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Indie Musicians Survival Guide

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FOREWORD
The music market is in the midst of total transformation. Within a few short years, the rules and regulations governing the sector have evolved beyond recognition; the out-moding of audio hardware, changes in consumer habits, the explosion in consumer choice and, of course, the exposure offered to independent bands via the myriad of social network sites, have all contributed to a complete re-shaping of the industry as a whole, and of the context within which self-produced bands may evolve today. In this new era with its new challenges and trends, one thing is certain: if we want to survive, we must adapt! We wholeheartedly hope that the following pages will help clarify the reality of today’s live music sector, and provide the answers to some of the questions that are ricocheting round the minds of you, the indie musos. The Indie Musicians Survival Guide is a compilation of the experiences of several French and British indie bands, litres of sweat discharged onto the boards of countless stages, hours spent in an army of tour vans travelling on desert roads friendship, life-stories and exchanges. A simple testament to the struggle for the survival of live music.

Creation is resistance…
The Tomahawk Collective. bilingual website www.tomahawk-music.eu

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I N D E X
FOREWORD THE MUSO’S GUIDE The essentials: artistic presentation CONNECTING WITH THE AUDIENCE The essentials: artistic presentation
• Connecting with the public & having fun on stage are vital in live performance p.10 • The micro company • The association 1901 • The SARL - business is business

The UK options
• Employer • Limited company • Limited liability • Partnership • Partnership law

BUILDING THE SHOW
• Stage presentation

p.11

• Lack of objectivity often overlooked • Nuances and your set • Finding your band’s sound

THE BUDGET p.23 Setting up an internal accounting system: Excel, my love!
• Managing your budget • Identifying your investment priorities • Need a hand financing your project • A practical example p.14

CREATING A FAVOURABLE ENVIRONMENT p.13 List your network YOU DON’T HAVE TO DO IT ALONE LOGISTICS
p.15 • Identify local live-music structures and organisations

ON THE ROAD AGAIN ! p.27 Initiation gigs
• Open mics • Battle of the Bands • Festivals and ‘offs’ • Support bands • Concert pubs and bars • The pubs • London, Paris the same struggle: pay to play • Accessing the concert hall circuit • Playing abroad

• Internal organisation & job sharing • Determining clear objectives: go pro or not to go pro? • Do you need a manager, and who’s it to be? • Beware of big-mouths

THE KIT p.17 recording: the basic kit for your first demo LIVE PERFORMANCE
• The basic small venue gig kit • Group together for investing in essential material

LOOKING FOR DATES

p.32

WHICH LEGAL STATUS FOR A NEW BAND? The French options p.19

• Cold-calling – how does it work • Cultural organisation and SMACS • Managing your data-base

CONTACTING PROGRAMMERS
• The golden rule • Which type of program to aim for

p.36

• Your website: how & when • The different physical communication media • A world in communication overload: the essential press officer

• What type of programmer do you want to approach • First contact with a programmer • Getting noticed • Hints & tips • A classic example of succes via the stage circuit

Web strategy
• Referencing: gaining www.isibility • Viral marketing • Facebook, MySpace and the rest

ALTERNATIVE CIRCUITS FOR DIFFUSING YOUR MUSIC
• The free party movement • Squats • Re-invent the concert formula • Optimising existing networks • Risky but inescapable – the publicity venue • Emerging new circuits of music diffusion: an alternative for independent bands

p.40

CONVINCE AND GAIN A LOYAL AUDIENCE p.63
• Your mates are the ambassadors of your music • The fan-base: stay in touch with your audience • How to create your buzz • Merchandise

MUSO GUIDE CONCLUSION Making a living from your music GLOSSARY

p.65

THE DISC

p.44

• Do you need a disc • Auto-production – how much does it cost • EP, album, mediocre demo or waves? • And tomorrow? • Protect your songs: authors rights and related rights • The ambiguous case of the Creative Commons Licence • Right where it hurts • Selling your music • Looking for a label

MUSIC SECTOR PROFESSIONALS p.70 INSTRUCTION MANUAL FOR USING THE DATA-BASE p.73 Data-base of concert in Finistère Data-base of concert in Manche Data-base of SW counties of the UK (Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, Dorset) Data-base of concert cafés in Normandy and Brittany Battle of the bands (France) BEHIND THE SCENES THE HARD REALITY OF A SECTOR IN A STATE OF FLUX p.114
• Mass consumerism & the culture of mass • On-line TV: enter a global media for all the family • Digital tablets • The vinyl revival

LEARN TO COMMUNICATE The context
for pros & the public • Advantages of a media plan

p.54

• A targeted & reactive communication strategy:

The tools
• Create a strong identity, a show and branding that scores • Communication kit: the vitals

THE CONTEXT FRANCE/UK mutation of consumer habits

p.116

• Nomadic consumerism • Stay-at-home consumerism - the rise of the screen culture • Live consumerism

A FRANCO-BRITISH STRATEGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF BANDS p.127 The promotion of independent bands: exploration of the alternative circuits
• New promotional supports: video games & smartphone apps • The growth of smartphone apps a new vector for indie artists • Re-organisation of the sector for the development of bands • A re-constructed circuit of key players necessary for the development of bands • Getting imaginative with local economies: the challenge of tomorrow? • Developing new economic equations

INTERNET & THE NEED FOR NEW BUSINESS MODELS p.117
• The context - a hard landing in the digital era • The foundations of digital distribution • Today’s new top-dogs - French context • New business models - the Apple example • Digital market becomes top model - the dominance of ISPs and mobile phone manufacturers digital market becomes top model - the dominance of ISPs and mobile phone manufacturers

THE ECONOMIC REALITY OF THE FRENCH MUSIC SECTOR p.121
• The hard reality of the concert café • L’intermittent du spectacle - how does it work • What is the GUSO • Entrepreneur de Spectacle Licence • Current earnings of bands in Brittany • Hierarchy of networks / subsidised culture • On-line sales

END WORD...

p.131

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THE MUSO’S GUIDE
The essentials:artistic presentation

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CONNECTING WITH THE AUDIENCE
The essentials: artistic presentation.
We are talking music here... hairs on the back your neck... shivers down your spine! So, stop worrying about your dodgy financial situation, about finding gigs for the band’s survival and the minefield of administration, and get to work on your artistic presentation!

Renew your repertoire, work on the band’s sound, jam with mates, multiply your musical experiences, explore the potential of your instrument... All this helps consolidate and further your artistic expression whilst building confidence and performers who are confident enjoy themselves on stage and immediately gain the public’s empathy and support. So one advice: practice and practice some more! It’s your musical material and the human interaction at the heart of your line-up that will make you stand out from the pack. Connecting with the public & having fun on stage are vital in live performance Don’t forget that we’re talking about human relations here. Music is simply a (very powerful) vector of emotion. And the core issue is how best to transmit that emotion to a given audience in a given set of circumstances. 99.9% of your audience will be clueless to the fact that you messed up the second bar after the first chorus, or that the saxophonist (them again!!) missed a lick because he was too preoccupied with trying to pull the foxy chick in the front row. But ! apart from a rotten sound and poor technical conditions, a lack of cohesion and synergy between band members is the

biggest turn-off for any audience. It is far more agreeable to ‘feel’ an inherent intimacy between performing musicians than to watch bored and apathic players looking at their shoes with long faces between songs. Creating a warm stage atmosphere is a band’s role and duty to the public, and is sadly lacking in an alarming number of performances. The more evident the osmosis between players, the more an audience is willing to participate and share in these precious moments, and the more your band will benefit from the best publicity ever known: word of mouth. Look at each other as you play. Smile at your bandmates, give them encouragement when they pull off a cool lick, make eye-contact with the audience, talk to the guy at the back. Your public must see that you are having a lot of fun playing with each other and for them, if the sensation is genuine, it’s infectious. And, from a purely materialistic view-point, once the challenge of band cohesion is met, watch your merchandising sales increase 15fold. A couple of counter-examples www.youtube.com/watch?v=SVoEb5Rm5eo www.youtube.com/watch?v=akgKPaCviL4

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BUILDING THE ‘SHOW’ IS VITAL
Either you can try bleeding slugs on the threshold of a Portuguese sex shop on Christmas eve, and hope for the best. Or you can follow a simple set of tried and tested rules:

How you work with your music is determined by your ambitions. In today’s context, a band aiming at going professional should rehearse three times a week minimum, in order to gain the necessary cohesion and intimacy of your line-up. If it’s more a hobby band, a bunch of mates content to play together and gig the local pubs, then generally one rehearsal per week will do. Obviously, the size of the band, how well the members know each other and the level of musicianship are all variables which make it difficult to put a time-scale on this step of a band’s development. Actually, it should probably never stop evolving. The fun factor. Maintaining the pleasure of playing together whilst keeping up creative momentum can sometimes be trying, and will take some nurturing before the day when - who knows - your project matures and takes on a new dimension. Like a diamond in-the-rough, a new band needs cutting, fashioning and polishing to gain a viable and durable performance proposition. This can take some time, be prepared and keep on smiling! Standing out from the pack, artistically speaking, requires not only a certain musical originality (and a lot of work!), but a good sound, creative lighting and a minimum of stagecraft Stage direction is an art and often requires “outside” eyes and ears to find and perfect the visual & phonic impact of the performance.

Think seduction. Unite band and public. And, don’t ever forget, the biggest turn-off for willing fans is big-headedness! Stage presentation is all too often overlooked by young bands The live concert is an integral member of the entertainment family practised by humankind since year dot, and there exist tried-and-tested formulae that have been perfectly adopted by street artists and actors, but sadly underexploited by the majority of amateur musicians. One thing’s for sure: a good stage presentation can add great value to a show… Try it and you’ll love it! This is where a theatrical friend could come into play, or where you could seek out a local theatre troupe willing to lend/exchange a helping hand. Get onto YouTube and see what the pros have to say. Personalised and original stage presentation permits a bespoke visual identity of your band. Stage costumes, how you move around and interact with each other and the public, customisation of the band’s hardware, stage décor etc., this helps create a scenic ambience which helps to relax the performers and boosts the band’s feelgood factor; and if there’s one thing willing audiences respond to, it’s feelgood factor.

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The lack of objectivity is a big consideration often overlooked Each and every aspect of your creation could more than likely benefit from the scrutiny of someone outside of your entourage, for example, Julio, the Peruvian ex-booker and halfbrother by alliance of your pet dwarf poodle. It could be your dearest, darling, hold-no-punches partner - often the harshest and most honest – if not subtle - critic. You are so utterly convinced of the credibility of your compositions (and rightly so!), and so used to hearing and re-hearing your numbers, seeing and re-seeing your visuals, your stage show etc, that you are no longer objective. Look around for the right person/people who can give positive criticism on each and every aspect of your project, play to other bands/musicians who are further down the line than yourselves. Get their feed-back. You’re not looking to denaturalise your work, but to embellish it. Listen carefully to what these people have to say and adapt accordingly, if they are well chosen you may even find a future collaborator. chateau-rouge.net/studios/activite-des-studios/ partenaires/le-coach/ Time spent working on the nuances of your set is time well spent EIt is a detail that often makes the difference between professional and amateur bands. Banging-out a constant sound is all well and good, but without relief, nuance or musical “windows”, an un-prepared audience will often become detached from your performance, even if you’re good at what you do. Silence can be a good way to enhance the music to come.

Varying the ambiences, rhythms and “colours” of your numbers keeps an audience’s attention from the first note of your set to the grand finale. Begin by imagining original transitions, explore the different sound capabilities of your instruments and your musical breaks. Move away from the traditional formula of verse/ chorus/verse/chorus/middle eight/chorus/end, try out different combinations of instruments: why not a break using only vocals and drums, for example, or a whole number without drums if you’re a hard rock band? All these are ingredients for enriching a set, and go a long way towards building and maintaining the famous connection with the public. Finding your band’s sound & the sound technician The sound tech, “the-man-in-the-shadows”, is the mouth-piece of the band. It is he/she who bears the heavy responsibility of translating the sound of each instrument as the musician would wish to hear it if he/she could be simultaneously on stage and out front. The essential qualities of these sound techs include a deep understanding of musical culture, and, of course a stack of patience, it’s a tough job being yelled at by a deaf drummer, having to turn the (soon-to-be-deaf) singer’s 8 stage monitors to maximum volume or being humiliated in public by a guitarist who mistook the gain knob for the volume. The sound tech is also the one who will add a personal touch for the truest rendition of the musical atmosphere your band wishes to produce. The sound tech is like you: a musician, who should experiment and improvise to find the right sound for the audience. He/she should know your songs as well as you, which effects to

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use when, and at what dose so that the public experience you at your best. In an ideal world this person would have evolved with your band, from the creation phase through to live performance. In France, the sound tech is often a full and indispensable member of the lineup of emerging bands functioning under the legal statute of ‘intermittent du spectacle’ (fr. wikipedia.org/wiki/Intermittent_du_spectacle)

or working as an independent. On the whole in the UK, bands at a pre-professional level are generally on their own and have to make do with on-site technicians, or are lucky enough to have a savvy mate who is willing to learn the songs and put in the time. A few vids of professional sound techs. www.youtube.com/watch?v=igoK_y_mrzw

CREATING A FAVOURABLE ENVIRONMENT
List your network
Basics. Creating the right conditions for your band’s development will involve listing and tapping into your contacts and networks. Start by identifying your immediate network: a friend who messes about with Photoshop, your lover’s father who has a mate that runs a pub... Anything goes! Obviously, the size of this network will depend on your band’s progress. The aim being to get down on paper the names of everyone willing to help out with logistics, finance, creative development etc., and that each band member has a clear appreciation of the resources they are lucky enough to have at their disposal. Make contact with local venues, music resource structures (rehearsal rooms, recording studios, local radio stations etc) and other individuals and organisations that support the development of emerging performers. Who do you know that could lend you a van, some mics or a mixing desk, or who works in the local press or radio, who could lend you a garage once a week for rehearsal, who has a studio, who works for a label, a community project or a webzine, who is an awesome website designer, geek, booker, programmer, etc etc... And keep up the contact! At least once a year do the rounds of all of these helpful bods. This is not only vital footwork that could prove extremely useful for any future manager canny enough to recognise your potential, but they also act as a sort of barometer to your band’s development.

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YOU DON’T HAVE TO DO IT ALONE
Identify local live-music structures and organisations Make sure they know who you are and that you exist, that from now on your band is, indisputably, one of the local shows. This done, don’t expect any miracles. Compliments are rare, especially if you are new on the scene (if you know what I mean?!). And don’t forget that these ‘professionals’ to whom you have just presented your demo, pass their day-long listening to 100s of demos of bands like yours. The important thing is to anchor your band’s name well and truly in the sub-conscious of the local cultural gurus, to get that little voice in their heads saying, “Wow! They’re not half bad these kids! And they’re getting to know some pretty influential bods. If I give them a little helping hand, my reputation could bloom...” Don’t be pushy. You shouldn’t have to polish shoes or go brown-nosing, or become a telephone stalker. Just get the buzz about the band going and keep up the humble pressure. In France, getting close to the professionals in music diffusion is an important starting point for any group with professional aspirations. Many of these structures are even state-subsidised, with a mission to put in place realistic strategies for your band’s development. Regional “associations” dedicated to music and dance, the “centres de ressources de musiques actuelles” (www.culturecommunication.gouv.fr/Regions/ Drac-Bretagne) are often in very close contact with the structures charged with the diffusion of live music within specific regions. Tapping into these networks can facilitate and accelerate the reputation of your band. In the UK, publicly funded structures that provide support for young bands are pretty much extinct. Even finding rehearsal space is nigh-on impossible in most towns. So it’s basically grit your teeth, plug your contacts and DIY”. You could hope for a helping hand from a small booker/manager (who almost always work for a bag of chips and a song, at least in the beginning). They should be able to advise you on the development of your project, and will obviously want to get you playing as much as possible so that they may start earning a bit of cod to go with the chips. But then, so do you! Regional festivals are on the rise in France, and almost all program a space or a stage for up-and-coming live talent. Often, the festival organisers subsequently take the promising local acts under their wing and help them along the path to professionalisation. This is an option, but again, be aware of who you’re getting into bed with - you’re no lackey! Better to have a strong local reputation and fan-base, with an artistically mature project before approaching these structures. The UK festival scene is also a growth area, but is typically a high wall to climb with very few openings for local bands to exploit. Again this is where your manager comes into play, pulling strings and things.

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Last but not least, you can do a lot worse than getting in with other locally-known musos of a similar style. Try to negotiate a deal as a support act. This is not only a good source of street cred, but has the added benefit of getting you up on stage when you only have 45 minutes to your repertoire. http://musicians.about.com/od/beingamusician/ ht/betheopeningact.html

mediatheque.cite-musique.fr/simclient/ integration/cimu/repertoiresites/listSitesListe.asp?INSTANCE=REPERTOIRESITES&SID=A6761A07A_F9E1_48A0_ BAE9_0EB23C583C47&LDC=listSites. xml&BACKURL=%2Fsimclient%2Fintegration%2Fcimu%2Frepertoiresites%2FdoSearch_listSites%2Easp%3FINSTANCE%3DREPERTOIRESITES%26CATSITE%3DCATEGORIES_52&CATSITE=CATEGORIES_52

LOGISTICS
Internal organisation and job sharing If you (still) don’t have a manager, merchandising and mailing lists etc. can be taken off by your new fans at your concerts. Your sound tech can also give a helping hand, given that he does not have to worry about the on-going creative side of your project. Share out the work according to the skills and desires of each member; someone could be in charge of identifying and contacting all the concert venues in such and such a region, someone else for organising rehearsal dates and places, another for carrying out the maintenance on the van etc...If everyone is motivated there are multiple formulae for advancing your band’s progress without stepping on toes or rocking boats. This will continue until someone from outside believes in your band enough to take over the baton. Pub and bar gigs often require stringent organisation, especially for a virgin band attacking their first dates: a PA system, a back line, a vehicle(s), posters (logo, graphics...) etc. It’s often as well, the pivotal moment in a band’s development for the integration (or not) of a sound technician. To help keep things on track and maintain the group dynamic, it helps to put in place a retroplan for the year ahead, your band’s objectives, deadlines, rehearsals etc. Needless to say, good communication within the band is primordial, and maintaining constructive dialogue may even … sometimes ... be one of the dirtier jobs of the manager Determine clear objectives: go pro or not go pro? This is a principal source of conflict within good amateur bands besides fights over chicks, rotten food and drunk musicians on stage, and it is essential that band members have the same ambitions and vision of the future from the outset. To become a professional band means working allhours on your instrument/voice, set and presentation, and if the desire to become professional is not unanimous then very quickly an imbalance in musical proficiency can become an issue. Imagine on the one hand, you have a bass player who practices eight hours a day, and on the other, you

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have a drummer who uses his drumsticks once a week at band practice, the moment will inevitably arise when the sh*t hits the proverbial fan! The desire to go pro often means making a lifestyle compromise. It requires a huge amount of time which many would prefer to invest in their studies, girl/boyfriends, families, synchronised swimming training for the Olympics, etc. It’s a question of personal choice that everybody should respect and assume. If ever there was a first priority, it must be to maintain the friendship within the band. There is nothing sadder than spoiling a human adventure through dispute and absence of dialogue; 90% of bands fail for this reason! Disputes are, at least theoretically speaking, easy to avoid: once a year, ask each member about his expectations. And - like old couples - you might be inseparable for a while and end up splitting up at some point; so be extremely attentive to each other’s needs, especially at key phases in the band’s development. The second priority: take the time to revel in the pure and simple act of playing music with your mates, and to then share that pleasure with an audience. Whether amateur or pro, music is an empty shell filled with soul; no pleasure = no emotion. Do you need a manager, and who’s it to be? A manager is simply someone who adheres totally to your project. After that, managerial skills and contacts may be acquired - where there’s a will there’s a way. But, alas, all too often it falls to 1 or 2 musicians to find the gig dates and generally organise everything, a reality that can cause a feeling of injustice and imbalance in the heart

of the line-up and ultimately lead to conflicts or even to the band splitting up (see previous paragraph!) The role of a manager is to provide external positive input that evolves with the band’s development, only in very few cases can a core musician provide this oversight. Managers are also charged with finding gigs, setting up meetings with local promoters of live music, realising your first demo, building and maintaining your fan data-base and mobilising a willing work-force dedicated to your band’s future. If all goes to plan, the manager’s job will extend to merchandising, finding partners (producers, distributors, bookers, press officers, web-masters etc.), and finally to become the one and only interface representing your band. He/she should be present at all your performances, your number 1 fan, your right arm, in short, they are the rare integral pearl of the band and indispensable for its development. A lot has been written about the manager question, the internet is loaded with advice, pit-falls and benefits, here are a few pointers: http://musicians.about.com/od/beingamusician/ ht/findmanager.htm http://www.musicsocket.com/managers/ h t t p : // w w w . e h o w . c o m / h o w _ 4 5 3 2 0 3 3 _ find-band-manager.html Beware of big-mouths You will surely meet any number of people on your adventure who promise fame, fortune and Wembley Stadium - within the year! Protect

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yourselves against parasites and time-wasters (such as, let’s say, the Peruvian ex-booker and half-brother by alliance of your pet dwarf poodle!) If you want to integrate someone from outside

into the inner workings of your band - do it, but do it gradually. Before taking them on officially, give them simple and precise objectives, once these have been fulfilled to everybody’s satisfaction enlarge their field of action, and so on. After a year’s trial take stock and move on from there.

THE KIT
RECORDING: the basic kit for your first demo.
Home recording can be likened to a chain made up of several links, the result depending directly on the quality of each link. Investing in the latest mega giga high-performance sound card if the rest of the kit in the chain is of mediocre quality is a big waste of money, not to mention a giga-source of frustration. Think hard about the results you’re after before assembling your chain. Very basically, sound is picked up by microphones from the instrument as an analogue signal, transmitted to a computer via a mixing desk and/or a pre-amp and sound card which transforms the analogue signal to digital using software such as Cubase or Protools. Input levels are adjusted using the mixing desk and / or pre-amp, and recorded sound can then be played around with using the software: volume, effects, EQ, compressors etc. (who knows, you might even get your bleached, unshaven singer to sing properly The source sound from the computer then passes by the sound card and out through monitor or studio speakers which give a neutral definition of the digital signal to be mixed. Do not use HiFi equipment which has pre-programmed parameters and will give a false sound. You can buy specific mixing equipment for a very reasonable price It’s also worth noting that if the sound coming out of the computer is badly adjusted you may well blow your system. Monitor speakers reproduce a true sound, precisely as it was worked by the software user. A good pair of neutral headphones is also indispensable at this stage.

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Following is a rough list of the basic tools with bottom-end prices: • Microphone (or several) about £75 • Mixing desk (and/or pre-amp) about £75 • Sound card about £130 • Computer and software (such as Cubase) about £500. There are also free ones, not as complete but good enough: KristalAudio, ReaperQui or (if you use Linux), Rosegarden which is probably the best one • Monitor speakers about £250 • Neutral headphones about £75 The choice of microphones is enormous: choose one to suit your needs, budget and best adapted to your voice or instrument. But in short, a grand will get you the basic kit and software for a home recording. Two important points: always record neutral sources of sound (without effects etc.); you can mess around with these afterwards. Take time to find a place that has good acoustics. A bedroom in wood with rugs on the walls can provide natural acoustics and colour equal to some overly expensive recording studios. A few hints and tips http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qmoyRRZUQPQ&feature=related http://fr.audiofanzine.com/apprendre/dossiers/ lIVe PeRFoRMAnCe: The basic small venue gig kit Following is the minimum compact kit that will assure your backline and leave space in your van for rucksacks, beers and sleeping bags:

• Second-hand amp (e.g. HK Lucamax) 2KW about £1300 • Small mixing desk (e.g. Yamaha analogic 16 track) about £300 • 2 amplified stage monitors about £300 • Set of 5 mics and stands about £400 • A 16 channel multipair cable about £150 • XlR cables and jacks about £50 Total: £2500

But shop around and look for good second-hand stuff, and you could cut this price by a third. Apart from the hardware, think about your banner, there’s nothing better to get your band’s name and logo branded in a public’s collective mind than getting them to stare at a hard-hitting graphic with your name plastered over it for two hours. Group together for investing in essential material Times are hard and are only going to get harder, so get that address book out and ring around other local bands and suggest a band hardware cooperative. Acquiring all this kit rapidly becomes prohibitively expensive, and although much of it is difficult to share – since most busy bands will be needing the mixing desk etc. of a Saturday night - there is a lot that would be silly to buy on your own. Example: automatic CD copiers, photocopier for your promotional posters, drum microphone set for recording, valve pre-amp, studio monitors, digital converter, trailer, textile press-runs etc.

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Possessing critical bits of kit, especially cooperatively, doesn’t have to break the bank and gives you a certain autonomy which not only saves

money but also avoids delays caused by delivery and availability of personnel and/or materials.

WHICH LEGAL STATUS FOR A NEW BAND?
Legal options (France)
The Micro Company: Description: each musician is bound by a contract of commitment and is, effectively free-lance, providing his services within the framework of this contract. Advantages: under this structure you don’t pay social contributions as long as your income is lower than 32000, no (or low) paperwork and you can practice another professional activity and combine the revenues from both. Drawbacks: if things go belly-up you are not eligible for unemployment benefit, and not all organisations recognise the micro company as a viable entity, so invoicing may get complicated. http://pme.service-public.fr/actualites/zoom/ avantages-micro-entreprise.html The Association 1901: Description: this is a legal structure equivalent to the ‘society’ in the UK (amateur dramatics society, the Cotswolds gardening society etc...), consisting of several people with a common cause. They are not-for-profit organisations, working to participative, democratic principles and are prohibited to present any form of competition to the commercial sector. The 3 obligatory affiliates: president, secretary and treasury hold general assemblies which are open to all members. Advantages: possibility to obtain a licence to organise public events which generate money to pay the musicians. If all goes to plan, the musicians may then go on to become “intermittents du spectacle” and be eligible for funding for artistic creation, recording, touring etc… Drawbacks: many artists use this structure because it easy to initiate and serves the purpose. However, Associations 1901 require regular general assemblies, votes (members included), minutes, reports etc.etc. Paperwork and administrative red-tape rapidly becomes a burden requiring team-work and sometimes the participation of people who aren’t even involved with the artistic side of the project. So, if you have a mate who is partial geek and loves tapping away on a lap-top, GO FOR IT!!

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ATTENTION ALLBODIES! European noncompetition laws between the commercial and charitable sectors clearly state that public or subsidised bodies may not compete in the open market and maintain their charitable status. Charities that do – and they have the right to – subject themselves to the same fiscal regimes as their commercial counterparts (and competitors!). However, alternative legal structures exist in France and the UK. These include the SCIC (société coopérative d’intérêt collectif), and the CIC (community interest company) which attempt to integrate the inherent values of both the private and public sectors. The Rule oF The 4 ‘’P’’S 1) Product: should have a social value and a disposition to satisfy a deficiency in the market. 2) Public: (target public) strategies must be in place regarding advantageous tariffs for the paying public in precarious financial situations (un-employed, people with disabilities, etc.). 3) Price: evaluated to ascertain whether organisers are facilitating accessibility to events through reduced entry tariffs compared to similar private sector events. 4) Publicity: in principle, the use of publicity for commercial ends is prohibited. Charities may, however, use publicity to appeal to the public for donations for a particular cause (such as the fight against genetic diseases, for example). www.creer-mon-association.com

The SARl: Business is business! This is the French equivalent of the limited company. It basically allows a band to become its own production house. In the UK Ltd’s are bought off-the-shelf and are often the most convenient option, bearing in mind, of course, they are taxable entities (I smell an accountant?). But limited companies do offer a backdoor if you’re feeling ‘trapped’ in an associative structure (see The Rule of the 4 P’s above), and are handy because they allow your band to invoice for a whole raft of services; technical assistance at concerts, musical instrument lessons, music creation for the web & radio stations, recording services, lighting, selling your merchandising etc., the list goes on and on. This allows you all to optimise your natural strengths and competences - over and above what you bring to the stage - and helps to bring in the extra cash to see you through those frugal moments. If ever you feel the wind in the sails, you can always drop these extra money-making activities and concentrate on the main thing: your music. Of course, this implies you have enough funds to invest into your group. But the more strings to your bow, the easier the road towards financial autonomy. www.dictionnaire-juridique.com/definition/ societes-commerciales.php Which legal status for your band under UK law ? There are three main types of legal status of a musical act, employer, limited company and partnerships. Most larger acts are a mixture of two or even all three. A typical compound setup would be that of the Rolling Stones which is a limited company, with main shareholders, based

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on the older partnership, junior shareholders who are newer members, and free-lance employees who are the backing musicians, as well as sub-contractors and others. http://inchbrakie.tripod.com/audiotalk-business/ id18.html. > Employer This typical employer/employee relationship is the common formula for boy/girl bands and orchestras. A company, a manager for example, will head-hunt individuals, build a band and offer either a regular fixed salary for the members, or a free-lance musician contract. The employee is paid for every day worked and not just for the date of production. Many bands take the so-called ‘’partnership’’ route, some (like Roxy Music) being held by one individual who pays the other members for tour, rehearsal and studio time. > Limited Company Many bands prefer to create a company whereby all members are either directors or shareholders. The cost of setting up an «off-the-shelf» limited company (via a “company formation agent”) is no more than £500 and is often more advantageous in the long-run than a partnership - although its apparent complexity often scares musicians off. However, it is recommended to wait until your band has attained a certain level before setting up a company. If your band is still young, not yet financially independent and still to make a name for itself, the choosing of a legal structure is not really the top priority. But if you are signed to a serious label and your project is beginning to resound on the media waves: GO FOR IT!! The advantage of a limited company is, as the

name suggests, the limitation of responsibility (like the SARL in France). With a ‘limited liability company’, as long as you did not get yourself into debt in the knowledge that you could never reimburse, the directors (i.e., the members of the band), are not personally liable if the company folds. In general, if the worst comes to the worst, you lose your initial investment in the company. Whereas, in a ‘’partnership’’, all members are liable for the association’s debt. Worst case scenario, you lose your house, instruments, guinea-pig etc. Whichever status you opt for, it is vitally important that the members’ roles are well defined. A small link on how to do it quickly and efficiently www.companiesmadesimple.com > Partnerships Not many people know that under British law, even if nothing has been signed, when a band is formed, it falls automatically under the ‘’Partnership Act’’ (1870) (www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/Vict/53-54/39/ contents). In fact, whenever several individuals group together in a ‘’business’’ context, the law considers that an association has been created. > The Partnership Law The laws governing associations/societies can have heavy consequences on the organisation and dynamics of the group. Unless specified, the law states that responsibility and assets are shared equally amongst the members. And that the partnership is dissolved as soon as one member decides to quit! Imagine the nightmare in the case of a successful working band;

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everything that went on before is divided into equal parts, the name cut into quarters. Following is a wee list of things that should be borne in mind and put down on paper before setting up a partnership: protect the band name, diligently define the owners of the kit used by the band, define allocation of profits and losses, define potential salaries, reflect on ‘get-out’ options for members wishing to leave and options for new members coming in, the ‘voting power’ of each member, conditions for expelling a member (like the guitarist who thinks he’s Angus Young and won’t be told otherwise) without dissolving the partnership, distribution

of royalties, and finally, a clause on how to resolve an internal conflict of interest when the opposing parties have the same number of votes. Even cases where a member quits on good terms, leaving the rest of the band to carry on using the same name – as with Roger Waters and Pink Floyd – are not without their complications. All subsequent contracts obviously exclude the guy who quit, but if this person has previously signed recording contracts, for example, he still has certain obligations to fulfil for the future of the band....Gosh!

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THE BUDGET
Setting up an internal accounting system: Excel, my love!
We have all experienced the pure joy of keeping regular accounts. Unless you’re lucky enough to have an expert accountant or a friendly tax inspector at your beck and call you just have to hitch up your pants and grab the bull by the horns. Good book-keeping is essential for the sustainability of a project. Start by differentiating the various sources of income generated by the band: CD sales, merchandising sales, gig remuneration, PA hire etc etc. Then open an Excel file and pull your hair out slowly whilst creating your calculation formulae – not very complicated in itself... once you know how – and enter the band’s income and expenses on a regular basis. Apart from maintaining clear accounts for eventual frisking by the tax office and other officials of Officialdom, this boring but simple action allows you to monitor the number of CDs sold, the money generated through merch sales etc, to manage your expenses, gig payments and, of course, peripheral costs like your singer’s speech therapist fees, for example. Establishing yearly provisional budgets and balance sheets not only helps to navigate these troubled waters, but also provides all of you with a clear and precise picture of the financial health of the band. Managing your budget In our post-crisis, damaged economic sector, there is one golden rule: make your money work for you. An example could be that money earned through CD sales is re-invested back into recording and copying new material, whilst money from merchandising goes on re-stocking of posters and T-shirts and the like. Cash earned through gigging could go primarily on reimbursing travel expenses incurred by each band member, paying yourselves (including the sound tech, manager etc.) and anything left over goes into the “rainy-day” box, which is effectively your insurance for the inevitable moment when the engine dies in your Ratmobile in the middle of a tour. The petty-cash tin is always a salvation for thirsty moments, or for matey down the road who will re-tweak your saxophone for a fiver (if only!). Identifying your investment priorities (van, sound, merch) ABefore investing in a vehicle, calculate the risk and pay-back time. Most band vehicles especially the first one - will be a second-hand Transit-type thing with 150,000 miles on the clock, costing £1500-odd quid. If you calculate the initial cost, insurance, road tax, maintenance and everything that can go wrong, you are looking at 9-10 pub gigs to pay it off, and 20-30 per year for it to become profitable. As soon as you start making money, become professionals or “intermittents du spectacle”, or that you don’t need to bring your own PA

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anymore, it would make more sense to hire or hire-purchase a vehicle. Armed with a few dates in your pocket, it is always worth shopping around and negotiating the price with the rental/ leasing rep. need a hand financing your project Getting anywhere by yourself, like a grown-up, is great, but getting there with a helping hand is even better! There are numerous sources of financial aid from both the public and private sectors. But who? And why? Before heading out on the hunt, save yourself a lot of time by clearly defining the needs and qualities of your project. Obviously, a young, emergent band does not want to be jockeying for the same money as a professional artist with several years of music and albums behind him. If you’re ‘’young’’, say 25 years old or less (meaning, with acne-covered faces and a taste for apple-vodka) and in France, your first public ports of call are: Your local mairie (if you live in the middle of nowhere, you can turn to the closest town, as long as one of your band members live there) The conseil général (some French “departments” allocate funds to amateur music projects) Your DDCS direction départementale de la cohésion sociale(through programs such as «envie d’agir» www.enviedagir.jeunes.gouv.fr/le-programmeenvie-d-agir.html) If your band already has several hundred hours on the counter, and your petty cash tin is already brimming with the spoils of war (declared!!), you can turn to a civil structure for financing. It’s a known fact; the higher the sum you want to apply

for, the fatter your bank account must appear. But make sure you have the necessary talent for rigorous administrative management… Financial hand-outs are often a supplement as part of a tour budget, for example, or a recording, or an album launch, rarely are they a blank cheque...(‘’Go for it boys, let me know when you get back!’’). Also, the bigger the hand-out, the more the sponsors need to be convinced of the longevity and legacy of the project (all musicians, technicians and participants must be declared). Logical stuff. Concerning private sector sponsorship, this is down to you and only you! It’s about showing your face and who you know; whether you dare dressing up in a banana suit and doing the tour of your local businesses, contacting the media, making appeals, busking outside business lobbies, chatting up the staff etc. It’s a ‘how long is a piece of string’ scenario and, consequently, extremely difficult to quantify and typecast. For France, visit the site www.monprojetmusique.fr where most of these schemes are describedAll these programs are recognised and solicited by the professional music sector. Give it a go, you’ve got nothing to lose! These funds are there for you, don’t let them pass you by. A practical example Let’s take, for example, a band of five musicians (already a disadvantage), looking to obtain their intermittence licence (Wow! Did I hear that right?), they have a self-produced first album which is distributed locally and sold at concerts. Taking on the roles of producer and publisher, they are in the process of recording their second album and decide to put their all into promoting it.

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COSTS (€)
Transport van insurance van maintenance diesel tolls public transport Sub-total Promotion publicity space press officer posters, stickers, badges sweatshirts, t-shirts Sub-total Booking promo leaflet postage telephone promo CD Sub-total Disc recording kit hire CD printing mastering SDRM graphic designer Sub-total Personnel musicians pay social charges accountant bank charges Sub-total meals accommodation Sub-total GRAND TOTAL 10 500 9 980 730 235 21 445 650 1 100 1 750 42 227 1 250 730 300 800 750 3 830 450 850 790 480 2 570 2 200 1 500 850 7 50 5 300 Amount 783 344 4 750 1 100 335 7 332

INCOME (€)
Performances pubs and bars (cash) ales contracts Sub-total CD sales Sub-total Merchandising badges posters sweat et tee-shirts Sub-total Hatting/donations Sub-total Grants Arts council Regional council Local cultural council ADAMI Sub-total Sponsors privés Street Mix Beer n Blues Sub-total 500 beer sold (300 in kind) 850 300 1 500 2 000 2 700 6 500 225 385 1 100 1 710 873 873 Amount 5 100 24 850 29 950 9 375 9 375

TOTAL GLOBAL

49 258

THEIR SPOILS OF WAR: €7031 – enough to assure the replenishment of CD stocks, merchandising

and bit of spare cash.

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To achieve their goals, our gallant five must strive to augment the value of their contracts by about 60% and maintain sales of CDs and merch at concerts. Hence the need for an independent professional tour organiser – a rare species, but not yet extinct – and to start getting serious. Now begins the work. Before the band can be introduced into the small festival circuit (between 1000 & 5000 people) they must be able to attract a sizable audience at each and every concert they perform; only then can they hope to represent an interesting

prospect for a tour organiser worth their salt. In France, then, a band harbouring ambitions to make a living from their music but that’s still struggling to maintain a faithful fan-base (we’re talking fans that are willing to pay €10 - €15 per live performance) will, generally, have reached its limitations within a 4-year period. If, with a second album, the results are still sluggish, with no hard-hitting singles going viral, there is a big chance that the band has reached the culmination point of short career.

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ON THE ROAD AGAIN!
Initiation gigs
Open mics Open mics (or open stages) are simply the very first starting block of the beginning of everything. For any budding musician open mics in cafés concerts or pubs and bars offer an excellent opportunity for testing your first arrangements in front of a real audience. Here is also the perfect opportunity for composer-performers working alone to present their work to other musicians and potential band members; what better way to meet other musos than over a good pint and a groovy jam? Importantly, open mics/scenes ouvertes exist for anyone experiencing urges to launch themselves into music and performance, whether you write your own material or not. If you’re keen visit this site openmicfinder.co.uk Battle of the Bands Participate in a maximum of these sorts of competitions. Battle of the bands usually have a local panel of judges often from musical or cultural backgrounds, you enter and are encouraged to bring as many people as possible as this helps fill up the pub/venue. There may be a cash prize or other incentive i.e.: recording time in a studio or such like. Then you will be marked according to professionalism, musical ability, crowd response, stage presence and other similar categories. Battle of the Band-type competitions, offer new bands the opportunity to play in front of a fairsize public, in a local and friendly atmosphere, perfect for finding your stage-legs. If your show has the required artistic impact, offers for support gigs should not be far behind. In France more often than not it is the festivals which organise the Battle of the Bands challenges, providing them with a cheap opportunity to complete their programme with local talent that has been tried and tested in front of a public. Nine times out of ten, Battle of the Bands winners get to play early on in the festival proceedings when there is generally not a huge audience, but at least they get to play at prestigious festivals, and it provides a buzz for the fans. Festivals and offs Festival slots are difficult to get in Cornwall especially the big ones like Boardmasters, and others in the UK, you need to find out who does the band bookings and get in touch with them, it may be best to have a representative do this instead of direct band contact as it looks more professional that you have someone acting on your behalf. Ale festivals in Cornwall are perhaps easier if your music is what they are looking for, generally celtic rock, blues and acoustic works at these events, down to the average age of the ale drinkers. Broadly speaking, metal bands and pop bands don’t tend to fit the bill for these occasions. There are 100’s of festivals throughout the year, large and small, so get your demo out there, you never know. If you’re finding it difficult to get a slot in the festivals themselves, don’t despair, try to find a way in through the back door - the “offs”.

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Identify the bigger festivals that correspond to your band’s style and see what is going on around in the locality. Often you can find wiley, local publicans ready to take advantage of the enormous numbers of potential punters, and a more tolerant attitude of the authorities for festival week(end), to put on small concerts of their own. Playing in these conditions allows you to present your music to an audience sensitive to your musical identity, and, okay, you may not be paid very much, but the potential for CD sales and merch is big. Big festies attracts a lot of programmers looking for the perfect headline; it’s a good way to make yourself known, seduce an audience and sign up for future gigs. Aim for the small venues close-by to the main festy, not ten miles away in the middle of the pampas. That’s when Google Maps come in handy, unless you can get in your car and go have a look for yourself Try to speak with bands that have already done the “offs”, it may save re-creating the wheel. The objective is to surprise the public with a memorable, classy show, so make sure you go with a good PA system, have fun and do your best! Even if you end up in the back of the van, or the local campsite for the night. Support bands Bagging an offer to play as a support act for a renowned band with a similar style and public is the holy grail for an up-and-coming band and can trigger all sorts of future-changing opportunities. It’s an ‘open sesame’ moment – sadly, all too rare - that can speed up a band’s development by years.It’s worth noting that many tour organisers are now imposing support acts upon programmers. These budding performers represent the booker’s ‘nursery’,

his investment, and, understandably, he wants to exploit the fan-base of his headline acts for the exposure of his lesser known bands. We’ll see that in the UK, even as a support band, you often need to ‘pay to play’ at a big event (a habit that’s come from the US). In France, the decline of state subventions implies that more and more festivals try to become financially independent. In the next decade, this is only gonna get worse… les cafés-concerts In France, times are hard for the smaller venues like the cafés concerts. In order to pay out €300 for a band, a patron must sell nearly 200 beers at €2 each just to break even. (This does not include SACEM fees and staff costs). If we take an average beer consumption of, say, 2 beers per person, a publican would have to attract 100 people for the evening to avoid losing money. Of course, many patrons are passionate about music, and if they themselves are popular, their venue sufficiently renowned and has an appropriate capacity, they will regularly put on live events for the pleasure of their ‘regulars’ as long as they are relatively sure not lose too much money. There will always be the patron who will try and make a quick buck off the backs of young bands, but at least they’re easy to spot. When negotiating with this breed, never declare a fixed price, give a ‘’...between 200 and 400, depending on the mileage, and capacity of the venue...’’ sort of answer. If nobody turns up on the night, you are not in a strong position to negotiate, so allow the patron to cut the pie in two. You can always throw into the equation the fact that you provided the PA, supplied posters and even provided some marketing for his bar.

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A successful café concerts to which you, as a popular band, are able to attract a large audience should be able to pay €600 per performance. The Pubs The UK pub scene is on the whole slightly more favourable for local bands. The Brits have always had a strong culture for going out and drinking pints down the boozer with their mates as opposed to getting together for a private bash at home. Basically, the Brits go out more (and so do the women!). Come Thursday night, the day’s work done, many well-placed pubs are packed with consumers of large quantities of beer, Friday and Saturday night the same. A bit of an exaggeration maybe, but the British pub definitely remains an institution, an intimate meeting place for all ages – except, possibly, little kids - and wherever there’s a drinking public, live music is not far behind. Bands can hope for between £80 and £300, depending on the popularity of the pub and the band and the number of musicians. You will rarely be asked for an invoice. If your band goes down well on the first gig you may be playing the same pub 4 or 5 times a year! BUT - and there is a big but in amongst all this optimism - publicans tend to play safe, and display a fairly narrow vision of what a pub band should sound like. In the more rural areas, If you’re not folk, rock or acoustic you may find it pretty hard to get a date. Opinions on style will obviously vary from region to region and with demographics, but it’s still not easy for the emerging indie band, even the professionals, who are exploring ‘’original’’ sounds, loudly. Pub owners know their business and their clientele,

and often prefer to play safe, carefully avoiding any bands that may ‘’blow your mind’’. Shame! london, Paris, the same struggle: Pay-to-play You’ve probably already heard of the concept? And, yes! It’s all true! If you have already come across a pay-to-play proposition, it’s probably because you’ve started contacting cafés concerts in Paris or pubs in London, where, sadly, over the past few years, this has become the norm. And it’s catching on! Nowadays, pay-toplay is becoming the choice contract of venues throughout the land, not just in capitals. “So?”, I hear you say, “what’s so wrong about that?”. Well the answer is simple, large towns and cities by default have a higher concentration of musical talent, but add to that the huge number of wanna-be musos that are attracted by the city-lights and the streets paved with...., uh.... chewing gum. Tens of thousands of excellent or not - musicians! But the number of venues in these ultra urban settings, they don’t multiply (unlike the frustrations of many a young star). Let it be known, though, that the leasehold alone on a small bar in Paris comes in at a hefty €150,000 minimum, plus a monthly rent of €1200. In London around £140,000 and £2000/ month. You don’t have to be called Einstein to work out the colossal numbers of pints that have to be pulled before the publican can even pay himself. Result? The legions of willing musos added to the incredible financial pressure faced by the leaseholders have culminated in today’s reality where small areas of real estate, called

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the stage, are rented out to bands that wish to perform in public. And beware, this type of deal can come in disguise. In Paris and the bigger towns in the UK, you may not be asked to pay cash up-front, but rather pre-sell a number of entry tickets to your fans, sometimes up to 60 or more! Thus guaranteeing a keen clientele for the performance and a nice windfall of cash in advance for the venue owner. What’s more, any ticket you don’t manage to sell, you’ve guessed it, you have to pay for. London venues generally don’t beat about the bush and ask for a straight £200 minimum to access their stage program. It’s worth mentioning here the commonplace strategy of paying bands relative to the number of people they “pull in”. A venue employee is stationed at the door and instructed to ask everyone coming in which band they have come to see. At the end of the evening the ticks are counted up and the bands payed accordingly. Hardly the ideal conditions for promoting the concept of mutual support and assistance between bands. After Gig Parties A relatively new concept, predominantly in the UK, where we are seeing more and more promoters placing their bands on small stages in the cosy confines of private parties after the performances of big, well-known bands. Is this the big boys giving the little ones a helping hand with exposure? Let’s hope so! Accessing the concert hall circuit SOLUTION NO.1: GET YOUR SELF RECOGNISED AND PARTICIPATE In France concert halls are almost exclusively

publicly funded and operate on a totally transparent basis. It is therefore possible to integrate with the organisation, attend the AGMs, help out with concerts, get your voice heard and, who knows, one day become one of the decision makers. The benefits are two-fold: a, you get to know how the structure functions, and b, you get to meet and know all the local culture bods who could open up whole vistas of opportunity for you and your band. However, make sure your request (support band, advice, pre-production) coincides with the mission of this big, subsidised organisations. SOLUTION NO. 2: AUTO-PRODUCE YOUR CONCERT The other possibility, though maybe not the most economical, is to hire the hall with the personnel and do it yourself. A hall with a capacity of 300400 would cost between £400 and £1000 to hire, including the sound techs, lighting and a minimum of security. If you want catering and publicity we rapidly get up to £1500 - £2000, so at least 300 people at £5 entry to break even. If you bring 1 or 2 bands in to the project, this is by no means a pipe-dream! Add a bar to the equation, and you may even make some dollars. SOLUTION NO. 3: BE THE NEXT AS-YET UNIDENTIFIED MEGA ACT Okay, you either are or you’re not, you can’t buy it and you can’t pretend it, only the public can decide if your project is destined for greater things. You are extremely gifted, your superhot sister has agreed to be your playback singer, you’re funny, trendy and popular, everybody wants to meet you… congrats, you belong to this category. If none of this applies to you, you can

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still push flight cases around and join the great family of the unknown artists. SOLUTION NO. 4: BE A GOOD MATE OF THE MANAGER OR PROGRAMMER. Your mother is a politician, your brother editor of the NME or you are simply a super-cool dude with a massive musical and cultural background. Except that, if this were the case, you wouldn’t be reading these lines.... Playing abroad Hands up if you’ve never sat with your band at 3 in the morning, a good after-gig bevy in your hand and dreamed of playing in more exotic environs? Solutions do exist, but first, for the Frenchies, understand that your country still fosters the old dream of being the cultural beacon that it was in the 18th century and whilst the world was irreversibly and profoundly changing, France’s political stance towards all things cultural has stayed firmly entrenched in her Colonial past. And it’s within this context that certain networks have evolved: The French Alliances: primarily in place to serve and preserve the French language and to promote cultural diversity via some 968 cultural centres and institutions worldwide, these organisations program uniquely francophone performances year-round. If you speak the language of Molière and wish to globetrot, if your project is ripe and ready artistically speaking, even if you are self-produced and completely independent, then GO FOR IT! However, crisis management strategies and rampant travel costs underlined by diminishing public funds, mean the smaller

line-ups of two or three musicians are far more likely to be accepted www.alliancefr.org/ The Export Bureau: financed by public authorities and the Sociétés Civiles de Producteurs Phonographiques (SCPP/ SPPF), the Export Bureau is there to promote the French music industry at an international level. These circuits are open for all styles of music but only if the musicians are already being mentored by professionals of the sector. Basically, if you wish to infiltrate this small world, you must consider launching a label and beg and borrow the blessings and recognition of all the industry’s professionals. It’s a titanic task that demands loads of time and a raft of skills. The only other way in is to sign with a big label. www.french-music.org/bureau-export.html The Alternative Circuit: digital technology makes for quick and easy contact-making with other music heads all over the planet. The objective being to spread the word of your band, expose your music to other, new audiences, whilst you eat local and hope to pay get your petrol paid. In this case there is rarely any pay for your performance, no 3-star hotels and no concerts with 2000 people out front. This will be more like 40 winks on a dubious sofa snuggled up to the slobbering dog belonging to the mate-of-the-guy-that-organises-the-gigsin-the-tiny-village-of-south-east-Chechnyawhich-isn’t-even-on-the-map. This option is primarily about free travel. It is above all an incomparable experience for band bonding and will doubtless arm you with volumes of unforgettable tales for regurgitation around the fire of a winter’s evening.

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LOOKING FOR DATES
ColD-CAllInG: how does it work? This must be one of the biggest and most ungracious of jobs you (or better still - your manager) will have to do in order to find gigs.... cold-calling. Let’s be honest: you’ll need to be a bit of sales rep to do this. Never forget that pub owners get at least twenty call like yours every day. The idea is that the guy clicks on your link or listen to your demo before it ends in the bin. There are no two ways about it. Phone the venue, ask who books the bands, get a contact and then only deal with them, otherwise you can end up wasting your time. Tell them who you are and what you do. They will usually ask you to send them something via email, links to your music, a video, a website address. Make sure you send your number so they may get back to you, if they haven’t in a few days, ring again and gently ask if they have had a chance to listen and look, and would they like to book you. Of course your demo may at this stage be at the bottom of the bin. If not, they might ask how much are you looking for so suggest what you normally get paid and move on from there, be realistic if they have never heard of you and you are not yet a crowd-puller it will be less than you are used to getting. Why not offer to support a good local band, an option that reduces financial risk, while you get to be exposed to the other band’s audience. Remember these 6 little tips when cold-calling

1 2 3 4 5 6

Never be in the position where you’re asking for something on your first call Always show interest in the person on the other end of the phone Avoid ringing at busy times (never call programmers in the morning, or patrons de bistrots at aperitif time) Never be the first to talk about money If possible offer your help (pass on a tit-bit of info, offer some help with the PA, publicity etc.) Scrupulously apply rules 1 & 2 to open the barriers put in place by your interlocutor.

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Showing interest in our fellow humans should be second nature. Not focusing on your own belly-button, but looking outwards and upwards whilst conversing with one of your own flesh and blood, who also has his fair share of joys and shit, is what we’re talking about here. So, take the time to prepare your call; get on line and check out the forth-coming program, learn about the cultural objectives of the place, the history, the drawbacks etc. In brief, know your subject to better apply rules 2 & 5. example of a cold-call to a ‘patron de bar’ - Hi, my name’s Bob, of the Bashibazouk Trio... A friend of mine, who plays for the Plucked Dead recently played at your bar, apparently, it was an excellent evening. I’m calling to see whether you’re still putting on bands? Here the guy on the other end says ‘yes’, or hangs up on you. In France, many events are organised without an entrepreneur de spectacle licence and people may be suspicious of trap calls by authorities like the SACEM. Put the person at ease with a relaxed and cool attitude, and by citing the name of the guitarist of the band that recently played etc. If the reply to your last question is ‘yes, we still do concerts’, then you are being offered an opening. - Excellent! They don’t give you too much grief about noise levels? (rule no.2) This is where you keep your ears open: if you’re genuinely interested, the guy will now tell all there is to know about his surroundings, acoustic constraints, type of clientele, the bands that have already performed, relations with local

authorities, the sort of performance they’re after. - So, talking music...what do you like listening to? (rule no.2) Without necessarily knowing, he will now let you know whether your band has a chance of playing his stage or not. You also know his musical tastes – talking music between enthusiasts goes a long way to opening barriers. And it may be the only thing you have in common. Eventually, he will ask what instrument you play, what style of music you do. Above all, don’t give too much away, apply rule no.2 again to get back onto the job of probing his knowledge of local cultural contacts. - Do you know any other local organisations or pubs that organise concerts? Here you note down everything he says. And if you live within a 30 mile radius you get down there and meet these people. A good meet up and chat around a glass or two is worth a hundred phone calls. Also, the fact that you’ve made the effort to check out his place speaks volumes. - Brilliant! It was really nice to chat with you. When are you behind your bar? We’ll pop by and have a couple of beers, and maybe we could leave you with our wee demo. We’d love to hear what you think about our music... Here you are recognising the music-lover/music expert in him. This may flatter certain egos, but the true aim of this manoeuvre really is to gain an outside opinion from someone in the live music game, as opposed to the same old views of your bunch of mates who always love what you do (even if you play like total wardrobes).

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Cold-calling festival organisers Rule no.2 again: Ask how things are going, audience numbers for the recent program, number of voluntary workers, the quality of the concerts and the weather. Apply rule no.5: propose your services as a volunteer. Accessing a festival program (especially if your group is not yet a crowd-puller), can also be realised from the inside, and many large festivals host discovery stages, dedicated to exposing friends’ and volunteers’ bands. Let’s be clear, big festies rely on armies of un-paid help. If these volunteers were to be paid, the festy would fold instantly. By offering jobs, even un-paid ones, at events that enable you to expand your network and make contacts in the field that you could never dream of making stuffed up in your studio, festival organisers are able to keeping the workforce loyal. Cultural organisations and SMACs (salle musiques actuelles conventionnées) These are entirely different networks using an entirely different set of codes. They are government funded and are very institutionalised in France. Simply, if you are not already recognised and your group is not already sponsored by one of these structures, prepare yourself for a mighty uphill struggle. There’s one way into this network: get your pernicious pitbull terrier head on (or worse), pick up the phone and do your best to bypass the receptionist not easy -, if you are incredibly inventive and an accomplished orator you might just get through to the right person.

Before getting into this mind-game, ask yourself: Is it really worth it? Is it the right moment to present your project to these people? If your music is not already creating a buzz through word of mouth, spare yourself the hassle, your artistic presentation is not yet ripe, doesn’t appeal to a large audience or simply doesn’t ‘do it’ for the programmer. The higher echelons of the music industry is packed with egos; most programmers will not look at you unless they are sure that making your acquaintance will boost their image and reputation. It’s the same human trait that impels us share a video on Facebook – ‘look how cool I am, I discovered it first!’. (We invite all festival programmers, record labels, SMACS and cultural institutions to make a financial donation to the Tomahawk Collective in recognition of the number of (wo)man-hours our above paragraph will save their receptionists). www.la-fedurok.org Managing your data-base Brush up on your Excel skills for this inevitable and on-going part of your band’s development. As your networks form and enlarge you will soon be mixing up names and places - you are a musician, not an accountant, so starting a database, although not complicated, is important. Get down: >names of venues, festivals, concert halls etc >the contact details: names, addresses, phone numbers, emails >note down all contact you have had with them >their preferred style of music

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STRUCTURE SITE TYPE STYLE MAIL ADDRESS TOWN POST CODE COMMENTS SENT PACk FOLLOW UP / TO DO.

Titi twister Sew Machine www.titi.com Festival Electro Sex@titi.org 49, Wotsit ave Death Valley DV 666 Tel 24th Jan. Glacial reception, became bit nicer later on No Phone again for halloween, send presentation

The Hairy Pony www.hairypony.co.uk Concert hall Rock hponey@clipclop.net 12-13, Nestles Rd Bristol BS 1 4BH Tel 13th Jan Great contact. Will listen to demo, already keen Yes Ring on next eclipse

The Hole www.thehole.com bar Rock/blues thehole@deepdeep.eu 19, Stroud Rd London WE1 Tel 26th Jan. Party heads, OK for 17th Feb. €500 + food and booze Yes (1 pack 26th jan) Send 80 posters + tech and stage plan.

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CONTACTING EVENT PROGRAMMERS
Woah! That’s the big issue when you’re a self-produced band with no lifeline to the pros… You’re all on your own? You don’t have the contacts? You’re a real indie band? Then read this! The Golden rule: surest means of getting doors closed in your face – often definitively! As soon as your band is starting to make waves locally, be sure that the programmers are the first to know about it, and that they get along in person to your next gig. Remember, the programmers ‘soft spot’ is that none of them can run the risk of missing the opportunity of being the first to discover and expose a promising new act. Think about this when you choose your manager: he/she will need to be a good diplomat, knowing when to insist, when to shut up and when to make a move. If your project is credible and you already have a small following, the local programmers will recognise your potential, at least as a support band, for their halls and festivals. They may have their musical tastes, but economic pressure remains a major factor in the live music sector...it’s the calculator that decides. Which type of programs to aim for? This is important as not all programs will necessarily suit your style. Knowing the difference between types of event could save a lot of time-wasting: Public programs (open-air free concerts organised by community groups in conjunction with municipalities) Targeted programs (style-specific events, concert halls and festivals) Commercial programs huge audience with national and international headline performances, variety) Discovery programs (often marginal and non profit-making, privately organised events, pubs, bars, cafés, battle of the bands etc.) What type of programmer do you want to approach? A programmer’s objectives vary hugely depending on the type of structure he/she works with. Compiling the band list for Glastonbury or Hellfest is diametrically opposed to programming for an ‘underground’ dive in the middle of Liverpool, for example. Huge events : involve huge budgets, and it’s the programmer’s job to guarantee a maximum of ticket sales by booking nationally and internationally renowned headline bands. This is not without its problems, however. In order to guarantee a profit, big-event programmers are more or less forced into booking the same old artists and/or styles, in the interest of risklimitation. Small music halls (up to 300 people), and small festivals (up to 3000 people), have a considerably smaller budget to play with, meaning that programmers are obliged to work with the big names as well as the up-and-coming bands - like you, maybe(?)

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Clubs and pubs are often programmed by passionate music junkies, their objective being to build a faithful clientele by presenting regular hot live acts. A final word on programmers. One of the rarest species of programmer - who may be found lurking in any of the structures described above - is the guy who eats, sleeps and breathes music, and forever has done. The one who could tell you the colour of Jim Morrison’s pants in Madison Square Garden in ‘69. He/She, if convinced of the potential of your band, would stick out the neck to give you a break, even if you are unknown and your concert only brings in 10 threadbare grungies. First contact with a programmer Firstly, bear in mind that these guys receive 1 or several albums, 100’s of emails and 10’s of phone calls every day. So, with the best will in the world, they cannot, and do not, reply to each and every appeal for recognition. They will have a filter system for separating the sheep from the goats based on simple criteria: Artistic presentation.Of course the first hurdle is whether your style and colour correspond to the programmers musical tastes, or those of the clientele. If you are a folk band, don’t waste your time and money sending your demo to an indie-Rock festival programmer. Reliability. Can you be depended upon to honour your commitments? Is it certain the band will not split up between the time of programming and the performance date? Here, once again, we can appreciate the importance of your communication package,

your legal structure, your graphics, image, website etc. All these add credibility and professional standing to your proposition. Getting noticed One way is to get your face known amongst the programmers of the big festivals (Glastonbury, Transmusical, Francophilies, Eurockéennes ….). For this you don’t need any media back-up, just time and patience. And once you have played any one of these big events doors will open. Here again, a good manager and your relationships with other already recognised bands can go a long way towards boosting your chances. However, do not lose heart if you are snubbed by the biggies, there are hundreds of ways to get to perform in front of a large audience - festival “offs”, pubs, bars, cafés, local media events, competitions etc.. With our minds so full, there is one thing we musicians have a tendency to forget: the public has the last word! The public, and the public alone, will decide a band’s future! Hints and tips Get visual. The big priority is to get your-self on film playing to an audience. Cheap and easy to do, a good quality video clip of your band up on stage in front of a gyrating audience speaks volumes to a programmer. Without a vid, your chances of getting through the first filter process are greatly reduced. www.dailymotion.com/video/xcjcbd_mac-abbeet-le-zombi-orchestra-votr_music How to transmit your project? > Email. Make sure the programmer gets a maximum of information, make his life easy: how many band members, who does what, gig

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dates past and present, band graphics, colours and musical influences, references, and above all links to a video of you playing live and your website. > Sending albums. Receiving a ‘physical’ album by post still has a positive impact on programmers; the CD is an excellent marketing tool, especially if the graphics are good. Fewer and fewer groups are using this method, preferring to wing off an mp3 version of your numbers. Invitation. Make the most of your ‘’good’’ gigs by inviting a programmer or two to come along, backstage access if you’re playing support act (mingling with the pros may well be a deciding factor), free bar if it’s one of your own promotional events. In short, think strategy. Website. Establish an intelligent and unintrusive, concise web communication: share all the news of your band, the key stages of your development; you don’t have to fill programmers’ inboxes with crap announcements about the Battle of the bands you played at Tinyholeton, for example. The faithful newsletter is still an efficient method of presenting your summer tour or an imminent event. Getting cosy. Try to personalise the relationship. The more you have in common with a programmer, musical tastes, a common vision of the milieu, for example, the more he/she will be inclined to discover your own universe or to return your call. A classic example of success via the stage circuit For the huge majority of bands the escalator to success is more often than not ‘out of order’, so learn patience and be prepared to use the stairs... step by step.

The premise: the first demo. At the birth of your band each member goes through a sort of test of self-denial to get the project going. As soon as your band begins to mature artistically start recording a good quality demo. There are hundreds of associative studios which offer a top service at a fair price, but take the time to prepare for this landmark step, record your rehearsals and get feedback from your mates, rehearse to a metronome... One thing’s for sure, the better prepared you are when you go into the recording studio, the more your studio time is optimised and the further your money goes. Consider hard before putting out recordings on the web, or sending out demos. A negative image is difficult to shake off. Play, play and play some more t’s no secret, there’s nothing better than playing live for improving your bands cohesion. Play as much as you can, play for free, competitions, charity events, little venues and small festivals, all these add to your experience and give you vital regional exposure. Then, play some more! After a time the pub gigs start to kick in (paid between £0,00 and £300), you could buy your first gig bus (£1500?), a small PA (£1000?), posters and stickers (£600), 1000 copies of your first album – (£1200?). So we’re looking at 3-5 grand to finance all that, or, put another way, 30-odd pub gigs (if everyone is happy about not being paid for the first year). A sustained rhythm of input is challenging for everybody and a hearty challenge to the band members’ commitment and motivation. Now’s the time to decide on your legal structure (see above), open a bank account, approach the DRAC (if you’re in France - direction régionale des affaires culturelles) for your licence d’entre-

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preneur de spectacles. You can download and fill in the necessary forms from the Tomahawk newsgroup. IMPORTANT : Registering with the SACEM (authors rights), the SPEDIDAM and ADAMI (interpreters rights) is advisable once your CD is printed to enable you to recuperate a percentage of the dues paid to the SDRM (société des droits de reproduction mécaniques). Don’t forget, this is your money! Sharing stages with other bands in your region is an excellent way of sharing resources and fans – united we stand! It’s also important to pass-on good dates to other bands in your network, if everyone plays by the rules, everyone’s a winner. If, at this stage, you have a small but faithful following you’re obviously on the right track. Now it’s about knitting together a network of solid partners and looking at available grants

(for creation/diffusion of music, “Envie d’agir” scheme, civil structures). Chasing subventions costs nothing but time, and may put some cash in your pocket. Receiving the thumbs-up from key people in the live music sector is bliss for sure, your confidence takes a boost and you may rapidly find yourselves programmed to play in front of eager masses. However, the helping-hand stops there. It’s not a horde of programmers that you need to convince, but the 100s of people out front to whom you will be playing in your first years of existence. Once again, it’s always the public that have the last word. A well-crafted documentary www.dailymotion.com/video/x4jm94_teaser-laroute-est-longue_shortfilms

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ALTERNATIVE CIRCUITS FOR DIFFUSING
The FREE PARTY movement A ‘free’, or Temporary Autonomous Zone (TAZ), is - contrary to popular belief - a assemblage of people wishing to live a unique experience with one another, rich with respect and exchange. The first lesson you learn on arriving at a TAZ is that they exist to fulfil a desire. You see how the ravers exchange and you understand the true spirit that reigns at these events. The people you meet will explain how they wish to remain on the margins of society, and that is why they are so little understood, and why there’re no books or mags describing the planet ‘free’. Here are a few crumbs of info, then you’re on your own! Launching into the Free circuits, you will need, of course, a minimum amount of basic kit. You can buy it new and head on out there, or gravitate towards established sound systems with a packet of experience under the belt and maybe some kit for sale, or at least they’d know where to go, not to mention all the knowledge and experience you could glean from them. 5KW of sound is a good place to start. You don’ need 3 tonnes. A small system well tweaked and adjusted, is all you’ll need! WOW! Artistically, there are shed-loads of grooves exploited by free-ers: trance, dub-step, drum n bass, jungle, tribe, hardteck, hardcore, gabber, and on and on... It’s up to you to find your groove and your sound. Now, about the authorities.... Always keep your calm, even when it seems the hardest thing to do. If you lose your cool you lose your credibility. Take the time to familiarise yourself with the authorities, make yourself known and show them how dependable and decent you are. The best way to gain credibility is a night passed without the intervention of the police or fire brigade. One of the easiest ways to assure a pleasant evening for all, is simply to take regular walkabouts of the parking area; check out who’s there and judge the atmosphere (nearly always excellent, it has to be said!). If something or someone looks dodgy, nip it in the bud. On the organisation front, you could start up an association 1901 with a treasury and the right people to manage the paperwork. This simple act demonstrates that your free parties are based on something official, and makes life easier for organising events; finding sites, dry loos, dustbins etc and petty cash stash. Lastly, don’t forget: drugs are not a game! Music, yes! RAVE ON! www.dailymotion.com/video/x1kum2_reportagefree-party-itv-environnem_music Squats Illegally occupied buildings, both urban and rural, have long provided an independent, artisticallyoriented base for libertarian militants to get together and create. Typically the resulting musical style is punk or other ‘’extreme’’ music – as they say. These ephemeral centres of diffusion fill an indispensable gap for this type of music that is rarely – if not ever – programmed on conventional circuits. Operating on the same ideals as free parties, entry price is whatever the punter wants to pay, and the small amount of

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cash generated goes towards paying the bands’ expenses and the beer. The squat network is far-reaching, and once started down that road, an old but reliable transit will soon be a necessity for the Europewide tour. For the obvious reason that, by definition, squats exist only for a period of time, there is no database of addresses, contacts and the like. The only way in is by playing 2 or 3 squats in your locality, and take it from there. You will undoubtedly be oriented towards new squats in other regions (or countries). On the squat circuit, the more you perform the further afield you will be booked to play. Re-invent the concert formula Towards a more bespoke, ‘happening” approach The work involved in creating alternative concert circuits is monstrous. This said, there are ever more venues appearing that demonstrate a move away from the conventional concert hall procedure to live music diffusion. Improbable sites like early 20th century industrial buildings, Victorian glass-houses, arboretums etc., are all examples of ‘new’ cool venues which translocate the public out of the ordinary or add a touch of the ‘exotic’ to an event. Inventive interiors, furnishings and decor are designed to bring people together and encourage exchange, all ingredients for enticing a new public. It’s concepts like these that make people say, ‘’Ah! No! We missed it! Let us know when the next one is, will you?!’’ Producing music shows is a difficult work requiring a good dose of inventivity, organisation and networking.

www.lelama.fr www.soul-kitchen.fr/18026-video-concertarchive-un-happening-a-paris www.spi0n.com/une-rave-party-silencieuse/ Sensitising audiences by diffusing appropriate live music where it’s least expected A sure way of surprising and impressing a target audience. Where and at what time do large and varied crowds congregate? Some good ol’ R ‘n’ R on the beach in high summer, for example. A good old van, a bit of sound, a bit of permission and off you go …. rock ‘til you drop! www.youtube.com/watch?v=DBuSBszFyb8 An example: The Tomahawk Blitz IlIt is an internationally known fact that in Voltaire’s country of birth, for a ‘yes’ or a ‘no’ people are down in the street at the first suggestion of a demonstration: the environment, education, social justice, health, retirement, petrol prices, anything - the French are down there, banners, slogans and all. Result? The dream opportunity to get live bands in the public eye whilst providing free entertainment to 1000s of people all in the same place at the same time. The word sinecure comes to mind: no publicity, no comm, the audience is already there! The ‘’Blitzs’’ require relatively little technical support: a small trailer, 5 rostra/steel deck for a small stage, a small P.A. A 3kW generator and you’re ready to go. Quick and easy as well: you need 50 minutes set-up time, 45 minute set,

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30 minutes pull-down. A small team of hatpassers and the whole thing’s reimbursed. Humanitarian, ecological and social organisations and campaigns represent new frontiers where the struggle for cultural diversity may be played out. The majority of these institutions put on annual events, which may be animated by local unknown bands, - complete with stage and P.A. - purely for the enjoyment and interest of the public. optimising existing networks: contact bands and societies in your target region The spirit of the ‘’Blitz’’ and the potential for diffusion of live music provided by alternative events as described above, shows how, with little imagination, we can map the associative and cultural networks region by region. Making contact with local organisations (music-based or not) involved in these events, will probably get you a couple of smaller dates without spending hours on the phone. Even if they pay the petrol and not much else they will have served to pave the way to playing in front of a target audience, selling a bit of merch and spreading your name. Why not, while you’re about it, check out the new region’s structures involved in the more conventional means of diffusion. Busy venues are always looking for new acts, and if your style is what they’re looking for, and you’re convincing enough, you may even get to meet the bods. The big advantage of ‘alternative’ organisations is that it’s very easy to actually meet the most motivated people at the heart of the region-in-question’s cultural scene. People who, if they like you and your music, will pass on the word and activate their

networks for you. No better publicity than local word-of-mouth! Risky but inescapable, the publicity venue Successful private venues are built on huge amounts of talent, original thinking and a great deal of time and money. With profit margins the priority in all sectors, it’s only to be expected that the owner/ entrepreneur charges record labels and groups for their services rendered. From a typically anglo stance, the bigger the audiences and renown a venue can boast, the more it is recognised by bands and labels alike as a promotional milestone. The venue becomes a shop window for airing and publicising new talent to new audiences and industry professionals. Playing prestigious venues such as these gives a big dose of credibility to the carriers of budding artists, and consequently raises their price tag. In urban areas there is a huge imbalance between supply (the number of performers) and demand (venues); a major contributing factor to the world-wide standardisation of the music business (standardised programs and a tendency towards global privatisation of the sector). Example: festivals The majority of festivals in Anglo-saxon countries are held by private companies which demand an entrepreneurial mode of management to ensure a healthy future. With the financial crisis has come a sharp drop in availability of private sponsoring and subventions (for France) for cultural projects, and has given rise to a new approach of financial management, and the thankless task of finding new sources of funding.

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In the UK, if you’re looking to play as support band at an average-sized festy, say 3-5000 people, it’s not unheard of to have to pay around £1500. The festival will cover the cost of the lighting ramp, the generator, and the beer for thirsty musos etc. So it’s down to you, the band, to be sufficiently brilliant on stage that you sell a shed-load of merchandising and land a good contract to recuperate your investment. Back in the good old days, the big fish majors and record labels used festivals as an arena to present their foals and their catalogue new and veteran artists whilst boosting the sales of records of which they themselves were the publishers, producers and often distributors. With the crash in sales of the ‘physical’, tangible CD, and a tail-off in on-line buying, they find themselves today in the situation where they’re paying for the promotion of ‘their’ talent, with no guarantee of a return on their investment. The obvious up-shot is that the breaks have been applied, and bands today have to be even more convincing than before in order to find a backer. So what’s left for the labels? The only alternative is to negotiate huge sums for headline artists that bring in the ticket sales in exchange for emergent bands playing support act for free. The circle is closed: independent bands are generally excluded from the process and even a well-disposed label might not be able to afford

“selling” its bands to these events monopolised by Music Business professionals. emerging new circuits of music diffusion: an alternative for independent bands Consumer habits have changed beyond recognition with the digital age and live concerts are more and more in the clutches of the private sector. However, a small new ray of light is on the horizon, a growing number of autonomous farms and rural centres are finding imaginative ways of combining culture with their agriculture and artisanal activities. Contrary to conventional circuits, these marginal venues are blessed with the fact that by nature they are closely involved with the associative tissue of communities. They operate on a purely word-of-mouth basis which resonates outwards from a circle of friends like ripples on a pond. Concerts and cultural events are generally free, food and beer is cheap and locally produced and camping is often an option. These types of circuits are perfectly adapted for the diffusion of independent artists, they are private events on private land, organised with the primary purpose of uniting like-minded people, the concerts being a bonus. There are about 50 such venues in Brittany and, depending on their size and renown, bands regularly play to between 100 and 800 people, and are paid between €100 and €600 depending on the number of performers and the size of the public.

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THE DISC
All the official figures are provided by SNEP (Syndicat National des Producteurs Phongraphiques), and represent sales of majors within the French territory between 1995 and 2012 Do you need a disc? The big existential question of any group worth its name. Firstly, what are the factors orienting bands towards the recording studio and into debt to burn their music onto a piece of plastic? >Is it you, the artist’s, act of giving birth? (Hark! I hear the sickly/sweet celestial sound of violins from afar), is it your blossoming (ego), the spiritual finale of a collective (and sometimes alcohol-fuelled) work, the I-told-you-so to your partner for months of ‘’No, seriously, it’s hard graft. Rehearsals are work, work, work, I swear it!’’ > No, the disc maybe an obsolete object these days, but it still has legs in the hands of 30 - 60 year-olds (of which there are several billions). For this type of public, acquiring a CD after the concert displays a certain fetish tendency maybe, or simply a desire to take home a souvenir of an unforgettable evening. >It’s clear that the lowly, but real and tangible CD serves not only as a key to the locked and barred doors of the programmers but, at the same time, a calling card. A great number of programmers and music pros are in their 30s or 40s, the generation that lived through the golden-age of the CD. They are far more inclined to listen in total tranquillity to a CD in the car on the way back from work, than open spam-alert emails in their Outlook inbox filled with unknown bands’ demos. >Paradoxically, even today, a large number of big media structures will agree to promoting an artist only if the album is available for distribution on a physical support.

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EvOLuTION OF THE MuSIC MARkET
million € 1 800 € 1664

1 600 €

1 400 € 1302 1247 1 200 € 1112 1132 1 000 € 1049 1054 1135 1125 953 935,2 519,2 800 € 662 600 € 557 CD Numérique 538 466,3 400 € 412,6 359,3

200 € 30,7 43,5 50,8 61,7 60,5 88,1

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99

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Auto-production: how much does it cost? The CD has its critics and its fans, but we’re not going to enter into that diatribe here, where both sides have a whole bunch of legitimate arguments. Needless to say, it’s about finding the equilibrium between CD and digital, but even today, a strategy which uses one and ignores the other is almost certainly doomed to fail. Burning 1000 CDs costs around £1200. This includes: • glassmastering (burning CD audio, CD Rom, or CD extra) • CD burning with quadri offset colour printing • standard crystal CD with transparent support (black or white) • 4-page CD leaflet 4/4 or 4/1 (colour cover and colour/black and white interior) • dust-cover front 4/4 or 4/1 (colour front, back in colour or black and white) • creation and activation of a code-bar system (if necessary) • assemblage and packing • cellophane film • around €0.80 per album for SDRM/MCPS licence (rights of reproduction) The SDRM is the financial wing of the SACEM (which manages authors’ rights) in charge of levying a tax from the producer of each CD, that is re-distributed via the SACEM to the author,

composer and publisher. The company charged with burning and mechanical reproduction of the CD will then receive authorisation to launch production. In the UK, it’s the MCPS that levy the taxes and distribute the rights for mechanical reproduction, author’s rights falling under the auspices of the PRS. In reality, even if you subscribe to one or other separately, both organisations are grouped under the umbrella society the PRS for music (www.prsformusic. com/.../MCPSroyalties/.../MCPS). There is a MCPS membership fee of £50 for each author, and then there is a tax on the CDs produced. As in France, the tax varies depending on the number of copies produced and the RRP of the disc. To give an idea, for 1000 CDs sold at £10 in the shops, you will be asked to pay the humble sum of £850!! Conclusion. Today, it would be worth getting together with other bands in your locality and buying an automatic CD duplicator (around £1700 for a professional quality machine), so that you can all duplicate your own demos/albums in small runs. (In France €0.84 / CD with printed cardboard cover). Why invest in a duplicator? If you order fewer than 1000 copies, most companies will charge you €250 (Glassmaster), and you will have to sell a hell of a lot of CDs. With the duplicator, you can run off 50 copies as and when you need them, very handy in the early EP, album, mediocre demo or waves? This is a crucial decision which will undoubtedly have repercussions on the development of your

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band. The first question is: where is your band today, and what are its needs? SoMe InDICAToRS: An indication of your potential public (via subscriptions) Number of up-coming concerts for the year ahead The band’s petty cash situation Number of web downloads The dynamics of your social net-working strategy Once again, it all depends on your objectives. > For new bands: If you’re content to play the local bars and the odd party, then look no further than wave format on a CDR. With a little imagination there is always a way of DIYing a nice little demo - with a fabric or cardboard cover and a sticker as a label, home-made but hyper personalised, - which you can bang out at your concerts. And you only need small runs at a time – cheap! > For bands that have an established local following: If you’re already planning your summer tour, why not launch a subscription campaign to your fans for one of your as-yet un-released numbers. The response from your fans will provide an indication as to whether you should go for a big print run with a specialised company or just stick with your duplicator. 100 subscriptions at £8 and you’re there. > For bands that are getting around: If you are un-signed the number of subscriptions

is your base indicator which must be flashing green before you go for a massive run. For instance, if you have 400 CDs pre-ordered, Wow! Go for 1000 copies, no question. Around 300 will go out for promo, and you have 300 for selling at your up-coming gigs. With the money they bring in you finance the next run. You don’t have to be in the echelons of Vérolia to have noticed the dramatic drop in revenue generated by music during the 20 years between 1990 and 2010. (We had so much fun doing the wee graphic above, you better have a look at it). The massive changes brought about by webbased culture-consumerism, leads us to one conclusion: little by little, music is becoming a free commodity belonging to the World Wide Web – a global digital patrimony. There are no laws that are realistically enforceable and no reforms that can reverse this tendency. Today’s artists must live off, and by, stage performance. And tomorrow? Audio support, CD or whatever, is just a simple means of communicating an artist’s image towards the consumer. And it’s a fair bet that new audio supports will be developed in the years to come. Horrendously expensive technologies like holograms will become the norm and represent the golden chalice for music bizz professionals, who are already imagining the life-size Hendrix plucking guitar strings with his teeth in their living rooms, or Bird serenading over a candle-lit dinner of a Saturday night. Other technologies in the pipeline include virtual online 3D worlds, and the glasses of the Google Glass project, etc. Just to say, stay attentive to all technological

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advancements and imagine how tomorrow’s markets may evolve in their presence. The challenge is to embrace these novelties, to operate within the parameters of each one, and to make sure the artist remains central to the system. www.youtube.com/watch?v=TGbrFmPBV0Y www.youtube.com/watch?v=z9TzQQttg7Y Protect your songs: authors’ rights, neighbouring rights What are authors’ rights? Quite simply, it’s what protects your songs from being copied or used by others without your knowledge and/or without you being recognised or paid as the author of the song. There are two broad categories: Moral rights, which protect the author or composer: you can oppose all commercial use of your work, or any denaturing of your work. In cases where you permit the use of your compositions, for a TV ad, for example, you can insist that you are accredited with writing it and that your name is mentioned. Moral rights are perpetual and cannot be yielded. Patrimonial rights allow the law of the land to prohibit or permit the use of your work (and to levy taxes in exchange), for a period of 70 years after the author’s death. Once this period has elapsed the work falls into the ‘’public domain’’. Neighbouring / Interpreters rights IThey protect the musicians who only interpret (‘cover’) songs. The ‘interpreters’ themselves do not have the right to oppose the diffusion of the songs they’ve ‘covered’. But, if the songs are dif-

fused, the SPRE (société pour la perception de la rémunération équitable) levy a tax from the halls, discotechs, clubs, radios, supermarkets, tele... or anyone else who uses the music in question. Once the rights have been collected they are redistributed: 50% for the interpreters and 50% for the producer. Note, the musicians that we are, don’t get this money directly! No. L’ADAMI and the SPEDIDAM are fiscal organisms that then accredit the accounts of the ‘’artistes interprètes ayant droit’’ (if the musos are subscribed to these structures – which opens up another whole can of worms, see below). Protecting your songs With a lawyer: several companies such as Copyright France propose, for about €80/album, a service whereby your album is deposited with a ‘huissier de justice dépositaire’’. This is perhaps the surest and safest way of protecting your works and proving their dates of creation in front of a tribunal. With L’INPI (Institute National de la Propriété Intellectuelle) via the ‘Soleau enveloppe’: The INPI is a public institute which protects brands, intellectual property and patents. The ‘Soleau envelope’ is made up of two compartments, one of which is sent to back to you, the artist, after registration and perforation by the second addressee, the INPI, or a regional INPI for those domiciled in a province www.inpi.fr/fr/services-et-prestations/enveloppesoleau.html With one of the following societies that deal with authors’ rights

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In France, the two organisations are the SACEM and the SNAC. The UK equivalents are the MCPS, Musicians Union and the Performance Rights Society (free). Les deux sociétés en France sont la SACEM et le SNAC. Leurs homologues britanniques sont la PRS ou la Musicians Union. The SACEM (Société des Auteurs, Compositeurs et Editeurs de Musique) is the most costly organisation choice, coming in at €111 per subscription. To adhere you must prove you are the author of a minimum of 5 works, and at least 1 of these has already been exploited (radio, concert etc.), or has been duplicated onto a support and the SDRM rights paid, even if you don’t have an official distributor (contrary to what is implied by the SACEM website). They also offer a fairly weedy legal service in case of litigation. They also levy taxes from concert organisers, radio stations, your on-line sales, your authors rights, whilst ingratiating themselves with a (+/-) 26% commission. The SNAC (Syndicat National des Auteurs et des Compositeurs) differs from the SACEM in that it does not receive levies from authors rights. For €34 you can register 8 sets of lyrics and up to 4 songs (lyrics and music) in one go. If a legal problem arises, they can provide proof of reception. > Registered letter. The simplest and cheapest option that works all over the planet. Pack your CD / lyrics or whatever into an envelope and send it as registered mail with proof of reception to yourself. Just remember DO NOT OPEN IT

when it arrives at your house. The post mark and date on the unopened envelope are your proof and salvation. The ambiguous case of the Creative Commons Licence The aim of these licences is to provide a legal tool for simultaneously protecting the rights of a work as well as its circulation. In this case, your songs are part of the cultural patrimony, and are in the ‘public domain’. The creative commons licences were created on the basis that intellectual property is fundamentally different from physical property, and the fact that present copyright laws have acted more as a ball and chain for cultural performance than anything else. These licences present you young groups with an excellent means of promoting your material. But beware! If a brand discovers and decides to use one of your numbers in their block-buster advertising campaign, you won’t get a squib! For this reason, you may do well to use one of the more legally-accepted means of protecting your rights (copyright, patrimonial right). However, if your song goes ballistic as a result of if being used in a big publicity campaign, just sit back and watch your merchandising fly out, and the hits on your website go nuts! creativecommons.fr Right where it hurts... Let it be known, these organisms charged with managing authors rights are not really conscious of the reality of bands heading towards the professional arena. In France, for example, the SPEDIDAM and ADAMI demand the original

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and a photocopy of proof of your professional legal status as an artist (a payslip, proof of payment by the Congés Spectacles, studio time sheets and payslips for your studio sessions). Show me a self-producing band, just startingout with a small festival or a local radio that can afford to pay themselves for their time. But that doesn’t stop these structures charging levies on your performance rights, or your radio airings without re-distributing a dime. Clearly the system is severely limited, and there is a cruel lack of provisions for amateur-goingon-professional bands. The same goes for the SACEM. 90% of bands now self-produce. As soon as a small concert organiser decides to put on local groups he/she is contacted the SACEM and in 99% of cases offered one of the two following options: To subscribe to the option ‘’kermesse avec sonorisation générale’’, costing €58.85, or Subscribe to the option ‘’concert ou spectacle de variétés’’. In this case the SACEM will demand payment based on the global budget of the event. If your repertoire is not registered with the SACEM and you don’t sell any tickets, these charges, according to legislation concerning rights of intellectual property, are not obligatory. Looks like the SACEM might not be a hundred percent honest when it comes to sharing information with the occasional event organiser… Evidently, the system is oriented towards professional artists and organisers, and, sadly, miles away from the reality of small cultural troupers.

Common funds, poorly shared... bands are PAI (Propriétaire Actuellement Inconnu) and not registered with the SACEM? Where does it end up? Does anybody have the answer? Surely the rights belong well and truly with the bands who write and perform the songs, but do they get any of this money made off their own backs? Not unless they’re a fully paid-up member of the SACEM. The same question may be asked about all the money that goes unclaimed every year due to typographic errors in authors’ names or song titles, or from all those programs and itineraries of songs aired or performed that the artist neglected to submit. Where does it go? Still more grey areas exist. Imagine that all 4 members of the same band are author/ composers, but only one among them is registered with the SACEM; only one quarter of the sum levied will be re-distributed. This generally has the effect of press ganging the other 3 authors into coughing up €111 each and giving to a monopoly, which is the SACEM! But, until this payment is made, what happens to the other 75%? Looks like somebody’s gaining either way, and it ain’t the musos! In reality, this brimming pot of spoils represents a sort of common purse whose strings are firmly in the hands of the big music biz companies (publishers, producers and the stars). The tiddlers feeding the fat cats again, and it’s not a pile of peanuts we’re talking here, on the contrary, it’s roughly pro rata with the rights that an entitled author would expect to generate. Culture is business!

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Selling your music WHO GETS WHAT FROM YOuR CREATION

performer 9 % author 2 % composer 2% publisher 29 producer 19 % distributer 39 %

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looking for a label Caution above all! before transmitting your precious, hard-won treasure. The recorded music crisis, the explosion in home studios and illegal downloads have all helped bring about the downfall of the industry: production companies, majors, distributors, the media, big retailers, as well as the companies that financed the ‘’old’’ system. All are heads to the blackboard (to be kind) in a desperate attempt to find a survival strategy in today’s context. Play safe and exploit the internet to the max by putting up your songs for free-listening, or even free downloading. Your website/Facebook must be dynamic, keep adding new songs, videos, text... update, update. Album/song sales via the web and the number of clicks on particular songs are excellent barometers and indicators for deciding whether the time has come for a conventional album, or simply for devising the next strategic step of your development. Opening doors to the big media and (for France) certain types of funding, is tricky and laborious, try to find a regional distributor in the first instance. Think carefully before paying a press officer, check their address book – it should be nice and fat with handy and appropriate contacts. Many, once they’ve coined it (between €1500 & €2500), sit back and wing off the occasional CD to an obsolete network and they consider their work done. Choose a press officer with good and recent references. ConTeXT: FRAnCe 1st point: today, the initial CD run serves primarily as a ‘’finished object’’ to be handed around publishers, labels and at your concerts,

a sort of business card. Before any signature, at the issue of your 1st production, you may subscribe with the SDRM for the duplication of your CDs, and at the same time declare your work with the SACEM. > AVANTAGES: If you’re not registered with the SACEM you pay nothing to the SDRM who will declare your titles ‘’PAI’’ (Propriétaire Actuellement Inconnu), and you will get no rights for your 1st CD run. If you register your songs they will be protected for subsequent duplications and will generate author’s rights payments. Additionally, be sure, before any contract signing with labels, that they duplicate your CDs in France and that they are liable for paying the SDRM licence. If your albums are duplicated in Rajasthan you will get no author’s rights payments for the entire CD press-run. 2nd point: If you are not declared with the SACEM and the SDRM, how long do you continue being the producer of your CD? There are enough sharks out there who, with the use of smoke and mirrors and big promises, get young bands to sign edition contracts coupled with production contracts for small quantities (1000 – 2000 CDs). The result: the band finds itself obliged to buy their own music (between €7 & €10/CD depending on the conscience of the shark), from their own socalled ‘’producer’’ for sale at their own concerts. The principal revenue of artists is author’s rights. From the signing of the first contracts for edition and production with a small label, the latter are liable for paying the levies raised by the SDRM. For a quantity of 800 examples,

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the label will order 1000 and will pay licence fees to the SDRM of about €800. The SACEM will take a commission of €200, €150 will be returned to the author, €150 for the composer and €300 for the publisher (the label). Not a very inspiring proposition. You’re far better off being your own producer, especially if your band is in the development stage where 90% of your sales will be at your concerts. If, however, the contract is for 10000 copies, the situation changes. €8000 will be distributed in the following way: €2000 SACEM, €1500 for the author (enough to pay for singing lessons), €1500 for composers (enough to buy a guitar that stays in tune), €3000 for the publisher (enough to pay a press officer). And, of course, any label coughing up €5000 in the current dire economic situation will be eager to launch a good publicity campaign

in the hope of some return on their investment. To sum up: it’s advisable to weigh-up the pros and cons before ceding anything to do with the production of your CD. Negotiating and establishing with the label a provisional, precise strategy within a global retro-plan is indispensable for drafting the contract (amount and distribution of the communication budget, the different work phases and human, technical, financial resources involved etc.). Everything can appear in the contract: all the dossiers for eventual subventions, media strategy, number of promotional dates, name of press officer, type of point of sale displays, implementation for promotion and so on. cd1d.com

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LEARN TO COMMUNICATE
First and foremost: Get your spelling sorted. Spelling errors seriously damage the band’s credibility, especially if your first contact is in writing. Rare is the grammar genius, so don’t panic. Read and reread your text, get other people to read it, and if it’s really not your strong point get the poets in your entourage to do it.

Context
A targeted and reactive communication strategy: for pros and the public Assemble a media data-base. For newly formed bands, it’s important to put in place a communications protocol. Start by listing local and regional newspapers, radio stations, specialised press editors, web forums, social networks, events mags, fanzines and freebees that advertise up-coming cultural events. Once you have established a methodical and consistent communication procedure that can be applied for each and every gig, you will rapidly gain prestige. Contact radio stations. As soon as there is recorded material wrapped and packed, hawk round all the radio stations in your region. Even if you don’t quite make the grade for the playlists, at least you have met the bods who may well be up for announcing your gig dates. Any opportunity’s a good’un as far as communication goes. In France, be sure to get your disc out to all radios which are members of FERAROCK www.ferarock.com Targeting your public. The most efficient comm strategy is direct-mailing to your fans: the unfailing and all-essential word of mouth. It’s pointless to announce a concert in Brittany to a fan in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region, so start with 3 columns: email, name, region of residence. Websites for advertising your concerts.Take the time to advertise your up-coming gigs on the web and optimise the visibility of the event. An impressive number of websites exist: 20H59, Infos concert, Vivastreet, Idée de sortie, Ma ville.com, Ty Zicos, Convert & Co., Plan concert, Spectables, Easy Zic, BZH live, Zikinf, On va sortir, Agenda culturel, Concert live etc... Using and accumulating these micro-strategies is a must for your band’s promotion and visibility. Leave no stone un-turned! Advantages of a media plan The media plan is the essential little tool for assuring that your communication coincides with the release of your album, a TV or radio interview, a tour, a big festival appearance. It enables you to intelligently phase the timing of key developmental stages. In short, you know you have a good gig at a festival, and you have three weeks to promote the event. The primary objective of your communication is to get the band’s name resounding round the local media as much as poss, and to determine the image you wish to convey.

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Divide your plan into steps: posting a live presentation of the group on video or video clip, announcing the date, organisation of a contest, etc., the plan should crescendo. Depending on the importance of the date, you will need a float budget for flyers, posters, a video (see heading ‘Buzz’), buying air time (radios, specialist reviews). The longer and bigger the media campaign, the

more rigorous the organisation. Even for a mini media plan of, say, 1 month, it’s best to establish a precise retro-plan on Excel. “Retro” because you work backwards from the big day (album release, gig date) to the present moment, filling it in with the necessary operations and tasks on a daily, weekly and monthly basis. Is all that clear? Well here’s a graphic anyway! For the release of a video clip or album:

THE SCUD ROCkETS Weeks Diffusion of clip Filming clip Announce on facebook Editing Teaser release Announce competition Postage teaser/official site Postage teaser/social networks Postage video/official site Postage video/ social networks Announce winner of competition Weeks

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week Announce a gig date Follow-up/group presentation/video Announce date/official site Announce date, social networking Launch of game (prizes: t-shirts) Launch game reminder Announce winners Big day week Announce album release Prepare teaser promo Launch teaser on site Teaser promo on social networks Launch game (prize: album) Album launch Press conference Announce game winner

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The tools
Create a strong identity, a show and branding that scores Above all a strong identity should be emphasised by a good strong visual or graphic - the branding of your group. The public, them again, should be able to identify your group on a far-off poster, a flyer, a website or a disc. This adds visibility to your project, a jolt of déjàvu – hopefully accompanied with a warm feeling – for those who have already seen you play, and a mild hankering to get over to your next performance by those who have not yet had the pleasure. There are, of course, classic style and design codes; red, gold and green if you’re a reggae band, gothic typography if you’re a hardrock band etc. These ‘codes’ are not absolutely necessary, but there’s no denying that they convey a clear message and directly address a niche public that is easily mobilised. We’ve already covered the importance of onstage visuals like back-drops, banners, logo and lighting. Now, to really stand out, it’s about harmonising your on-stage visual identity with all your other communication tools (posters, website etc.) in a coherent, striking and catchy fashion. Don’t hesitate at this stage to invest in the services of a good graphic designer and photographer, trying to do it alone is so often a false economy (unless, of course you have a friend who’s worth his salt – welcome brother!). For around €800 and a

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bit of imagination, you should be able to adorn yourselves with an eye-catching array of potent imagery, which a good press officer could exploit to raise your visibility and for all manner of comm tools like flyers, posters, stickers, banners and so on.... Example of a hideous promotional photo lineout.thestranger.com/2007/01/worst_band_ photo_ever To see how real photographers work: zikcard.com/actu/search/1/photographe Communication kit: the vitals HTML mail: obviously, a simple email with links to old videos on MySpace is no longer enough. The HTML mail is a business card in which you can include 2 or 3 songs to mull over, your visuals, your story (biography), technical info and future gig dates. Biography: try to get over your essential message in 5 lines maximum, whilst dropping tidbits and scraps that leave the reader wanting to Google your band’s name. Easier said than done. It takes a lot of talent and objectivity to do this. Contact literature or communication students, tap into friend networks, or their parents. You can always look at existing bios on-line and mix ‘n’ match. Photo-shoot: gone are the days of the concert pic showing blurred faces, dodgy lighting and a grainy band in front of 10 shadowy fans. A photo-shoot is what you need, with a real life photographer costing about €150 (or free, if you know a photographic or maybe a fine-art student who could benefit by building his/her portfolio). Logo: not absolutely necessary but undeniably a plus. The hardest part is finding the idea which conveys a message and is original. Famous logos include Fishbone with the fishbone, The Stones

with their mouth, ACDC with their canon, etc. Poster: representing the energy your group generates on stage; photos, graphics, band name/logo, and why not an ad for your album. If you have sponsors and partners, include their logos too, and possibly leave space for the event organisers to splash their bit Promotional flyer: your band’s CV. Your contact address, emails, telephone numbers, biography, current news, press releases, your label, an HD photo of your mugs, your sponsors / partners logos. Your manager’s contact (or your society, your booker etc), adds to your credibility, which inspires confidence. Press book : this is the plotted history of your band’s adventure seen through the eyes of the press. It can be really useful for updating biographies and as ammo for your professional press officer. The Video clip – powerful and accessible Follow-up calls, albums, demos, letters... programmers and venue managers are inundated with them every day. So why not try a different tack. Winging off a video clip will mean you stand out from the crowd and, since images speak louder than words, your world – or the identity you wish to convey - is that much more comprehensible to the viewer. Making a video clip is a project in its own right and very time consuming. This said it’s an extremely effective way of getting maximum visibility for your band and, these days, at an affordable price (not to mention the fact that it will give a “pro” image to your project). Keep the concept simple – you don’t need to unhook the moon. Originality is key, imagination essential,

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a bit of DIY and several hundred pounds will land you a good video clip. Why not approach amateur video clubs and societies, audio-visual departments at local colleges and unis; their members/students are often on the lookout for original projects – it’s all publicity for them as well! Some useful contacts in Brittany: Rennes : www.esra.edu Quimper : www.torrpenn-production.fr Brest : www.eicar.fr Nantes :www.cinecreatis.net Basse-Normandie: www.tasvu.tv Saint-Ouen (et si vous avez les moyens) : www.sourdoreille.net Careful of the video clip of a live concert. It sounds simple but actually requires as much, if not more time, if you want a result to be proud of. A video clip should be based on a clean recording, otherwise you’re having to give the sound a facelift as well as working the image, twice as much work and a disappointing result if half the public, or you, aren’t at their best on the day of filming. Example of video clip realised for virtually nothing: www.frozendeadkittens.com/fr/videos.html What the pros think of it: www.youtube.com/watch/?v=q3XEWnEgSv4 Your website: how and when Considering the number of social networking sites, communication via the web is now accessible to all. A website is necessary from

the moment that your band is attracting a small audience, has albums and merchandising for sale and a dynamic, rich and regular topicality. A dedicated website with a URL in the name of the band definitely adds credibility. It can convey all the usual items: dates, videos, tracks to listen to, newsletter by subscription, photos and videos. But also: A professional ‘lounge’ with downloadable info pack (HD photo, biography, stage plan, tech dossier, lighting tech specs, fire safety plan). A shop window. At this stage in the band’s development, an on-line shop can be a good source of extra income. Provide the opportunity for internauts to subscribe to and automatically receive up-todate newsletters. A good means of enlarging your fan-base. . Open a chat lounge or forum to encourage exchange between internauts. This establishes a sense of loyalty to the band and between fans. Anything is possible, you can personalise, invent and customise as much as you like in the building of this powerful marketing tool. If your band is skint and you know no web or HTML code-psychopaths, you can always begin searching for your future webmaster in university information technology departments. Here’s an example of a well executed little site. Notice how they bring together all the social networks and streaming sites which feature the band.

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The different physical communication media Merchandising: before becoming a source of revenue for the band, merchandising is a way of getting your fans to publicise your name. Far better than a sandwich board, for the simple reason that your fans are only too happy to walk around wearing your t-shirts, sweatshirts, badges, caps, bags, socks, knickers, proudly sporting the name of the band they love. The recyclable plastic beer goblet with your logo stamped on the side is an excellent way of circulating your name. At 30 pence a go you can get 200 which you use at your concerts with a 50 pence returnable deposit. 8 times out of 10 the Joe public leaves without claiming his 50 pence! Hey, for once a green communication strategy that’s profitable! Beer mats are used by the thousands in your local pubs. You can order small print runs to advertise a tour, or an album release. All you have to do is traipse round local pubs venues and hand them out. You could even send them to all the venues on your data-base. Tthe faithful sticker, the timeless sticky support that speaks volumes. Without doubt a throwback to our childhood; who can say they have never taken great pleasure in stickering the fridge, school books, the toilet door or the guitar case? The stage backdrop is your band’s standard. This bit of cloth is well worth the investment for emergent bands. Thanks to the backdrop your audience has the whole duration of the concert to be captivated by your graphics and to register the name of the band.

The poster (see above) 50 cult posters that could inspire you: wellmedicated.com/inspiration/ 50-amazing-gig-posters-sure-to-inspire/ POS (point of sales) paraphernalia, handy cardboard displays units used by shops for selling your CDs, banners, badges etc. A world in communication overload: the essential press officer There’s no lesson to give here; you already know: the visibility of your band, its actuality and dynamism must be relayed by the media (all types, mixed and matched) to exist. We can whinge and whine and rail about it, say that it’s a sad state of affaires...but that’s the way things are. Either we join the 21st century with its hyper communication or we’re lost in this ocean of “communicants”. Even those bands who prefer to perform unplugged in intimate, lively vibes, and refuse to enter into the digital sphere, must, if they aspire one day to play in the big boys playground, go through the media mill. Enter our famous press officer. Whoever this person may be, they must have a whole bag of qualities.... not easy to find! He/she must: > have an impressive address book > be utterly trust-worthy, i.e., strictly uphold the message and image you wish to diffuse to the public, NEVER hand the work onto someone else (unless they are contracted by the group, of course), and be perfectly integrated into the spirit and soul of your project, so that they may give their best using all media. Better no comm than bad comm.

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- know a shed-load of blogs and bloggers, reviews, websites, radio stations, TV channels etc... In short, have a huge media culture. - be completely proficient on the phone for finding and chasing the right person to review your album, your performances, your video clips etc. - have a lot of time to sacrifice for your project. This cannot be done by half measures. A review in the culture local rag without the back-up of web-based media (on-line radio interviews, blogs, social networks) will have little significant impact, even at a local level. The mighty-mac of information voluntarily or forcibly ingested by all of us on a daily basis is so voluminous and varied that only through constant repetition will our message get through. Hopefully, whether you are a Facebook / YouTube fan or not, you will meet one day soon a multi-function, multi-tasking geek, who will save you the thankless task of spreading your name around the ether.

your band they will have a hard time, unless you have effectively referenced your site. Something like 60% of internauts (web-surfers) don’t go beyond page 1 of Google, 90% go no further than page 2. If you are on page 3 or page 45000, only the desperate or the very sad will find you, and your credibility takes a knock. Firstly, understand how search engines like Google work. These are robots that are constantly searching and cross-referencing squillions of bytes of information per second, and naturally, to make the search as efficient as possible, they follow certain criteria designed to ignore doubtful or dubious information. To be ‘’credible’’ in the eyes of the search engines your site must: 1) truly contain the information it is designed to convey. This means, the engines must find content in your site that is relevant to the keywords you have chosen. Having 100’s of keywords is pointless if you don’t repeat them lots of times in your text. In fact the optimum number of keywords is about 15. It’s down to you to choose pertinent keywords and to make the text exciting whilst repeating 10-20 times on the same page the keyword ‘’indie’’, for example. 2) contain ‘tags’ (Google jargon for titles), which the internaut does not necessarily see. These again must be carefully written to correspond with the contents (plain text, photo footnotes etc.) of each page and your keywords. 3) be dynamic. Search engines will begin ignoring sites that are not kept up to date or that stagnate through lack of new information. 4) be outward reaching. Search engines do not like sites that lead ever inwards. Within your text be sure to add links to other websites, this may

Web strategy
Referencing: gaining www.isibility The design and content of your website is extremely important. Your home page is a shop window, and like shop windows it must attract the visitor (internaut) and lure them through your door. Once your lovely-looking site is on-line the real work begins; the referencing. Without good referencing a website is just a glorified business card you give to a particular person so they know how to get hold of you. In this case you would have to give them your website address for them to land on the home page. But if a complete stranger wants to look up

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be to illustrate a point in your text, or simply to introduce an internaut to one of your partners/ press officer or whatever. Include a ‘’friend’s page’’, where you put links to your sponsors, event organisers, favourite pubs etc. In return they should reference your website as a link on their own sites. Google likes that! 5) Declare your site on Google. You’ll need to fill up a short form with your main key-words. It’s free, all you need is a GMAIL account. Now you’re set. Once things are up and running you need to regularly update (as mentioned above) but also check on the progress of the site, i.e., how much traffic (clicks) it is generating. This you do using Google Analytics, which will tell you how many clicks you’ve had, which site the internaut came from, which of your pages they looked at, how long they stayed on each page, etc etc. By working through all this info (gripping stuff!) you can hone the efficiency of your site by adapting your keywords, links and tags accordingly. Often you may wish to use two or more keywords together like ‘’the raiders’’ or ‘’the raiders cornwall’’ for a more precise hit. Again, better to find a good geek for the referencing, it’s complicated and boring, and you just want to play music, don’t you? Of course you do. Just make sure your geek can confer openly with you on strategic points of the website. He/ she will be able to set you up with a web host and sort out your contact page, so you can receive your fan mail, and your merchandising (boutique) page for receiving orders and payment. accounts.google.com/ServiceLogin? service=sitemaps&passive=1209600&continue www.google.com/webmaster/tools/submiturl&followup=https://www.google.com/ webmasters/tools/submit-url&authuser=0

viral Marketing As you may’ve guessed viral marketing functions like the spreading of a virus: exponentially. The principle being to propagate a piece of information on the fertile surface of social networks, blogs, forums and mailing lists etc. The information is consciously or not passed on from user to user and ‘released’ within their own networks and their networks’ networks, and so on.Simple and cheap, viral marketing permits high and rapid visibility on a big level (according to statistics 1 internaut influences 8 others). The drawback with viral marketing is its overuse, especially for business interests; people simply get thoroughly pissed off with buy-this/ buy-that spam bombardment. Another reason for the bad press is viral marketing’s use (or abuse) in compiling data-bases of potential clients by eliciting personal information from, often, unwitting users (geographical, psychological, consumer habits, interests etc.). This said, V.M. remains a handy and cheap option which if used sensibly for key events, like an album release, on an already-receptive target public, could pay big dividends in a short time span. Of course, with the development of on-line commerce, more and more marketing companies, specialising in V.M. techniques are just waiting for your call, and if you’re a band on the cusp of professionalisation, why not pick up the phone? Or, with the help of a few web robots, do it yourself. Remember to make reference to your own website / band page to increase your ‘traffic’, encourage future visits and augment your fan mailing list. virginieberger.com/2011/11/musique-marketingviral-points-fondamentaux-et-exemples/

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Facebook, MySpace and the rest... Avoid over-doing the social networks. Too much communication can be counter-active In these days of hyper-communication, social networks should not be ignored as a marketing strategy, but they all require regular maintenance and careful management to be an effective business tool. Put yourself in the shoes of the visitor to your site. They need to find the information they’re looking for immediately or they will click away. Make it simple, they don’t want to go hauling through your social networks to hear a song on MySpace, see your actuality on Facebook, get your gig dates on Twitter and watch your latest vid on YouTube. ‘’NO! We don’t!’’ Before hitting the social networks, it’s

imperative that you have finalised your branding, graphics and identity, you will gain visibility by being coherent in your approach to communication. Good visuals, well recorded music, interesting photos and your news and actuality all in the same place. Who could ask for more? To sum up: limit yourself to one social network to start with, where all the relevant and interesting information looks good, is accessible and maintained. You may then decide to take on another network to create a synergy between the two, or even three (Google likes this!), but above all keep them dynamic, fresh and up to date. Forget the crap videos filmed on a mobile phone and the dodgy songs from 6 years back, completely forgotten but still accessible!

CONVINCE AND GAIN A LOYAL AUDIENCE
Your mates are the ambassadors of your music They are the ones in the front row at all your concerts, who buy your CD on the way out, and them who may provide you with the famous exterior eyes and ears and constructive criticism. They are the first to talk about you to others and they are the instigators of your future fan-club. The fan list: stay in touch with your audience This is essential and evolutionary. An artistic presentation only really exists if it’s accessible to a public, otherwise it’s no more than masturbation. From the outset you must rely on your innermost circle: friends and family and their networks. They will be the first to come along and support you, so spoil them, give them copies of posters and stickers, without getting big for your boots. Your local fans must feel involved in your project. During a concert, take the time to make a couple of personalised microphone announcements and, hyper-intelligibly, invite the audience to leave their email addresses in a dedicated notebook (2 columns: email and department of residence). This will be indispensable for establishing a fan-base on which your band’s future will be built, and for enabling you to inform them directly about up-coming events. Creating a feeling of loyalty towards your band is another game; it’s not the simple act of leaving a few email addresses in your notebook that will guarantee mass mobilisation the next time you gig.

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The public (us all) are becoming more and more promiscuous as regards loyalty to bands (among other things), lobotomised by choice and media-based strategies of the big production companies. A constant and regular topicality is key to standing out from the herd. Instead of thinking ‘’album release’’ (which really doesn’t mean much these days), exploit the web by putting up your new recordings. Once you have 11 or 12 numbers on-line, launch a subscription for an eventual album with bonus videos for example, this will assure at least 1 topicality per month plus all your dates. Little extras for the ‘faithful’ are always effective for keeping the band fresh in peoples’ minds, try CD promotional events, free concert tickets, access to the private forum, spend an evening with the band members etc. Basically, a loyal public is a band’s most precious asset, and the day you can fill halls with 300 people anywhere in the UK, France or elsewhere is the day you are generating profit. From then on the telephone will be jammed for gig propositions, media and bookers wanting to get you in their catalogue. how to create your buzz Here, anything goes! As long as you stick to moral ethics, of course. But not censure! Associating with other art-forms and cultural niches is always a good way to get the buzz going: dance, live painters, comedians, film etc. Still, one of the best ways to start a buzz is a little video packed with invention and talent. No magic bullet here, even when you’re a comm professional. Here are links to some video clips made by bods who had the right idea:

Examples of “DIY” buzz Walk off the Earth www.youtube.com/watch?v=bHcfEs-M0bA Dressed up as famous paintings from all over the worldvimeo.com/9752986 Crazy systems www.youtube.com/watch?v=qybUFnY7Y8w www.youtube.com/watch?v=MejbOFk7H6 Time-lapse www.youtube.com/watch?v=6LaeATExBi0 Merchandise Are you artists? True and pure? Well then launch yourselves into merchandising! ‘Merch’ is not just for Skywalker & Co., well the crap, banal, dregs of imagination merch maybe, but here we’re talking about the ‘other’ merch that won’t murder the soul of your band. What other merch? I hear you say. Well, the merch that is the fruit of your creativity and imagination; the merch that reinforces the identity of your own formation. Many bands opt for t-shirts, sweatshirts and baseball caps, and the like, printed with their brand/logo/slogan, but a merch can be anything, and any style: artisanal, home-made, collector... It’s as you wish, but good merch for an emergent band is one object that’s cheap and as representative of your band as possible. If, for example, you’re called ‘’Fire Brigades’’ or ‘’Red Pool’’, and you ‘set the house on fire’ every time you go on stage, why not go for a lighter? Easy to sell, very flighty (lighters generally travel through 5 jackets, 2 cars and 3 pubs before running out of gas), and coherent with your identity. If you’re more the ‘’Dirty Dicks’’, ‘’Bad Ass’’ or ‘’Pussy Riots’’ types, you may decide to go for the effigy condom. Why not a retro post-card with a cool

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black and white photo for ‘’Dakota Road’’? Kitsch and whacky calendars for ‘’Space Wazz’’, or lollipops for the mellow, acoustic wedding

band ‘’The Barley Sugars’’. Just some simplistic and silly examples. Up to you now to find the object(s) that suit your I.D. Have fun!

MUSO GUIDE CONCLUSION
Making a living from your music
You, reader of these lines, and coveter of the idea that one day you will be able to live off your music, stay Earthbound, the landing could be rough. As usual there’s the context, the causes and effects... The reality is: Professionalisation of amateur musicians: the generalisation of quality tuition in the modern music sector has seen a marked improvement in the standard of musicianship over the past 30 years. The development of practical instrumental techniques is staggering. In short, there’s a hell of a lot of class talent out there. Increased competition: the whole live music sector has become considerably tougher, even concert pubs have raised the ‘bar’ and are increasingly approaching professional bands with 3 or 4 albums to their name. The result is a flagrant drying-up of decent venues for the diffusion of emergent bands. Decline in available funds: inevitably concert organisers are playing the competition game, and consequently, the venue that was paying out €1500 for a band yesterday, would today negotiate an envelope of €750. In France, the rapid disappearance of public funding for culture as well as the blatant disinterest in music-sector sponsorship have caused a catastrophic slump in musicians wages. In turn, many professional musos have lost their ‘’intermittence’’ statute and are now queuing up to push around flight cases for companies like Live Nation. In the UK it’s even worse, the concept of pay-to-play is widespread. The need to adapt: without going into Darwinism, the animal kingdom is based on the fundamental law ‘’the survival of the fittest’’, or more bluntly ‘’adapt or die’’. Let’s be realistic, from now on it’s about combining the activities of our band with a part/full-time job, or diversify. You may still be able to live off your music if you add strings to your bow, increase your number of guitar students, get together a covers band, do solo work, accompany a solo musician or compose advertising jingles... Head to the grindstone, and feet firmly on the ground: in addition to a heavy dose of talent and relentless motivation, you must develop an entrepreneurial spirit and work like a dog if you have your eyes set on a wee beach hut in the sun. Sell, maintain and build your data-bases, develop your networks, make yourself available and indispensable to the right people, and play your instrument every day. These are the keys to living off your music.

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GLOSSARY

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MUSIC SECTOR PROFESSIONALS
Profession: manager The principal job of a manager is to put to work the band(s) in his or her catalogue. The manager takes on the responsibility of representing the band in dealings with professionals of the music industry. He/she is the one who chases the money, is your mother, is the psychologist that can adeptly diffuse internal crises within the band. His primary preoccupation is to maintain his personal investment in order to make profitable the time spent on the development of the band. His revenue is on a commission basis, in France the maximum commission is 10% of the artist’s remuneration. The commission may be on a single negotiated contract for the gigs he finds, or on the merch, the CDs sales etc... The manager’s legal status is somewhat vague in France. Contrary to ‘’agents artistiques’’ there exists no agreed mandate model. They are not recognised by any “convention collective” Officially, he/she is called a ‘’secrétaire d’artiste’’ (defined by article L763-3 du Code du Travail. In the UK, managers’ salaries vary between 5 and 20% of the bands revenue, depending on the quality of his contacts and his commitment and role in the band. More info at: www.artistshousemusic.org/node/1710 www.univarts.com/mag/article/1905_professionmanager?sGet=1 Profession: phonographic producer This job involves overseeing the fabrication, commercialisation and promotion of the band’s works. The revenue comes from the sales. The editor works in conjunction with the producer and distributor, between whom a commercial contract has been signed. Often within independent labels the editor doubles- up as phonographic producer. More info on the art director job www.mixound.com/Interviews/Francois%20 Bronic// Profession: phonographic editor This job involves overseeing the fabrication, commercialisation and promotion of the band’s works. The revenue comes from the sales. The editor works in conjunction with the producer and distributor, between whom a commercial contract has been signed. Often within independent labels the editor doubles- up as phonographic producer. www.youtube.com/watch?v=IuXWP5yetns Profession: distributor His role is to distribute your discs and (if you are an international star) your merchandising, assure the appearance of your music on the outlet shelves and deal with the POS (point of sales). He and his representatives develop advantageous (shall we say) relations with the vendors to assure a good promotion of your material towards their clientele. These big commercial enterprises realise their profits based on a percentage of the price of the CD and on-line sales. In the music-business, the distributors are powerful cultural imperialists and benefit from a hegemonic legal statute

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never seen before. These private companies are the majors, Sony-BMG, EMI, Warner, Universal. They hold a powerful position when it comes to negotiating with producers nurturing signed artists that are beginning to create a buzz. Independent producers are in a financially fragile situation to say the least, obliging them to engage in David & Goliath-like wrestling contests when negotiating contracts that rely on the tightly coveted distribution circuit. In short, distribution is the weighted dice in the game. Profession: tour organizer the “man in the shadows” IThis guy holds the performance contractor license and organises tours for bands in his catalogue. The sources of revenue for the tour organiser are ticket sales, drinks, catering (for concerts organised by himself), and a percentage of the sales contracts negotiated with the SMACS, festivals and cultural centres. Honest tour organisers (they still exist) pay themselves between 15 and 20% of the global cost. Today, the tour organiser is the essential partner for your up-and-coming band. A good diffusion generates good communication and good media coverage that will encourage distributors and publishers to invest in your project. The tour organiser’s work is unenviable and requires a nationwide data-base and a rich, current contact list. They are not very numerous and it’s not surprising, the work-time / revenue ratio takes up to 3 years before it balances out – the time it takes to develop an artist. After this period, there may be a return on investment, that’s, of course, if the group is still playing

together, and the guitarist is not shagging the singer’s girlfriend. And the big tour companies? The myriad of companies like Asterioz or Caramba do nothing but answer the telephone, manage contracts, assure the road management (hotel, flights, planning) and surf off the buzz created by the bands themselves, and that’s it. Forget it. Here, we are eons from the militant spirit that reanimates the alternative stage and brings it back to life. Short-term profit and opportunism are the key words of this industry. More info at: www.artistshousemusic.org/node/5547/4096 www.slappyto.net/Dossiers-Basse/Voir-ArticleBasse.aspx?id=234 Profession: programmer Another man-of-the-shadows and essential asset for all self-respecting festivals and concert halls. He’s the key bod in sourcing and booking bands that not only give the musical ‘colour’ to a venue but also help to guarantee its sustainability. The programmer is the one who must solve the equation: artistic exigency + sufficient ticket sales = which bands? A great job, but extremely exposed; one dodgy festival and all eyes turn to the programmer. For further information: www.efestivals.co.uk/festivals/ thehopfarm/2009/interview-barton.shtml www.soundofviolence.net/articles/dossiers/20/ interview_eric_lalot_et_jean_paul_roland_ presentent_les_eurockeennes_de_belfort_2012. html

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Profession: events promoter The promoter functions on three levels: • Either he buys the event from the producer or the tour organiser for re-sale to a diffuser. His role in this case is purely commercial, or • he organises the event for a producer’s account or that of a tour organiser and then undertakes the promotion as a sub-contractor (like Live Nation or Arachnée), or • in certain cases he will dirty his hands to produce or promote his own event. In this case he will be operating in a similar fashion to a private festival organiser

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INSTRUCTION MANUAL FOR USING DATA-BASE
21 questions for determining your present situation
The number of accumulated feathers will give you an idea of where you start in the data-base....

Question 1 Do you have a CD for sale at concerts? 1 feather Question 2 Have you already played as support band for a national headline band? 2 feathers Question 3 Is your band supervised by a professional? Booker 1 feather / Manager 1 feather / publisher 1 feather / Produceur 1 feather/ Association 1 feather ? Question 4 Have you ever played a tour of at least 10 grouped dates per month? 1 feather Question 5 Do you have a sound technician? 1 feather Question 6 Do you have a technical information sheet or fire-plan? 1 feather Question 7 Do you have a lighting technician? 1 feather Question 8 Do you keep an up to date venue data-base (pubs, bars, festivals, halls etc.)? 1 feather Question 9 Have you already played overseas? 2 feathers Question 10 Does your band have promotional material? (posters, stickers, promo flyers, HD photo)? 1 feather Question 11 Has your band played at least 10 concerts? 1 feather

Question 12 Does your band have a website (discounting social networks)? 1 feather Question 13 Does your band have a following of at least 80 fans who go to your concerts within a 30km radius of where you’re based? 1 feather Question 14 Has your band already played outside of your region? 1 feather Question 15 Does your band have a tour vehicle? 1 feather Question 16 Does your band rehearse 1/week 1 feather 22/week 2 feathers or more/week 3 feathers Question 17 Does your band have a demo for canvassing? 1 feather Question 18 Does your band have a professional quality video clip, or video of a live performance? 1 feather Question 19 Does your band have 1 album? 1 feather 2 albums : 2 feathers Question 20 Does your band have a legal status (society, ltd. Company etc)? 1 feather Question 21 Has your band ever played “off” festivals? 1 feather

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1 to 4 feathers: Amateur band. A good start, young braves! You must now go out and collect more feathers before you can sit in the circle of the sachems. Look at venues with 1 Tomahawk.

5 to 8 feathers: Emergent band. Not bad, your accomplishment shows all the signs of promising young warriors. A little more war paint on your faces, a dozen or so coyotes to your name, and they’ll be talking about you at the chiefs’ council. Look at venues with 2 Tomahawks.

9 to 15 feathers: Band going professional. ‘’Haow! We salute you brothers!’’ The feathers that adorn your headdress are numerous and the recent exploits of your tribe have reached our ears. Continue and you will join the circle of braves Look at venues with 3 Tomahawks.

16 to 20 feathers: Professional band. Geronimo! You have all the feathers of a big chief. Your tribe is numerous, and our medicine man will guide you to the land of the great spirits. Look at venues with 4 Tomahawks.

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DATA-BASE
Data-base of concert in Finistère Data-base of concert venues in THE Manche Data-Base of concert venues in Cornwall Data-base of concert cafés in Normandy and Brittany Battle of the bands (France)

The following data-base was compiled by the Crew during summer 2012. The tenuous existence of private venues today means that we can only guarantee the accuracy of the information for the short term. For the latest info and data please consult the “resources on line” page of our website www.tomahawk-music.eu. This service is absolutely free.

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DATA-BASE OF CONCERT VENUES IN FINISTèRE
No. of TOMAHAWk

NAME AFRICOBENDY APREM'JAZZ MAIRIE DE BRIEC L'ARVEST L'ASSO CIAL DOUARN CITY ROCKERS LE CHANT DES MEHNIRS ASSO METALBLUES ASSO PENN AR DUB LA FOIRE AUX CROUTES ASSO VIVRE LA RUE ASTROPOLIS L’ATELIER CULTUREL PENN AR JAZZ BOUT DU MONDE LE CAC POLE CULTUREL LA CARENE

TYPE Festival Association Festival Espace culturel Association Association Association Association Association Association Association Festival Petit festival Association Festival Centre Culturel Salle Festival

STYLE World Jazz Modern Fusion Modern / Arts Modern / Rock All styles Blues Rock / cover bands Modern Open to all public Fusion Electro music Modern Jazz World Music All styles Modern / indie All styles All live music Modern / indie Modern Concerts Jazz / Trad / Classical Modern Rock Dub

CONTACT Lolo Nathalie Ricard Jean-Christophe Le Meur Véronique Vasnier Romain Joe Chatterton Daniel Jaouenn Jean-Christophe Bergez Charly Robial Jean-Michel Charreteur Mireille Mathieu & Gildas Michel La Gouche Christophe Mével / Janick Jacques GUERIN Cléa Duport Yannick Martin Jacques Campion Emmanuel Charlet Joran Le Corre JC Klotz Carine Burel François Queau Dominique Langlais Pierre Yves Douguet Vincent

3 4 3 3 3 3 2 4 4 3&4 4 4 4 4 5 4&5 3à5 4 3&4 5 1à4 3&4 3 3à5 3&4 3

C. CULTUREL L'ATHENA CLUB COATELAN COLLECTIF TOMAHAWK COMITE D'ANIM. TOURCH
LES MUSIQUES DE ST RENAN

Centre Culturel Salle Collectif Association Festival Festival Festival Association

FESTIVAL DU DOUVEZ RACK'N'ROLL DUB AN CO

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TEL 06 33 63 62 38 06 32 40 09 73 02 98 57 79 33 02.98.26.74.64 06 58 86 24 69 06 14 39 79 82 06 82 13 45 58 02 98 35 45 37 02 98 70 52 71 06 82 11 81 95 02 98 05 04 40 02 98 43 37 74 02 98 21 61 50 02 29 00 40 01 02 98 44 93 15 02 98 50 36 43 02 98 46 66 00 02 98 50 38 62 02 98 66 77 27 02 98 72 50 71 06 99 11 94 93 02 98 66 81 76 02 98 84 29 63 06 30 84 11 92 02 98 57 57 28 06 78 20 14 84

ADDRESS 6 allée Gounod 29800 Landerneau 53 impasse de l'Odet 29000 Quimper 46 rue le Boissière 29150 Briec de l'Odet 1 rue du Cimétière 29190 Pleyben 57 rue de la République 29200 Brest 1 rue Dugay Trouin 29100 Douarnenez 19 rue du Carpon 29200 Brest 17 rue des Chênes 29380 Bannelec 52 route du Millet 29790 Bruzec 37 rue Navarin 29200 Brest 17 rue Saint Malo 29200 Brest Sonic floor 30 rue Bugeaud 29200 Brest Place François Mitterrand 29200 Landerneau 6 rue Guy Ropartz 29200 Brest Grand large, quai de la Douane 29200 Brest 10 boulevard Bougainville 29900 Concarneau 30 rue Jean Marie Le Bris 29200 Brest Service Culturel bp 238 29182 Concarneau Croas Spern 29500 Ergué Gabéric Association Wart 6 rue Haute 29600 Morlaix Boudiguen 29310 Querrien Mairie 29140 Tourc'h Association Musicadoré 29290 Saint Renan Association Caméo 29200 Brest 25 rue Marie Littre 29510 Langolen 2 rue Louis Vierne 29200 Brest

MAIL philippe_kermarrec@hotmail.fr ricard.nathalie1@orange.fr animation@arthemuse.com veronique.vasnier@mairiepleyben.fr lassocial@yahoo.fr arnaud.ralec@yahoo.fr ronan29brest@hotmail.fr jean-christophe.bergez@wanadoo.fr
pennardub@orange.fr / charlie.robial@laposte.net

asso@vivrelarue.net . gildas@astropolis.org ateliercult@gmail.com contact@penn-ar-jazz.com contact@quai-ouest.net clea.duport@concarneau.fr contact@la carenne.fr

emmanuel.charlet@ergue-gaberic.fr laurie@wartiste.com associationtomahawk@gmail.com contact@tourch-animation.fr francois.queau@orange.fr

infos@racknroll.com torillec@hotmail.com

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No. of TOMAHAWk

NAME ESPACE AN HEOL ESPACE DU ROUDOUR
ESPACE GLENMOR / LE KLUB

TYPE Salle Espace culturel Salle Maison de quartier Service Culturel Centre Culturel Service Culturel Salle Fedurock Festival Festival Festival Festival Festival Festival Association Association Festival Festival Festival Association Festival Festival Festival Festival Festival Festival

STYLE All styles Jazz / Chanson / Trad Modern and Trad All styles / indie World / Trad progressive Fusion All styles Modern Jazz Modern Lively Music All styles Modern Modern All styles Open to all public World / Jazz / Hip Hop Experimental Trad progressive Modern / Rock Info Centre Rock / Fusion/hip hop All styles Rock / Electro Modern All styles Trad progressive

CONTACT Gilles Dupuis Mickaël Euzen Pierre Sibéril Thierry Tremintin Robert Seguin Raphaëlle Brannelec Nathalie Stangenec Jean-Yves Kerdevez Trevor Stent Cédric et Hervé Charles Legall Alain Le Loupp Christophe Colin Marc Ribette Mathieu Goue Olivier Gloaguen Jacques Guerin Maëlle Le Gouëfflec Luc Raoul Christophe Dagorne Heurtebise Mathieu Philippe Deniel Joran Le Corre Mathieu Georgelin Gwenaël Fanny Chauffin

3 3à5 3&4 3à5 4&5 3à5 4 3à5 5 3à4 4&5 4&5 4&5 5 3&4 4&5 5 4 4&5 4&5 4&5 4 4&5 3&4 3&4 3

ESPACE LEO FERRE LES ESTIVALES L’ETINCELLE S. C DE MELGVEN
FERME DE GWERNANDOUR

FEST JAZZ FESTI BIGOUD LE SAMEDI DU PORC FESTIDREUZ FESTIVAL DE LA MER F. DECOLLAGE IMMEDIAT PUM UP THE VOLUME FESTIVAL DES 4 CLOCHERS F.DU BOUT DU MONDE FESTIVAL INVISIBLE FESTIVAL KANN AL LOAR LES POLARITES FESTIVAL LES PETARADES FESTIVAL L'ILOPHONE
FESTIVAL PANORAMA

FESTIVAL ROCH'STOCK FESTIVAL RAOKLHAND FESTIVAL TAOL KURUN

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TEL 02 98 73 02 22 02 98 15 20 90 02 98 99 37 50 02 98 03 37 37 02 98 58 22 65 02 98 59 80 42 02 98 50 93 97 06 07 82 72 57 02 98 81 83 90 07 86 74 41 45 02 98 07 97 18 02 98 51 64 03 06 84 95 60 25 02 98 43 68 38 06 66 66 58 55 06 89 96 66 83 02 98 44 93 15 06 62 42 08 74 02 98 30 30 45 02 98 53 14 55 02 98 01 67 58

ADDRESS 33 grande Route 29590 Pont de Buis Cs 77832 29678 Morlaix cedex Rue Jean Monet 29270 Cahraix 1 rue du Quercy 29200 Brest Cc rue Mejou Bihan BP73 29730 Le Guilvinec 17 rue Alsace-Lorraine 29140 Rosporden 4 place de l'Église 29140 Melgven Lieu dit 29190 Braspart Penn ar pont 29520 Châteauneuf du Faou 6 rue Jean le Berre 29120 Pont-L’Abbé 29290 Milizac Hôtel de la Pointe 29170 Fouesnant 3 route de Kerarzal 29840 Landunvez Arsenal production15 rue Amiral Nielly 29200 Brest 23 rue d'Arror 29860 Plabennec Lieu dit Custang 29790 Confort meilars Quai de la Douane 29200 Brest 13 rue Jules Guesde 29200 Brest 14 rue chanoine Kerbrat 29800 Landerneau 27 rue du chapeau Rouge 29000 Quimper Ufr droit 12 rue de Kergoat 29238 Brest Mairie 29242 Ouessant 6 rue Haute 29600 Morlaix

MAIL dupuisdoo@gmail.com

programmation@glenmor.fr espaceleoferre@hotmail.fr clc.gv@wanadoo.fr etincelle.rospo@free.fr culturel@melgven.fr rockaf@wanadoo.fr
goodtimejazz@wanadoo.fr

contactgroupe.festibigoud@gmail.com armand.jaouen@neuf.fr festidreuz@free.fr tophe.colin@wanadoo.fr arsenal.prod@wanadoo.fr mathieu.gou@gmail.com olivier.gloagen29@orange.fr contact@quai-ouest.net eglisedelapetiefolie@wanado.fr festival@kann-ar-loar.com christophe.dagorne@polarites.org contact@fedeb.net ilophone@gmail.com contact@wartiste.com narajeuns@wanadoo;fr thomasmartineau@voila.fr fanny.chauffin@laposte.net

02 98 71 79 10 06 18 90 51 80 02 98 71 74 94

Narajeuns 6 rue Keralvé 29300 Arzano 29360 Le Pouldu Kergoaler 29300 Quimperlé

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No. of TOMAHAWk

NAME FESTIWRAC'H
GALA DE LA NUIT DE L'ENIB

TYPE Festival Festival Association Association Festival Association Association Service jeunesse Association Festival Festival Festival Festival Promoteur Festival Festival Festival Festival Festival MJC Festival Festival Festival MJC Festival Association

STYLE Modern All styles Culture / Hip Hop Jazz / Blues All styles Open mic All styles Modern Modern Modern Modern Jazz All styles except classical All styles All styles / Family friendly All styles / Family friendly All styles / Family friendly All styles / Family friendly All styles Rock / Fusion/ Hip Hop All styles / Family friendly Jazz All styles / Family friendly Fusion World / Trad progressive Metal

CONTACT Gaëtan

3 4&5 TOUS 4&5 3&4 3 4 3 3&4 4&5 4 4 5 4&5 4 3 4&5 3&4 3 2&3 4 4&5 3&4 2&3 5 5

HIP HOP NEW SCHOOL HOT CLUB JAZZ' IROISE LES JEUNES CHARRUES FESTIVAL KEROU BEACH
P.Z.H (PENZE ZONE HEUREUSE)

Marlène Fabienne Leca

Eric Tichy Michel Autret Guy Pierre Milin Fabrice Philippe Tournellec Thomas Guedes Philippe Dubras Jean-Pascal Reux Jacques Guerin Gérard Trosseau Cathy Collet Maxime Dezuza Franck Fily Thierry Lefevre Johan et Eric Jacques Guerin Tanguy fernand Annette Batelier Bernard Mazza David Raguenez

LE BOCAL A MUSIQUE
LA SAUCE D'ARTIST'S CHAUDE

LE BOUILLON
LE COCHON DANS LA GARENNE

LEON ART JAZZ LES JEUDIS DU PORT QUAI OUEST
LES MARDI DE PLOUESCAT

LES MARDI DE PORTEZ
LES TOMBÉES DE LA NUIT A L'ENCLOS

LES VENDREDIS BRANCHES LES VENDREDIS DU BOUI BOUI

M.J.C LES MARDIS DE MORGATT
MENEZ HOM JAZZ FESTIVAL LES MERCREDI DE QUIMPERLE

MJC LA MARELLE MONDIAL'FOLK MOTOCULTOR FESTIVAL

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The Pack

TEL 06 84 22 27 07 02 98 05 66 76 06 28 72 57 79 06 72 38 43 06

ADDRESS Son en wrac'h 29870 Landéla Technopole cs 73862 29230 Brest cedex 53, impasse de l'odet 29000 Quimper Keringar Vras 29810 Brélès Inscription / contact sur le site

MAIL gaetan.lmr@gmail.com nuitenib@enib.fr contact@hiphopnewschool.com hot-club-jazz-iroise@gmx.fr jeunesse.frmjc@wanadoo.fr cire29@orange.fr michmuch29@gmail.com

02 98 71 51 60 06 66 88 60 80 06 63 22 54 53 06 61 13 24 70 06 18 86 80 53 06 98 47 13 51 02 98 69 87 23 02 98 44 93 15 02 98 44 93 15 02 98 61 97 37 02 98 48 99 75 02 98 68 76 67

Rozenbellec 23 route de Quimperlé 29360 Clohars 17 lotissement de Keurloscant 29670 Taulé Mairie 29470 Plougastel Daoulas 1 Place Charles de Gaule 29233 Cléder La marmite /difroud 29470 Plougastel Daoulas Association FMR 29460 Daoulas 2 lotissement Baradozic 29430 Plouescat Mairie 2 rue Frézier- BP 92206 29222 Brest Grand large 2ème Éperon 29200 Brest Office de tourisme 29430 Plouescat Mairie 29280 Locmaria Plouzané Mairie 29400 Lampaul Guimiliau 13 rue de Brest 29290 Saint Renan

lesartistchauds@gmail.com / fabjo@live.fr contact@lebouillon.org association.fmr.29@gmail.com Philippe.dubras@orange.fr animation@mairie-brest.fr contact@quai-ouest.net gerard.trosseau@orange.fr tourisme@locmaria-plouzane.fr maxds29400@wanadoo.fr lesvendredisbranches@yahoo.fr bouibouitheatre@hotmail.fr association-mjc@wanadoo.fr antonin@quai-ouest.net

02 98 07 18 07 02 98 92 10 07 02 98 44 93 15 06 88 88 87 80 02 98 96 37 37 02 98 57 65 22 02 98 91 45 45

223 rostiviec 29470 Loperhet 11 boulevard Camille Réaud BP 421 29470 Loperhet Quai ouest 2ème Éperon 29200 Brest 12 Résidence Park ar Garrec 29150 Dineault Mairie BP 131 29391 Quimperlé cedex 3 rue Louis Pasteur 29390 Scaër BP 1 29710 Plozévet Association Motocultor Fest Prod

annette.batelier@ville-quimperle.fr accueil@mjc-marelle.org davidraguenez@orange.fr www.motocultor-festival.com/wordpress/

81

The Pack

No. of TOMAHAWk

NAME MPT DE PENHARS
LES VENDREDIS DU DELLEC

TYPE MJC Festival Festival Festival Scène nationale Salle Fedurock Festival Festival MJC Festival MJC Association Salle Festival Festival Festival Festival Petite salle Festival Festival

STYLE World / Jazz / Hip Hop All styles / Family friendly Modern Trad progressive Anything heavy Modern Jazz Open to all public Creation Folk / Trad / theme-dependent Modern Rock / open to all public All styles / evenings only All styles All styles Rock by emergent bands All styles Puppets / no Hard Rock Jazz
Modern / World

CONTACT Yann Guillemot Séverine Garreau Joël Bernard Stephane Riou Anne Millour Arno Christophe Mevel Christelle Bellec Phillipe Revers Sonia Lassaigne Tristan Maryse

3 4 5 4&5 5 4&5 4&5 4 4&5 4 3&4 3 4&5 4&5 5 2&3 4 3 4&5 4

POLYROCK
LES PRINTEMPS DE CHATEAUNEUF

LE QUARTZ LE RUN'AR PUNS FESTIVAL SONORES SORTIE DE BAIN LE STERENN
TEMPS FETE SUR DOUARNENEZ

LE TROCK'SON TROUZ AN NOZ LE VAUBAN
LES VENDREDIS DE BENODET

Thierry Guillo Jean-Jacques Toux Hervé Croguennec Yvon Arzur

LES VIEILLES CHARRUES ZIC A SANSEO LES JEUDIS DU PARC TY THEATRE JAZZ'Y KRAMPOUEZH LES ARTIST'CHAUDS

Jean-Marc Omé Joëlle

82

The Pack

TEL 02 98 55 20 61 02 98 57 79 33 02 98 30 30 15 09 82 40 14 75 02 98 33 95 23 02 98 86 27 95 02 29 00 40 01 02 98 71 53 90 02 98 50 26 31 02 98 92 29 29 02 98 88 09 94 02 98 91 54 98 02 98 46 06 88 02 98 57 05 46 02 98 99 25 45 06 30 92 06 84 02 98 54 64 03 02 98 54 63 31 09 62 16 98 21 09 53 54 40 66

ADDRESS 2 rue du Dauphiné 29000 Quimper Mairie 29280 Plouzané Régie scène quai de la Douane 29200 Brest 2 rue du Tilleul 29590 Rosnoën 60 rue du Château 29210 Brest Route de Pleyben 29150 Châteaulun 6 rue Guy Ropartz 29200 Brest Marie 29360 Clohars Carnoët Rue Jacques Prévert 29910 Trègunc 29 boulevard Charles de Gaulle BP 96 29174 Douarnenez 55 rue Auge de Guernisac 29600 Morlaix Menez Goulien 29600 Morlaix 17 avenue Clémenceau 29200 Brest Mairie 29950 Bénodet 17 place de la Mairie BP 204 29834 Cahraix Foyer des Jeunes 29600 Sainte Sève Pleuven animations fêtes 29170 Pleuven Saint Cadou 29950 Gouesnac'h Global’art 24 Karangal 29920 Névez Espace 2000 29233 Cléder

MAIL yann.guillemot@mptpenhars.com severine.garreau@ville-plouzane.fr regie-scene@wanadoo.fr printemps-chateauneuf@wanadoo.fr anne.millour@sopab.fr arno@runarpuns.com contact@penn-ar-jazz.com s.culture@clohars.carnoet.fr mjctreg1@free.fr artistique@tempsfete-dz.com trockson@gmail.com ghislain.guillerme@wanadoo.fr

timguillo@orange.fr contact@vieillescharrues.asso.fr croguennec.herve@wanadoo.fr

ty.theatre@orange.fr jean-marc.ome@wanadoo.fr lesartistchauds@gmail.com

83

The Pack

DATA-BASE OF CONCERT VENUES IN THE MANCHE
No. of TOMAHAWk

NAME LA NUIT DES ABRINCAT'S BREHAL ANIMATION BIG WALTER LE TRIDENT
JAZZ SOUS LES POMMIERS

TYPE Festival Summer events Association Concert hall Festival Concert hall Festival Town hall Concert hall Festival Association Festival Festival Festival Association Town hall

STYLE All styles All styles All styles National stage / All styles Jazz Folk / World Modern Open to all public All styles Electro Music Modern Open to all All styles All styles All styles Open to all public

CONTACT Romain Chasles Patrice Desbleumortiers Laurent

3 &4 3 3 5 4&5 3&4 4&5 3&4 3&4 3&4 3&4 3&4 5 4&5 3&4 3&4

Denis le Bas Viaud Antoine Isiah Morice

LA MAISON DU SON
CHAUFFER DANS LA NOIRCEUR

LES TRAIN-TAM ARTS L'AUTRE CAFE GOOD STOCK ECRAN SONIQUE LES HETEROCLITES LES PAPILLONS DE NUITS ART' AZIMUTES HAGUE 'N' ROCK LES MARDIS DE VILLEDIEU

Adrien Dogon Pierre-Olivier Madelaine Benjamin Christophe Lenoury

84

The Pack

TEL

ADDRESS 50300 Avranches

MAIL artscaddies50@gmail.com brehal.animation@ville-brehal.fr laurent@bigwalter.com laboite@trident-sn.com jslp@jazzsouslespommiers.com direction@maisonduson.org cdln1@wanadoo.fr mortain.tourisme@wanadoo.fr rochequiboit@wanadoo.fr staff@oneisgood.fr nicolas@lenormandy.net artplume@club-internet.fr contact@papillonsdenuit.com organisation@lesartzimutes.com Ted.dollar@hotmail.fr contact@ot-villedieu.fr

02 33 91 96 93 02 33 94 58 78 02 33 88 55 50 02 33 76 78 60 02 33 32 83 33 02 33 07 91 91 02 33 59 19 74 02 33 48 57 81

Bréhal animation BP 4 50290 Bréhal 33 rue de Bougainville 50100 Cherbourg Place Général de Gaulle 50100 Cherbourg Les unelles BP 524 50200 Coutances 14 rue de l'Aunay 50620 Graignes 1 rue du Rey 50590 Montmartin / Mer Office de Tourisme 50140 Mortain 50240 Saint Laurent de Terregatte Place Émile le Rendu 50200 Coutances

02 33 57 60 96 02 33 05 03 26 02 33 69 20 40 06 62 53 67 64 06 13 79 71 28 06 30 92 06 84

BP 330 5000 Saint-Lô 165 rue du Mesnilcroc 50000 Saint-Lô 11 route de Cuves 50670 Saint-Pois Hôtel de Ville 50110 Tourlaville Rue Saint Martin 50460 Urville-Nacqueville 8 place des Costils BP 32 50800 Villedieu-Les-Poêles

85

The Pack

DATA-BASE OF SW COUNTIES OF THE UK
No. of TOMAHAWk

NAME BUNTERS THE STUDIOBAR BAR 35 THE RED LION THE BLUE BAR THE NEW IN CAFE IRIE LUSTY GLAZE FISTRAL BEACH BAR EDEN CAFE MISS PEAPODS THE GRAPES THE KINGS HEAD VERTIGO THE WILLIAM IV CAFE MYLOR JERICHO'S BLACK DOG HAICUTTERS THE ROYAL INN PAR LIVE BAR TRURO BELUSHI'S LIVEWIRE The RASHLEIGH GASLIGHTS TH PRINCE OF WALES BAND CLUB St AUSTELL

TYPE Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club

STYLE All All Folk, rock, blues, DJ's Rock, blues, folk Folk, blues, reggae Rock, blues, folk Acoustic, pop, folk, blues All, no metal All Acoustic, folk, pop, reggae Acoustic, folk, pop rock Rock, blues, acoustic Acoustic, pop, folk, blues Acoustic folk, pop, blues Rock, blues, pop, folk Acoustic, folk Rock, folk, acoutsic, punk Punk, rock Rock, blues, folk, acoustic, pop All Rock, blues, acoustic Rock, metal, blues Rock, blues, folk, pop All Rock, blues, folk Punk, rock, métal

CONTACT Liam Andy Jo Ben Hall Katie Steve Gary Nick

1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4

Ashley Van Dyke Ian Hudson

Steve Jamie Murphy

Mandy

Beardy Andy Nicki Carol

86

The Pack

TEL 1872241220 7720498480 1288353535 1637872195 1209890329 1726813901 1637859200 1637872444 1637879444 1726338114 1326374424 1326314704 1326319469 1872276555 1872273334 1326377743 1566770080 1326318131 1726815601 7980131194 1637859111 1752843570 172673635 1209218393 1326311114 172672483

ADDRESS 58 Little Castle Street Truro, TR1 3DL, Bread Street Penzance, Cornwall TR18 2EQ Belle Vue Lane, Bude, Cornwall EX23 8BS Quay Cottage, North Quay Hill, Newquay, Cornwall TR7 1HE Porthtowan Beach, TR4 8AD Fore Street Tywardreath, Par, Cornwall. PL24 2QP 38 Fore Street Town Centre, Newquay TR7 1LP, Lusty Glaze Road Newquay, Cornwall TR7 3AE, Headland Road Newquay, Cornwall TR7, Eden Project Cafe, White River Place, Saint. Austell Commercial Road Penryn, Cornwall TR10 8FG, 64 Church Street Town Centre, Falmouth TR11 3DS, 32 Church Street Falmouth, TR11 3EQ, 15 Saint. Marys Street Town Centre, Truro TR1 2AF, Kenwyn Street Truro, Cornwall TR1 3DJ, Mylor Yacht Harbour, Falmouth, Cornwall, TR11 5UF 4 Northgate Street Launceston PL15 8BD, 42 Church Saint , Falmouth, Cornwall The Royal Inn, 66 Eastcliffe Rd, Par, Cornwall. PL24 2AJ The Live Bar, 9A River Saint, Truro, TR1 3DL 35 Fore Street Town Centre, Newquay TR7 1HD The Waterside, Brooke Close,Saltash,PL12 4EN Charlestown Rd Saint Austell, Cornwall PL25 3NJ Gaslights, Redruth, Cornwall, TR15 2PP 4 Market Strand Falmouth, TR11 3DB East Hill Saint Austell PL25 4TR,

MAIL info@buntersbar.co.uk alex@studiobar.com thirtyfive.lounge@facebook.com

info@cafeirie.co.uk info@lustyglaze.co.uk info@fistral-blu.co.uk avandyck@EdenProject.com misspeapodsmusic@gmail.com

info@vertigotruro.com williamiv@staustellbrewery.co.uk info@cafemylor.com jamie@castlerockfestival.co.uk blackdoghaircutters@hotmail.co.uk info@royal-inn.co.uk livebartruro@live.com

Info@livewireyouth.com rashleigh@staustellbrewery.co.uk gaslightsbar@btconnect.com

87

The Pack

No. of TOMAHAWk

NAME INN ON THE GREEN THE BRIDGE ON WOOL TOAST THE QUEENS HEAD THE SHIP INN LOOE THE OYSTERCATHER THE LONDON HILL BETHEL SOCIAL CLUB BOWGIE INN BLUE ANCHOR THE BROOK HOUSE INN BULLERS ARMS LOOE CARNGLAZE CARVERNS PRINCESS PAVILIONS HALL OF CORNWALL GINHOUSE GALLEON INN FINN MC COULS HARBOUR TAVERN HARBOUSIDE KEAY ST AUSTELL THE TAPHOUSE DRIFTWOOD SPARS NUMBER 20 GYLLY BEACH CAFE

TYPE Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club Club

STYLE Rock, blues, folk All Pop, acoustic, DJ's Rock, blues Rock, blues, acoustic Soft rock, blues, acoustic Acoustic, blues, pop rock, folk Rock, blues Rock, blues, folk, pop Rock, blues, folk, pop Rock, blues, folk, pop Rock, blues, folk, pop All All All Rock, blues, folk acoustic All Rock, folk, blues, acoustic Rock, blues, folk, acoustic Blues, rock, folk, acoustic All Rock, folk, blues, acoustic Rock, folk, blues, acoustic Rock, folk, blues, acoustic Folk, blues, reggae

CONTACT

1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4 1à4

Frank

Pip Mark Michelle Wendy or Dick

Helen Lisa

Di Ramsden James

Mark Charlotte

88

The Pack

TEL 1288356013 1208812750 1326219255 1726822407 1503263124 1208862371 1579326756 172674941 1637830363 1326562821 1637850791 1503264325 1579320251 1326211222 1872262466 120878778 1726833014 1326318653 1726842220 172669246 1726226777 1872552428 1872552428 1326377379 1326312884

ADDRESS Crooklets Beach, Bude, Cornwall EX23 8NF The Platt Wadebridge PL27 7AQ 18 Church Street Falmouth TR11 3DR 1 The Square, Saint Stephen, Saint Austell PL26 7SQ Ship Inn, East Looe, Cornwall, PL13 1AD Oystercatcher, Polzeath, Wadebridge PL27 6TG, School Hill St Neot, Cornwall PL14 6NG Saint. Austell PL25 3HW West Pentire Newquay, Cornwall TR8 5SE 50 Coinagehall Street, Helston, Cornwall, TR13 8EL 70 Henver Road Newquay, Cornwall TR7 3BN Bullers Arms, Looe Saint. Neot Liskeard, Cornwall PL14 6HQ 41 Melvill Road Falmouth TR11 4AR Back Quay Truro, Cornwall TR1 2LL 5 The Piazza Crockwell Saint Bodmin PL31 2DS 12 Fore Street Fowey, Cornwall PL23 1AQ Killigrew Saint, Falmouth, Con, TR113PG, Jetty Street, Mevagissey, Cornwall, PL26 6UH Harbour Front, Charlestown, Saint Austell, PL25 3NJ The Keay, Tregonissey Road, Saint Austell, PL25 4DJ The Taphouse, Peterville Square, Saint Agnes Trevaunance Cove Saint Agnes, Cornwall TR5 0RT, 20 Lower Market Street, Penryn TR10 8BG Cliff Road Falmouth, TR11 4PA

MAIL info@innonthegreen.co.uk sara-hargreaves@hotmail.co.uk info@toastfalmouth.co.uk

oystercatcher@staustellbrewery.co.uk

sally@bowgie.com theblueanchor@btconnect.com thebrookhouseinn@hotmail.co.uk

ginhouse@hotmail.co.uk info@galleon-inn.co.uk finn.mcouls@facebook.com

pierhouse@btconnect.com info@thekeay.co.uk Taphouse@hotmail.co.uk music@driftwoodspars.co.uk

cafe@gyllybeach.com

89

The Pack

DATA-BASE OF CONCERT CAFéS IN NORMANDY AND BRITTANY
No. of TOMAHAWk

NAME OF VENUE LE PIANO BLEU LE MEMES TRA LE CENTURY OISEAUX DE PASSAGE LE KORONG LE TREMARGAD KAFE LE CELLIER LE GALOPIN LE ROXY CAFE LE BAROQUE LE HAVANA CAFE LE CAFE THEODORE LE MANOIR ELFIQUE LE PIXIE LES VALSEUSES LE BISTROT DE LA MARINE LA CABANE BAMBOU'S LE TRIAGOZ LA MI TEMPS LE KERGANER

STYLE All styles Soft / Accoustic Rock / Electro All styles All styles All styles Open to all public Accoustic Open to all public Open to all public Festival/Rock/Punk All styles Open to all public All styles All styles Open to all public Open to all public Open to all public All styles All styles

CONTACT Franck

TEL 02 96 33 41 62 02 96 68 91 88

3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 2 3 3

Niko Benjamin Frederic Fred Jean-Jacques Fif

02 96 85 17 79 02 96 85 13 90 02 96 29 63 19 02 96 36 51 81 02 96 73 81 67 02 96 21 15 85 02 96 86 62 59

Danny Aurélie Denis ou Ben Audrey Julien ou Yvain Jean-Marc Olivier

02 96 31 65 93 02 96 37 15 20 02 96 35 29 40 02 96 46 36 64 02 96 37 65 32 02 96 48 75 19 02 96 70 87 38 02 96 15 48 69

Pascal Angélique et Aldo Karine et Laurent

02 96 91 92 82 02 96 24 91 02 02 96 22 33 44

90

The Pack

ADDRESS 4 rue Fardel Saint-Brieuc 22000 Saint-Brieuc 11 place du Martray 22000 Saint-Brieuc 24 place Duclos 22100 Dinan 20 rue de la Chaux 22100 Dinan 9 place du Centre 22110 Glomel 1 rue du Lavoir 22110 Trémargat Le Bourg 22170 Boqueho 20 rue Saint Nicolas 22200 Guingamp 1 chemin du Bonheur 22250 Lanrelas 11 rue de Penthièvre 22270 Jugon-les-Lacs 42 rue de Tréguier 22300 Lannion Hent Kerguerwen 22300 Trédrez-Locquémeau Manoir de Kerloas 22300 Ploulec'h Porche du 73ème Territorial 22300 Lannion 1 rue de la Coudraie 22300 Lannion 38 Quai de la République 22410 Saint-Quay-Portrieux 22560 Trébeurden 2 rues des iles 22560 Pleumeur-Bodou 3 rue de la Gare 22570 Gouarec Le Bourg 22580 Lanloup

MAIL

nikbout@hotmail.com

lahay.frederic@orange.fr lapepie@orange.fr

legalopin.guiguamp@orange.fr zycos@roxy22.com lebaroque@live.fr aurelie.callac@sfr.fr cafetheodore@orange.fr manoirelfique@orange.fr lepixie22@yahoo.fr lesvalseuses@wanadoo.fr contact@bistrotlamarine.com

pascal.jonnas@orange.f la.mitemps@orange.fr kerganer@gmail.com

91

The Pack

No. of TOMAHAWk

NAME OF VENUE L'ÉPROUVETTE ETC LE MILLIA BAR LE DOCKYARD LA TAVERNE DES KORILS LE PUB FOLETTE TAVARN ABADENN LE TOUT COULEUR LE SOUPSON LE LOLLY PAPAYE LE PETIT VILLAGE AN POITIN STILL L'AFTERWORK LE CEILI LE TAPA'SOIF O'PATCHWORK CAFE DES HALLES LE BILBAO LE CLONAKILTY PUB LA FERME DE GWERNANDOUR LE BISTRO

STYLE Open to all public All styles Rock, Blues All styles

CONTACT Sylvie et Olivier Yann Gilles Gerard et Nathalie Yvan Riwall

TEL 02 96 82 26 42 02 96 31 86 30 02 96 23 01 34 02 96 23 06 40 02 96 67 41 57 02 96 74 41 12 02 96 23 46 26 02 96 61 46 27

3 2 3 3 3 2 et 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 2

World All styles Open to all public All styles Rock Electronic music Open to all public All styles All styles All styles Open to all public Rock All styles Rock et Blues

Yvette

Christophe Henry Mich Raphael Kevin Gildas et Sarah Gildas

02 96 86 39 67 02 96 32 44 39 02 98 90 02 77 02 98 53 46 17 02 98 95 17 61 02 98 76 15 84 02 98 95 05 72 02 98 92 02 75

Aurelien Flo Jean-Yves Benjamin

02 98 66 92 06 02 98 86 01 13 06 07 82 72 57 02 98 97 06 05

92

The Pack

ADDRESS Le Bourg 22630 Saint André-des-Eaux 8 rue du Méné 22640 Plénée Jugon 2 route Kernu 22700 Louannec 15 rue des Écoles 22700 Louannec 1 rue du Porhoe 22230 Gomené 2 rue Jules Ferry 22000 Saint-Brieuc Liv an noz 118 route Palud 22730 Trégastel 52 rue docteur Rahuel 22000 Saint-Brieuc Rue Saint Sieu 22770 Lancieux Le petit Village 22800 Lanfains 2 av de la Libération 29000 Quimper 2 rue Saint Marc 29000 Quimper 4 rue Aristide Briand 29000 Quimper 18 rue du docteur Picquenard 29000 Quimper 4 place Pierre de Ronsard 29000 Quimper 3 place des Halles 29100 Douarnenez 50 rue Nationale 29140 Rosporden 13 rue Baltzer 29150 Châteaulin Ferme de Gwernandour 29190 Braspart 9 rue des Écoles 29900 Concarneau

MAIL leprouvettebar@gmail.com lemilliabar@gmail.com marquetgi@sfr.fr la.taverne.des.korils@orange.fr latriplettedezinguee@orange.fr riwallam@bzh5.com toutcouleur@wanadoo.fr lesoupson22@gmail.com

anpoitinstill@wanadoo.fr

kevin.gloaguen@gmail.com tapasoif@gmail.com

francineaurelien@orange.fr clonakiltypub@gmail.com

93

The Pack

No. of TOMAHAWk

NAME OF VENUE LA CIGALE L'ATHOME CAFE LA BODEGA AMAYA LA GUARIDA LE CUBE A RESSORT LE TARA IN TOM CAFE ZE BAR QUAI OUEST LE TY JEAN BART LE SHERWOOD LE VELVET CAFE L'ODYSSEE CHEZ CHOUCHOU L'ABRI COTIER LE CAFÉ DES SPORTS ORIGINAL CAFE TAD COZ PUB LE GAIN'S BAR LE BRETAGNE

STYLE Modern All styles Rock/Rock'n'Roll All styles All styles - no drum kit Irish folk sessions Accoustic All styles Blues / Jazz / Rock 60's Rock / Blues Rock Rock / Blues / Punk All forms of Rock All styles Accoustic Rock & Accoustic Blues rock

CONTACT Fabien Thierry ou Carine Christophe Mr Aguilera Mathieu Mr Orelly Stéphane

TEL 02 98 07 40 34 02 22 08 11 71 02 98 80 67 60 02 90 82 21 96 02 98 43 97 70 02 98 80 36 07 02 98 44 13 31 09 82 53 60 70

2 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 1à3 3 2 3 2 2 2 2

Yann Tito Louis Serge Charly Rico Patrick Christian & Dany David

02 98 28 73 45 02 98 29 95 43 02 98 29 01 08 02 98 29 77 26 02 98 84 23 16 02.98.06.87.63 02 98 71 50 05 02 98 71 87 96 02 98 39 06 92 02 98 39 50 47 02 98 59 02 07 02 98 40 37 35

All styles All styles All styles except

Florent Nelly

94

The Pack

ADDRESS L'assoCIAL 57 rue de la République 29200 Brest 8 rue Hegel 29200 Brest 39 rue Kérivin 29200 Brest 7 rue Mathieu Donnart 29200 Brest 7 rue de l'Harteloire 29200 Brest 1 rue Blaveau-Port de commerce 29200 Brest 8 rue Augustin Morvan 29200 Brest 465 rue Julien de La Gravière 29200 Brest 18 rue Saint Christophe 29210 Le Conquet 10 rue Keraval 29250 Sibril 4 rue du 4 août 1944 29250 Saint-PoL de Léon 650 rue de Sieck 29250 Santec 2 place Cheminan 29290 Saint-Renan 10 rue Savary 29300 Quimperlé Le Port/rive droite 29360 Doélan 3 rue de Pont Aven 29380 Le Trévoux 45 rue de Pont-Aven 29300 Quimperlé 11 rue de Rosporden 29380 Bannalec Route de Bannalec, roz rhun 29390 Scaer 10 place du Calvaire 29470 Plougastel Daoulas

MAIL lacigale@orange.fr

bodegaamaya64@yahoo.fr laguarida@live.fr vincenttermael@hotmail.fr

delenclos.stephane@bbox.fr

quaiouest.leconquet@sfr.fr timi1340@orange.fr lesherwoodst@orange.fr / louis@le-sherwood.com levelvetcafe.serge@neuf.fr trigent.charly@voila.fr / callmm@mailoo.org

christian.brusadin@orange.fr

florent.hiliou@orange.fr nagasaki-hiroshima@caramail.com n.inizan@laposte.net

95

The Pack

No. of TOMAHAWk

NAME OF VENUE LE CLUB LE MELEN DU TOST DAN DUD LE COULEUR CAFE L'AUTRE RIVE LA CONTENTA LE DANIELS LE PEN AR BED LE MAC LAUGHLIN'S LE KELTIA LA CHALOUPE LE MOL AUX VIEUX GREMENTS TY BINIOU LES EMBRUNS BRASSERIE TRI MARTELOD CAFE DE L'ATLANTIC LOS AMIGOS LE MARTIN'S O'PATCHWORK

STYLE Rock / Blues Rock anglophone All styles Electronic / Reggae / Rock Jazz / French folk Rock vintage/ rockab Rock / folk / festive All styles

CONTACT Chantal Valérie Luc

TEL 02 98 59 51 96 02 98 86 91 47 02 98 81 14 68 02 98 63 97 25

2 2 1 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 1 2 3 2 2 3 2

Marc Alain Marco Yannick John

02 98 99 72 58 02 98 91 05 24 02 98 82 66 75 02 98 54 36 75 02 98 70 43 77 02 98 85 17 60 02 98 84 01 19 02 98 84 00 34 02 98 48 70 26

Trad (Breton, summer) Rock / Blues / Jazz Jazz Open to all public Rock / Folk / Reggae

Bruno Martial Milo

Mireille

02 98 40 71 52 02 90 82 60 92

All styles Open to all public All styles Rock / Fusion / Hip Hop All styles except extremes

Bob Aurélie Séverinne Mick Gildas

02 98 66 20 22 02 98 50 70 18 02 98 50 51 23 02 98 50 68 81 02 98 95 05 72

96

The Pack

ADDRESS Place de l'Église 29500 Ergue Gaberic 17 rue des frères Floc'h 29530 Plonévez du Faou 29590 Loperec 11 place Cornic 29600 Morlaix Restidiou vraz 29690 Berrien 2 rue de la Mairie 29710 Gourlizon Route de Saint Jean 29720 Plounéour-Lanvern 2 route de Penhors 29720 Plovan 65 place de la Mairie 29790 Beuzec-Cap-Sizun 11 rue du Pont 29800 Landerneau 70 route de Porspaul 29810 Lampaul-Plouarzel Route de Porpall 29810 Lampaul-Plouarzel 48 rue du Port 29830 Portsall 9 rue du Maréchal Leclerc 29860 Plabennec 180 route de Doenna 29870 Landéda Zone d'aménagement concerté Colguen 29900 Concarneau 23 avenue docteur Nicolas 29900 Concarneau place de l'Hôtel de ville 29900 Concarneau 29900 Concarneau 4 place Pierre de Ronsard 29000 Quimper

MAIL rene.nourry@wanadoo.fr melen.du@orange.fr tostdandud@live.fr

lautre-rive@hotmail.fr

andre_yannick@yahoo.fr johnleboucher@hotmail.fr benoit.leudet@gmail.com martial.chal@gmail.com

mireille.toullec@sfr.fr barlesumbruns@hotmail.fr

micha.mar@orange.fr gildas.lancien@yahoo.fr

97

The Pack

No. of TOMAHAWk

NAME OF VENUE PORTRAIT DE FAMILLE LE BULGARE LE PASSE TEMPS FAORZH PENAOZ LE BAR HIC L'ATELIER DE L'ARTISTE LE TY ANNA LE CAFE DES BRICOLES LE CAFE LAVERIE CLUB JAZZ LA HARPE LE COMBI BAR LE DEJAZEY LE GASOLINE L'ARTISTE ASSOIFFE L'ESPRIT CAFE LA BASCULE LA QUINCAILLERIE GENERALE LA VIE EN CHANTIER LA LANTERNE LE BARABIS

STYLE Pop rock All styles Open to all public Open to all public All styles All styles All styles

CONTACT Jean-Phillipe Karine Pierre Anto Gueno Ben Gueno Perinne

TEL 02 98 97 17 40 02 98 06 71 48 02 98 59 17 29 02 98 70 93 05 02 30 83 45 50 02 99 79 60 98 02 99 79 05 64 02 99 67 23 75 02 99 38 86 62 02 99 59 45 38 02 99 30 50 19 02 99 38 70 72 02 99 65 48 87 02 98 48 63 27 02 23 20 97 07

2 1 2 3 3 3 2 3 2 4 2 2 3 3 1 4 3 2 1 1a 4

All styles / Modern Jazz, improvisation Electronic Accoustic / Rock Rock Reggae

Céline Max Guillaume Jean-Noël Philippe

Rock Open to all public Accoustic All styles Open to all public

Hervé Rodrigue

02 99 33 10 40 02 99 28 23 05 02 99 79 49 12 02 99 79 61 40

Fabrice

02 99 75 23 64

98

The Pack

ADDRESS 19 rue Dudont Durvil 29900 Concarneau 21 place de l’Église 29920 Névez 1 place de l’Église 29970 Trégourez 18 quai Français Libres 29990 Île-de-sein Place des Lices 35000 Rennes 2 rue Saint-Louis 35000 Rennes 19 place Saint-Anne 35000 Rennes 17 quai de la Prevalaye 35000 Rennes 18 rue de Robien 35000 Rennes Avenue Charles Tillon 35000 Rennes 55 rue Legraverend 35000 Rennes 54 rue de Saint-Malo 35000 Rennes 24 rue Nantaise 35000 Rennes 4 rue Saint-Louis 35000 Rennes 35000 Rennes 2 rue de la Bascule 35000 Rennes 15 rue Paul Bert 35000 Rennes 18 quai Émile Zola 35000 Rennes 13 quai Lamennai 35000 Rennes 3 rue de la Tremoille 35000 Rennes

MAIL wilfrid@hotmail.com

morgane.kerdreux@laposte.net

cafelaverie@hotmail.fr max@laharpe.net combibar@club-internet.fr rio1961@yahoo.fr legazoline@hotmail.fr jeffersbay@orange.fr

veronique.marsollier@sfr.fr lebarabis@yahoo.fr

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No. of TOMAHAWk

NAME OF VENUE LE BAROCK LE CHANTIER LE PAPIER TIMBRES LE SCARAMOUCHE

STYLE Blues, Death Metal, HxC Electro Pop Folk Accoustic Rock Garage / 60's Rock, Pop, Fusion The temple of French Folk All styles All styles / Festive All styles + show All styles Rock, Pop-Rock, Blues Music for all French Folk/Hip Hop All styles Metal / Indus /Hardcore All styles Open to all public All styles Prefer Rock

CONTACT

TEL 02 99 31 43 48 02 99 31 58 18 09 52 52 11 25

2 4 2

Olivier Jean-No Seb Bruno Jérome Valérie Corinne Bruno Bruno Philippe Emmanuel Patrice Patrick Rémi William Martial et Laurence Jean-Claude

02 99 31 55 53 09 60 17 33 45 02 99 31 07 51 02 99 36 32 38 02 99 80 28 04 02 99 96 23 45 02 99 44 48 52 02 99 07 44 05 02 99 52 62 60 02 99 43 50 95 02 99 99 84 52 02 99 00 30 79 02 99 06 80 50 02 99 81 48 08 02 99 40 82 23 02 99 17 05 18 02 99 39 50 84

2 3 4 3 3 1 et 2 3 2 1 et 2 4 1à4 2 3 3 2 3

LE MELODY MAKER LE OAN’S PUB LE SABLIER LE TRIC'HORN KAFE LE BAR’OUF LE D37 L' AIR DU TEMPS LE BLOSSAC L'ECRIN LE COQUELICOT LES PETITS CURIEUX LA FONTAINE DE BROCELIANDE LE CUNNINGHAM LA BELLE EPOQUE LE MELLOUEN LA GODINETTE

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ADDRESS 11 boulevard Magenta 35000 Rennes 18 carrefour Jouaust 35000 Rennes 39 rue de Dinan 35000 Rennes 35000 Rennes 14 rue Saint-Mélaine 35000 Rennes 1 rue Georges Dottin 35000 Rennes 70 rue Jean Guéhenno 35000 Rennes 14 Colombel (lieu-dit) 35120 Saint-Marcan 9 rue du Cheval Blanc 35130 La Guerche de Bretagne 1 place du Relais 35130 Amanlis 12 côte Saint-Genou 35160 Monterfil 6 place du docteur Joly 7 rue Maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny 35240 Retiers 18 rue de Vitré 35300 Fougères 3 rue du Forgeron 35220 Broons-sur-Vilaine 3 rue de la Mairie 35380 Saint-Péran 2 rue des Hauts Sablons 35400 Saint-Malo 11 rue de Dinan 35400 Saint-Malo 1 place Saint-Martin 35420 Mellé 11 rue du Mont Saint-Michel 35490 Romazy

MAIL renaud.lebarock@gmail.com

barmelodymaker@live.fr sebbesi@yahoo.fr

jerome@trichornkafe.com tarmac1@free.fr

jlguinebault@orange.fr brem@orange.fr strobi.neler@orange.fr jazzetjava@wanadoo.fr les-petits-curieux@orange.fr fontaine.broceliande@orange.fr cunningham@wanadoo.fr

martiallemaire@neuf.fr jean-claude.gastebois@laposte.net

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No. of TOMAHAWk

NAME OF VENUE LE MACHIN TRUK L'ACCUEIL BRETON LE GRAAL BAR LE TRIOLET L'AIR DU TEMPS LE CANCALAIS LE MONDO BIZARRO LE TROUSSE CHEMISE BRASSERIE DES HALLES LA CICCIOLINA LE BRUIT QUI COURT LES VALSEUSES SERVAN'S CAFE (LE)* L'ELOGE DE LA LENTEUR LE CHEYENNE CAFE LE GALWAY INN LE BAR IKADE LE GALION LE QUAY STREET LE SARAH B

STYLE French Folk All styles All styles All styles French Folk / Rock All styles Modern / Live extreme French Folk Jazz All styles All styles All styles All styles

CONTACT Alexandre Alain Mika Aurélie Bruno Antoine Bruno Jean-Paul Nicolas Chatelet Antonella

TEL 02 99 75 19 81 02 99 57 02 72 02 99 47 89 53 02 99 76 53 58 02 99 07 44 05 02 99 81 15 79 02 99 87 22 00 02 99 68 24 07 02 97 54 08 34 02 97 47 85 44 02 97 54 32 47

3 et 4 1 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 ou 4 3 3 et 4 2 et 3 2 et 3 2 2 3 1 3 et 4 3 3 et 4

Micka et Aurélien Glen Thierry et Nadia

02 97 26 86 15 02 97 54 31 97 02 97 68 10 57 02 97 21 85 93 02 97 64 50 77 02 97 35 07 31 02 97 37 41 23 02 97 64 38 48

Blues rock / All styles All styles Accoustic All styles All styles All styles

Dan Padraig

Jean-Claude

02 99 90 74 60

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ADDRESS 25 rue Embas 35500 Vitré 13 rue de la Provotais 35580 Guichen 15 place de la Mairie 35640 Martigne-Ferchaud 2 rue du Chanvre 35680 Bais 2 cote Saint Genou 35160 Monterfil 1 quai Solidor Le Cancalais 35400 Saint-Malo 264 avenue du Général Patton 35700 Rennes Le bourg 35850 Langan 9 rue des Halles 56000 16 rue de Chateaubriand 20 rue Saint-Patern 56000 Vannes 47 rue Maréchal Leclerc 56000 Vannes 10-12 rue porte Poterne 56000 Vannes 10 rue de la Loi 56000 Vannes 16 rue de Chateaubriand 56000 Vannes 35 avenue Jean Jaurès 56100 Lorient 18 rue de Belgique 56100 Lorient 52 rue Paul Guieysse 56100 Lorient 2 rue Florian Laporte 56100 Lorient 18 rue Poissonière 56100 Lorient 9 quai Saint Antoine, le vieux Port 56130 La Roche-Bernard

MAIL lemachintruk@gmail.com accueilbreton@gmail.com revolutionmika@hotmail.fr pepsgarret@wanadoo.fr martin.bruno49@yahoo.fr

rocketprod@free.fr troussechemise@free.fr nicolas.chatelet@wanadoo.fr uniquement via Facebook

les-valseuses@hotmail.fr glen.abf@hotmail.fr lelogedelalenteur@gmail.com lecheyenne56@gmail.com sarlmanon@wanadoo.fr

lesarahb@hotmail.fr

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No. of TOMAHAWk

NAME OF VENUE LE SABOT ROUGE LE BRASSIN BELGE LE CAFE DE LA PENTE LE BISTROT DES HALLES LE MOULIN VERT LE GRENIER A BIERE LE CONTRETEMPS TAVARN POUL FETAN THE PHOENIX LE SERVAN'S CAFE AUX ANGES LE CHAT QUI PECHE LE COOTA BAR LA DENT CREUSE LE GORVELLO LE CARGO CHEZ MAMM KOUNIFL LE QUAI LARGO LOCOS MOSQUITOS LE CHAMP COMMUN

STYLE All styles Folk / World / Festive All styles All styles All styles All styles Jazz afro blues All styles Rock / Blues / Jazz / Reggae All styles All styles All styles All styles no extremes Festif /Rock All styles All styles Folk / Trad / theme-dependent Modern Rock / Rockabilly Open to all public

CONTACT

TEL 02 97 51 24 38

3 3 3 3 3 2 1à4 4 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 et 3 2 et 3 3

Angelo Murielle Joel & Patricia Fred Sylvie et Olivier Sam Isabelle Jean-louis et Chantal Glen Benoit et Gurwand Jean-Marc Sam Jean Christian Donald Marc Jean-Jacques

02 97 42 87 16 02 97 43 40 11 02 97 26 15 59 02 97 82 94 92 02 97 07 01 84 02 97 50 77 38 02 97 39 79 73 02 97 24 10 85 02 97 54 31 97 02 97 27 75 92 02 97 55 24 70 02 97 55 92 55 02 97 42 33 41 02 97 43 00 71 02 97 84 51 51 02 97 33 92 37 02 97 36 73 79

Ewan Anne

06 63 97 69 63 02 97 93 48 51

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ADDRESS 6 rue Bisson 56160 Guémené 2 rue de la Paix 56190 Le Guerno 9 rue du vieux Bourg 56220 Rochefort en terre 5 rue des Halles 56230 Questembert 1 quai Gilles Gahinet 56270 Plœmeur 15 rue Leperdit 56300 Pontivy 24 rue du Jeu de Paume 56400 Auray Village Poul Fétan 56310 Quistinic 19 place Saint-Sauveur 56400 Auray 10 rue de la Loi 56000 Vannes Lieu dit 56310 Quelven 2 cours des Quais 56410 Etel Kerhillio 56410 Erdeven Chez Monsieur Franck Guillo - Le rivage 56420 Guéhenno 41 rue des Ducs de Bretagne 56450 Theix 34 rue du Port 56570 Locmiquélic Route de Port-Louis 56570 Locmiquélic 9 place de l'Église 56680 Plouhinec 7 rue Clément Adère 56700 Hennebont 1 rue clos Bily 56800 Augan

MAIL auxsabotsrouges@yahoo.fr brassin.belge@wanadoo.fr commission.musique@gmail.com

le-moulin-vert@hotmail.fr grenier.a.biere@orange.fr lecontretemps@orange.fr fetanzik@gmail.com

glen.abf@hotmail.fr auxanges@orange.fr jmls56@wanadoo.fr lecoota@gmail.com contact@ladentcreuse.org gorvello.cafe@wanadoo.fr marc.caboureau@orange.fr info@mamm-kounifl.fr

titisse21@hotmail.fr contact@lechampcommun.fr

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No. of TOMAHAWk

NAME OF VENUE LE THY'ROIR LE TY ZEF LES MATELOTS ROSS & CO LE VINTAGE LE SOUBOCK O'BARAY'O LE SCUBA LES TROIS PILIERS L'OREILLE CASSEE LE COYOTE BAR BE BACK SOON EMA LA GUIMBARDE BEER HUNTERS LE TRISKELL LE BARJO LE CARNET DE ROUTE LE REVEILLON LE CERCLE EMERAUDE

STYLE Open to all public Accoustic All styles All styles Open to all public Modern All styles All styles All styles, except extreme All styles, except extreme Rock / French Rock / Punk Anything that grooves Rock / Punk Rock / Blues / Reggae tout style sauf extreme Open to all public Jazz songs Folk, Jazz, Country Celte / Folk / Chanson

CONTACT Cléo Loïc Bruno Ross et Camille

TEL 02 97 74 05 21 02 97 51 81 94 02 97 31 89 51 02 31 86 28 76 02 31 87 41 47 02 31 25 00 65

3 3 2 et 3 3 et 4 1à3 4 et 5 3 3 2 et 3 1à3 1à4 2 3 1 et 2 1à4 1à4 1 1 4

Cédric et Caro Alban Yohan Thomas Azad et Kate Babeth Audrey et Pierre Yves Antoine Christian & Julien Denis Dominique Bob

02 33 58 03 33 02 33 22 10 32 02 33 45 01 31 02 33 45 02 08 02 33 45 08 24 06 36 90 22 26 02 33 59 03 95 02 33 90 45 75 02 33 45 01 01 02 33 29 70 03 02 33 27 06 23 02 33 25 04 67 02 33 66 61 54

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ADDRESS 19 rue de la Gare 56800 Ploermel / 8 boulevard Foch 56800 Ploërmel 14 bis promenade des Estivants 56930 Saint-Nicolas-des-Eaux Port du Palais - Belle île-en Mer 56360 Le Palais 71 rue de l'Oratoire 14000 Caen 8 quai des Passagers 14600 Honfleur Route de Saint lambert 14770 Cauville 42 rue Saint Gervais 50300 Avranches 19 rue de la Marine 50100 Cherbourg 11 rue des Halles 50200 Coutances 31 rue Geoffroy de Montbray 50200 Coutances 58 rue Saint-Nicolas 50200 Coutances 2 place de la Gare 50170 Pontorson 50 rue de la République 50600 Saint-Hilaire-du-Harcouët Z.a. de la fosse aux Loups 50600 Saint-Hilaire-du-Harcouët Rue Louis Beuve 50200 Coutances 33 rue de Sarthe 61000 Alencon 61000 Alencon Le bourg 61400 Réveillon Vallée de la Vère 61430 Athis-de-l'Orme

MAIL prog.thyroir@yahoo.fr leptitzef@orange.fr cafe-des-matelots@orange.fr camille.musso@orange.fr maquette a envoyer par courrier contact@soubock.com obarayo@orange.fr alban.hamelin@orange.fr les3piliers50@orange.fr delamarethomas27@hotmail.fr pradisco@gmail.com bebacksoon50@yahoo.fr laguimbarde2007@orange.fr beerhunters@hotmail.fr marie.chrisstian@yahoo.fr denisbarjo@orange.fr lecarnetderoutes@free.fr bobtinker@wanadoo.fr cercle.emeraude@laposte.net

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BATTLE OF THE BANDS (FRANCE)
DATE OF CLOSURE Mi janvier Mi décembre Début avril Mi janvier Mi janvier Mi janvier Début mars Mi février Fin mars Mi mars Fin mars Fin avril Mi mai Début sept. Fin octobre Fin novembre Fin octobre Mi octobre NAME OF EVENT FIMU ROCK'N'SOLEX POLYSOUND ZIC ME UP TREMPLIN MUSICAL MUSIQUE DE RU LABEL MOZAIC ROC'HAN FEU LE FAIR SZIGET Le PIC D'OR TREMPLIN GRAND OUEST TREMPLIN AMJA DETOUR ADAMI MIDEM « BUZZ TALENT » CHORUS DES HAUTS DE SEINE PLM LE TRANS’PLIN DE L’ERDRE PLACE Belfort Rennes 35 Landerneau 29 International Guichen 35 Régional puis national Rennes 35 Rohan 56 National Hongrie Tarbes ( 65 ) Brest ( 29 ) Angers National National et International Hauts de Seine ( 92) National Nort sur Erdre www.crous-rennes.fr www.labelmozaic.com www.rochanfeu.com www.lefair.org www.magikblender.fr/tremplinsziget.html www.picdor.net/inscription.php www.astropolis.org www.amja.fr www.adami.fr www.midem.com www.chorus.hauts-de-seine.net www.manufacturechanson.org www.lanuitdelerdre.fr WEB SITE www.fimu.com www.roknsolex.fr www.tremplin-polysound.blogspot.com www.zicmeup-tour.com STYLE Tous styles Musiques actuelles Musiques actuelles Tous styles Musiques actuelles Artistes étudiants Tous styles Musiques actuelles Musiques actuelles Musiques actuelles Chanson française Musiques actuelles Chanson Musiques actuelles Musiques actuelles Musiques actuelles Chanson Musiques actuelles

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DATE OF CLOSURE Décembre Mi novembre Début déc. Fin décembre Début janvier Fin mars Toute l'année Toute l'année Début mars Fin avril Novembre Fin décembre Mi juillet Entre jan. et avr. Fin octobre Mars Début sep. Début octobre

NAME OF EVENT LE MANS CITE POUPET ROCKTAMBULE PONT DU ROCK FESTIVAL DE LA CHANSON DE BAR ROCK EN STOCK RICARD LIVE SA LES AGITES DU BOCAL CHALLENGES MUSICAUX TREMPLIN MUSICAUX DE PENESTIN LES PETARINETTES COUVRE FEU JEUNES TALENTS JEUNES CHARRUES LA RUEE VERS L'AURE MILONGA PACE MOI LE SON PRINTEMPS DE BOURGES

PLACE Le Mans 72 85 Poitiers 86 Malestroit (56) Pornic 22 Etaples sur mer 62 National Pougastel Daoulas 29 Brest 29 Pénestin (56) Université de Brest 29 Corsept 44 Montauban 35 Bretagne Bayeux 14 National (Pacé 35) régional, puis national

WEB SITE www.lemanscitechanson.com www.festival-poupet.com rocktambule.poitiers@ascem.fr www.aupontdurock.com www.pornic.fr www.rockenstock.org www.ricardsa-livemusic.com www.mairie-plougastel.fr www.lacarene.fr www.mairie-penestin.com service.culturel@univ-brest.fr www.couvrefeu.com jeunestalents-montauban.com/ www.vieillescharrues.asso.fr/jc www.larueeverslaure.webs.com www.tremplin-milonga.com www.mjcpace.com/rdv-culturels.html www.printemps-bourges.com

STYLE Chanson, pop, rock Musiques actuelles Musiques actuelles Rock Chanson Musiques actuelles Tous styles Musiques actuelles Rock indé Musiques actuelles Tous styles Musiques actuelles Tous styles Musiques actuelles Acoustique Chanson Tous styles Tous styles

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DATE OF CLOSURE Fin mai Juillet Toute l'année Toute l'année Mi mars Novembre Mi mars Toute l'année Fin fevrier Mi mars Mi juillet Mi octobre Avril Fin mars Fin mars Avril Toute l'année Janvier

NAME OF EVENT OCTOBRE ROCK BLUES SUR SEINE LES INROCKS LAB EMERGENZA MOTOCULTOR 1,2,3 RUN BUZZ BOOSTER 29 SFR JEUNES TALENTS IMAGINE VIVE LA REPRISE QUARTZ ARTISTUP SI CA VOUS CHANTE TREMPL'IN BARS BREIZH BATTLEFIELD ROACK L'HAND LA BRIGADE DEMINEURS PRIX ADAMI / DEEZER

PLACE Meslin (22) Mantes la Jolie (78) National National Bretagne Bretagne National National National National National National National Grand ouest Bretagne Bretagne Brest agglo National

WEB SITE http://octobrerock.free.fr/ www.blues-sur-seine.com www.lesinrocks.com www.emergenza.net www.motocultor-festival.com www.runarpuns.com www.tremplinbuzzbooster.com wwww.sfrjeunestalents.fr www.fc.imaginefestival.fr www.irma.asso.fr www.qwartz.org playme-official.com chantez94@gmail.com assodette22@yahoo.fr www.bzh.me/regbreizhbattlefield www.raok-evenement.org www.lacarene.fr www.adami.fr

STYLE Rock Blues rock Tous styles Tous styles Métal Musiques actuelles Hip hop, rap Tous styles Tous styles Chanson Électro Tous styles Tous styles Tous styles Métal Tous styles Musiques actuelles Musiques actuelles

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NOTES

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BEHIND THE SCENES

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THE HARD REALITY OF A SECTOR IN A STATE OF FLUX
‘No man is a prophet in his own country’ (Jesus 0018). Every band is unique and it’s not easy to find ‘your’ public without the opportunity of navigating the higher echelons of the music business, even within an expansive cultural context such as Europe, where musical performance should flourish. There are the whole range of niche audiences out there, alternative networks stretching right across the continent and the highly developed style-specific professional channels are very present and active. There remains, however, the language barrier which is the fundamental barrier preventing the myriad of networks Europe-wide from connecting up. Coupled with the language problem, cultural consumer habits have also been deeply affected by the disappearance of the CD, and the obsolescence of physical audio support. To the chagrin of the Majors, music is increasingly perceived by the younger generation as a free commodity, obtainable by a simple click of a mouse. Consequently, a band which does not have access to widespread media, can really only count on live performances as a source of revenue. Hence it is that diffusion is surely the major issue today for any band wishing to become professional and remain independent and autonomous. THE PUBLIC: changes in cultural consumerism Mass consumerism & the culture of mass In our society of ‘mass’, we are all fed, via the mass media, mass culture, or “entertainment culture’’. A society of mass is a society of unrestrained consumption (mass consumerism), where the media wheedle their way into everybody’s life, even the ears of the most isolated individual are reached. If in by-gone days the media was elitist, today it is well and truly open to all - mass culture (the antonym of alternative culture), and with the rise of mass culture, we have experienced a slow but sure standardisation of almost everything. By definition mass media must gloss over differences through its programming, smooth out tastes and style and curtail extremes. As has been mentioned a few times throughout the Muso’s Guide, the outmoding of audio support has had a deep effect on our patterns of cultural consumerism. And, coupled with this, mass culture has become a threat to our cultural diversity which only a profound and radical effort of awareness raising and sensitising of the public can reverse The simple reality is: All those hard drives chock-a-block with MP3 files, of which about 1% we actually listen to, where the artist has become, for the average consumer at least, a file number lost in the memory of a computer. . A shocking number of people are ready and willing to go 300km and crack £100 to watch a star in concert, but are not sufficiently motivated

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to go and see a little local band in a little local pub for nothing! The king is dead! Long live the king! New digital supports. on-line TV: enter a global media for all the family For sure, conventional television is still by far the most popular mode of viewing by the majority of families, but major audio-visual manufacturers, like Sony with their on-line box or ‘’Google TV’’, whilst not wanting to provoke the leading channels, are making in-roads. This is where the future is heading, and you don’t have to be Nosferatu to know where we, the public, stand in all this. Presently you will be able to surf the web, consult the weather, road conditions, listen to your favourite radio stations, view programs, control your heating and lights (home automation), play on-line and, of course, listen to your favourite music. Digital Tablets Offers all the same benefits as the on-line TV, but you have the convenience of being able to go nomad with 3G technology.

The vinyl revival For the past 6 consecutive years, sales of vinyl records have increased in the US, topping 3.5 million in 2011, up by 12% on 2010 sales (2.8 million). Over the same period, global album sales (CD and digital) have dropped by 13% per year; proving the steady decline of the CD. This said, in 2010, the humble CD still represented 73% of album sales, against 25% for legal download platforms. Vinyl sales in 2010 accounted for a 2% of the global sales, and the trend is definitely upwards. On the one hand we have the big record companies who are feeding the niche market demands from the punk, heavy metal and reggae quadrants; and on the other hand, the electro DJ’s also display a bent for the classic vinyl support. Guess which vinyl album sold the most copies in 2011? The Beatles’ ‘’Abbey Road’’, with 41000 albums.

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THE CONTEXT, FRANCE / UK
Mutation of consumer habits:
Music is the 3rd favourite cultural activity for the French (and according to the INSEE, playing an instrument was the French’s first hobby in 2010). They listen to 70 minutes/day, either at home (90%), or in the car (74%). The majority is French music (51%), international variety (34%) and Classic (34%). Pop and rock accounts for about 31% of listenership and jazz 22%. Radio and TV are the two main media for music listeners. (44%). Radio is the No.1 media for discovering new talent (70%) 75% of French people never go to concert halls or festivals The main target group is 15-25 year-olds. For 25% of our young music is their passion, they listen to at least 1 and a half hours per day (64% during travelling time – car/train/metro). 90% view their favourite artists on specialised websites. TV and radio are becoming gradually less popular with the younger generations.

(study ordered by SACEM/Report MIDEM 2011 & studies carried out by the Ministry of Culture) To sum up, the figures show the tendency in Europe towards 3 main modes of music consumerism: nomad (during travel time), private (at home) and live (concert). Nomadic consumerism: this is where music is listened to on car radios and MP3 players/phones during daily obligatory travel time. The average worker spends 1hour 30 minutes getting to and from work, and it’s during this time that they zap between stations and discover new talent. Stay at home consumerism: the rise of the screen culture. This happens mainly on sites such as YouTube and Daily Motion, and is largely adopted by the 15-25 age range. Less money for going out with, risk of losing your license if you have one too many, just a lot easier to get a pizza, a few beers and veg out on video clips or films. Lots of info about those new modes of consumerism www.pearltrees.com/#/Nfa=29185&Nu=1_2905 &N-p=4959169&Ns=1_796483&Nf=1_796483 Live consumerism: One quarter of the French population claim to frequent concert halls and festivals. The figures though, show a strong tendency for the public to head out to the larger events or ‘’cultural entertainment events’’ (French and international variety being the general style). Bearing in mind the cultural choice prevalent in France, a large section of the French public singularly lack curiosity, preferring to play safe and go to the events that offer assured and popular values and tastes. For stats lovers: www.cnv.fr/statistiques-sur-la-diffusion-des-spectacles www.data.gouv.fr/donnees/view/ Fr%C3%A9quentation-des-concerts-de-rock-oujazz.-Evolution-1973-2008-551887?xtmc= frequentation+concert+rock+jazz&xtcr=1

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INTERNET AND THE NEED FOR NEW BUSINESS MODELS
The context: A hard landing in the digital era The Majors, perched high on their certainties, seem to have drastically under-estimated the internet, and were taken utterly by surprise by the digital deluge of our era. Like dinosaurs gripping to the old economic and marketing models of another time, they were unable to let go and react before the precipitous void opened beneath them and their profits plummeted. Their interest in the new media came about when they realised that it was the pirating of material that was causing their CD sales to go through the floor. Their first reaction was to lobby governments and put in place a media plan that condemned the dirty downloaders and blamed the public, even though this practice was already well and truly integrated into the daily lives of the young, and had been for ages. The upshot was that the Majors, in their desperation, entered into long and bloody conflict with no other than their own clientele! This petty reaction gave out disastrous message which, needless to say, had, and is still having, catastrophic effects on their public image and profits. The foundations of digital distribution: Digital distribution requires no storage space: the primary cost-cutting factor. The second major factor (and crucial in the distribution of anything) is transport; digital distribution requires no reps on the road, no transport of CDs to shops, no hauling around POS (point of sales) paraphernalia – the cost of which is added on to the retail price. Exit the transporters (and the cost linked to everincreasing fuel prices) ! Third factor, the cost of reproduction is peanuts, and it costs little more to sell 100000 songs than it does for one. The fourth and last factor is the new and cheap way of attracting the consumer: mass referencing, where powerful software is used to recommend “similar” products and orient internauts (web surfers) towards other items purchased by clients with a similar “profile” to your own: “clients who bought this also bought....”. You are also invited to write your comments on specific products.

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Today’s new top dogs, French context: Manufacturers of Data processing equipment and the internet service providers (ISP); these are the modern barons of music business, the ones that call the shots that impact greatly upon the entire industry. Their supremacy in fire-power, make companies like Warner, Sony or Universal look like ice-cream sellers at the sandpit. What better example to illustrate the point than the music streaming site Deezer and their star-studded list of investors which includes various ISPs such as Free (via Pixmania) and France Telecom. A second example is Orange’s Wormee, launched in 2008. Needless to say that commercial negotiations at this level of the game resemble more trench warfare than cordial ententes around a cup of tea. The interactions are numerous and complex with groups like Vivendi owning the ISP SFR as well as the major Universal and the TV channel Canal+. The France Telecom group owns the ISP Orange and is also a majority shareholder in the streaming site Dailymotion. The commercial war raging between all these entities is only adding to the general opacity. Unwittingly then, the ISPs and manufacturers have re-modelled the industry in such a way as to actually offer alternative diffusion channels to the majors. The latter, being well and truly entrenched in the post-soviet era, still display great reluctance in relieving themselves of their last trump card: physical distribution. If we study the power relations betwixt the traditional majors and the new boys on the block, we can deduce to a fairly accurate degree the future

of the music market. The challenge, of course, is whether the music producers can adapt and keep pace with the global transformation of the market. As dear old Charles Darwin found: Adapt or die! Towards new business models: the Apple example The incontestable market leader in digital distribution, iTunes, currently holds 66.2% of the global market! It is actually a model based purely on a service proposed by (and uniquely, for) the manufacturer, Apple. The music itself is nothing more than a commodity, used by a dataprocessing giant to sell their hardware: iPhones, iPods etc. (Today, over 275 million iPods have been sold worldwide). According to IHS, AppStore (Apple’s on-line app shop) will turnover $2.9 billion, generated through countless million application downloads. (The average cost of an app being $0.99). Digital market becomes top model: the domineering weight of the ISPs and mobile phone manufacturers In 2011, sales of digital material via streaming sites and applications represented 32% of the global market, otherwise put; 5.4 billion dollars! Even with illegal downloads on-line sales are on the up. We are still a mighty long way off the figure generated by album sales during the golden age of the CD, but what we are witnessing today is only the embryonic phase of a mutating market, consumer habits are changing as we speak. The spectacular success of the smartphones offered by ISPs is due as much to pure technological innovation of the product itself, as to the highly

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attractive prices for the servers’ all-in-one deals. Designed to perfection, smartphones also come with their ‘’apps’’, a whole new market of gustiness where the giant Apple holds an almost unchallenged monopoly. In the near future, sales via smartphone apps will be a very viable option, and one which we, the indie bands, must be aware of and ready to exploit for promoting our music. Once again, it’s strings to your bows, don’t hesitate to mix and match all the vectors you like to get through to your public. Concerning the French “taxe sur la copie privée”, the project launched by Sarkozy in 2011 for the creation of a tax collected from internet service providers is still in the incubator. The incredible political and economic pressure have killed it in the egg. This tax should have made it possible to collect a hundred million euros to finance a new institution called The National Centre of music and variety (CNM), where nearly all public funding schemes and grants for the music sector (the afore mentioned “civil structures”) would have been be centralised. The CNM would also have been charged with promotion and development of legal music diffusion via the web and the implementation of the regulation stating ‘’l’usage des mesures techniques de protection du droit d’auteur...’’ (“the use of technical measures for the protection of author’s rights...”). Performers Rights The question of performers rights, very often obscured by copyrights, is a poignant and extremely tetchy one. It remains almost impossible for a musician to realise these rights. For example, a musician records a harmonica track for a song, the rights to which have been

ceded to Universal. The part of the song where our man’s harmonica can be heard is later used for the trailer of an all-american block-buster; result: 3.8 million hits on internet. Our harmonica friend gets not a penny. In whose pocket does the money go? The publisher (who sold the rights), Universal (who profited enormously through bums on cinema seats as a result of the promotional trailer) and Orange (the ISP), both of whom are owned by the Vivendi group... Once again the fat cats get fatter on the lean meat of the musos An example: YouTube www.youtube.com/watch?v=KdHUQtnJsyQ “Fair use”: another example of the overpowering force of the service providers (ISPs) There is a movement afoot in the US and to a lesser extent in the UK, to exploit certain protected works, once their use has been deemed “...reasonable and proportional, in the common interest of the public”. This is “Fair Use”. It is now possible to procure music from the web without seeking authorisation from the author, as long as it is used in the sphere of education, science, parody and, yes, even for journalistic purposes. If this isn’t the archetypal Pandora’s box of stealth and obscurity, what is? The result of Fair Use being free and bountiful web content for the ISPs and consequently increased web ‘traffic’ and therefore increased sales of phone contracts, digital tablets and smartphones, all off the backs of our authors. In France, Google, owner of YouTube, have recently been pleading - so far in vain - with the government for a revision of French rights

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law, with a view to introducing a Fair Use policy under the pretext that “...its absence is stifling digital innovation within the territory”. “Digital economy Act” vs. the “hadopi” law: same, same The music sector’s response concerning copyright protection and the exploits of the mass-media is almost exclusively aimed at sanctioning the web user: you download illegally, the author (or their rights holders) identify your IP address and pass them on to your internet provider. Under the above two laws, the ISP is then expected to begin legal proceedings against you. Both laws stipulate a gradual procedure of action by the ISPs progressing from a letter of warning to the definitive cancelation of your broadband subscription. The origins of both acts can be traced back directly to the ISPs themselves in the UK and the Haute Autorité pour la diffusion des œuvres et la protection des droits sur Internet (Hadopi, a French public authority). Websites supporting the exchange of files which are protected by authors rights are by default targeted by these acts. In France, there is an enormous amount of money in play, and the ISPs are quick to point the finger and use their hypocritical argument about the importance of freedom of speech and communication. Hyper-rich as they are, these huge organisations slow down judicial procedures by appealing court hearings and lobbying councils of state and politicians into delaying laws while they continue to mine the gold.

Add to this the considerable human and financial resources required and the present financial crisis, it becomes extremely complicated to apply this regulation Towards a “global license” The core problem of today’s Music Business, is the question of copyright protection. One imaginable solution would be to impose a nominal levy, of say €4, right at the beginning of the chain with every internet subscription, which is immediately and directly redistributed amongst contributing authors and interpreters (excluding huge publishing outfits and other rights holders). Fully conscious of the fact that a part of their subscription charge goes straight into the pockets of the authors, the internet users would become more accountable and responsible. Music should not come free! Does your plumber? For cultural diversity to endure, we must all participate in the struggle! The only ‘B-flat minor’ is that in the interest of simplicity and in raising the maximum funds as quickly as possible, this tax would also affect those internet subscribers who do not wish to download. In France, a specific tax of €2 collected directly from the ISPs would alleviate the shortfall brought about by private copying and to boost the whole sector via the civil structures (“sociétés civiles”) purely in the name of artistic creation

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THE ECONOMIC REALITY OF THE FRENCH MUSIC SECTOR
The hard reality of the concert café
As we mentioned before, the 80’s & 90’s were the golden age of the French “bistrot”. The “bistrot” used to be the lynch-pin of cultural and social exchange but over the years thousands of these little pubs & bars, so essential for the exposure for young bands and artistic expression, have been finding it increasingly difficult to survive. Breton publicans (“bistrotiers”) have always swallowed the cost of the gigs they put on... grants? You’re joking! Yet their doors are the first that young bands dare knock on for their first performances. So, a sad fact it is that these hubs of social and cultural exchange in the community are becoming scarce and increasingly empty in recent years. In the Uk the situation is pretty much the same: unless you are a well known band that can assure your local publican a horde of fans with cash in their pockets for bevies you will find it increasingly difficult to find a well-paid gig. If you wish to venture beyond your local patch you will often be asked to guarantee a certain amount of customers before even being considered, no matter how good you are. Some publicans operate on a pay-to-play basis, which really is going a little over the top, no? Of course many publicans are music appreciators and like nothing more than to put on a band every so often to maintain a faithful clientele. However, to reduce the financial risk, they will often play the we’ll-see-how-it-goes card, maybe offering a figure between £100 and £300, leaving the band hoping and praying for a good crowd. If the place is chock-a-block with a beer-consuming crowd, great! It would’ve been worth your while. If, though, the only public is the 3 local drunks holding up the bar, you’re going to lose out; and this is a startlingly common occurrence, the main reasons being: The obsolescence of audio support has given rise to a totally digital generation, a global phenomenon without precedence that has contributed to a cultural standardisation and a rapid reshaping of consumer habits worldwide – individualism is now the new trend. The crash in purchasing power and repressive straight-jacket drink-driving laws and smoking laws are natural inhibitors to grabbing the car-keys and heading off down the pub for a cheap, or even free gig. The obligatory live-music licence. In France, if an establishment organises more than 6 concerts per year, they must apply for a category 1 licence from the DRAC (Direction des affaires Culturelles, le ministère de la culture), an action which has the negative effect of changing the ‘principle activity’ of the establishment, automatically transforming them into a ‘category L’ venue (public performance hall). Holders of category L licences find themselves subject to the same rigorous planning regulations (ERP norms) as conventional municipal and subsidised

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halls, no matter how big or small the premises, and regardless of whether the walls belong to the publican or not. In the UK, the PRS for Music is in the process of relaxing the laws (http:// www.prsformusic.com). Acoustic standards & regulations are often the nail-in-the-coffin for the small concert pub and many cease to stage bands due to the shear cost of phonic insulation, interior modification and the fines they receive for non-compliance. Many face administrative closure if they refuse to pay. Some indicative statistics provided by the French national platform of the Café culture, “Bar Bars” •almost 30,000 cafés have closed within one last generation •between 1998 and 2002 live performances in concert cafés decreased by 30% •the past 10 years have seen 31% of venues reduce their opening hours and/or their programming due to night-time noise restrictions. More information on this very active group at: bar-bars.com Complaints from neighbours: a significant restraint on amplified performance and it’s a fact that in urban settings complaints about noise levels is the primary cause of small venues going out of business. Rural venues are also affected but to a lesser extent. Complaints from close inhabitants can have a profound effect on the dynamism of an area: one single filed complaint can spell the end of a venue that

provides the necessary cultural needs for a good part of the local population. Vague laws & a lack of acknowledgement on the part of French institutions The live exposure of amateur performers in France is in deadlock, and represents a major problem which must be confronted by event organisers and musicians alike. Today, two options are open: Professionals Event organisers declare a legal payment for each musician. It’s important to remember that for smaller venues declaring a live performance involving 3 musicians corresponds to a shell out of about €510, excluding accountancy. To break even the organiser must sell more than 350 half pints of beer during the evening. If we take an average of 1 pint per person, we are looking at an audience of about 180 people. The professional musician in France must become an intermittent du spectacle, a situation which requires a solid entourage of music sector professionals - labels, bookers, managers etc. - which are becoming increasingly hard to find. He must also have privileged contacts within the civil structures in order to meet the financial demands of the music industry. Amateurs According to law, a young French band wishing to play at an amateur level today, must play for free, having signed a contract declaring his voluntary status. Only travel expenses may be reimbursed on presentation of the appropriate invoices. Remuneration of amateur artists is therefore a real problem in our day and age, and one which fails to be taken seriously by regional

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cultural politics. The national platform of the Café culture, Bar Bars, attempts to counter the problem by bringing together institutions, artists, politicians and motivated people from the private sector Another example of the problems encountered by concert cafés: www.irma.asso.fr/DU-CAF-CONC-AUX-CAFES The “intermittent du Spectacle”, how does it work? Let’s come clean about the fantasy of the intermittent du spectacle. It is a legal status in France which is basically the status of long-term unemployment. All is resumed in 3 letters A.R.E. or allocation d’Aide au Retour à l’Emploi. In short, if an artist can drum up 507 hours of work (through precarious contracts of 12 hours for artists and 8 hours for technicians) in 10 months - otherwise put: 319 days - he/she earns the right to 243 days of allowances that are calculated using the average remuneration per contract. For example, if the average payment is €90 net, and there has been no work for the past month, the Pôle Emploi will pay out roughly €1250 in benefits. The challenge is, once again, to try to total 507 hours of contracts before the 243 days of indemnity elapse. Failure to do so means a return to the starting block, the RSA (a benefit designed to alleviates insufficient salaries). As one can see, nothing too glorious. If you need more info, go this way => www.intermittent-spectacle.fr/forum/ And here, you’ll find many useful tips about your rights: www.cip-idf.org/IMG/pdf/Brochure_CAP_ avril_2012.pdf

What is the GuSO? The Guichet Unique du Spectacle Occasionnel is for event organisers who do not possess a entrepreneur de spectacle licence. The GUSO allows for organisers whose principal activity may be something entirely different, to put on up to 6 events per year, and to declare the services of artists and technicians relatively simply. The organiser logs on to the GUSO website (https://www.guso.fr/webguso/accueil) and registers themselves free of charge. An identification number is then supplied allowing access to the appropriate GUSO documents, one to be sent in before the concert, the second up to 15 days after, and a declaration form providing information concerning: > work contracts > the declaration of the global remuneration and all employment contributions due > the “déclaration annuelle des données sociales” DADS (annual declaration stating the number of employees, salaries paid etc) > employment certificates (for the Pôle Emploi) > certificates of employment for the Congés Spectacles. And that’s it! If you organise your own concerts, you can, via an association, use GUSO for all your admin declarations, but only for 6 events per year. Over and above 6 dates it’s the licence Entrepreneur du Spectacle.

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Entrepreneur de Spectacle Licence As mentioned above, if an organiser wishes to program more than 6 events per year, this is the licence he/she must obtain from the ministry of culture and communication. There is a small dossier which can be downloaded and filled in, after which there is no limit to the number of events which may be scheduled, generally through an association. All that remains is for the organiser to declare any and all ‘’intermittents’’ fees incurred. THERE ARE 3 LICENCE TYPES: Category 1 licence: adapted for organisers wishing to exploit an existing live music venue (ERP type security training obligatory) Category 2 licence: authorises organisers to draw up contracts regarding those involved in the artistic performance: “intermittents’’, musicians and technicians etc. Category 3 licence: permits organisation of events, ticket-sales contracts, receiving the public and site security. However, this licence does not authorise the drafting of contracts for participants of the artistic presentation itself. From a musician’s standpoint it’s the category 2 licence which allows you to draw up your own contracts and declare your remuneration. www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/infos-pratiques/ formulaires/dmdts/11781-01.pdf Current earnings for bands in Brittany Concert cafés: €100 - €500 (£80 to £300 in the UK) depending on the prestige of the venue and the proprietor.

Small festivals (for emergent bands): between €500 and €2500. hierarchy of networks / subsidised culture The music sector in France relies heavily on subsidies. Concert halls, festivals, rehearsal studios, associations and music schools conforming to political cultural programs all receive state aid. A hierarchy of national, regional and local networks, are responsible for the distribution of funds: La FEDUROC: (federation of concert halls. National) L’UFIS: (Union Fédérale d’intervention des Structures Culturelles. National) BRETAGNE EN SCENE: Network of culture halls in Brittany. Regional 4 AS ET +: Departmental network of cultural platforms in the Cornouaille region of Brittany, based on the pooling of means and resources. Departmental) Le Collectif des festivals engagés pour le développement durable et solidaire en Bretagne: 25 festivals (régional). A VOUS LES STUDIOS : (Finistère-based association of specialised live-music structures. Departmental) The network of music schools (instruction in live music performance. Local) The private sector of ‘majors’, also benefits from financial aid for the compiling of catalogues and directories. Taxes collected from audio (CDR, DVD) producers and concert organisers are re-

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distributed via civil structures which support and champion artistic creation, recording, videovideo clips and tours. THESE ORGANISATIONS INCLUDE: L’ADAMI (performers rights) LA SPEDIDAM (authors rights) Le CNV (supports the ‘song sector’ of the

industry, variety and jazz, using funds generated by taxes) La SPPF (Publishers society) La SCCP (Publishers rights) An unexpected windfall for the music industry in France: re-distribution of the tax ‘copie privée’.

author groups

artists and performers ADAMI 50% SPEDIDAM 50%

producers groups

SCPA

SDRM 93,88%

SACD 4,12%

SCAM 2%

SCPA 50% 25% 25% 75,75%

SPPF 24,25%

private copy of visual arts (authors and publishers) SORIMAGE AVA & CFC (authors & editors) private copy of written material (authors and publishers) SOFIA, SEAM CFC & SCAM (authors & editors)

SACEM private audio copy Maunfacturers and importers liable to payment through sales of audio support and hardware

France copy

private audio-visual copy

33%

33%

33%

author groups

artists and performers ADAMI 80% SPEDIDAM 20%

producers groups

SAJE 3,4%

SDRM 53,18%

SACD 31,29%

SCAM 12,11%

PROCIREP ˜98,5%

SCPA ˜1,5%

ADAGP

SACEM

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Up until 2004, the music market was founded exclusively on the physical distribution of audio support, a system well and truly crippled by the arrival of the digital age. Before, the entire workings of the French system was financed by taxes levied from manufacturers of CDs/DVDs and digital recorder and USB devices. Today, the windfall continues to be distributed by an organisation called Copie France which, via the fiscal inspectorate SORECOP, harvests a small commission. The money is then flushed through a number of civil structures for re-distribution; the SPEDIDAM and ADAMI (organisms managing copyrights and rights of interpretation), the SACEM via the SDRM and SACD (author’s society), the SCPP, SPPF, PROCIREP (phonographic and audiovisual producers and publishers). Each and every one

eats a bit of the cake in administration costs as the funds filter down, and at the end of the chain is – you’ve guessed it - the lowly artist in whose name the money was generated in the first place. Any leftovers go towards supporting festivals, structures and resources for professional artists, album recordings and tour support. Indisputably turned in favour of the industry’s professionals, the funds largely go to the big labels and the majors. This said, over 5000 professional projects every year are part-financed by this system (including, festivals, theatre, street performance, puppet shows, art exhibitions, choirs, rap performances, graphic art, craft, multimedia creation, short films, documentaries and live coverage, film direction and circus).

The cogs of the uk music industry

one

two

three

Distributers
= Main agents for collection of rights = Movement of

VPL
(video performance LTD.)

Money In (eg, TV and venues)

Record company (holding the recordings)
Artist Author
8.5% of public price goes to MCPS for mechanical reproduction rights

PPL
(phongraphic performance LTD.)

Money In (eg, radio, jukebox suppliers)

MPC

Publisher (holding the songs)
percentage of levied PRS rights shared with publishers

(mechanical copyright protection society)

Money In (eg, record companies and overseas sales)

PRS
(performing rights society)

percentage of PRS rights awarded directly to the author

Money In (eg, public venues and radio broadcasting)

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on-line sales, a market in full swing The first quarter of 2012 showed that for the first time in history, on-line sales surpassed CD sales in the UK. Digital sales now amount to 55.5% of the market, representing a massive £155.8 million, an increase of 2.7% on 2011, and provide the biggest income for UK artists. This

said, as with the musical landscape in France, physical sales of CDs are in free fall ‒ at -15%, there’s a huge deficit to be made up. British labels systematically use the digital platforms for on-line music sales, providing a myriad of downloading and streaming services and for mobiles (smartphones apps).

A FRANCO-BRITISH STRATEGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF BANDS
The promotion of independent bands: an exploration of the alternative circuits
new promotional supports: video games and smartphone apps The video game represents a market of some 41.9 billion euros (2011), At this rate analysts are predicting a figure of 60 billion euros in 2015! You don’t need to be Nostradamus to imagine the opportunity that on-line game media represents for independent culture. The challenge lies in convincing the video game designers and developers to use their products in aid of music promotion. Obviously, they will have to be convinced of a serious interest for themselves, both financially and in terms of image, and that the strategy delivers a real bonus for the consumer. The growth of smartphone apps, a new vector for independent artists? The inexorable growth in the smartphone (since mid-2012, half of the cell phones sold in France) and ‘apps’ market may open new promotional perspectives for independent bands wishing to auto-produce (ringtones, interactive apps, etc.) Re-organisation of the sector for the development of bands A re-constructed circuit of key players necessary for the development of bands The on-going transformation of the music sector has led to the near extinction of small tour organisers, micro labels, managers and a whole host of people who prefer to throw in the towel rather than continue to expose themselves to the spectre of personal financial ruin. At the end of the day, even for the most radical cultural militant, personal life must come first. > How many event organisers have found

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themselves digging deep into their own pockets to make up the shortfall of their festival? > Or publicans putting up with administrative closure for the sake of a couple of over-excited neighbours? This happens all the time, and these people are the very first links in the chain, with whom bands and their direct entourage work right from the beginning. The solution would be to identify the precise points in the system where the cogs have rusted up, and loosen up the main axles which produce movement and action... The independent circuit: an alternative to the 360°? The 360° strategy was dreamed up by the majors around 2006 in an attempt to counter the falling physical sales of CDs. The principle was to cover all aspects necessary for the development of an artist’s career: production, publishing, concerts, tour organisation, promotion and merchandising, management, press officer, video clip realisation, well and truly trapping the artist in the process. The independent sector covers all these critical areas, albeit on a much more modest and local scale, but everything exists, and, very often, is already in place. With a bit of group backrubbing and communal violin tuning, the many troupers in the alternative world of production are more than capable of coherently and competently filling the hole created by the 360° concept. Bands in emergence are greatly in need of a competence base such as this: creating altogether is resistance in itself!

Getting imaginative with local economies: the challenge of tomorrow? Long has the financial crisis wracked our countries, and the necessity for alternative economical models for the survival of our platforms which are struggling to promote emergent bands, has never been so great. The age-old marriage of beer and blues is one example: for a brewer, concert organisers can offer lucrative opportunities for selling his pints. Why not look at developing in-house breweries for the production of beer for each event? The investment is minimal and, crazy as it seems, it wouldn’t be the first piss-up in a brewery! New economic equations Imagining coherent economic models which enclose all the skill-bases required in the organisation of an event could have a very positive local impact. Commercial agreements between large breweries and festivals are nothing new. Industrial breweries have considerable fire-power when it comes to production and distribution and are consequently in a position to sell their barrel at €50, compared to independent brewers who, working on an altogether different economy of scale, couldn’t drop below €90. But, for a small concert organiser, it is pure business sense which dictates that he goes with the brewer which offers the biggest profit margin: €150 for an industrial keg against €190 for a local beer. In this case, the issue is to create a viable economic model which preserves the brewers revenue (whilst, logically, increasing his sales / output), and optimises the profit margin of the event organiser so that he may finance artistic development. Trying not, of course, to impact too heavily on the consumer (€2 a beer).

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example of the model: 2 participating groups On the one hand, a group of cultural troupers get together and buy the material for putting on gigs – PA, lighting, stage, advertising space etc. This significantly brings down the cost of putting on concerts. On the other, a group of local brewers that pool their orders enabling them to reduce their production costs by negotiating lower prices for bulk malt, hops, delivery etc. The only thing needed now is a willingness to work together. The equation works on paper, but obviously demands a logistical organisation by both parties. There is no miracle solution, just get down and do it! Why not add a third party to the equation? A group of consumers. Using the veg box system or AMAP in France. Here, there already exist associations called AMAC – associations for the support of cultural activities that campaign for cultural exposure, mostly in rural areas. (Why not imagine transposing the same concept into disadvantaged, suburban areas?). Such associations generally spring up as secondary

entities to existing venues or festivals and the two work in synergy to ensure the sustainability of the project. An example of an AMAC specialising in theatre: www.lagrangetheatre.fr/ > Develop parallel activities, poster sticking, filming (video), sound, merchandising production, web-mastering etc. Each cultural structure must have a base of competent and motivated people at its heart, so why not use and pay them? On the down side, this strategy makes heavy demands on the already-stretched human resources of small structures, and can often be to the detriment of initial objectives. Looking to optimise each step as we go, we can, for example, imagine that when organising the poster-sticking for an up-coming event in shop windows and on bill-boards, it would take only a little longer to offer the exact same service for other event organisers. At €0.70 per poster it’s well worth the effort. No? Especially when considering current fuel prices.

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The End Word
Our special thanks to any and all who have reached these final lines. The Indie Musician’s Survival Guide is based on a concept of exchange between musicians, as well as an appraisal of the music world we inhabit today. It is the beginnings of a tool, incomplete and in-the-rough, and we graciously invite any of you to make free with your remarks or criticisms that could enhance the potency of these pages. It belongs to everybody and will continue to evolve and be enriched by the reflections and experiences of all who wish to contribute. Please do not hesitate to contact us by email, or come round and taste a real ale at the farm nestled in the hills of Querrien, SW Brittany! Our doors are always open to the curious, and all motivated Apaches who believe in our cause Participants in the elaboration of the Pack: Little Miss Music Management (Truro UK), Radio Saint Austell Bay (Saint Austell UK), association Chauffer dans la Noirceur (Montmartin-sur-Mer FR)

The Corn’Flux Project was selected under the european program of cross-channel cooperation, INTERREG IVA between France and England, and co-financed by the FEDER.
We wish to thank the 80 bands of the Tomahawk Collective tribe (for the hours of discussion and putting the world to right), The Adventures Of, The Sum Of, Hold the Sun (our brothers from the other side of the Channel), Jean-Marc Le Port (our super Mario of the Mac), Isabel Andreen, MarieNoëlle Le Kervern et Isabelle Kaiser (for believing), and the STC team. www.tomahawk-music.eu / associationtomahawk@gmail.com In support of the Tomahawk Collective Spectacle Vivant en Bretagne / CG29 / Musique et Danse en Finistère / COCOPAQ / La couille de loup

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© Collectif Tomahawk 2012 Tous droits de reproduction, de traduction et d’adaptation strictement réservés pour tous pays Dépot légal novembre 2012 ISBN : 978-2-9543656 Imprimé en France par Cloître Imprimeur à Saint-Thonan (29) Mise en page : Jean-Marc Le Port / Bureau des Graphistes - Lorient Photographies : Hervé Cohonner - Fotolia Traduction : Oliver