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Chapter 22 Study Guide Part 1 Napoleon (pg. 621)-------Unification of Germany (pg.

631) Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III): Toward the Second Empire - Elected president of French Republic - Spent 3 years winning support of French people - Used force to restructure the government and convinced the people to elect him president for 10 years - He restored the French empire with himself as the head The Second Napoleonic Empire - Authoritarian government- only Napoleon had a say in things although he set up phony legislative positions in order to trick the people into thinking they had a say in things - Napoleon industrialized France and it prospered for the first five years - Remodeling of Paris to fit into the modern era - In a response to opposition, Napoleon liberalized his government and allowed more rights and freedoms to the people in order to strengthen the government - Napoleons regime had poor foreign policy which ultimately led to his downfall Foreign Policy: The Mexican Adventure - Napoleon sent troops to Mexico to restore order but kept them there even after order had been restored - Napoleon appointed Mamximillian as the emperor of Mexico - Angered the Mexican people so they executed Maximilian after the French troops were withdrawn Foreign Policy: The Crimean War - Napoleon joined the war in an attempt to free France of previous restrictions put in place to punish the French for the French Revolution - The Ottoman Empire was falling apart and all the other European powers wanted to gain land because of this - Russia invaded Ottoman Empire which caused the Ottoman empire to declare war on Russia - France and Britain were fearful of so much Russian power so they declared war on Russia - Russia wanted the Austrians to help them but Austria stayed Neutral - More soldiers died from disease then actually fighting in the war - Very unorganized and poorly fought war - Francis Nightingale insisted on strict sanitary conditions in Britain which saved many more British soldiers from dying - Because of her, women were able to peruse nursing as a career option - The Russians lost the war and had to sacrifice land and sign peace treaties that would ensure that they wouldnt become too powerful - The war ultimately broke up the Concert of Europe o This led to opportunities for revolt and reform which would lead to Italy and Germany becoming unified

The Unification of Italy - Italians wanted to break away from Austrian control and unify all the Italian states - They decided that the region of Piedmont would assume the role in the cause for national unity - Piedmonts king was Victor Emmanuelle II - Emmanuelle appointed Count Camillo di Cavour as his prime minister which would prove to be the motivational boost needed for the unification of Italy - Cavour pursued policies of economic expansion in Piedmont which led to increased availability of money - Cavour then poured this money into equipping a large army - Cavour convinced the French to help drive the Austrians out of Italy because Cavour knew his forces couldnt do it alone - In the beginning of the fighting, the French were largely responsible for defeating Austrian forces - The French then made peace with Austria without informing their Italian ally o The French did this because the war was turning out to be more costly then Napoleon III wanted it to be - The Italians were angered by this but Cavour knew that events in Italy had turned in his favor - Giuseppe Garibaldi was an experienced war veteran who gathered up an army in southern Italy and began marching North conquering Italian states as he went along - Garibaldi and Cavour teamed up and conquered land and gained overwhelming support for Piedmont Garibaldi was the sword (the fighter) - Did his work in Southern Italy Cavour was the brains (planned all the attacks) Did his work in the northern Italy - After the efforts of both these men, and the Austro-Prussian, and the Franco-Prussian war, Italy became its own unified state under a centralized government at Piedmont under the leadership of King Emmanuel II The Unification of Germany - Prussia set up the Zollverein o This was a customs union that eliminated tolls and brought about German economic prosperity through the expansion of trading - Otto von Bismark was a Prussian Prime Minister who unintentionally brought about the unification of Germany - Bismark was an ultimate realist; he got involved in his first war - The Danish War- Bismark convinced Austria to team up with Prussia and the two forces destroyed the Danes rather quickly o This war led to tensions between Austria and Prussia and Bismark decided that Austria would have to be forcefully removed form

Germanic affairs (Germany was oppressed by both the Prussians and the Austrians before the Austro-Prussian war) The Austro-Prussian War- Bismark did everything he could to ensure that no other world powers would assist Austria if the Prussians attacked them. Once Austria was isolated and by itself, the Prussians teamed up with the new Italian state and went to war with Austria. Austria was expected to win quickly but the Prussians were better organized and defeated the Austrians. Austria was forced to give up Venetia to Italy (This was mentioned early and was a key aspect into the complete unification of all of Italy) and also the Austrians were excluded from German affairs. The Prussians now controlled Germany. The Germans were given their own local governments but were ultimately controlled by the King of Prussia with Bismark as the Kings right hand man This was the first step towards German unification as it excluded Austria from their affairs which only left the Prussians to control them. however the Prussians would soon be involved in another war The Franco-Prussian War- A war between France and Prussia that was started by a disagreement between France and Prussia over a candidate for the position of the King of Spain (Totally unrelated) but anyway this caused tension and ultimately war because Bismark intercepted a letter that the Prussian king was trying to send to France. Bismark edited the letter in order to piss France off and make them declare war. (Bismark wanted to go to war with France because he knew the French would never accept the fact that Bismark and the Prussians were allowing Germany to become powerful) The Prussians quickly defeated France with the help of their Germanic states. The war led to new territory for the new and unified German state. (Basically, throughout these three wars, Prussia continued to get land for Germany and eventually allowed Germany to become its own independent state with Prussia as their ally)