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Drive and the Search Dog

Drive isn't just for Schutzhund Anymore!


By Jack Fields Training Director, K9 Development Trainer@k9development.com 01 September 2006

Drives are nothing more than instincts. Every animal has a wide range of natural instincts that it starts using from the moment of birth and that determine the direction of the dogs behavior throughout his or her life. Dean Calderon

There are many excellent books and videos on the topic of drive and its uses. The goal of this paper is not to teach you a step-by-step training methodology, but more to point you in a direction of thought. The more you think about the topic, the more you will seek your own answers, and we will all grow as a result. Until recently, the term drive was rarely used outside of Germany. There were a few scattered mentions of drives, by people like Konrad Lorenz Most and Stewart J. Hilliard. But they did not necessarily relate directly to the human-dog working relationship. In the early 90's all that changed. At first the use of drives was something you would only find mentioned in Schutzhund circles. At about the same time another movement was taking form in the dog world. For simplicity, I will call it positive reinforcement. The dog world was changing fast and things would never be the same. Drive and positive reinforcement go hand and hand. Drive, at least in the form discussed here, is the reward aspect of positive reinforcement. The only difference is one's thought process and training methodology. The best way to achieve results in dog training is very subjective, but all agree that we must have a way to reward and motivate our dogs. This is where drive comes in. Unfortunately, most people only relate drive training with Schutzhund, and therefore protection work. But let me tell you, drive isn't just for Schutzhund anymore!

What is Drive?
Drives are basically instincts. To be more precise, it is how intense the instinct is and to what level it can be modified. Instincts are common to all animals and include a wide range of genetic responses. Survival and reproduction are at the root of instincts. Drive, on the other hand, is the level to which an animal exhibits an instinctual behavior. For example, it is instinctive for a dog to eat, but his food drive determines how intensely or eagerly he eats his food. To chase a rabbit is instinctive, but again the enthusiasm and effort relies on his prey drive. More important than understanding the definition of drive, is to understand how to develop and protect it. Drive is invaluable in dog training. It is the fuel in the gas tank; without it, we are limited.

What Can Drive Do for You?


The goal of drive training is to help you get more from your canine partner. We want more motivation, focus, and intensity. We should always strive for more This allows you to reach higher levels as a team. Early Swedish research pointed out that a high drive dog was indicative of a highly trainable animal. In competition, many times its the dog with the highest drive that wins. In my opinion, dogs with the highest drive also make the best working dogs. Dr. Helmut Raiser referred to drive like money in the bank. If you have money in the bank you can do something with it; if you have no money in the bank you can do nothing. First, the handler gets the dog addicted to its reward. Then a connection is made between getting the reward for performing a behavior. Once that is done, the dog will work very hard to get that reward or drive goal. Thats what its all about, getting the dog to work very, very hard! Now I know youre probably thinking, I play just fine with my dog. My dog loves the game. If your dog already loves the game, drive training can make your dog an addict. He will crave the game. He will have to have the game. He will do anything to play the game! By utilizing the concepts of drive, you can build much more potential to your dogs desire to play with you and therefore will work that much harder. If you have had situations where your dog would rather critter than trail, not range out far enough, give up or not put 120% into searching for difficult sources, fail to alert, or find other ways to amuse itself besides working? Then you really need to look at how you reward your dog and how bad the dog wants that reward!

Drive and the Search Dog

A big part of my business is getting more from dogs. If you think youre doing well already, just imagine what it would be like with more! Believe me when I say there is always more to be had; drive training can help you get it.

The Handlers Role in Drive


The handlers job is to build the want, to get the dog addicted to the reward. This will give the reward greater meaning and value to the dog. Think about the concept that, we all want what we cant have; control access to the reward and therefore frustrate the dog. This way, the reward increases in value to the dog and an intense connection is made between the reward and the handler. Here are some examples of rewards not used efficiently. A handler who uses a food reward complains their dog has a poor work ethnic. But the dog is 20 pounds over weight! Why would this dog be motivated? (I explain more on this topic later.) Another handlers dog doesnt like to play with him. Yet every day the handler takes the dog to a field to chase rabbits until the dog is exhausted. So, how do we get our dogs putting in 120% effort? For starters, the handler must put in 120%. This is a relationship is it not? Why is a handler who brings 30% to the reward relationship surprised when their dog does not like to play with enthusiasm and intensity? After a dog has worked very hard, is it appropriate for the handler to just toss a toy to the dog so it can basically play by itself? The handler must put in as much energy and effort as they want the dog to put in. During a seminar Ivan Balabanov said, Your dog must see you making an effort to play. This really stuck with me because the handler he was talking to had complained that her dog didnt like to play. The dog notices the level of effort that is put into the reward process.

Drive and the Search Dog

Drive, Breeds and Breeding


Genetics are a huge factor when looking at drive and its potential. All dogs are not created equal! Drive levels can be breed specific, like a retrievers strong hunting drive, herding drive in sheep dogs, or defense drive in guarding breeds. Even though we can say drive should be part of a breed temperament, dogs are all individuals within the breed type. Many times Ive heard people say, Hes a German Shepherd, so he should have strong prey drive. Yet the truth is the dog is out of many generations of American show lines that have been bread to look nice, but with little emphasis on natural working drives. There are German Shepherd blood lines known for prey drive and there are German Shepherd lines known for defense drives, yet they are all German Shepherds. So the breed itself is not always a good indicator of drive potential. If I had a dollar for every Labrador who would not chase a ball! We must look at the individual and its heritage to make a better assessment of drive. Handlers should research blood lines and seek dogs with the drives needed for their work. Now Im not saying you should not get a dog from the shelter, as there are many fine animals waiting there to work for you. But you must be greedy and select only dogs that have the drives to accomplish the work at the level you require. Just because he is a Labrador doesnt mean he will do the work.

Drive and Environment


In the argument of nature vs. nurture, it is clear that genetics does play a huge roll. It is in the blood, but environment can either enhance or take away from natural ability. Puppies especially can be greatly influenced at a very early age. This influence can be either positive or negative. A breeder who encourages prey behavior (in pups as early as 4 weeks) will tend to produce higher drive dogs. But that breeder can produce a lower drive dog if they are unaware of balance and extinguish or make negative associations with drive. It is my opinion that early environmental influences can greatly affect a dogs future potential. If a dog is born with potential for drive, but its drive is not encouraged by its environment, then its drive will tend to be diminished. If drive is not required in our dogs for survival, it can be diminished / extinguished. A program for a puppy should start as soon as possible. Careful consideration should be given to nurturing, not extinguishing, the pups natural drives. Instead of punishing it for grabbing our pant legs, shoe laces, or stealing our kitchen towels, redirect it and nurture the drive! If your pup has something inappropriate simply get an approved object and attract your pup to it and play. You will be rewarded for your patients and management; your dog will have more drive. Chasing, biting, and shaking are good things, just not when directed at a
Drive and the Search Dog

cat! By redirecting your pup to a positive source, this will allow its drive to be fulfilled in a positive direction. Always manage the environment around a new pup. This means teaching children not to run around the new pup and dont let a pup follow you into a pasture full of sheep. There is a lot to be said about management. Dont set your pup or yourself up for failure; control your pups early experiences. Another thing to be aware of at the puppy level is the need to generalize drive early. There are dogs that will only play in their own back yards, Schutzhund dogs that can only be titled on their home fields or with their club helper, and A.K.C. obedience dogs that can not compete indoors. Teach pups to play everywhere. This is an important aspect of working on a pups socialization base. Go out and seek new places to play. Constantly evaluate a pups drive level. If it doesnt reach its highest levels, then determine what caused the pups inhibition. Usually it will be a noticeable something. Like a strange tree, a scent, wet grass, etc. The Japanese refer to it as the 10,000 possibilities. Remember, the world is a big place when youre a pup. Once the disturbance has been identified, work on overcoming it in small steps. Go to the same location every day and either feed the pup dinner there, or play with the pup at that location until it is confident. When addressing environmental influences be very aware of criteria. If a pup is unsure of a scary tree, dont feed him right under it, but instead 50 feet away on Monday. If he is good on day 1 at 50 feet, then day 2 its 40 feet away, by day 5, he should be eating under the tree. It can be a slow process, but again patients now will return to you one hundred fold down the road. In order to truly be successful, be aware of the pups emotional state, drive level and the environmental factors that make up a program. Stress can inhibit drive. It is the handlers job to make sure the pup is clear and confidant in all situations. We have a problem if your dog goes into drive only in desirable settings. Consider the concept, rules of 8. Feed the pup in 8 different locations, in 8 different scenarios, out of 8 different food bowls. One day I feed on the floor, one day dinner is in the grass, the next day a glass bowl, that evening the plastic food bowl is in a card board box, breakfast is on a tarp, one day I feed from hand etc. The rules are the same for play. Play in the backyard, on the tarp, in the woods. Wear a mask and play; have the pup play with 8 different nationalities of people, and 8 different age groups. If you think in terms of 8 across the board, you will be aware of the diverse life experiences our pups should be getting. Hatsumi Sensei refers to the number 8 as limitless because if you turn it on its side you have the symbol for infinity. Remember it is the handlers job to help the pup to be confidant it usually doesnt happen by itself. The same concepts apply to adult dogs, as well as puppies. With a puppy you will be preventing environmental issues. With an adult or young dog you will be improving their environment issues.

Drive and the Search Dog

Drive Training - Food


The easiest place to start is with food drive. Consider structuring the dogs feeding schedule, rather than free feeding. A controlled feeding allows the dogs weight gain to be monitored and controlled. At the same time the handler can do simple obedience exercises prior to feeding. There are many benefits to this that I dont have space to address in this paper. The alternative, free feeding, makes for a lazy dog, in my opinion. If your dog has a huge food bowl overflowing with kibble any time he wants why should he work hard for treats? This would be like me winning the lottery, yet keeping my minimum wage job to pay my bills. I recommend dogs have 10 minutes to eat. This is more than enough time to properly finish a meal. A dog that picks at his food and eats at his leisure is not concerned enough about his meals. The food does not hold a high enough value to this dog. A friend of mine was having problems getting his Schutzhund dog to track well. He was using a food reward method of tracking. He went to a great German trainer who put the dog on 8 kibbles a meal. This may sound cruel, but after a week that dog was working hard at tracking! The value of the reward was increased; problem fixed! Food is life; work should be life, as well. Our dogs need to make this connection, and they will if we present it in a way they can understand. The benefit to food drive is how easy it is to modify. The problem is when the dog gets full, it extinguishes itself. With this in mind, I tend to plan my trainings before or well after feeding time as I want a motivated (hungry) dog. A dogs weight is important to mention. An overweight dog can not work at the top of its game. Remember we are developing the Canine Athlete; these are working dogs not show dogs! The pictures to the left are good examples of working weight vs. over weight. My method of evaluating weight is to rub my fingers along the dogs rib cage; I should be able to feel and count every rib. The dog should be covered. (I should not be able to play the dogs ribs like a harp. I should not see spine and hips bones.) But if I need to push my finger deep to feel ribs or if my dog has no waist, then there is a little more Chunky Monkey than you may realize! Good food drive is as easy to achieve as we choose to make it. So if youre having problems with your dogs food drive look at your feeding schedule and do a rib check. If your dog is not working hard enough, then odds are your dog has had it too easy in the kitchen!

Drive and the Search Dog

Drive Training Prey/Play


Basic prey drive is the instinctive behavior to chase and grab. The basic rule of less is more should apply here, as prey/play drive will diminish with fatigue. If a dog is consistently over worked, its desire for the drive goal will be lowered. Again always be aware the dogs drive level and emotional state. Play drive is a dogs innate desire to have fun and enjoy itself. Play drive is fundamentally very important in the human-dog relationship. If you cant play and have fun together, then you have a relationship based only on dominance and submission. Perhaps you say, My dog loves the work and works for the work. I think there is more to be had if we only work at it. It is important to mention the higher the drive level a dog displays the greater chance there is for injury to the dog. It is the handlers responsibility to keep the dog as safe as possible. I highly recommend including exercise as part of your overall training program. A dog in good physical condition is less likely to get injured and will be able to sustain a higher level of work for a longer period of time. If you think your dog is good now, you have not seen anything yet until he has been in a good exercise program for a while. Properly developed and focused prey drive training will not teach a dog to bite a human or make a dog aggressive. Nor will prey drive development teach your dog to critter. These things come from either a lack of environmental management, and or poor obedience. The prey games we play are similar, yet vastly different from the reinforcement a dog gets from chasing animals. The focus of prey drive games is on a toy, not a critter. In this, we take advantage of the fact that the dog does not generalize. They learn to crave the toy, not a critter. The Toy When working dogs in prey. I prefer to use a cylindrical tug toy. Though a dog may love balls, it limits personal interaction. A ball can be thrown, but thats about it. For example, its hard to play tug using a ball, and accidentally dropping the ball can bring the prey alive again, causing more problems than I feel its worth. Also there is a greater chance of injury due to the erratic nature of a bouncing ball. Tug toys are a more convenient prey target for several reasons.

Drive and the Search Dog

The Preys Behavior Think of the toy as the dogs prey (e.g. a rabbit.) How does a rabbit behave (and not behave) in the presence of a predator? Now make the toy behave that way. There are a few rules to prey/play development: Prey always moves away from the dog. It moves in an evasive panic stricken fashion. Prey is never confrontational. It does not flip around in the dogs face in an attempt to get the dogs attention. (The dog may react to this, but with another drive that we dont want to address at this point of the game.) Handler behavior / body language The concept of space (Ku Kan) is very important in developing our dogs and something handlers often overlook. At first, the game needs to be about the dog and the toy, the handler must not disturb the prey mood. Be aware of your body posture and your space in relations to the dog at all times. It is important to note that the toy should be the prey goal and not the handler, but I have found that the handler is paramount in the mood that is created, especially in the beginning. Everything about our mood must be clear, calm, and inviting. When in doubt, move away from the dog, as opposed to going forward and invading the dogs space. I never go to the dog, but instead move away and draw the dog towards me. In the picture to the left you will see a good example of this (my posture is moving away, opposed to the bottom picture where Im invading the space; notice the dogs mood changing as a result.) If you invade the dogs space, then they become overly aware of you.

Drive and the Search Dog

Another issue with moving toward the dog is it may think you intend to take its prey. This can teach the dog to play keep-away, and this is very counter productive at this point of the game. The handler should assume a very passive stance with dog as they play. The handlers hips and shoulders should be sideways to the dog, and avoid direct eye contact. The handler should not hunch or lean over the dog. It is important to note, that the toy should be the prey goal, not the handler. But the handler must not squash the dogs mood of prey. Everything about the handlers presentation must be clear, calm and inviting. Some people have a tendency to want to hit and rough up the dog while working on prey (the picture to the right). This extinguishes the prey mood. Remember the rabbit does not attack the dog (unless its Monty Pythons and The Holy Grail, then we have much bigger problems). How to Start the Prey / Play I start dogs with burlap on the end of a horse lunge whip. The line creates separation between the burlap, the handler and the dog. This benefits all dogs, but really helps an insecure or softer dog. It is an ideal method for dogs that have baggage from past training experiences. First tie the burlap to the end of the lunge whip. You will need to cut the rope end of the whip down a bit. The shorter the line, the more control you will have just (make sure you dont cut it too short.) You will need to play with the lunge whip without the dog to tune it up to your liking. Next dip the end of a burlap sack in water (the added weight will give you better control.) Work outside, on a field with a soft flat surface. Hold on to the handle of the whip and simply drop the burlap end on the ground near the dog. Then move it very slowly, but erratically away from the dog. At this point, watch the dogs eyes and overall body posture. The wiggle and slight bounce of the burlap will trigger most dogs prey drive. First their eyes will focus on it (you will actually see their eyes fixate on it,) then their body will follow in a stalking fashion. And then bang the game is on!

Drive and the Search Dog

As the dog engages in the chase, simply move the burlap rag away from the dog. (Move the burlap in a wide circle around you, as seen in the top picture to the left.) Its important that the burlap stays close to the ground and just out of reach of the dog. The dog must believe he can catch it. Calmly praise the dog as its chasing the burlap, so it learns to hear your praise (keep going) yet is not distracted by it. If the dog is distracted by your voice, stop talking. At this level it is important to teach the dog to hear your praise and understand he is doing the right thing, but at the same time, this subtle praise does not mean check in with the handler. Later when the same praise is used while the dog is working, he will understand that he is doing the right thing and the reward could be immanent. As the dog is in pursuit raise the whip slightly, bringing one end of the burlap off the ground to present an easy target for the dog (pictures in the middle). Look at the pictures to the left are good examples. Once the dog grabs the sack, give a little jerk on the whip to emulate real life prey. (This is called setting the grip, and is shown in the bottom picture to the left.) Then release all tension so the dog can win the prey. Now its a waiting game, passively wait and watch. Soon the dog will start to chew on its dead prey. As the dog opens its mouth, whisk the prey away with a very fast motion. One minute the dog has the prey; the next poof its gone! (This timing is difficult at first.) Now start the chase game again. Follow the same process 2-3 times always watching the dogs emotional state and drive level; dont over do it. Stop the session while the dog is chasing the burlap by moving it quickly up and away. Once the burlap is away from the dog, make sure they can not get to it by keeping it up high and out of reach. (If he wants it bad, you have done well.) Not getting the burlap at the end of the game will frustrate the dog and make him want it more. We want the dog to win with very little effort and make a positive association with the game. Fundamentally, this is very important.

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The Next Level Work the lunge whip sessions until the dog is confidently chasing, biting, and showing great enthusiasm to possess the prey source. The dog should be focused on the prey during the game and not easily distracted. This is the foundation; do not more forward until this is solid. The dog must really want this game. The next step is to introduce handler interaction. The dog needs to start connecting the game with the handler. Start with the same build up of chase & bite. Once the dog bites the prey, set the grip, then let the line go slightly slack. Next pull the whip slightly inward, which should change the dogs momentum toward you. (This takes a lot of feeling. Too much pull and youll find yourself playing tug-awar. Too little pull and the dog will not move towards you. Just right and most dogs will start to follow you with the prey source in their mouths. The pictures on the top left are good examples of correct work, while the bottom left picture shows incorrect work.) At the moment the dog slightly moves towards you, allow the line to become loose again while moving backwards calmly praise the dog for following you with its prey. As the dog gets closer, slide your hands along the whip until you can place your hands where they can receive the burlap with no obvious effort. Make this move smoothly, so the dog does not notice. This is a tricky move and will require patients and timing. Your hand must be at the right place at the right time (a form of Jutaijutsu a very old concept) so the dog does not sense you trying to capture his prey. If the dog senses your intention, he will avoid you and keep the prey for himself. If you get caught and miss the burlap, dont make a big deal of it, just start over. If you managed to get a hold of the prey, now it is time to fight with him just a bit. When fighting with the prey object, your movement should be slight, but erratic. Move the dogs head up and down or left to right, but never at 45 degree angles as its not good for their neck. After a short fight let the dog win the prey. The dog should understand by bringing the prey to the handler, it can play / fight, and win every time. The dog quickly makes this connection and before long he will come running to you with the prey to come and interact with the handler! This is very important for the play to work right. The dog must make the

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connection that bringing the prey to the handler is in his best interest. If the dog has any doubts, he will not bring the prey to the hander. It is important that the dog work this out for himself. Do not to give any commands at this point. The dog should have ownership of this game and, not be responding to a command of compliance. If you are having problems with this step, have someone observer your body posture. Are you showing your dog a picture that leads him to believe it might not be in his best interests to deliver the prey to you? For example: hips and shoulders facing the dog, leaning over, and hard eye contact. Remember, you must have passive non-threatening body posture to invite the return and play. With some dogs we can get here in 1-3 sessions. For others this can take months. It all depends on the dogs temperament and life experiences, as well as the handlers coordination and sense of timing. Once again, patients now will be rewarded later; dont progress to the next step until this one is solid. Countering the grip Now, the dog should be chasing, biting, and bringing the prey to the handler to engage in a slight fight. Next I teach my dog to counter his grip; the goal is to teach our dog to bite the burlap all the way to his molars. This is really a Schutzhund idea, but to me it shows the dogs confidence and the strength of the dog-handler relationship. As you fight with the dog, check his grip. If his mouth is not consumed with the burlap, he needs to be taught to fix his grip. This is my preferred method. With both the dog and handler holding the burlap, the handler turns slightly away from the dog. Pull on the prey, but never actually pull the burlap out of the dogs mouth, as this is very counter productive (see the top picture to the left). Next the handler relaxes the tension on the burlap allowing it to move closer to the dog. Most dogs will take a fuller grip countering the grip or filling their mouth deeper with the prey source (see the bottom picture to the left). The second the dog counters, he wins the prey. It is important no matter how small or slight the counter he must win. As the dog becomes more confident in the game, the criteria can be raised to bigger counters. This game is very reinforcing to the dog as he has now fought, almost lost, and then won the burlap. After all its the dogs reward, not yours. (But it should be fun for both of you!)

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Dropping the Prey The dog is now chasing, biting, and bringing the prey source to the handler for fighting and countering. A very nice picture is emerging of a dog and handler team fully engaged in a game of get and own the burlap (with the dog always winning of course.) Next the dog is taught to drop (out) his prey source; the thing that he has fought so hard to possess. This is tricky and if taught too soon the dog will out rather than complete the game. To teach an out, start when the dog has the burlap sack in his mouth with a full grip. The handler takes hold of the burlap, but does not apply any tension as this will signal fight. Now simply touch the dogs nose with a high value treat and wait. (Make sure it is a very high value treat; its going to need to be worth it to get the dog to drop the prey source.) As the dog transfers from prey to food drive, his grip on the prey will loosen. Just then, give the out command. Avoid giving the command early, while the dog is still mentally engaged in the burlap. If the dog does not drop the prey source, then the word out will be meaningless. When the dog drops the burlap, continue feeding with one hand, while calmly taking the burlap off the ground and out of the dogs reach with the other. Move slowly, as fast movement brings the prey alive, and will encourage the dog to strike it. Now quit feeding and wait. Praise the dog calmly when it looks at the burlap. Last, add more energy to the praise to build some anticipation. Then swing the burlap and start the game again. Now the dog is chasing, biting, and bringing the prey to the handler for fighting, countering, and outing. A nice sequence of events! It is important to note that every time the dog brings the burlap to the handler, it should not be asked to out. The dog will come to expect it and may start dropping the prey early. If this happens just snake the prey away and the chase starts over again.

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It is important to teach your dog to channel (the ability to switch freely from one drive to another.) This allows you greater flexibility in training. If a dog stops playing and only wants food, frustrate the dogs prey drive with the burlap or even play with it your self until the dogs interest spikes again for the prey. If the dog only wants the prey, decrease his diet and increase the value of the treats. Remember, the game should end with frustrating the dogs drive and making him want the game more. Although occasionally after a very good session, I let the dog win and keep the prey and walk off the field with it, and keep it until he decides to drop it. This technique may help a softer dog or one that lacks confidence; it is very reinforcing to win the prey source and get to carry it off the training field. Transferring to a Toy The dog should be well on its way to prey crazy. He understands chasing, bringing the burlap back to the handler and fighting. He can also counter his grip and we have the out. The next step is to transfer the dog from the whip and burlap to some kind of jute or small tug toy. Above right is a sample of our favorite toys. While the longe whip is addictive, it is difficult to fit into a pack. Take the same behaviors and transfer them to a deployable toy. The first step in this transfer is to tie a tug toy to the end of the lunge whip. Go through the same steps described above, but replace the burlap with a toy. The progress from step to step will be very fast, as the dog already understands the game; the only difference is the prey source. The Last Steps This should only be the beginning; we have many roads to walk and lots of skills to teach and learn. Due to space constraints Ill need to address these in future articles, but here are some things to think about. The next stage of prey development is to make the transition to toys with out the lunge whip. The whip acts as a bridge to a point where the handler can throw a toy and the dog will chase it, bring it back, fight, counter, and out.

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When a good play foundation is established, teach the dog to bark. I feel this is great for building drive, and confidence in dogs. Then teach barking starts the game. Be careful that the dog understands the cue to bark, and it is not allowed anytime. Once the dog knows barking, teach a quiet command. (Barking can backfire if it is not controlled. But dont tell Lisa Lee!) Also consider drive training on a back tie. This is perhaps the best drive builder, but due to space constraints Ill need to address it in a future article. In closing, I think the most important thing is that you and your dog have fun. But at the same time, think and plan what you do carefully. Games with rules are always more challenging, and therefore more rewarding, than games without. Dont just throw a toy, and check out. Your dog has worked hard for you and you owe it to him to make an effort to be the best game in town. Believe me your dog will notice and over time your training group will too. The change will happen in your dog-handler team, because each member is bringing 120% to the table and that is what its all about. Ill leave you with words from a great man to ponder on. I cant teach these techniques. You have got to discover how to do them yourselves. It is not a matter of understanding them in your head. It is a matter of getting your body to do them Dr. Masaaki Hatsumi Further Learning & Reference Sources As I mentioned before, there are many great resources out there so please look for answers and you will find them. Below, Ive included a list of recommended materials to point you in the right direction. Sensei often says All same, go play. I think there is a lot to gain from this. You will see similar ideas and many parallels. You will need to find what works for you and then make it a part of you and your program. Only by searching and trying things can we truly expect to find growth. What I have written is my way, but I want you to find your way so someday you can teach me! After all we should always remain students of the art!

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Books & Magazines: Volhard, Wendy 1991, DRIVES, Off-Lead, October, p. 1-18. Booth, Sheila 1992. SCHUTZHUND OBEDIENCE Training in Drive with Gottfried Dildei, Podium Publications, Ridgefield, CT. Booth, Sheila 1998, PURLEY POSITIVE TRAINING Companion to Competition, Podium Publications, Ridgefield, CT. Raiser, Helmut 1996, Der Schutzhund (The Protection Dog) The Training of Working Dogs in Protection work, Armin Winkler Publishing, Duncan B.C. Canada. Balabanov, Ivan & Duet Karen 1999, Advanced Schutzhund, Howell Book House, New York. Internet: Winkler, Armin, Training Articles by Armin Winkler, viewed 30 August 2006, <http://www.schutzhundvillage.com/arminhome.html> Frawley, Ed, LeerBurg Video and Kennel, viewed 30 August 2006, <http://leerburg.com/> Macdonald, Iain 2001, Modal Theory: Relationship between Emotional Status and the Cognitive & Learning abilities of Domestic Canines by Iain Macdonald, viewed 30 August 2006, <http://www.uwsp.edu/psych/dog/LA/macdonald1.htm> Video/DVD: Dildei, Gottfried 1993, Basic Obedience with Gottfried Dildei, video recording, Canine Training Systems, Littleton, CO. Dildei, Gottfried 1993, Advanced Obedience with Gottfried Dildei, video recording, Canine Training Systems, Littleton, CO. Dildei, Gottfried 1993, A Modern View of Correction with Gottfried Dildei, video recording, Canine Training Systems, Littleton, CO. Balabanov, Ivan 2003, Obedience without Conflict with Ivan Balabanov, Tape 1:Clear Communication, video recording, Canine Training Systems, Littleton, CO. Balabanov, Ivan 2003, Obedience without Conflict with Ivan Balabanov, Tape 2: The Game, video recording, Canine Training Systems, Littleton, CO. Fleming-Plumb, Joanne 2003, The Foundations of Competitive Obedience, Tape 1, video recording, Canine Training Systems, Littleton, CO. Flinks, Bernhard, Building Drive Focus & Grip with Bernhard Flinks, video recording, Leerburg Video Productions, Menomonie, WI. Dont forget our dogs are what we make them!

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