or in kJ/litre = "); scanf("%f'. &Kf); printf("\nEnter Mass of evaporated water in kg = "); scanf("%f'. &Mew); //Calculation and output printf(" The Overall Efficiency of stove is %f %", 100.*((Mw*Sw*(TbT1 ))+(Mew* Lwb)+(Mv*Sv*(Tb-T 1 )))/(Mf* Kf)); }

//End of program

Annex-2 Software Execution Biogas Efficiency on uncontrolled flame condition

Enter Mass of vessel in kg

= .48 = .125

Enter Specific Heat Capacity of Vessel in kJ/kg/degree centigrade Enter Initial Temperature of Water in Degree centigrade = 24 Enter Boiling Point Temperature of Water degree centigrade = 96.5 Enter Mass of Water in kg= .5

Enter Specific Heat Capacity of Water in kJ/kg/Degfree centigrade = 4.19 Enter Latent Heat of Boiling for Water in kJ = 2660 Enter Mass of fuel in Kg or Litre = 58 = 22

Enter Calorific value of fuel in kJ/kg or in kJ/litre Enter Mass of evaporated water in kg = .096 The Overall Efficiency of stove is 32.256858 %