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Chapter 4

MOTIVATION

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MOTIVATION
DEF:

Process that account for an individuals intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal
WILLINGNESS TO EXERT HIGH LEVEL OF EFFORT + INDIVIDUALS ABILITY = GOALS + SATISFY INDIVIDUALS NEEDS

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MOTIVATION PROCESS

Unsatisfied Needs

Tension

Drives

Reduction of Tension

Satisfied Need

Search Behavior

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MOTIVATION THEORY
1. Maslows Hierarchy Needs Theory 2. Theory X And Y 3. Two-Factor Theory

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1. MASLOWS HIERARCHY NEEDS THEORY

Self Actualization Esteem Social Security Physiological


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PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS
Needs such as food, water, air, and shelter Needs a good, comfortable working conditions such as basic wage or salary Managers who focus on physiological needs assume that people work mainly for money and are primarily concerned with comfort and their rate of pay.
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SECURITY NEEDS
Needs to have a safe physical and emotional environment. Needs protection against threats or unsafe working environment such as job security and predictable work environment. Managers will often emphasize rules, job security and fringe benefits.
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AFFILIATION NEEDS
Needs for friendship, love and a feeling of belonging. Needs acceptance by others such as association and communication with others and being part of the group. Individuals value their work as an opportunity for finding and establishing friendly interpersonal relationships.
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ESTEEM NEEDS
Needs for personal feelings of achievement and self-worth and by recognition, respect and prestige from others. Managers who focus on esteem needs try to foster employees pride in their work and use public rewards and recognition for services.

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SELF-ACTUALIZATION NEEDS
Needs for self-fulfillment and the opportunity to achieve ones potential. Peoples who strive for self-actualization accept themselves and use their abilities to the fullest and most creative extent. Managers who emphasize self-actualization may involve employees in designing jobs or make special assignments that capitalize on employees unique skills.
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The hierarchy provides a convenient framework for managers. It suggest that: a.


Individuals have various needs and try to satisfy these needs using a priority system or hierarchy. Higher-order needs increase in importance over lower-order needs as individuals move up the organizational hierarchy.

b.

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2. Theory X & Y
X
Employees dislike work, try to avoid it Must be coerced, controlled or threatened with punishment to achieve goals Avoid responsibilities- seek formal direction Little ambition
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Y
Employees view work as being natural as rest or play Self-direction and self-control : they commit to objective Can learn to accept, even seek responsibilities Ability to make innovative decision

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HERZBERGS TWO FACTOR MODEL

Two factor model consist of :i. Motivator factors - job content


ii. Hygiene factors- job context

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TWO-FACTOR THEORY
Motivation Factors Achievement Recognition The work itself Responsibility advancement

Dissatisfaction

No satisfaction

Hygiene Factors Company salary Administration Salary Working condition supervision


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No Dissatisfaction

Satisfaction

TQ

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MOTIVATOR FACTORS

Related to job content , or what people actually do in their work and are associated with an individuals positive feelings about the job

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HYGIENE FACTORS
Associated with the job context , or the environment in which the job is performed . These factors are associated with an individuals negative feelings about the job , but they do not contribute to motivation .
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