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Uses of the fractions..

All members of a homologous series have the same general formula

The formula of each member differs by a -CH2 group

Physical properties show a gradual change as the no. of carbon atoms in the
molecules increases.

Members have similar chemical properties

General Formula:
C1 = meth-
C2 = eth-
C3 = prop
C4 = but-
Organic cpds that contain single bonds – saturated

Physical Properties
C1-C4 = gases at rtp
C5 - C17 = liquid at rtp
C18 - C18 = solid at rtp
• Mp&bp pts: covalent cpds, forces of attraction bet molecules are weak.
Forces are easily overcome when subst heated. Therefore, mp&bp low. H/r
the forces of attraction increase as the molecules become bigger
• Solubility: insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvents
• Density: ↑ down the series
• Viscosity(flows less easily): become more viscous, down the series as longer
molecules get tangled together
• Flammability: cpds become less flammable as molecules evaporate less
easily as they get larger

Reactions Of Alkanes
- Similar Chemical Properties
- Unreactive
- Do nt react with most chemicals
 Combustion
 Burn in air to form CO2 and H2O
 Use: produce energy through combustion
 E.g. petrol, diesel and kerosene fuels for buses.
 Alkanes with higher amt of carbon atoms burn less completely
 Incomplete Combustion -> Carbon monoxide and soot are
 Substitution Reactions
 Def: is one in which an atom or grp of atoms replace other atoms in
a molecule.
 Alkanes react with CHLORINE in the presence of Light
 Cracking
 Def: process where big alkane molecules are broken up into small
 Catalytic Cracking: big alkane molecules->CATALYST->small
 Steam Cracking: petroleum fraction is mixed with steam& heated to
a high temp. Alkane Molecules break up to produce a mixture of
smaller molecules
 Cracking is used to make..
 Small alkane molecules for fuels for vehicles
 Alkenes, and
 Hydrogen

General Formula:
Contain C=C functional grp
Organic cpds that contain one or more double bonds – unsaturated

Physical Properties
Mp&bp pts, densities, viscosities ↑
Flammability ↓

Reactions Of Alkenes
 Combustion
 Alkenes burn in air just like Alkanes
 Alkenes produce more soot then Alkanes do
 Addition Reactions
 Def: is one in which 2 or more molecules react to form a single pdt.
 Addition of Hydrogen(Hydrogenation) : Nickel Catalyst
o E.g.
o Alkenes react with hydrogen -> Alkanes

 Addition of Bromine

o E.g.

 Polymerization
o Polymer: large molecule made by joining tgt many small
o Addition Polymerization: reaction in which small
molecules(monomers) join tgt to form 1 molecule as the only

o Eqn for Polymerization

o Poly (ethene) is a solid with COVALENT bonding. Therefore,
insoluble in h2o and does not cdt electricity
o Uses for Poly(ethene): plastic bags, plastic bottles and
insulation ard electric wires.
A) Polyunsaturated, organic molecules contain C=C bonds
B) E.g. Vegetable Oil, large organic molecules containing many C=C bonds
C) Margarine is made by addition of hydrogen to polyunsaturated vegetable oils
to form a solid pdt.
D) Ethene helps the fruit to ripen

A) Produce poisonous gases when burnt e.g. plastics: carbon monoxide gas,
PVCs: chlorine gas, Nylon: hydrogen cyanide gas
B) Non-biodegradable
C) Can kill animals

General Formula:
Contain –OH functional grp

First 3 Members:

Properties of Alcohols
 First 12 members = liquids at rtp
 Covalent Molecules
 Similar Physical properties
 Colourless Liquids
 Low bp
 Soluble in H2O
 As no. of carbon atoms increase, bp increase but solubility decreases

Reactions Of Alcohols
 Fermentation
 Def: is a chemical reaction in which sugars are broken down into
smaller molecules
(e.g. ethanol) by micro-organism: yeast
 2 ways
- Fermentation of sugars with yeast
- Petroleum, reacting ethene with steam over a catalyst

 Combustion
 Burn completely in air to give CO2 and water.

 Oxidation
 Alcohols can be oxidized to become organic acids
 E.g. ethanol can be oxidized into ethanoic acid by warming it with
acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution
 Pdt= carboxylic acid

General Formula:
Contain –COOH functional grp

First 3 members:

Ethanoic acid can be made by..

A) Oxidation of ethanol by acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution
B) From Ethanol: Ethanoic acid by the oxidation of ethanol in air, done by
enzymes in bacteria

C) From Natural Gas: large amts of ethanoic acids by the reaction of natural gas
(methane..), using air and special catalysts