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ARTICLE KD-3 FATIGUE EVALUATION

KD-300 SCOPE intensity Salt and the associated mean stress nm normal to the plane of Salt . They are combined to dene the equivalent alternating stress intensity Seq, which is used with the design fatigue curves to establish the number of design cycles Nf . KD-302.1 Alternating Stress Intensity. The alternating stress intensity Salt represents the maximum range of shear stress. KD-302.2 Associated Mean Stress. The associated mean stress nm is the mean value of stress normal to the plane subjected to the maximum alternating stress intensity. For welded construction, the associated mean stress shall not be combined with the alternating stress intensity [see KD-312.4(a)].

This Article presents a traditional fatigue analysis design approach. In accordance with KD-140, if it can be shown that the vessel will fail in a leak-beforeburst mode, then the number of design cycles shall be calculated in accordance with either Article KD-3 or Article KD-4. If a leak-before-burst mode of failure cannot be shown, then the number of design cycles shall be calculated in accordance with Article KD-4. KD-301 General

Cyclic operation may cause fatigue failure of pressure vessels and components. While cracks often initiate at the bore, cracks may initiate at outside surfaces or at layer interfaces for autofrettaged and layered vessels. In all cases, areas of stress concentrations are a particular concern. Fatigue-sensitive points shall be identied and a fatigue analysis made for each point. The result of the fatigue analysis will be a calculated number of design cycles Nf for each type of operating cycle, and a calculated cumulative effect number of design cycles when more than one type of operating cycle exists. The resistance to fatigue of a component shall be based on the design fatigue curves for the materials used. For design fatigue curves, see Fig. KD-320.1 for forged nonwelded construction and Fig. KD-320.2 for welded construction. In some cases it may be convenient or necessary to obtain experimental fatigue data for a component itself rather than for small specimens of the material (see KD-1260). If there are two or more types of stress cycles which produce signicant stresses, their cumulative effect shall be evaluated by calculating for each type of stress cycle the usage factors U1 , U2 , U3 , etc., and the cumulative usage factor U per KD-330. The cumulative usage factor U shall not exceed 1.0. KD-302 Theory

KD-310

STRESS ANALYSIS FOR FATIGUE EVALUATION

The calculation of the number of design cycles shall be based on a stress analysis of all fatigue-sensitive points. KD-311 Loading Conditions and Residual Stresses

In this analysis, consideration shall be taken of the following loadings and stresses. KD-311.1 Residual Stresses Due to Manufacturing (a) Some manufacturing processes such as forming, etc., introduce residual tensile stresses of unknown magnitude. Unless these stresses are controlled by some method, such as postfabrication heat treatment or mechanical overstrain processes like autofrettage, these initial residual stresses shall be assumed to have a peak magnitude corresponding to the yield strength of the material. (b) Manufacturing processes such as welding, heat treatment, forming, autofrettage, shrink tting, and wire wrapping introduce residual stresses. Tensile residual
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The theory used in this Article postulates that fatigue at any point is controlled by the alternating stress

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KD-311.1

PART KD DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

KD-312.3

stresses shall be included in the calculation of associated mean stresses. Compressive residual stresses may also be included. When calculating the residual stresses introduced by autofrettage, due account shall be taken of the inuence of the Bauschinger effect (see Article KD-5). If any combination of operational or hydrotest loadings will produce yielding at any point, any resulting change in the residual stress values shall be taken into account. (c) In welded construction, no credit shall be taken for benecial residual stresses within the weld metal or the heat-affected zone. (d) In austenitic stainless steel construction, no credit shall be taken for benecial residual stresses. KD-311.2 Operating Stresses. Mean and alternating stresses shall be calculated for all loading conditions specied in the Users Design Specication. Stress concentration factors shall be determined by analytical or experimental techniques. Ranges of stress intensities due to cyclic loadings and associated mean stresses (residual plus operational) shall be calculated on the assumption of elastic behavior. If these calculations show that yielding occurs, a correction shall be made. See KD-312.3.

In the following, the symbol Sij is used to represent any one of these three differences. Identify the algebraic largest stress difference Sij max and the algebraic smallest difference Sij min of each Sij during the complete operating cycle. Then the alternating stress intensity Salt ij is determined by:
Salt ij p 0.5(Sij max Sij min)

These three alternating stress intensities (Salt 12, Salt 23, and Salt 31) are the three ranges of shear stress that shall be considered in a fatigue analysis. Each will have an associated mean stress (determined below), which also inuences the fatigue behavior. KD-312.3 Associated Mean Stress (a) For welded construction, see KD-312.4(a). (b) For nonwelded construction, the associated mean stresses nm ij shall be calculated in accordance with the following method. The stresses n normal to the plane of the maximum shear stress, associated with the three Salt ij, are given by:
n 12

p 0.5(

2)

KD-312

Calculation of Fatigue Stresses When Principal Stress Directions Do Not Change

n 23

p 0.5(

3)

For any case in which the directions of the principal stresses at the point being considered do not change during the operating cycle, the methods stated in KD312.1 through KD-312.4 shall be used to determine the fatigue controlling stress components. KD-312.1 Principal Stresses. Determine the values of the three principal stresses at the point being investigated for the complete operating cycle assuming the loading and conditions described in KD-311. These stresses are designated 1 , 2 , and 3 . KD-312.2 Alternating Stress Intensities. Determine the stress differences (maintain the proper algebraic sign for the complete operating cycle):

n 31

p 0.5(

1)

In the following, the symbol n ij is used to represent any one of these normal stresses. Identify the maximum n ij max and the minimum n ij min value of each n ij during the complete operating cycle. Then the mean normal stresses nm ij shall be calculated by: (1) when Sij max < Sy and Sij min > Sy, then
nm ij

p 0.5 (

n ij max

n ij min)

(2) when Salt ij Sy , then


nm ij

S12 p

p0

S23 p

S31 p

If neither KD-312.3(b)(1) nor (b)(2) applies, then the stress values used in this analysis shall be determined from an elasticplastic analysis (see KD-240). Alternatively, nm ij may be calculated as equal to 0.5( n ij max + n ij min) but not less than zero.
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KD-312.4

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 3

KD-322

KD-312.4 Equivalent Alternating Stress Intensity (a) For austenitic stainless steel construction, and for welded construction within the weld metal and the heat-affected zone, effects of associated mean stresses (see Fig. KD-320.2) are incorporated in the design fatigue curve. Therefore:
Seq ij p Salt ij

KD-321

Basis for Design Fatigue Curves

(b) For nonwelded construction, the equivalent alternating stress intensity Seq, which is assumed to have the same effect on fatigue as the combination of the alternating stress intensity Salt and its associated mean stress nm, shall be calculated in accordance with the equation:
Seq ij p Salt ij 1 1
nm ij /S a

where S is the allowable amplitude of the alternating a stress component when nm p 0 and N p 106 cycles shall be 0.2 unless (see KD-321). The value of experimental evidence justies another value. If the value of nm ij /S exceeds 0.9, limit its value to 0.9. a Using this equation, three values of Seq ij are obtained. The largest of these three shall be used in combination with the design fatigue curve to establish the number of design cycles in accordance with KD-322(c). KD-313 Calculation of Fatigue Stresses When Principal Stress Axes Change

When the directions of the principal stresses change during the loading cycle, the plane carrying the maximum range of shear stress cannot be easily identied using equations based on principal stresses. The position of each plane at the point of interest can be dened by two angles and a convenient set of Cartesian axes. By varying this combination of angles in increments, it is possible to determine the range of shear stress on each plane. The largest of these shear stress ranges is equivalent to one-half of stress intensity Salt to be used in the calculation of design cycles.

(a) The conditions and procedures of this paragraph are based on a comparison between the calculated equivalent alternating stress intensity Seq and strain cycling fatigue data. The strain cycling fatigue data have been used to derive design fatigue curves. These curves show the allowable amplitude Sa of the alternating stress component (one-half of the alternating stress range) plotted against the number of design cycles Nf , which the component is assumed to safely endure without failure. (b) The design fatigue curves have been derived from strain-controlled pushpull tests with zero mean stress (i.e., nm p 0) on polished unnotched specimens in dry air. The imposed strains have been multiplied by the elastic modulus and a design margin has been provided so as to make the calculated equivalent stress intensity amplitude and the allowable stress amplitude directly comparable. Seq and Sa have the dimensions of stress, but they do not represent a real stress when the elastic range is exceeded. (c) The design fatigue curves for forged nonwelded construction presented in this Article have been developed from fatigue tests in dry air with polished specimens of steels having an ultimate tensile strength in the range of 90 ksi to 180 ksi (620 MPa to 1 242 MPa). Fatigue tests with small cylinders pressurized from the inside by oil and made of low alloy steels having an ultimate tensile strength in the range of 130 ksi to 180 ksi (896 MPa to 1 242 MPa) have been used to conrm the validity of these curves for carbon or low alloy forgings with machined surfaces. For design fatigue curves, see Fig. KD-320.1 for forged nonwelded construction, Fig. KD-320.2 for welded construction, and Fig. KD-320.3 for austenitic stainless steel construction. (d) The design fatigue curves are not applicable in the presence of aggressive environments. For conditions not covered by these design fatigue curves, the Manufacturer shall provide supplementary fatigue data.

KD-322

Use of Design Fatigue Curve

KD-320

CALCULATED NUMBER OF DESIGN CYCLES

The calculation of the number of design cycles Nf shall be based either on design fatigue curves described in KD-321 or on results of experimental fatigue tests on components as stated in KD-1260.
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(a) Figure KD-320.1 shall be used for forged nonwelded parts with machined surfaces made of carbon or low alloy steels having a specied minimum value of the ultimate tensile strength Su greater than 90 ksi. The curves are applicable for an average surface roughness of 10 Ra in. in fatigue-sensitive areas. Lower quality surface nish will inuence fatigue. This inuence is considered by a factor Kr (see Fig. KD320.4), which shall be combined with Seq as specied

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PART KD DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

Fig. KD-320.1

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FIG. KD-320.1

DESIGN FATIGUE CURVES Seq p f (Nf ) FOR NONWELDED MACHINED PARTS MADE OF FORGED CARBON OR LOW ALLOY STEELS

Fig. KD-320.2

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 3

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FIG. KD-320.2

DESIGN FATIGUE CURVE Seq p f (Nf ) FOR WELDED PARTS MADE OF CARBON OR LOW ALLOY STEELS

PART KD DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

Fig. KD-320.3

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FIG. KD-320.3

DESIGN FATIGUE CURVE FOR AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS FOR TEMPERATURES NOT EXCEEDING 800F

Table KD-320.1

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 3

TABLE KD-320.1 TABULATED VALUES OF Seq , ksi, FROM FIGURES INDICATED


Number of Design Operating Cycles Nf Figure 320.1 320.1 320.2 320.3 Curve UTS 90 ksi UTS 125 ksi Welded Austenitic stainless steels 5E1 311 317 275 345 1E2 226 233 205 261 2E2 164 171 155 201 5E2 113 121 105 148 1E3 89 98 83 119 2E3 72 82 64 97 5E3 57 68 48 76 1E4 49 61 38 64 2E4 43 49 31 56 5E4 34 39 24 46 1E5 29 34 20 41 2E5 25 31 16.5 36 5E5 21 28 13.5 31 1E6 19 26 12.5 28 2E6 17 24 ... ...

GENERAL NOTES: (a) All notes on the referenced gures apply to these data. (b) Number of design cycles indicated shall be read as follows: 1EJ p 1 10J, e.g., 5E2 p 5 102 or 500 cycles. (c) Interpolation between tabular values is permissible based upon data representation by straight lines on a loglog plot. Accordingly, for Si > S > Sj ,

N N p j Ni Ni

[log(S /S)/log(S /S )]
i i j

where S, Si , Sj p values of Sa N, Ni , Nj p corresponding calculated number of design cycles from design fatigue data For example, from the data above, use the interpolation formula above to nd the calculated number of design cycles N for Seq p 50.0 ksi when UTS 125 ksi on Fig. KD-320.1:

N 20,000 p 10,000 10,000

[log(61/50)/log(61/49)]

N p 18,800 cycles
(d) Equations for number of design operating cycles: (1) Fig. KD-320.1, UTS p 90 ksi Seq 42.6 ksi ln(N) p 15.433 2.0301 ln(Seq) + 1036.035 ln(Seq)/S2 eq Seq < 42.6 ksi 1/N p 2.127E05 + (7.529E10)S3 (8.636E06)ln(Seq) eq (2) Fig. KD-320.1, UTS p 125175 ksi 1.5 Seq 60.6 ksi 1/N p 0.00122 (7.852E05)Seq + (7.703E06)Seq Seq < 60.6 ksi N 0.5 p (7.8628E05 + 0.003212Seq + 0.0936S2 )/[1 0.08599Seq + 0.001816S2 + eq eq (4.05774E06)S3 ] eq (3) Fig. KD-320.2, welded Seq 38 ksi Seq < 38 ksi

0.5 1/N p 0.0007125 + (4.4692E08)(S2 )ln(Seq) + 0.003561/Seq eq ln(N) p (18.0353 1.3663Seq 0.01549S2 )/(1 0.04031Seq 0.003854S2 ) eq eq

(4) Fig. KD-320.3, austenitic stainless steels Seq 55.7 ksi ln(N) p (0.0303 0.7531Seq 0.0001968S2 )/(1 0.0723Seq 0.0004075 S2 ) eq eq Seq < 55.7 ksi ln(N) p (0.0002445 + 0.001656Seq 0.03416S2 )/[1 0.06062Seq 0.000429S2 (4.049E05) eq eq 3 Seq] (e) Equations shall not be used outside of the cycle range given in the Table.

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KD-322

PART KD DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

KD-330

FIG. KD-320.4 ROUGHNESS FACTOR Kr VERSUS SURFACE FINISH Ra in. AA

in KD-322(d) when determining the calculated number of design cycles Nf . (b) Figure KD-320.2 shall be used for those areas of the vessel that contain butt welded joints ground ush. The inuence of the surface roughness is included in the curve, i.e., Kr p 1.0; therefore, a surface roughness factor need not be applied. For other types of welded joints, not ground ush but permitted by this Division, appropriate stress concentration factors shall be determined and used. (c) Figure KD-320.3 shall be used for forged nonwelded parts with machined surfaces made of austenitic stainless steels. The inuence of the surface roughness is included in the curve, i.e., Kr p 1.0; therefore, a surface roughness factor need not be applied. (d) When the operational cycle being considered is the only one that produces signicant uctuating stresses, the calculated number of design cycles Nf is determined as follows. (1) Identify the applicable fatigue curve for the material as explained in KD-322(a) and (b). (2) Multiply Seq by the ratio of the modulus of elasticity given on the design fatigue curve to the value used in the analysis. (3) Enter the curve from the ordinate axis at the value:
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Sa p Kr Seq

(4) Read the corresponding number of cycles on the abscissa. This is the calculated number of design cycles Nf .

KD-330

CALCULATED CUMULATIVE EFFECT NUMBER OF DESIGN CYCLES

If there are two or more types of stress cycles which produce signicant stresses, the alternating stress intensity and the associated mean stress shall be calculated for each type of stress cycle. The cumulative effect of all of the stress cycles shall be evaluated using a linear damage relationship as specied in KD330(a) through (f). (a) Calculate the number of times each type of stress cycle of type 1, 2, 3, etc., will be repeated during a specic design service life period L. It is recommended that L be based on the design service Ld as specied in the Users Design Specication; designate these numbers n1 , n2 , n3 , etc., or generally ni . (b) For each type of stress cycle, determine Seq by the procedures given in KD-312.4. Designate these quantities Seq 1, Seq 2, Seq 3, etc., or generally Seq i .

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KD-330

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 3


i

KD-330 ni , or p U1 + U2 . . . Ni

(c) For each value Seq i, use the applicable design fatigue curve to determine the maximum number of design repetitions Ni if this type of cycle were the only one acting. Designate these as N1 , N2 , N3 , etc., or generally Ni . (d) For each type of stress cycle, calculate the usage factor Ui p ni /Ni . (e) Calculate the cumulative usage factor from:

Up
ip1

The cumulative usage factor U shall not exceed 1.0. (f) Calculate the design service Ld using the equation:
Ld p L /U

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