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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OI COMMERCE

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OI STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY


1. SpeciIications and Tolerances Ior Iield Standard Weights
(NIST Class I)
OIIice oI Weights and Measures
National Institute oI Standards and Technology
Gaithersburg, Maryland 2O899
2TGHCEG
The 199O revision oI Handbook 1O5-1 includes the Iollowing major changes since it was last published in 1972.
1. Additional tolerances Ior weights less than 1O g, which have been in use inIormally since 1975, have been
incorporated into the tolerance tables. The Iormula used to calculate the tolerances Ior weights less than
1O g is included in the text.
2. The appendix which gave separate requirements Ior Iield standard weights used by service companies has
been deleted. The weights used by service companies should meet all speciIications and tolerances
described in this handbook.
3. Several changes address materials and manuIacturing practices and designs. Some oI these were made to
meet current manuIacturing practices, while other changes address designs which have been shown to be
unacceptable.
a. Brass is no longer an acceptable material Ior weights. the metal is too soIt Ior maintaining the
required tolerances.
b. Iabricated (Iilled shell) and laminated weight designs are no longer acceptable. These types oI
weight have not shown the necessary stability Ior maintaining tolerances during test cycles.
c. Current standards Ior surIace Iinish and hardness have been Iormally adopted, consistent with
current use and good manuIacturing practices. SurIace Iinish modiIications, using non-similar
material (e.g., Iiller, putty), are unacceptable.
d. The cavity opening design, counterbore sizes, and cavity location have been speciIied to provide
a consistent and practical basis Ior the manuIacture and evaluation oI Class I weights. Screw
knobs and threaded closures are no longer acceptable due to lack oI stablity and adjustment
diIIiculties.
0QVG Iigures 1-5 are at the end oI this document.
Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
SpeciIications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1. Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2. Iinish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
3. Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
4. Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
5. Adjusting cavity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
6. Adjusting cavity closure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
7. Adjusting material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
8. Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
9. Carrying Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1O. Special Weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1. Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2. Basis Ior Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3. Class I tolerances Ior Iield standard weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
table 1 (Cavity opening dimensions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
table 2 (metric) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
table 3 (avoirdupois) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
table 4 (apothecary) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
table 5 (grains) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
v
1
SPECIFICATIONS AND TOLERANCES
FOR REFERENCE STANDARDS AND FIELD STANDARD
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
Specifications and Tolerances for
Field Standard Weights
(NIST Class F)
These speciIications and tolerances are minimum requirements Ior standards used primarily to test weighing devices.
Key words. Iield standard weights, speciIications, test weights, tolerances, weights and measures inspection.
Introduction
A class I Iield standard weight (aIter this, simply called 'weight') is intended to be used primarily to test commercial
weighing devices Ior compliance with the requirements oI NIST Handbook 44. Class I weights may be used to
1
test most accuracy class III scales, all scales oI class III L or IIII, and scales not marked with a class designation.
2
A weight shall be veriIied to be within tolerance prior to use. The within-tolerance status oI a weight shall be
rechecked as oIten as regulations or circumstances require, especially when damage to it is known or suspected.
General
These speciIications apply to new weights placed in service aIter the publication oI this standard, the tolerances apply
to all weights in service.
A weight in service prior to the publication oI this standard that has maintained Class I tolerances between
veriIication tests shall continue to be acceptable.
The speciIications permit the use oI a weight at its nominal value in normal testing operations, where the tolerance
on the item under test is at least three times as great as the tolerance oI the weight.
3
Specifications
1. Material
1.1. A weight made oI brass or a Iabricated weight (such as a laminated weight or a weight oI nonuniIorm density)
shall not be placed in service aIter the publication date oI this standard.
1.2. A weight smaller than 5 grams/O.O1 lb shall be constructed oI stainless steel, tantalum, nickel-chromium alloy,
aluminum alloy, or other material suIIiciently resistant to corrosion and oxidation that the surIace need not be
protected or coated.
NBS Handbook 44, SpeciIications, Tolerances, and Other Technical Requirements Ior Weighing and Measuring
1
Devices. (See current edition.)
See Handbook 44, Section 2. Scales Code.
2
See Handbook 44, Appendix A, par. 3.2.
3
2
1.3. A weight oI 5 grams/O.O1 lb up to and including 5 kg/1O lb shall be constructed oI material having a hardness
oI Rockwell B 8O or greater (such as 3OO-series stainless steel), and be resistant to abrasion, corrosion, denting, and
chipping.
1.4. A weight larger than 5 kg/1O lb shall be constructed oI materials such as iron, steel, or stainless steel, having
a hardness oI Rockwell B 8O or greater, and be resistant to abrasion, corrosion, denting, and chipping. Cast iron
may be used Ior weights 1O kg/2O lb and larger. Body Iiller (e.g., Iiberglass, putty, or plaster) shall not be used to
correct a poor casting or Iinish.
2. Finish
2.1. The surIace Iinish oI a new weight machined Irom round bar stock shall have a roughness average oI
O.8O micrometers (32 microinches) or better, determined by use oI a hand-held surIace roughness indicator
4
(available Irom several manuIacturers) or more accurate method, and be Iree oI scratches, dents, and chipped corners
or edges, determined by visual examination. A beaded or blasted Iinish (with roughness average 1.25 micrometers
(5O microinches) or better) is acceptable on a cube weight to Iacilitate gripping.
2.2. A weight 5 kg/1O lb or less shall not have a surIace coating.
2.3. A weight larger than 5 kg/1O lb constructed oI materials susceptible to corrosion or tarnishing shall have a
protective surIace coating. A light coat oI sprayed-on Ilat aluminum paint is recommended. Lacquer is also
acceptable. Epoxy paint or plated surIaces are not acceptable. A coating is recommended Ior the bottom oI a
weight, particularly iI the bottom is recessed. II paint or lacquer is used, it shall be hard and resistant to chipping.
Cast metric and avoirdupois Iield standards shall be color coded (i.e., gold Ior metric and silver Ior avoirdupois) to
diIIerentiate the weights.
2.4. The surIace Iinish oI a cast weight shall have a roughness average oI between 12.5 and 25 micrometers (5OO
and 1OOO microinches), determined by use oI a hand-held surIace roughness indicator or more accurate method, and
be Iree oI sharp surIace irregularities such as scabbing (as deIined in ASTM A 8O2) , visible cracks or holes which
5
aIIect the surIace Iinish average. SurIace imperIections corrected by machining or welding are acceptable.
2.5. Ior a cast weight with a pipe handle, the casting near the handle must not be heavily cracked, the visible space
between the handle and casting shall be as small as possible, consistent with good manuIacturing practices. Ior a
cast weight with a handle welded in place, the welded seam shall be continuous and show no obvious air holes or
cracks as determined by visual examination.
2.6. Plating or coating shall not be used on a sheet metal type weight.
3. Density
3.1. The density oI a weight smaller than 5 grams/O.O1 lb shall be 2.7 g/cm or greater.
3
3.2. The density oI a weight equal to or greater than 5 grams/O.O1 lb shall be not less than 7.O and not more than
9.O g/cm .
3
American National Standard ANSI/ASME B46.1-1985, SurIace Texture.
4
American Society Ior Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Practice A 8O2, SurIace Acceptance Standards
5
3
4. Design
4.1. Representative weight designs are shown in Iigures 1-5, variations oI these designs are permitted. Prior to
production, manuIacturers should get the approval oI the OIIice oI Weights and Measures Ior new weight designs.
New designs should be submitted to the OIIice oI Weights and Measures, National Institute oI Standards and
Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 2O899.
4.2. AIter the publication date oI this standard, a new Iabricated weight (either laminated or oI nonuniIorm density)
or a new weight with a removable screw knob is not acceptable. Weights shall be made entirely oI material oI
uniIorm density and cast or machined in a single piece, with allowance Ior an adjusting cavity and a handle oI a
diIIerent density. A weight with an adjusting cavity shall have the cavity protected by a seal that is destroyed or
deIaced by removal.
4.3. All corners and edges oI a weight shall be uniIormly chamIered (45 angle) or rounded with a well deIined
o
radius to reduce the likelihood oI chipping. Sharp edges and corners shall not be acceptable.
4.4. A weight smaller than 5O g/O.125 lb (2 ounces) shall not be lighter than its nominal value when new, and shall
not deviate Irom its nominal value by more than the tolerance shown in tables 2, 3, 4, or 5.
4.5. The bottom surIace oI a weight may be recessed, e.g., as illustrated in Iigure 3. A weight with a convex
bottom surIace is not acceptable.
5. Adjusting Cavity
5.1. A weight smaller than 5O g/O.125 lb (2 ounces) shall be oI one-piece construction without an adjusting cavity.
5.2. A weight 5O g/O.125 lb (2 ounces) and larger may have a single adjusting cavity.
5.3. A weight with an adjusting cavity shall have its opening on a Ilat side oI the weight and not on the bottom
surIace, however, a cylinder weight or cube weight shall have the opening oI its adjusting cavity on the top. Ior
weights larger than 5 kg/1O lb, the adjusting cavity shall be located in the upper halI oI the weight, where possible.
5.4. The outer rim oI the recess that holds the sealing cap shall not be closer to the edge oI the weight than the
radius oI the recess, with the exception oI a weight oI 5O g/2 oz, where it may be closer because oI the size oI the
weight. See Iigure 1.
5.5. A weight with an adjusting cavity shall, when empty, be lighter than its nominal value by at least Iive times
the tolerance shown in tables 2, 3, 4, or 5. When a new weight is adjusted to nominal value and sealed, the cavity
must be large enough to accept additional material equal to at least Iive times the tolerance, to increase the useIul
liIetime oI the weight. The cavity design shall allow adjusting material to be easily removed.
6. Adjusting Cavity Closure
6.1. A weight shall have a cavity closure similar to the design shown in Iigure 4. The cavity shall have a recessed
opening (counterbore), larger than the cavity hole, machined iI necessary, to hold a backup disk and sealing cap,
(as shown at the outer edge oI the cavity in Iig. 4). A backup disk may either be solid or have a hole in its center
no larger than 1/4-inch diameter. The backup disk may be made oI aluminum. A backup disk must be suIIiciently
sturdy so it does not deIorm and get driven into the adjusting cavity, and it must be easily removed when adjusting
a weight. The depth oI the counterbore shall be at least twice the thickness oI the sealing cap. When applied, the
sealing cap shall not protrude above the surIace oI the weight.
A weight having a threaded plug shall not be placed in service aIter the publication date oI this standard.
6.2. The sealing cap shall be oI soIt, noncorrosive material so that it can easily be removed when adjusting a weight.
Lead sealing caps are recommended Ior weights larger than 5 kg/1O lb. Aluminum is recommended Ior smaller
4
weights. Ior weights above 5O kg/1OO lb the sealing cap shall be at least 1/8 inch thick.
6.3. The dimensions or range oI dimensions given in table 1 are recommended Ior counterbore recess diameters and
depths. The diameter oI the cavity hole, through which adjusting material is entered into the cavity, may range
between 5O% and 8O% oI the counterbore diameter. On weights with a pipe handle, the diameter oI the cavity hole
cannot exceed the diameter oI the pipe.
7. Adjusting Material
7.1. Any metal in the Iorm oI shot or solid, may be used to adjust weights. Lead is preIerred. Molten, poured
metal is not acceptable. A grit size oI 32 or larger is permitted Ior adjusting material.
8. Markings
8.1. A weight shall be clearly marked with its nominal mass value. Weights 3O g/O.O625 lb (1 oz) and larger shall
also be clearly marked with a weight unit e.g., 1 lb.
8.2. Markings shall be located on a Ilat surIace oI a weight, either on the top or on a side. The markings shall be
shallow, relatively broad, and Iree Irom burrs and sharp angles or edges. They shall not perIorate or crack a sheet
metal weight, or cause any raised area on the bottom surIace oI the weight. Markings may be raised above the
surIace only Ior a sheet metal type weight.
8.3. Markings cast in a cast weight shall be located on the side oI the weight and shall lie even with or below the
surIace oI the weight. A serial number may be stamped on a weight oI 1O kg/2O lb and above.
8.4. No markings other than nominal value and weight unit shall be used on weights 5 kg/1O lb and smaller.
8.5. Markings such as trade marks or name oI the manuIacturer on a weight, iI used, shall be limited to the shortest
name or initials by which the Iirm is commonly known. Letters in the identiIication marking shall be no larger than
those oI the denomination.
9. Carrying Case
9.1. Iield standard weights up to and including 5 kg/1O lb shall be carried in a rigid covered case designed to restrict
movement and prevent damage to the weights. Separate pockets shall be lined with nonabrasive noncorrosive
material (e.g., soIt, non-shredding plastic, wood). A separate box may be inserted into the larger box to house
smaller denomination weights (e.g., 8 oz. to 1/16 oz).
10. Special Weights
1O.1 In rare instances, weights with unusual Iorms or materials, mainly Ior use indoors or in a controlled environ-
ment, may be accepted as suitable Ior speciIic purposes, without satisIying the general speciIications oI this standard.
Designs Ior such weights or sample weights should be submitted to the OIIice oI Weights and Measures, National
Institute oI Standards and Technology (NIST). The NIST will examine the designs to determine their suitability Ior
the intended use, and inIorm the requester in writing oI their decision. A weight documented to have an acceptable
design may be submitted to a State laboratory Ior tolerance testing or calibration. A weight certiIied as class I,
Special shall satisIy the class I tolerance.
Tolerances
1. Adjustment
1.1. A class I weight shall be maintained so that its actual value does not diIIer Irom the nominal value by more
than the prescribed tolerance oI tables 2, 3, 4, or 5.
Table 1. Dimensions of Cavity Openings
Weight/ Recess(Counterbore)
Weight Range Diameter Depth
W# 2 oz 1/4 to 3/8 in -
2 oz <W< 2O lb 1/2 to 5/8 -
2O lb #W< 1OO lb 1 1/4 in
W$ 1OO lb 2 3/8
W # 5O g 7 - 1O mm -
5O g < W < 1O kg 13 - 16 -
1O kg # W < 5O kg 25 7 mm
1.2. A new weight or newly adjusted weight shall be adjusted as near to the nominal value as practicable. (See
SpeciIications 4.4.)
2. Basis for Adjustment
2.1. Class I tolerances are established as applying to the apparent mass as determined at 2O C in air having a
o
density oI O.OO12 g/cm , against standards having a density oI 8.O g/cm (called apparent mass vs 8.O).
3 3
3. Class F Tolerances for Field Standard Weights
3.1 The tolerances applied to a weight have been chosen to be small enough to be negligible when testing a device,
be a small Iraction oI the nominal value oI the weight, and yet large enough to be practical Ior manuIacturing a
weight. These considerations are conIlicting so that it is impossible to have the same Iractional tolerance (e.g., 1
part in 1O ) over the entire span oI nominal values Irom 5OO kg to 1 mg.
4
3.2. The tolerances are one part in 1O,OOO Ior weights 1 kg (2 lb) and larger, 7O mg Ior weights between 1 kg and
3OO grams, and one part in 5,OOO Ior weights 3OO g down to and including 1O g. Tolerances Ior weights below 1O g
are determined Irom the equation.
T(W) in mg = O.9 W
O.31795
where W is the nominal value in grams. Ior other units, Iirst convert the nominal value oI the weight to grams,
calculate the tolerance, and then convert the tolerance value back to the other unit.
Enough digits are used in the Iormula to avoid errors in the tolerances, when rounded to two signiIicant digits. The
Iormula was deduced by assuming a practical tolerance oI O.1 mg Ior the 1-mg weight and relating it to the tolerance
oI 1.5 mg Ior a 5-g weight.
3.3. Tolerances given in tables 2, 3, 4, and 5 have been rounded to two signiIicant digits. Ior mass units other than
metric, tolerances have Iirst been calculated in metric units, converted to the other units, and then rounded. This
has resulted, in some instances, in the same numerical value Ior tolerances Ior adjacent nominal values in a table.
Class F Tolerances for Field Standard Weights
Table 2. Metric Table 3. Avoirdupois Table 3. Continued Table 5. Grains
Denomination Tolerance Denomination Tolerance Denomination Tolerance Denomination Tolerance
5OO kg 5O g 1O OOO lb 1.O lb 45O g 8 oz 1OO F lb 45 mg 1O OOO grains 15O F lb 7O mg
3OO 3O 5 OOO O.5O 23O 4 5O 23 5 OOO 15O 7O
2OO 2O 3 OOO O.3O 14O 2 25 11 3 OOO 86 39
1OO 1O 2 5OO O.25 11O 1 12 5.4 2 OOO 57 26
5O 5.O 2 OOO O.2O 91 O.5 (1/2) 6.2 2.8 1 OOO 29 13
3O 3.O 1 OOO O.1O 45 O.3 3.9 1.8 5OO 14 6.5
2O 2.O 5OO O.O5O 23 O.25 (1/4) 3.7 1.7 3OO 8.6 3.9
1O 1.O 1OO O.O1O 4.5 O.2 3.4 1.6 2OO 5.7 2.6
5 .5O 5O O.OO5O 2.3 O.125 (1/8) 3.O 1.3 1OO 3.6 1.6
3 .3O 3O O.OO3O 1.4 O.1 2.8 1.3 5O 2.9 1.3
2 .2O 25 O.OO25 1.1 O.O625 (1/16) 2.4 1.1 3O 2.5 1.1
1 .1O 2O O.OO2O O.91 O.O5 2.2 1.O 2O 2.2 O.98
5OO g 7O mg 1O O.OO1O O.45 O.O3125 (1/32) 1.9 O.87 1O 1.7 O.78
3OO 6O 5 5OO F lb 23O mg O.O3 1.9 O.85 5 1.4 O.63
2OO 4O 3 3OO 14O O.O2 1.7 O.75 3 1.2 O.53
1OO 2O 2 2OO 91 O.O15625 (1/64) 1.5 O.69 2 1.O O.47
5O 1O 1 15O 7O O.O1 1.3 O.6O 1 O.83 O.38
3O 6.O O.5 1OO 45 O.5 O.67 O.3O
2O 4.O O.3 6O 27 O.3 O.57 O.26 Table 4. Apothecary
1O 2.O O.2 4O 18 O.2 O.5O O.23
5 1.5 O.1 2O 9.1 O.1 O.4O O.18
3 1.3 O.O5 1O 4.5
2 1.1 O.O3 6.O 2.7
1 O.9O O.O2 4.O 1.8
5OO mg O.72 O.O1 3.2 1.5
3OO O.61 O.OO5 2.6 1.2
2OO O.54 O.OO3 2.2 O.99
1OO O.43 O.OO2 1.9 O.87
5O O.35 O.OO1 1.5 O.7O
3O O.3O
2O O.26
1O O.21
5 O.17
3 O.14
2 O.12
1 O.1O
Denomination Tolerances
12 oz ap 15O F lb 7O mg
1O 14O 62
6 82 37
5 69 31
4 55 25
3 41 19
2 27 12
1 14 6.2
6 dr ap 1O 4.7
5 8.6 3.9
4 6.9 3.1
3 5.1 2.3
2 3.8 1.7
1 3.1 1.4
O.5 2.5 1.1
2 s ap 2.7 1.2
1 2.2 O.98
O.5 1.7 O.78
* 1 lb = O.OOOOO1 lb