Prof.
M A Thiruthuvadoss
Cell: 9445204774
for Excellence in Mathematics
http://www.magicmaths.org
REFORM
Much Needed
Long Overdue
and
A Genuine
TEXT BOOKS vs
GENUINE &
SMART CALCS
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Save
the Children
&
MATHEMATICS!
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
2
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
Tamilnadu Govt. Textbook for Class 6
Example 32:
An article was bought at Rs. 450 and sold for Rs. 500. Find the profit or loss.
Solution: C.P. of an article = Rs. 450
C.P. of an article = Rs. 500
S.P. is greater than C.P. so there is a proft.
Profit = S.P. C.P.
= 500 450 = Rs. 50.
Example 33:
A television set was bought for Rs. 10,500 and sold at Rs. 9,500. Find the profit or loss.
Solution: C.P. of the television set = Rs. 10500
S.P. of the television set = Rs. 9500
Here C.P. is greater than S.P. so there is a loss.
Loss = C.P. S.P.
= 10,500 9,500 = Rs. 1000.
Example 34:
A bag is bought at Rs. 200 and sold at a profit of 10%. Find the selling price.
Solution: Profit = 10% of Rs. 200
=
10
100
x 200 = Rs. 20
S.P. = C.P. + Profit
= 200 + 20 = Rs. 220.
Discuss:
In the above example, we can simplify the procedure as follows:
Selling Price =
100 10
100
+  

\ .
x Cost Price
=
110
100
x 200 = Rs. 220
Article was bought for Rs.450;
Article was sold for Rs.500.
Profit = 500 450 = 50
Profit is Rs.50.
Television set was bought for Rs.10,500
Television set was sold for Rs. 9,500
Loss =10,500 9,500 = Rs. 1000
Profit = 10% of 200 = 20
S.P. = 200 + 20 = 220
Selling Price = Rs.220.
Profit 10%
cost is 100% and selling price is 110%
selling price = 110% of 200
= 1.1 x 200 = Rs. 220
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Text Book vs Genuine Maths
3
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
NCERT Testbook for Class VIII
CHAPTER 4  Profit, Loss and Discount
Example 1: Anwar purchased 120 oranges at the rate of Rs 2 per orange. He sold 60%
of the oranges at the rate of Rs 2.50 per orange and the remaining oranges at the rate of
Rs 2 per orange. Find his profit percent.
Solution: C.P. of 120 oranges = Rs 2 x 120 = Rs 240
60% of 120 oranges =
60
100
x 120 = 72 oranges
Now S.P. of 72 oranges = Rs 2.50 x 72 = Rs 180
and S.P. of the remaining 120 72, i.e., 48 oranges = Rs 2x48 = Rs.96
S.P. of all the 120 oranges = Rs 180 + Rs 96 = Rs 276
Therefore profit = S.P. C.P.
= Rs (276 240) = Rs 36
Hence profit per cent =
36
240
x 100 = 15
Thus Anwars profit is 15%
Example 2: Maninder bought two horses at Rs 20000 each. He sold one horse at
15% gain. But he had to sell the second horse at a loss. If he had suffered a loss of Rs
1800 on the whole transaction, find the selling price of the second horse.
Solution: Total C.P. of the two horses = 2 x Rs 20000 = Rs 40000
Loss = Rs 1800
Total S.P. = Rs 40000 Rs 1800
= Rs 38200 (1)
Now S.P. of the first horse at 15% profit= C.P. x
100 + Profit %
100
 

\ .
= Rs 20000
(100 + 15)
100
= Rs 23000 (2)
S.P. of the second horse = Rs 38200 Rs 23000
Thus, the selling price of the second horse is Rs 15200.
Solution:
Anwars cost price = 2 x 120 = Rs.240  (1)
He sold 60% of mangoes at a profit of Rs.0.50 each
60% of 120 = 0.6 x 120 = 72
Anwar made a profit of 0.50 x 72 = Rs.36  (2)
He sold the rest at Rs.2 only which is his cost (no profit, no loss).
Anwars total profit is Rs.36 on a C. P. of Rs.240
Profit =
36
240
x 100 = 15%
Anwars profit is 15%
Solution:
Cost of 2 horses is Rs.40000 [2 x 20000]
Total loss Rs. 1800
Total selling price Rs.38200
Profit on the first horse is 15% = Rs.3000 [10% is 2000, 5% is 1000]
Selling price of first horse: Rs.23000
So selling price of second = 38200 23000 = Rs. 15200.
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
4
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
NCERT Testbook for Class VIII
CHAPTER 4  Profit, Loss and Discount
Example 4: A farmer sold two bullocks for Rs 18000 each. On one
bullock he gained 20% and on the other he lost 20%. Find his total loss or
gain.
Solution: S.P. of the first bullock = Rs 18000
Gain = 20%
Therefore C.P. =
100 x S.P.
100 + Profit %
=
100 x 18000
Rs
100 + 20
= Rs 15000
(1)
S.P. of the second bullock = Rs 18000
Loss = 20%
Therefore C.P. =
100 x S.P.
100  Loss %
=
100 x 18000
Rs
100  20
= Rs 22500
(2)
Now, total C.P. = Rs 15000 + Rs 22500
= Rs 37500
and total S.P. = 2 X Rs 18000 = Rs 36000
Hence loss = Rs 37500 Rs 36000
= Rs 1500
Example 3: By selling 144 hens, Malleshwari lost the S.P. of 6 hens.
Find her loss percent.
Solution:
First Gain = 20% C. P. is 100% and S. P. is 120%
S.P. of one bullock = Rs 18000
120% is 18000, then 100% is 18000 1.2 = 15000
C. P. of first bullock is Rs.15000 (1)
Second: Loss = 20% C. P. is 100% and S. P. is 80%
S.P. is Rs 18000
80% is 18000, then 100% is 18000 0.8 = 22500
C. P. of second bullock is Rs.22500 (2)
Total cost of two bullocks is Rs.37500 [from (1) and (2)]
Total selling price is 18000 x 2 = Rs.36000
Total loss is Rs.1500
Example 3: By selling 144 hens, Malleshwari lost the S.P. of 6 hens.
Find her loss percent.
This is a Planted Problem, not blending with the level and intensity indicated
by the syllabus here.
Even though there is loss mentioned here, what is the practical, natural
and simple concept here which the child will learn and apply?
How does a problem of this difficulty fit in here? Check the syllabus:
Ratio & Proportion  Slightly advanced problems involving
applications on percentages, profit & loss, overhead expenses,
Discount, tax.
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
5
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
EXAMPLE 1.
Mohit bought a CD for Rs.750 and sold it for Rs.875. Find his gain per cent.
Solution: CP = Rs.75 and SP = Rs.875.
Since (SP) > (CP), mohit makes a gain.
Gain = Rs.(875 750) = Rs. 125
Gain%
gain
= x 100 %
CP
125 50 2
= x 100 % = % = 16 %
750 3 3
 

\ .
 

\ .
EXAMPLE 8.
Rohit buys a geyser for Rs.3680 and sells it at a gain of 7%. For how much does he sell it?
Solution: CP of the geyser = Rs. 3680.
Gain% = 7% =
15
%
2
.
SP of the geyser
(100 + gain%)
= x CP
100
15
100 +
2
= Rs x 3680
100
215
= Rs 3680
200
= Rs 3956
x
`
)
 

\ .
`
)
 

\ .
EXAMPLE 6. If the cost price of 10 greeting cards is equal to the selling price of 8 greeting
cards, find the gain or loss per cent.
EXAMPLE 7. By selling 33 m of cloth, a draper loses an amount equal to the selling price
of 3 m of cloth. Find his gain or loss per cent.
Solution:
Buying price = Rs.750; Selling price = Rs.875
or Bought for = Rs.750; Sold for = Rs.875
Profit = 875 750 = 125 (this is out of the cost: 750)
Profit percent is
125 100 2
x 100 = = 16 %
750 6 3
Solution
Gain = 7% of 3680
= 0.075 x 3680
= 276
Gain is Rs.276
He sells it for 3680 + 276 = Rs3956
Planted Problems, not blending with the level and
intensity indicated by the syllabus here.
3 6 8 0
. 7 5
1 8 4 0 0
2 5 7 6 0 .
2 7 6 0 0 0
This calculation also can be
done in a straightline in one
step by QuickMaths
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
6
Samples From Board (BORED) Textbooks
1) Convert 8.37 into an ordinary fraction.
(Tamil Nadu Std.VI Textbook 2009)
8.37
1 1
= 8 x 1 + 3 x + 7 x
10 100
3 7
= 8 + +
10 100
8 x 100 3 x 10 7
= + +
1 x 100 10 x 10 100
800 30 7
= + +
100 100 100
837
=
100
Note: What is ordinary fraction?
37
8
100
is a mixed number.
837
100
not used;
2) A Simplification. (Tamil Nadu Std.VII Textbook 2009)
9 5 9 33
22 33 22 5
x =
=
297
110
=
77
2
110
=
7
2
10
37
8.37 = 8+
100
37
= 8
100
9 5 9 33
=
22 33 22 5
x
3
2
27
=
10
7
=2
10
Normal
Working in
Boxes
3) Express 1000 as the product of powers of prime factors.
(NCERT Std.VII Textbook 2010)
1000 = 10 x 100
= 10 x 10 x 10
= (2 x 5 )x(2 x 5 )x(2 x 5 )
= 2 x 5 x 2 x 5 x 2 x 5
= 2 x 2 x 2 x 5 x 5 x 5
or 1000 = 2
3
x 5
3
4) This is a problem with Right Circular Cone.
(NCERT Std.IX Textbook 2010)
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
Now
Therefore,
25 7
625 49
576
24
l r h
h l r
m
m
m
m
= +
=
=
=
=
=
Why this PRIMITIVE Approach in every step?!?
In IX Std. why do we need the first line on top?
And why derive the relation for h?
How do they square 25?
How they find root of 576?
2 2
2 2
25 7
32 18
16 2 18
4 6
24
h l r
x
x x
x
m
=
=
=
=
=
=
1000 = 10
3
= (2 x 5)
3
= 2
3
x 5
3
.
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
7
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
Std. VI  Tamil Nadu
Example 88: (page 45)
Arrange the following in ascending order and in descending order:
2 3 5 1
, , ,
3 4 6 4
Solution: Find the equivalent fractions for
2 3 5 1
, , ,
3 4 6 4
by taking
l.c.m. of the denominators.
l.c.m. = 12 3 3, 4, 6, 4
2 1, 4, 2, 4
2 1, 2, 1, 2 3 x 2 x 2 = 12
1, 1, 1, 1
2 2 4 8
= x =
3 3 4 12
3 3 3 9
= x =
4 4 3 12
5 5 2 10
= x =
6 6 2 12
1 1 3 3
= x =
4 4 3 12
Writing these fractions in ascending order.
, , ,
3 8 9 10
12 12 12 12
Therefore
, , ,
1 2 3 5
4 3 4 6
are in ascending order
Similarly we can write these in desc. order
, , ,
5 3 2 1
6 4 3 4
(Why?)
Std. VI  Tamil Nadu
Example 88: (page 45)
Arrange the following in ascending order and in
descending order:
2 3 5 1
, , ,
3 4 6 4
SmartCalc Solution:
L. C. M. of 3, 4, 6, 4
Enough to find L. C. M. of 4 & 6 and this is 12
Taking this 12 as the COMMON DENOMINATOR,
, , ,
2 3 5 1 8 9 10 3
, , ,
3 4 6 4 12 12 12 12
In ascending (increasing numerators 3, 8, 9, 10) order:
1 2 3 5
, , ,
4 3 4 6
[By inspection]
in descending (decreasing numerators, 10, 9, 8, 3) order:
5 3 2 1
, , ,
6 4 3 4
[By inspection]
Note: 1. Placing of commas
2. Primitive method of finding L.C.M
3. L.C.M. to be in capitals  not l.c.m.
4. Unnecessary work for converting fractions
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
8
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
Std. VI  Tamil Nadu (2009)
Example 109: (page 56)
Convert 8.37 into an ordinary fraction.
Solution:
8.37
1 1
= 8 x 1 + 3 x + 7 x
10 100
3 7
= 8 + +
10 100
8 x 100 3 x 10 7
= + +
1 x 100 10 x 10 100
800 30 7
= + +
100 100 100
837
=
100
Std. VI  Tamil Nadu (2009)
Example 45: (page 91)
A man deposits Rs.2000 in a bank. The bank pays interest at the rate of 4%
per annum. Find the interest received by him at the end of 3 years. Also find the
amount to be paid at the end of 3 years?
Solution: Principal = Rs.2000
Rate of interest = 4%
Interest on Rs.100 for 1 year = Rs.4
Interest on Rs.2000 for 1 year =
4
100
x 2000 = Rs. 80
Interest on Rs.2000 for 3 years = 3 x 80 = Rs. 240
Amount = Principal + Interest
= Rs. 2000 + Rs. 240
= Rs. 2240
Std. VI  Tamil Nadu (2009)
Example 109: (page 56)
Convert 8.37 into an ordinary fraction.
SmartCalc Solution:
.
37 837
8 37 = 8 or
100 100
Example 45: (page 91)
A man deposits Rs.2000 in a bank. ... Also find the amount
to be paid received at the end of 3 years?
SmartCalc Solution:
Deposit, Rs.2000 (20 hundreds); Rate of Interest, 4% p.a.;
Period, 3yrs.
Using Proportion
Rate 4% for Rs.100 (1 hundred) for 1yr interest is Rs.4
for Rs.2000 (20 hundreds) for 1yr Rs.80
Rs.2000 .for 3 yrs Rs.240
Interest = Rs. 240
Amount = 2000 + 240 = Rs.2240
Or In single step:
Principal Time Interest
100 1 4
2000 3 ?
Interest =
2000 3
4
100 1
x x =
= Rs.240, ...
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
9
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
Std. VI  Tamil Nadu
Example 117: (page 61)
Multiply: 2.1 x 1.3 x 1.2
Solution:
First multiply: 21 x 13 x 12 2 1 x 1 3
6 3
2 1
2 7 3
We have, 21 x 13 x 12 = 3276 2 7 3 x 12
Total number of decimal places in all the 5 4 6
three numbers is 3 2 7 3
3 2 7 6
2.1 x 1.3 x 1.2 = 3.276
Tamilnadu, VII (2009): Text book
9 5 9 33
x
22 33 22 5
=
=
297
110
=
77
2
110
=
7
2
10
Std. VI  Tamil Nadu
Example 117: (page 61)
Multiply: 2.1 x 1.3 x 1.2
SmartCalc Solution:
1.3 x 1.2 = 1.56
1.56 x 2.1 = 3
1
.2
1
76 (By any QM method)
So 2.1 x 1.3 x 1.2 = 3.276
Note:
12 x 13 = 156 (mentally) and
156 x 21 is the order to be encouraged.
Taking 21 x 13 first is mischivous and with sinister intentions
156 x 21 = 156 x 7 x 3 = 1092 x 3 = 3276 (as 21 = 7 x 3)
156 x 21 = 3120 + 156 = 3276 (as 21 = 20 + 1)
Tamilnadu, VII (2009): SmartCalc:
9 5 9 33
x
22 33 22 5
=
=
27
10
=
7
2
10
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
10
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
Std. VI  Tamil Nadu
Example 122: (page 62)
The price of 30 pens is Rs.172.50. Find the price of one pen.
Solution:
Price of 30 pens = Rs.172.50 5.75
Price of 1 pen = 172.50 30 30) 172.50
= Rs.5.75 150 .
225
210 .
150
150
0
The price of 1 pen is Rs.5.75
Std. VI  Tamil Nadu
Example 122: (page 62)
The price of 30 pens is Rs.172.50. Find the price of
one pen.
SmartCalc Solution:
30 pens cost Rs.172.50
3 pens cost Rs.17.25
1 pen costs Rs.5.75
Do not need Long Division for dividing by 3.
Or
30 pens cost Rs.172.50
1 pen cost =
172.50
30
=
17.25
3
= 5.75
The price of 1 pen is Rs.5.75
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
11
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
Std. VI  Tamil Nadu
Example 54: (page 132)
Area of the four walls of a hall is 360 sq. m. Its length and breadth are 20m and
10m respectively. Find its height.
Solution:
ph = 360 m
2
; l = 20m ; b = 10m ; h = ?
p = 2l + 2b
= 2 x 20 + 2 x 10
= 40 + 20 = 60
p x h = 360
i.e. 60 x h = 360
Dividing both sides by 60,
60 360
=
60 60
xh
h = 6 m
height = 6 m.
Std. VI  Tamil Nadu
Example 54: (page 132)
Area of the four walls of a hall is 360 sq. m. The halls
length and breadth are 20m and 10m respectively. Find the
height of the hall.
SmartCalc Solution:
A = 360 m
2
; l = 20m; b = 10m; h = ?
P = 2 (l + b) = 2 (20 + 10) = 60 m
We know: Ph = A
60 h = 360
h = 6 m
Height of the hall is 6 m.
Following comments refer to page on the left (terrorbook)
What are the two its in the problem supposed to refer
to?
Perimeter is P and not p
On the first line A = 360m
2
and not ph = 360m
2
In algebra P = 2(l + b); not p = 2l + 2b and not p = 2(l + b)
Dividing both sides by 60 etc. is very wicked thinking.
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
12
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
Std. VI  Tamil Nadu
Example 56: (page 133)
A square room of side 16m is 4 m high.
1
4
parts of the area of the walls is
occupied by the doors and windows. Find the cost of white washing the walls of
the room at Rs.3.50 per sq.m.
Solution:
Perimeter of the square room p = 4 a
= 4 x 16m = 64 m
height = 4 m
Area of the four walls = ph
= 64 m x 4 m = 256 m
2
Area of doors and windows =
1
4
x 256 m
2
= 64 m
2
Area to be white washed = 256 m
2
64 m
2
= 192 m
2
Cost of white washing 1 m
2
= Rs. 3.50
Cost of white washing 192 m
2
= Rs.192 x 3.50
= Rs.672
Hence the cost of white washing the room = Rs.672
Std. VI  Tamil Nadu
Example 56: (page 133)
A square room of side 16m is 4 m high. ... Find the
cost of ...
SuperCalc Solution:
side (a) = 16m; height (h) = 4m; cost of ... = Rs.3.50 per m
2
.
A of walls = Ph
= (4 x 16) x 4
= 16 x 16
Area of doors & windows =
1
4
of walls
= 4 x 16
Area to be white washed = 12 x 16 m
2
Cost of white washing = 12 x 16 x 3.50
= 12 x 8 x 7 = Rs.672
Or
For bright thinking:
Area to paint =
3
4
of walls as Doors & windows =
1
4
of walls
=
3
4
Ph
=
3
4
x (4 x 16) x 4 = 16 x 3 x 4 m
2
Cost of white washing @ Rs.3.50 is 16 x 3 x 4 x 3.5
= 8 x 3 x 4 x 7 = Rs.672
How much
work & time
to get 672?
?
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
13
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
Std. VII  N.C.E.R.T
Example 5: (page 161)
Convert the given decimals to per cents: (a) 0.75, (b) 0.09, (c) 0.2 page 161
Solution:
( ) 0.75 0.75 100%
75
100% 75%
100
9
( ) 0.09 9%
100
2
( ) 0.2 100% 20%
10
a x
x
b
c x
=
= =
= =
= =
[eqn 59]
Std. VII  N.C.E.R.T
Example 5: (page 161)
Convert the given decimals to per cents: (a) 0.75, (b) 0.09,
(c) 0.2 page 161
SmartCalc Solution:
Move decimal point 2 places to the right
(a) 0.75 = 75%
(b) 0.09 = 9%
(c) 0.2 = 20%
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
14
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
Std. VII  N.C.E.R.T
Example 5: (page 207)
The area of a square and a rectangle are equal. If the side of the square is 40 cm
and the breadth of the rectangle is 25 cm, find the length of the rectangle. page 207
Solution:
Area of square = (side)
2
= 40 cm x 40 cm = 1600 cm
2
It is given that,
The area of the rectangle = The area of the square
Area of the rectangle = 1600 cm
2
, breadth of the rectangle = 25 cm.
Area of the rectangle = l x b
or 1600 = l x 25
or
1600
25
= l or l = 64 cm
So the length of rectangle is 64 cm.
Std. VII  N.C.E.R.T
Example 5: (page 207)
The area of a square and a rectangle are equal. If the side of
the square is 40 cm and the breadth of the rectangle is 25 cm,
find the length of the rectangle.page 207
SmartCalc Solution:
Area of a sq. and a rectangle are equal.
Square: s = 40cm; Rectangle: b = 25cm,
l = ?
Area of rectangle = Area of sq.
lb = s
2
25 l = 40 x 40
l =
40 x 40
25
= 8 x 8 = 64 cm
40 cm
40 cm
25 cm
l cm
How much
work & time
to get 64?
?
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
15
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
Std. VII  N.C.E.R.T
Example 5: (page 251)
Express the following numbers as a product of powers of prime factors: page 251
(i) 72 (ii) 432 (iii) 1000 (iv) 16000
Solution:
(i)
3 2
3 2
72 2 36 2 2 18
2 2 2 9
2 2 2 3 3 2 3
,72 2 3
x x x
x x x
x x x x x
Thus x
= =
=
= =
=
[eqn 63]
(ii)
4 3
432 2 216 2 2 108 2 2 2 54
2 2 2 2 27 2 2 2 2 3 9
2 2 2 2 3 3 3
or, 432 2 3 (required form)
x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x
x
= = =
= =
=
=
[eqn 64]
(iii)
3 3
1000 2 500 2 2 250 2 2 2 125
2 2 2 5 25 2 2 2 5 5 5
or,1000 2 5 (required form)
x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x x
x
= = =
= =
=
[eqn 65]
or NCERTs superman Atul:
3 3
1000 10 100 10 10 10
(2 5) (2 5) (2 5) (since 10=2x5)
2 5 2 5 2 5 2 2 2 5 5 5
or,1000 2 5 (required form)
x x x
x x x x x
x x x x x x x x x x
x
= =
=
= =
=
[eqn 66]
Is Atuls method correct?
Continued on Next Page
Std. VII  N.C.E.R.T
Example 5: (page 251)
Express the following numbers as a product of powers of prime
factors: page 251
(i) 72 (ii) 432 (iii) 1000 (iv) 16000
SmartCalc Solution:
(i) 72 = 4 x 18 = 2
2
x 2 x 3
2
= 2
3
x 3
2
(ii) 432 = 2 x 216 = 2 x 6
3
= 2 x 2
3
x 3
3
= 2
4
x 3
3
(iii) 1000 = 10
3
= 2
3
x 5
3
(iv) 16000 = 4
2
x 10
3
= 2
4
x 2
3
x 5
3
= 2
7
x 5
3
Prof. Doss
NOTE:
Maths is taught to make the children FOOLS!
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
16
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
Continued from previous page.
(iv)
4 3
4 3 3
7 3
16,000=16 1000=(2 2 2 2) 1000
=2 10 (as 16=2x2x2x2)
=(2 2 2 2) (2 2 2 5 5 5) 2 2 5
(since 1000 is 2x2x2x5x5x5)
=(2 2 2 2 2 2 2) (5 5 5)
or,16,000=2 5
x x x x x
x
x x x x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x x
x
=
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
17
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
Std. VIII  N.C.E.R.T
Example 5: (page 77)
Find the compound interest on Rs.25600 for 2 years at 6.25% per annum.
Solution:
P = Rs.25600, n = 2, r = 6.25
Compound interest
2
2
= 1 1
100
6.25
= Rs 25600 1 1
100
1
= Rs 25600 1 1
16
17 17
= Rs 25600 1
16 16
289 256
= Rs 25600
256
25600x33
= Rs
25
n
r
P
(
 
+ (

\ .
(
(
 
+ (
`

\ . (
)
(
 
+ (
` 
\ . (
)
(    
` (  
\ . \ . )
(  
 (
\ .
3300
6
Rs =
How much
work & time to
do these
calculations?
?
Std. VIII  N.C.E.R.T
Example 5: (page 77)
Find the compound interest on Rs.25600 for 2 years at
6.25% per annum.
SmartCalc Solution:
P = Rs.25600, n = 2, r% = 6.25% = 1/16
r
A = P 1+
100
n
 

\ .
 

\ .
2
1
A = 25600 x 1+
16
17 x 17
= 25600 x
16 x 16
=100 x 17 x 17
= 28900
[Note that 256 = 16
2
]
Compound interest is 28900 25600 = Rs.3300
Or
(
 
(

\ . (
(
 
(

\ . (
(
(
n
2
2
2
2
r
C. I. = P 1+  1
100
1
=25600 x 1+  1
16
17
=16 x 100 x 1
16
= 100 x (17
2
16
2
)
= 100 x 33 x 1
= 3300
Look at the HUGE
numbers on left!
Compare with
working on right.
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
18
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
Std. VIII  N.C.E.R.T
Example 9: (page 79)
A certain sum amounts to Rs.5832 in 2 years at 8% compound interest. Find the
sum.
Solution:
Here A = Rs.5832, r = 8, n = 2.
Let P be the required sum in rupees. Then
2
2
8
5832 1
100
108
5832=
100
27 27
5832=
25 25
5832 25 25
=
27 27
= 5000
P
P
P
x x
P
x
 
= +

\ .
 

\ .
   
 
\ . \ .
Hence, the required sum is Rs.5000.
Std. VIII  N.C.E.R.T
Example 9: (page 79)
A certain sum amounts to Rs.5832 in 2 years at 8% compound
interest. Find the sum.
SmartCalc Solution:
A = Rs.5832, r = 8, n = 2; P = ?
( )
2
2
2
8
1 = 5832
100
1.08 = 5832
5832
=
1.08
5832
=
1.1664
5832
= 10000
11664
1
= 10000 5000
2
P
P
P
P
P x
P x
 
+

\ .
=
Or
What amounts to Rs.5832 in 2 years @ 8% C. I.?
Rs.1000 amounts to 1000x1.08
2
= 1166.40
Ans. = Rs.5000
(By estimation 5 x 1166.40 = 5832)
By intuition double Nr.,
you get denominator
How much
work & time to
do these
calculations?
?
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
19
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
Std. VIII  N.C.E.R.T
Example 2: (page 263)
A metallic cylindrical pipe has thickness 0.5cm and outside diameter 4.5cm. If 1
cm
3
of the metal has mass of 8g find the mass of 77cm long pipe. page 262
Solution:
We first find the vloume of the metallic part of the cylinderical pipe. This is the
difference of the volume of two solid cylinders one of diameter 4.5 cm and the
other of diameter (4.5 1.0) cm or 3.5 cm.
For outer cylinder, radius =
1
4.5
2
x
and height = 77 cm
Volume =
2
3 3
22 4.5 4.5 4.5
77cm 242 cm
7 2 2 2
x x x x
 
=

\ .
(1) [eqn 11]
For inner cylinder, radius =
4.5 3.5
0.5 cm= cm
2 2
 

\ .
, and height = 77 cm [eqn 12]
Volume =
2
3 3
22 3.5 3.5 3.5
77 cm 242 cm
7 2 2 2
x x x x
 
=

\ .
(2) [eqn 13]
The required bolume of the pipe =
Volume of the outer cylinder Volume of the inner cylinder
2 2
3
3
3 3
4.5 3.5
242 cm
2 2
4.5 3.5 4.5 3.5
242 cm
2 2 2 2
242 4 0.5 cm 484cm
x
x x
x x
(
   
= (
 
\ . \ .
(
   
= +
 
\ . \ .
= =
[eqn 14]
Mass of the pipe = 484 x 8 g [Since 1 cm
3
of the metal has mass 8g]
= 3872 g
=3.872 kg
Std. VIII  N.C.E.R.T
Example 2: (page 263)
A metallic cylindrical pipe has thickness 0.5cm and outside
diameter 4.5cm. If 1 cm
3
of the metal has mass of 8g find the
mass of 77cm long pipe. page 262
SmartCalc Solution:
Outer diameter = 4.5 cm,
thickness of pipe = 0.5 cm
Mass of 1 cm
3
of metal is 8g.
Radius: Outer (R) = 2.25cm, inner (r) = 1.75cm, h = 77cm
Volume of metal in pipe = t h (R
2
r
2
)
=
22
7
x 77 x (2.25
2
1.75
2
)
= 22 x 11 x 4 x 0.5
= 22 x 11 x 2
= 484
Volume of metal = 484 cm
3
.
Mass = 484 x 8 = 3872 g = 3.872 kg
Where is
Diagram?
?
4.5 cm
0.5 cm
+
77 cm
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
20
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
Std. VIII  N.C.E.R.T
Example 3: (page 245)
It is required to make a closed cylindrical tank of height 1m and
base diameter 140cm from a metal sheet. How many square
metres of the metal sheet are required for the same?
page 245
SmartCalc Solution:
We shall convert all units, and work with, metres
d = 140cm = 1.4m, r = 0.7m; h = 1m
T.S.A. = 2tr (r + h)
= 2 x
22
7
x 0.7 (0.7 + 1)
= 2 x
22
7
x 7 x 0.17
= 4 x 11 x 0.17
= 0.68 x 11
= 7.48
Area of metal sheet required is 7.48m
2
Hence 7.48 sq. metres of metal sheet is required.
Std. VIII  N.C.E.R.T
Example 3: (page 245)
It is required to make a closed cylindrical tank of height 1m and base diameter
140cm from a metal sheet. How many square metres of the metal sheet are required
for the same? page 245
Solution: Here, diameter = 140 cm
Radius r =
140 70 7
cm 70cm m m
2 100 10
= = =
Height h = 1m
Total surface area of the tank
2
2 2
2 ( )
22 7 7
2 1
7 10 10
2 22 17
7.48
100
= t +
 
= +

\ .
= =
r h r
x x m
x x
m m
Thus, the area of the metal sheet required is 7.48 m
2
Hence, 7.48 square metres of metal sheet are required.
Where is
Diagram?
?
How much
work & time
to get 7.48?
?
d = 140 cm
h = 1 m
r = 0.7 m
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
21
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
Std. VIII  N.C.E.R.T
Example 5: (page 251)
Diameter of the base of a cone is 10.5 cm and its slant height is
10cm. Find the curved surface area of the cone.
page 251
SmartCalc Solution:
d = 10.5 cm, r = 5.25 cm; l = 10 cm
C.S.A. = trl
=
22
7
x 5.25 x 10
= 22 x 0.75 x 10
= 11 x 1.5 x 10
= 165
Curved Surface Area = 165 cm
2
.
d = 10.5 cm
l = 10 cm
Std. VIII  N.C.E.R.T
Example 5: (page 251)
Diameter of the base of a cone is 10.5 cm and its slant height is 10cm. Find the
curved surface area of the cone. page 251
Solution: Diameter = 10.5 cm
Therefore, base radius r
10.5
cm
2
=
Slant height l = 10 cm
Hence, curved surface area
2 2
2
22 10.5 22 105
10cm 10cm
7 2 7 20
165cm
= t
= =
=
rl
x x x x
Quick Maths:
22 10.5 22 3
10 10 11 3 5 11 15 165
7 2 2 2
x x x x x x x = = = =
]
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
22
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
Std. IX  N.C.E.R.T
Example 16: (page 232)
Monica has a piece of canvas whose area is 551 m
2
. She uses it to have a conical
tent made, with a base radius of 7 m. Assuming that all the stitching margins and
the wastage incurred while cutting, amounts to approximately 1 m
3
, find the volume
of the tent.
page 232
Solution:
Since the area of the canvas = 551 m
2
and area of the canvas lost in wastage is 1
m
2
, therefore the area of canvas available for making the tent is (551 1) m
2
= 550
m
2
.
Now the surface area of the tent = 550 m
2
and the required base radius of the
conical tent = 7 m.
Note that a tent has only a curved surface (the floor of a tent is not covered by
canvas!!)
Therefore, curved surface area of tent = 550 m
2
.
That is, rl = 550
or,
22
7 = 550
7
x x l
or,
550
3 25
22
l m m = =
Now, l
2
= r
2
+ h
2
Therefore,
2 2 2 2
= = 25 7 m = 625 49 m = 576 m h l r
= 24 m.
So, the volume of the conical tent
2 2 2
1 1 22
7 7 24 1232
3 3 7
r h x x x x m m t = =
NOTE:See how the sq rt is handled on the Rightsides
Quick Maths:
1 22
7 7 24 = 2 11 7 8 = 11 112 = 1232
3 7
x x x x x x x x
Std. IX  N.C.E.R.T
Example 16: (page 232)
Monica has a piece of canvas whose area is 551 m
2
. ... find the
volume of the tent.
SmartCalc Solution: Base radius r = 7 m
Canvas used only for the curved surface and not for the floor.
So C.S.A. = 551 1 = 550 m
2
.
550
550 7 1 550 50
550 25
22 7 22 2
rl
l x x m
r
t =
= = = = =
t
Now,
2 2
2 2
h = l  r
= 25  7
= 32 x 18
= 16 x 36
= 4 x 6 = 24m
Volume of tent 2
2
3
1
3
1 22
7 24
3 7
22 7 8 11 112 1232
r h
x x x
x x x m
= t
=
= = =
7 m
l
h
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
23
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
Std. X  N.C.E.R.T
Example 4: (page 231)
In figure, two circular flower beds have been shown on two sides of a square lawn
ABCD of side 56 m. If the centre of each circular flower bed is the point of intersection
O of the diagonals of the square lawn, find the sum of the areas of the lawn and
the flower beds.
Solution:
Area of the square lawn ABCD = 56 x 56 m
2
(1)
Let OA = OB = x metres
So, x
2
+ x
2
= 56
2
or, 2x
2
= 56 x 56
or, x
2
= 28 x 56 (2)
Now, area of sector OAB ( ) ( )
2 2
2
90 1
360 4
1 22
28 56m [From (2)] (3)
4 7
x x x x
x x x
= t = t
=
Also, Area of A OAB
2
1
56 56m ( 90 ) (4)
4
O
x x AOB = Z =
So, area of flower bed AB
2
2
2
1 22 1
28 56 56 56 m
4 7 4
[From (3) and (4)]
1 22
28 56 2 m
4 7
1 8
28 56 m (5)
4 7
x x x x x
x x
x x x
 
=

\ .
 
=

\ .
=
[Continued on next left page!!!]
Std. X  N.C.E.R.T
Example 4: (page 231)
In figure, two circular flower beds have been shown ...find the
sum of the areas of the lawn and the flower beds.
SmartCalc Solution:
The diagonals cut at 90
0
.
The total area can be split as
1) two equal sectors OAB, OCD [making
a semicircle, with radius OA] and
2) two equal triangles ODA, OBC
[making half the square]
Diagonal AC = 56
2
r of sector, OA = 28
2
Total area = half circle + half square
t +
   
+
 
\ . \ .
2 2
2
1 1
=
2 2
1 22 1
= 2 28 28 56
2 7 2
r side
x x x x x
= (44 x 56) + (28 x 56)
= 72 x 56
= 4032m
2
[by QM Rainbow method]
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
24
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
[Continued from previous left page!!!]
Similarly, area of the other flower bed
2
1 8
28 56 m (6)
4 7
x x x =
Therefore, total area
2
2
2 2
1 8 1 8
56 56 28 56 28 56 m
4 7 4 7
[From (1), (5) and (6)]
2 2
28 56 2 m
7 7
18
28 56 m 4032 m
7
x x x x x x x
x
x x
 
= + +

\ .
 
= + +

\ .
= =
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
25
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
Std. X  N.C.E.R.T
Example 5: (page 233)
Find the area of the shaded region in figure, where ABCD is a square of side 14
cm.
Solution:
Area of square ABCD = 14 x 14 cm
2
= 196 cm
2
.
Diameter of each circle =
14
2
cm = 7 cm.
So radius of each circle =
7
2
cm
So area of one circle
2
2
2 2
22 7 7
cm
7 2 2
154 77
cm cm
4 2
r
x x
= t
=
= =
Therefore, area of the four circles is
2 2
77
4 cm 154 cm
2
x =
Hence, area of the shaded region = (196 154) cm
2
= 42 cm
2
.
Std. X  N.C.E.R.T
Example 5: (page 233)
Find the area of the shaded
region in figure, where ABCD is
a square of side 14 cm.
SmartCalc Solution:
Side of square = 14
Diameter of a circle = 7
Radius of a circle = 3.5cm
Shaded area = square 4 circles
= 14
2
4 x
22
7
x 3.5 x 3.5
= 14
2
11 x 14
= 14(14 11)
= 42
Shaded area = 42cm
2
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
26
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
Std. X  N.C.E.R.T
Example 7: (page 247)
A toy is in the shape of a
... Determine the volume
of the toy. (t= 3.14)
SmartCalc Solution:
Volume of the toy h
3 2
2 1
= r + r
3 3
2 1
= x 8 + x 8
3 3
2 1
=8 +
3 3
 

\ .
= 8 = 8 x 3.14 = 25.12 cm
3
.
Std. X  N.C.E.R.T
Example 7: (page 247)
A toy is in the shape of a right circular cone
on top of a hemisphere as in the diagram.
The radius of the sphere, as well as the base
of the cone is 2 cm and height of the toy is
4 cm. Determine the volume of the toy.
(t= 3.14)
Solution:
Volume of the toy
( ) ( )
3 2
3 2
3 3
2 1
3 3
2 1
3.14 2 3.14 2 2 cm 25.12 cm
3 3
r r h
x x x x x
= t + t
(
= + =
(
How much work &
time to get 25.12?
?
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
27
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
Std. X  N.C.E.R.T
Example 11: (page 250)
A hemispherical tank full of water is emptied by a pipe at the rate of
4
3
7
litres per
second. How much time will it take to empty half the tank, if it is 3m in diameter?
22
Take =
7
 
t

\ .
page 250 [eqn 69, 70]
Solution:
Radius of the hemispherical tank
3
2
=
m
Volume of the tank
3
3 3
2 22 3 99
3 7 2 14
x x m m
 
= =

\ .
So, the volume of the water to be emptied
3
1 99 99
1000 litres
2 14 28
99000
litres
28
x m x = =
=
Since,
25
7
litres of water is emptied in 1 second,
99000
28
litres of water will be
emptied in
99000 7
28 25
x
seconds, i.e. in 16.5 minutes.
?
Std. X  N.C.E.R.T
Example 11: (page 250)
A hemispherical tank full of water is emptied by a pipe at the ...
... empty half the tank, if it is 3m in diameter?
SmartCalc Solution:
d = 3 m, r =
2
3
m;
Emtying Rate =
4
3
7
=
25
7
litres
=
25 1
7x1000 7x40
=
m
3
per sec.
Vol. of hemisph. tank =
2
3
tr
3
Vol. to be emptied = Half of
2
3
tr
3
=
1
3
tr
3
=
1
3
x
22
7
x
3
2
x
3
2
x
3
2
=
11x 9
7 x 4
m
3
Time to empty =
volume
rate
=
11x 9
7 x 4
x
7 x 40
1
= 990 secs.
= 16.5 min. (as dividing by 60 MUST be mental)
S
e
e
t
h
e
s
i
m
p
l
i
c
i
t
y
o
f
t
h
e
c
a
l
c
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
!
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
28
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
Std. X  Tamilnadu Matric
Example 2.12: (page 53)
A cylindrical water tank of diameter 1.4 m and height 2.1 m is being fed by a pipe
of diameter 3.5 cm through which water flows at the rate of 2 m/sec. Calculate in
minutes the time it takes to fill the tank. page 53
Solution: Cylindrical tank
Diameter = 1.4 m
Radius (r
1
) = 0.7 m
Height (h
1
) = 2.1 m
=
21
10
m
Cylindrical pipe
Diameter = 3.5 cm
35
cm
10
7
cm
2
=
=
Radius (r
2
)
7
cm
4
7
m
400
=
=
Speed (h
2
) = 2 m/sec
Continued on next page ...
Std. X  Tamilnadu Matric
Example 2.12: (page 53)
A cylindrical water tank of diameter 1.4 m and height 2.1 m is
being fed by a pipe of diameter 3.5 cm through which water
flows at the rate of 2 m/sec. Calculate in minutes the time it
takes to fill the tank. page 53
SmartCalc Solution:
Tank: d
1
= 1.4 m r
1
= 0.7 m; h
1
= 2.1 m
Pipe: d
2
= 3.5 cm r
2
= 1.75 cm; h
2
= 2 m
= 0.0175 m
Time taken
2
1 1
2
2 2
Vol. of cylindrical tank
Vol. of water in 1 sec.
0.7 0.7 2.1
0.0175 0.0175 2
7 7 21 100000
175 175 2
21 100 100 10
25 25 2
21 2 4 10secs
21 2 4 10
60
7 4
28 minutes
r h
r h
x x
x x
x x x
x x
x x x
x x
x x x
x x x
x
=
t
=
t
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
1.4 m
2.1 m
3.5 cm
2 m
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
29
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
Continued from previous page:
Time taken
2
1 1
2
2 2
Vol. of cylindrical tank
Vol. of cylindrical pipe
7 7 21
10 10 10
7 7
2
400 400
7 7 21 400 400 1
10 10 10 7 7 2
1680 secs
1680
min 28 minutes.
60
r h
r h
x x x
x x x
x x x x x
=
t
=
t
t
=
t
=
=
= =
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
30
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
Std. X  Tamilnadu Matric
Example 2.6: (page 50)
A solid cylinder has a total surface area of 231 cm
2
. Its curved surface area is
twothirds of the total surface area. Find the volume of the cylinder. page 50
SmartCalc Solution:
Total surface area = 231 cm
2
Curved surface area =
2
3
of TSA
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 231 154
3
Total surface area 231
2 ( ) 231
2 2 231
154 2 231
2 231 154
22
2 77
7
1 22 49
77
2 7 4
7
2
3.5 cm.
rh x cm
cm
r h r
h r
r
r
x xr
r x x
r
r
t = =
=
t + =
t + t =
+ t =
t =
=
= =
=
=
Continued on next page ...
Std. X  Tamilnadu Matric
Example 2.6: (page 50)
A solid cylinder has a total surface area of 231 cm
2
. Its curved
surface area is twothirds ... Find the volume of the cylinder.
SmartCalc Solution:
TSA = 231 cm
2
, CSA is twothirds of 231
So, 2 x base area = onethird of 231 = 77 cm
2
So, base area:
2
2
22 77
7 2
2 7
7 2
7
2
x r
x r
r cm
=
=
=
CSA: 2prh = 2 x 77
22 7
x x h 77
7 2
=
h = 7 cm
Volume of cylinder = Ah
77 539
7 269.5
2 2
x = = =
cm
3
OR
Volume of cylinder =
2 3
22 7 7 49 11
7 24.5 11 269.5
7 2 2 2
x
r h x x x x cm t = = = =
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
31
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
Continued from previous page:
2
2
Curved surface area 154cm
2 154
22 7
2 154
7 2
154
7 cm.
22
Volume of the cylinder r h cu. units.
22 7 7 539
7 269.5 cu. cm.
7 2 2 2
rh
x x xh
h
x x x
=
t =
=
= =
= t
= = =
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
32
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
Std. XI  Tamilnadu
Example 6.22: (page 175)
ii)
1 5
3
2 2
1
1 5
1 3
2 2
x
= =
+
Example 6.23: (page 175)
( )
3 5 9 5 14
56
4 12 12 12
???
3 5 48 15 33 33
1
4 12 48 48
x
+
+
= = = =
Example 6.28: (page 182)
3
2
3
2
2
3
3
2
2 2
2 2
3 2
2
3
cot 3cot
Show that cot 3
3cot 1
cot 3cot
. . .
3cot 1
1 3tan
1 3
tan tan tan
3 3 tan
1
tan
tan
1 3tan tan
tan 3 tan
1 3tan
3tan tan
1
cot . .
tan3
A A
A
A
A A
RH S
A
A
A A A
A
A
A
A A
x
A A
A
A A
A L H
A
 
 


\ . \ .
= =
   
 
\ .
\ .
= = = . S
Std. XI  Tamilnadu
Example 6.22: (page 175)
(ii)
1
3
6 1
2
1
1
2 3
1 3
2
SmartCalc
x
= =
+
+
Example 6.23: (page 175)
3 5
36 20 56
4 12
3 5
48 15 33
1
4 12
SmartCalc
x
+
+
= =
Example 6.28: (page 182)
03) Show that
3
2
cot 3cot
cot 3
3cot 1
A A
A
A
SmartCalc Solution:
2
3
3
3 3
2
1
cot 3
tan3
1 3tan
3tan tan
cot 3cot
( tan or cot )
3cot 1
A
A
A
A A
A A
divide by A multiply by A
A
=
Multiply
everything
by the LCM of
all
denominators
Text Book vs Genuine Maths
33
Genuine Maths Workings are with gray background
Std. XI  Tamilnadu
Example 10.17: (page 166)
( )
2
70 4
0.0280 28 100 100
/ = = =
30 3 70 4 0.0370 37
100 100 100 100
x
P A B
x x
   
 
\ . \ .
       
+
   
\ . \ . \ . \ .
Note:
0s are not written at the end of decimals like 0.0280 and 0.0370
except to imply the accuracy of the number..
70 4
100 100
x
   
 
\ . \ .
= 0.70 x 0.04 = 0.0280 is improper
70 4
100 100
x
   
 
\ . \ .
= 0.7 x 0.04 = 0.028 is proper
70 4 7 4 28
0.028
100 100 10 100 1000
x x
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
is proper
Std. XI  Tamilnadu
Example 10.17: (page 166)
SmartCalc Solution:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
70 4
100 100
/ =
30 3 70 4
100 100 100 100
70 4 7 4
=
30 3 70 4 (3 3) (7 4)
280 28 28
= =
370 37 37
x
P A B
x x
x x
or
x x x x
   
 
\ . \ .
       
+
   
\ . \ . \ . \ .
=
+ +
=
Or
( )
2
70 4
100 100
/ =
30 3 70 4
100 100 100 100
0.7x 0.04
=
0.3 x 0.03 + 0.7 x 0.04
0.028
=
0.009 + 0.028
0.028 28
= =
0.037 37
x
P A B
x x
   
 
\ . \ .
       
+
   
\ . \ . \ . \ .